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# ccan be made at a demographic measures like "age, sex, material stutes, where

people live"
♦♦♦-prevalence and incidence
the incidence measure of new episodes of illness arising in a population during
a specified period it can be measure as a rate
incidence rate =number of new cases over a period per year
population at risk for the time period during which cases collected

prevalence
prevalence of disease it's the number of people in a population that have the
disease "are case" either at a particular time
prevalence rate =no -of cases in a given time
population at risk during that time period
Type of prevalence
Period prevalence :number of existing cases of the disease x within a time periodxlOOO
average study population
Point prevalence :number of existing cases of the disease at a point in time x 1000
average study population

## uses of prevalence and incidence rate

to measure the occurrence of condition where the onset of disease may be
the relation ship of prevalence and incidence
prevalence^ incidence x duration
measures of disease frequency
♦diagnosis depend on signs ,symptoms and test result
♦incidence measures of the number of new cases during a specific period
♦prevalence is a measure of the number of cases resent in a population at a
particular time or over a certain period
♦measures of disease intensity as prevalence and incidence
♦cumulative incidence rates are useful for disease that extend over a
reasonable period

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*-Crude ..specific and standardized rates
Usually made on the basis of
\-age,sex,social class
its by using demographic shape to describe the study
2-chang in population
through "death rate ,birth rate, life expectancy" and also death rate depend
on "age, sex, birth date ,place of residence ,cause of death"
its calculi as
crude mortality rate = (no-of death in specified period
average of total population during that period)+100
*-life expectancy ;its anther frequently used summery measure of the
health states of a population
Definition:
Life expectancy is the average number of years an individual of giving age
is going to live Life expectancy at Birth: The average number of year's
newborn infant would be expected to live
if health and living conditions at the time of its birth remained the
same throughout its life
*Life expectancy in Egypt is progressively increasing by time , and is
more for females than males.
*-case fatality :it's a measure of the severity of a disease in terms of
death
specific death rate be :No, of death in each age /sex of group in a period
average number of people in age/sex population
mortality in early childhood rate :No ,of death of infant less than lyear
No of live birth in year
Morbidity :it is the state of being diseased and its measurement
Is important in long -term or disability condition
The morbidity classification
1-impairment (organ loss, failure)

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2-disability (person based in ability to certain things)
3-hand caps (social based inability to fulfill function)
Disability can have varying severity ,which will be affected by
environmental factors

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References
*- Vetter, Norman , MD FFHM, Matthews Jan MCcPHD [Harcourt

Edition Second