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1. The final deflection should not exceed span/250

2. Deflection after construction of finishes and

partitions should not exceed span/500 or

20mm, whichever is the lesser, for spans up to

10 m.

BS 8110 uses an approximate method based on

permissible ratios of the span/effective depth.

Deflection (clause 3.4.6.3)

This basic span/effective depth ratio is used in

determining the depth of the reinforced

concrete beam.

For beam with span less than 10 m

Reinforcement details (clause 3.12, BS

8110)

The BS 8110 spell out a few rules to follow

regarding:

1. Maximum and minimum reinforcement area

2. Spacing of reinforcement

3. Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcement

4. Lapping of reinforcement

Reinforcement areas (clause 3.12.5.3

and 3.12.6.1, BS 8110)

Minimum area of reinforcement is provided to

control cracking of concrete.

Too large an area of reinforcement will hinder

proper placing and compaction of concrete

around reinforcement.

For rectangular beam with b (width) and h

(depth), the area of tensile reinforcement, As

should lie:

0.24% bh As 4% bh for fy = 250 N/mm

2

0.13% bh As 4% bh for fy = 500 N/mm

2

Spacing of reinforcement (clause

3.12.11.1, BS 8110)

The minimum spacing between tensile

reinforcement is provided to achieve good

compaction. Maximum spacing is specified to

control cracking.

For singly reinforcement simply supported beam

the clear horizontal distance between tension bars

should follow:

h

agg

+ 5 mm or bar size s

b

280 mm f

y

= 250

N/mm

2

h

agg

+ 5 mm or bar size s

b

155 mm f

y

= 500

N/mm

2

(h

agg

is the maximum aggregate size)

Curtailment (clause 3.12.9, BS 8110)

The area tensile reinforcement is calculated

based on the maximum bending moment at mid-

span. The bending moment reduces as it

approaches to the supports. The area of tensile

reinforcement could be reduced (curtailed) to

achieve economic design.

Curtailment (clause 3.12.9, BS 8110)

Simply

supported

beam

Continuous

beam

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

For beam subjected

to predominantly

UDL

Anchorage (clause 3.12.9, BS 8110)

At the end support, to achieve proper anchorage

the tensile bar must extend a length equal to one

of the following:

1. 12 times the bar size beyond the centre line of

the support

2. 12 times the bar size plus d/2 from the face of

support

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

Anchorage (clause 3.12.9, BS 8110)

In case of space limitation, hooks

or bends in the reinforcement can

be use in anchorage.

If the bends started after the

centre of support, the anchorage

length is at least 4f but not greater

than 12f.

If the hook started before d/2 from

the face of support, the anchorage

length is at least 8r but not greater

than 24f.

Continuous L and T beam

For continuous beam, various loading

arrangement need to be considered to obtain

maximum design moment and shear force.

Continuous L and T beam

The analysis to calculate the bending moment

and shear forces can be carried out by

1. using moment distribution method

2. Provided the conditions in clause 3.4.3 of BS

8110 are satisfied, design coefficients can be

used.

Clause 3.4.3 of BS 8110: Uniformly-loaded continuous beams

with approximately equal spans: moments and

shears

Effective span for continuous beam the effective span should

normally taken as the distance between the centres of supports

L- and T- beam

Beam and slabs are cast monolithically, that is,

they are structurally tied.

At mid-span, it is more economical to design

the beam as an L or T section by including the

adjacent areas of the slab. The actual width of

slab that acts together with the beam is

normally termed the effective flange.

Clause 3.4.1.5: Effective width of

flanged beam

Effective span for continuous beam the effective span

should normally taken as the distance between the centres of

supports

L- and T- beam

The depth of neutral axis in relation to the

depth of the flange will influence the design

process.

The neutral axis

When the neutral axis lies within the flange,

the breadth of the beam at mid-span(b) is

equal to the effective flange width. At the

support of a continuous beam, the breadth is

taken as the actual width of the beam.

L- and T-beam

At the internal supports, the bending moment

is reversed and it should be noted that the

tensile reinforcement will occur in the top half

of the beam and compression reinforcement

in the bottom half of the beam.

Example 3.10 continuous beam design

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

A typical floor plan of a small building structure is shown in

figure below. Design B1/5 assuming the slab supports an

imposed load of 4 kN/m

2

and finishes of 1.5 kN/m

2

. The

overall sizes of the beams and slab are indicated on the

drawing. The column are 400x400 mm. The characteristic

strength of the concrete is 35 N/mm

2

and of the steel

reinforcement is 500 N/mm

2

. The cover maybe assumed to be

30 mm.

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

The beam B1/5 does not satisfy the conditions

in clause 3.4.3, the moment and shear force

on the beam can be estimated using moment

distribution method or stiffness method.

Two load cases must be considered: (1)

maximum design load on all spans, (2)

maximum and minimum design loads on the

alternate spans.

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

For case 1: maximum design load on all spans

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement

(Chanakya Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

For case 2: maximum and minimum design loads on

the alternate spans

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

B1-3 span

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

B3-5 span

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Design shear force and bending moment

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

It is design as T

beam at the

mid-span

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

It is design as

rectangular

beam at the

supports

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

The simplified rules in clasue 3.12.10.2 do not apply.

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Curtailment of steel reinforcement

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

From clause 3.12.9.1, the cut off point of the

bars in the tension zone is obtained by

extending the bars an anchorage length in

accordance to Table 3.7 in BS 8110.

For f

cu

= 35 N/mm

2

and f

y

= 500 N/mm

2

,

deformed type 2 bars

Anchorage length = 38f

The theoretical cut off point

= 310 + 38 x 25 = 1260 mm

Hence the 2H25 bars can be stopped at, say 1.3

m from support B3

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Design for shear

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Example 3.10 Design of shear reinforcement (Chanakya

Arya, 2009)

Deflection

OK

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