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Client

Project Name and Number


Loaction
Content Type
Seismic Zone (as per AIITK, Indian Seismic Code)
Site Specific Horizontal acceleration
PGD Landslide Faulting
Wave
propagation
I : Pipelines which would cause major impact in case
of failure or damage
1.50 2.60 2.30 1.50
II : Pipelines which are vital but service of those can
be interrupted for minor repairs
1.35 1.60 1.50 1.25
III : Low pressure oil and gas pipelines and Water
supply pipelines for ordinary use
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
IV : Pipelines of very little importance and impact in
the event of failure

Value
1.5095
1.219
1.203
0.0157
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS Rapid Assessment
of Seismic Safety of Buried Continuous Pipelines
INPUTS
Basic Information
Measurements
Geometry
Importance factor I p
Seismic conditions need not be considered
Class of pipeline
Cross Section Modulus
0.017627126
Cross Section Area
0.059350372
H
D
Dmin
t
=




Grade of Pipe
Ramberg-Osgood parameters for steel Pipes
Grade of pipe X42 X52 X60 X70
310 358 413 517
n 15 9 10 5.5
r 32 10 12 16.6
Yield Stress of Pipe material
Modulus of Elasticity
Yield Strain of the Pipe Material
Failure Strain of the Pipe in Tension
Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of pipe
Poisson Ratio (v)
Density of Steel Pipe
Unit Weight of Steel Pipe
Density of Content
Unit Weight of Content
Soil Types hard Clay soft Clay Silty Sand Sandy Soil
Velocity of Shear Wave Vs 300 300
Coefficient of Cohesion of Backfill soil ( c) 50 30 0
Density of the Soil 2000 1600 1400 1630
Effective Unit Weight of the soil 19.62 15.696 13.734 15.9903
Saturated Unit Weight of the Soil 18
Dry Unit Weight of the Soil 16
Water Buoyancy Factor
Internal Friction Angle of the Soil 30
f
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
Inputs for Peak Strain Calculation
Soil Properties
Material Properties
a) For Operational Longitudinal Strain in the Pipeline
Maximum Internal Operating Pressure of the Pipe (P)
Coal Tar
FBE
Rough Steel
Smooth Steel
Polyethylene
Friction Factor for Various Types fo pipes
Pipe Coating
Concrete
Temperature in the Pipe at the time of Installation (T1)
Temperature in the Pipe at the time of Operation (T2)
b) For Permanent Ground Deformation (PGD)
Length of PGD Zone (L)
Width of PGD Zone (W)

(MPa)

(MPa)
()
Seismic Zone II III IV IV
PGAr (relative) 0.1 0.16 0.24 0.36
Classification of Soil at Site (Site Specifice)
Soil Type Class
Hard Rock A
Rock B
Very Dense and Soft Rock C
Dense/Still Soil D
Loose/ Soft Soil E
Ko
0.5 - 0.6
0.3 - 0.5
0.5 - 0.6
0.8 - 1.1
Over Consolidated 1.0 - 1.3

Average Normal Fault Displacement (dfn)


Dip Angle (Psi)
Fault Angle (Beta)
Length of Anchorage (La)
E) For Seismic Wave Propagation
Focal Length (F)
Transverse Displacement (dt)
C) For Liquefaction
Length of Liquefaction Zone (Lb)
Height of Soil Liquefaction from pipe (hw)
Height from Top Soil to Pipe Center Line ( C )
D) For Fault Crossing
Longitudinal Displacement (dl)
Soil Properties
Vel of Shear Wave Vs
(m/s)
Uncorrected Standard
Penetration Resistance (N)
Vs gt 1500
760 lt Vs lt 1500
Distance from Earthquake Source
Magnitude of Design Basis Earthquake Considered Mw
Expected PGA of the site at Base Rock Layer (PGA)
Note: When sufficient detail of soil is unavailable to define site, soil can be assumed to be class D
Soil Type
Loose Soil
360 lt Vs lt 760
180 lt Vs lt 360
Vs lt 180
N gt 50
15 lt Vs lt 50
Vs lt 15
Adhesion Factor
Dense Soil
Clay (Drained)
Clay (Undrained)
Coefficient of Soil Pressure at rest
30
Interface angle of friction between soil and pipe Soil Type

=
= . .
.

+
+
.

; = . . +.
30
Factor a1 b1 c1
Nch 0 6.752 0.065 -11.063
Nqh 20 2.399 0.439 -0.03
Nqh 25 3.332 0.839 -0.09
Nqh 30 4.565 1.234 -0.089
Nqh 35 6.816 2.019 -0.146
Nqh 40 10.959 1.783 0.045
Nqh 45 17.658 3.309 0.048
Nqh value used 30 4.565 1.234 -0.089
30
Maximum Axial Soil Force Per Unit Length
Loose Soil
Dense Soil
Clay (Drained)
Clay (Undrained)
Over Consolidated
Interface angle of friction between soil and pipe
Maximum Lateral Resistance of Soil per unit length
Horizontal Bearing Capacity Factor for clay, (0
for c = 0)
Horizontal Bearing Capacity Factor for Sandy Soil, (0
for Phi = 0)
Vertical Uplift Soil Springs
Bearing Capacity Factor
Vertical Bearing Capacity Factor for clay, (0
for c = 0)
Vertical Bearing Capacity Factor for Sandy Soil, (0
for Phi = 0)
Bearing Capacity Factor
Vertical Bearing Soil Springs
Bearing Capacity Factor

= +
+

= + +

+

+

+

;

= + +

; applicable for

= +. +.

+
+.

=
...
;
Units
m
m
m
m
m3
m2
used val Units
517 MPa
5.5
16.6
483 MPa
207000 MPa
0.00233
0.000012 /degC
0.3
7850 kg/m3
76.93 kN/m3
used val Units
300 m/s
0 kPa
1630 kg/m3
15.9903 kN/m3
18 kN/m3
16 kN/m3
30 deg
used Val Units
9.93 MPa
-10 degC
49 degC
used Val Units
100 m
m
Inputs for Peak Strain Calculation
Soil Properties
Material Properties
0.6
1.5 m
1.5 m
used Val Units
m
m
m
used Val Units
m
deg
deg
m
used Val Units
km
km
Class Used
used val
used val
used val
Soil Properties
Uncorrected Standard
Penetration Resistance (N)
g
Note: When sufficient detail of soil is unavailable to define site, soil can be assumed to be class D
Site
Specific
N gt 50
15 lt Vs lt 50
Vs lt 15
-0.361
30
used val
d1 e1
7.119
0.001059 -0.0000175
0.005606 -0.0001319
0.004275 -0.0000916
0.007651 -0.0001683
-0.00543 -0.0001153
-0.00644 -0.0001299
0.004275 -0.0000916
val used Unit
val used Unit
val used Unit
0 kN/m
val used Unit
val used Unit
val used Unit
24.8422784 kN/m
val used Unit
val used Unit
val used Unit
0 kN/m
30
deg 18
-3090.9419
5.25915181
5.59644955
74.2986054
0.84430233
x=


x=


Val used
115.6497
Val used
146.556
Val used
0.000559
Val used
0.000708
Val used
0.001267
Val used
1.5
Val used
1.5
A)Longitudinal PGD Val used
Peak Pipe Strain (Tensile/Compressive)
Longitudinal Stress due to Internal Pressure (Sp)
Longitudinal Stress due toTemperature (St)
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS Rapid Assessment of
Seismic Safety of Buried Continuous Pipelines
Operational Longitudinal Strain in the Pipeline
PEAK STRAIN CALCULATION
Longitudinal Strain Due to Internal Pressure (ep)
Longitudinal Strain due to Temperature Change
Total Operational Longitudinal Strain in Pipe
Effective Length Lc of the pipeline over which the force
Tu acts
#NUM!
Effect of Permanent Ground Deformation
Design Longitudinal PGD
Design Longitudinal PGD

=

2


2

1

1 +

1 +

1 +

1 +

2
2
1 +
2
2+

1+


Unit
MPa
Unit
MPa
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
m
Unit
m
Unit
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS Rapid Assessment of
Seismic Safety of Buried Continuous Pipelines
Operational Longitudinal Strain in the Pipeline
PEAK STRAIN CALCULATION
Effect of Permanent Ground Deformation