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MEASUREMENTS& CONTROLS

Module I

1.What is meant by measurements?
Measurement is the process of determining or finding the size, quantity or
degree of something .Accurate measurement is of very important in
engineering
2.What is an measuring instrument?
Measuring instruments are measuring devices that transform the
measured quantity into an information, either analog or digital.
3.What are the methods of measurements?
There are two types of measurement methods. They are
(1)Direct method
(2)Indirect method
4.What are the three stages of generalized measuring system?
The three stages of generalized measurement system are
a. Detector-transducer element
b. Intermediate modifying stage
c. Terminating stage
5.What is meant by primary measurement?
Primary measurement is one that can e made y direct oservation
!ith out involving any conversion of the measured quantity.
6. What is meant by secondary measurement?
"econdary measurement involves only one transformation to e done
on the quantity under measurement.
7. What is meant by tertiary measurement?
Tertiary measurement involves t!o translations to e done on the
quantity under measurement.
8.what are the functions of the measuring instruments?
The functions of the measuring instruments are
a. Indicating function
b. #ecording function
c. $ontrolling function
.what are the applications of the measuring instruments?
The applications of the measuring instruments are
a. Monitoring of processes and operations
b. $ontrol of process
c. %&perimental engineering analysis
!".#efine sensiti$ity.
"ensitivity '() refers to the aility of the measuring device to measure
small differences in the quantity eing measured. It is also defined as the ratio
of the magnitude of response *o+p, to the magnitude of the quantity eing
measured.
!!.What is span of an instrument?
"pan is the algeraic difference et!een the higher value and the lo!er
value it can measure.
!%.#efine &ange.
The instrument is calirated to read a value et!een t!o limits, one is
the higher caliration value and the other is the lo!er caliration value. This
region et!een !hich the instrument is to operate is called the range.
!3.What is reproducibility?
It is defined as the degree of closeness !ith !hich a given value may e
repeatedly measured under same loading conditions. Perfect reproduciility
means that the instrument has no drift.
!4.What are the factors affecting &eadability?
#eadaility depends on
a. -umer of graduations
b. "pacing of graduation
c. "ize of pointer
d. Paralla& effects
!5.What is meant by drift?
If an instrument does not reproduce the same reading at different times
of measurement for the same input signal, it is said to have drift. If an
instrument has prefect reproduciility, it is said to have no drift.
!6.what does zero drift mean?
If the !hole caliration gradually drifts due to slippage, permanent set
or due to undue !arming up of electronic tue circuits zero drift sets in. this
can e eliminated y zero setting.
.ero drift line

/+P -ominal curve
I+P
!6.what is meant by span drift?
If there is proportional change in all along the up!ard scale the drift is
called the span drift

"pan drift


/+P nominal curve



I+P
!7.what is meant by zonal drift?
In case if drift occurs only over apportion of span of an instrument it is
called as zonal drift.
.onal drift

/+P -ominal curve


I+P
!8.what is meant by repeatability?
#epeataility is a measure of closeness !ith !hich a given input may
e measured over again repeataility is defined as the variation of scale
reading and it is random in nature.
!.what is calibration?
$aliration of a measuring instrument means introducing an
accurately 0no!n sample of the variale that is to e measured and then
chec0ing the system1s response then the measuring instrument is chec0ed !ith
and ad2usted until its scale is introduced accurately for measuring.
%".what are the different types of calibration?
There are t!o types of caliration namely
a. Primary caliration
b. "econdary caliration
%!.What are the different types of secondary calibration?
The different types of secondary caliration are
a. Direct caliration
b. "econdary caliration
%%.what is meant by primary calibration?
In primary caliration, a system is calirated against a primary
standard provided. 3or e.g. calirating flo! meters.
%3what is meant by secondary calibration?
In secondary caliration, a device that has een calirated y primary
caliration is used.
%4.What is meant by direct calibration?
In direct caliration, a standard device is placed in series !ith the
device to e calirated is used and caliration is done y comparing readings
of the t!o devices over the desired range.
%5.what is meant by indirect calibration?
This procedure is ased on the equivalence of t!o different devices
adopting some similarity concept. %.g. flo! measurement-requirement of
similarity is 4#eynolds1s numer should e equal1.
%6.'ow are mechanical measurements classified?
Mechanical measurements are roadly classified into t!o categories
a. Mechanics type
b. Po!er type
%7.What are the three methods in mechanics type measurements?
The three types of mechanic type measurements are
a. %mpirical method
b. #ational method
c. %&perimental method
%8.Write about rational method of measurements?
#ational method of measurement is strictly ased upon scientific
la!s and relationships. These types of la!s are mainly availale in mechanics
and thermodynamics. 5hile in other areas there is scarcity for this type of
la!s. 6ence in other areas it has limited scope.
%.#efine (oading effect.
"ensing element of the measuring instrument asors some energy
hence the instrument does not give accurate readings, this effect is called
loading effect.
3".write down the classification of measuring instruments?
Measuring instruments are roadly classified into
a. Mechanical instruments
b. %lectrical instruments
c. %lectronic instruments
3!.#efine error.
%rror is defined as the difference et!een the indicated quantity
and the true value.
3%.Whatismeant by fidelity?
3idelity is the aility of the measuring instrument to reproduce the
output in the same form as the input.
33.#efine hysterisis.
5hen loaded energy is put into the stressed component is not
recovered !hile unloading this property of the measuring instrument is called
hysterisis.
34.#efine dynamic error.
The difference between the indicated quantity and the true value of
the time varying quantity is called dynamic error.

)art*+
1) #raw the neat s,etch of generalized measurent system and e-plain its $arious
elements?
-eat s0etch !ith mar0ings-7mar0s
8asic transducer detectorstage-9mar0s
Intermediate modifying stage-9mar0s
Terminating stage-:mar0s
2) +riefly discuss the $arious measurements methods and e-plain?
Direct comparison method-7mar0s
Indirect comparison method-7mar0s
) +riefly discuss the $arious functions and applications of measuring instruments?
3unctions
Indicating function-9mar0s
#ecording function-:mar0s
$ontrolling function-9mar0s
Applications
Monitoring of process and operation-:mar0s
$ontrol of process and operations-9mar0s
%&perimental engineering analysis-9mar0s
!) .lassify the $arious type of error and e-plain them details?
"rror definition#2mar$
%alibration error#2mar$
&oading error#2mar$
6uman errors#2mar$
%nvironmental error#2mar$
%&perimental error#2mar$
#andom error#2mar$
$haotic error #2mar$
') +riefly discuss on the calibration of temperature measuring de$ice with suitable
e-ample?
Primary caliration
"0etch-9mar0s
Principle-:mar0s
Procedure-9mar0s
"econdary caliration
"0etch-9mar0s
Principle-:mar0s
Procedure-9mar0s
Module II
PART A
!. What are recorders?
Recorder is used to produce a permaet record o! t"e si#al t"at is measured.
Recorder is used to aal$%e "o& t"e si#al 'aries &it" time.
%.What is a .&/?
CRO is a 'ersatile read out de'ice used !or measuri# d$amic ad trasiet si#als.
(asicall$ it is ideted !or 'ie&i#
3.What is meant by /scillograph )
A Oscillo#rap" is a &riti# istrumet. T"e displacemet is recorded directl$ o a
paper. Oscillo#rap" is a lo& impedace de'ice.
4.(ist some type of recorders)
*i+ ,-.Recorder
*ii+(rid#e t$pe recorder
*iii+Ma#etic tape recorder
5.What is meant by attenuation?
Atteuatio are de'ices t"at are used to /ri# do& t"e 'olta#e coducted /et&ee t"e
circuits t"at are co'erted to its iput termial.
6.#efine 0ilters)
T"e output si#al !rom trasducers is to /e reported !ait"!ull$ !or t"e purpose o!
measuremet. 0ece u&ated si#als are elimiated /$ !ilters.
1.define the term transducer?
A trasducer is a eer#$ co'erti# de'ice it recei'es stimulatio !rom a p"$sical
situatio o! t"e measurad ad co'erts it ito a de!iitel$ associated si#al.
8.what is meant by loading?
2uri# t"e act o! measurmet t"e measuri# istrumet ta3es eer#$ !rom t"e si#al
source .due to t"is e!!ect t"e si#al source is distur/ed .T"is e!!ect is called as loadi#
.What is primary transducer?
A primar$ trasducer seses a p"$sical p"eomeo ad co'erts it ito a aalo#ous
output.
!".What is a secondary transducer?
T"e aalo#ous output !rom t"e primar$ trasducer is co'erted ito a electric si#al /$
a secodar$ trasducer
11.What is a passi$e transducer?
A passi'e trasducer "as a au4illar$ source o! po&er &"ic" supplies a ma5or part o! t"e
output &"ile t"e iput si#al supplies ol$ a isi#i!icat portio
E# resisti'e trasducer
!%.What is acti$e transducer ?
A compoet &"ose output eer#$ is supplied etirel$ or almost etirel$ /$ its iput
si#al is called as acti'e trasducer.
16.what is electrical transducer?
7"ile measuri# o.electric 8uatities 9a detector is used.t"is detector co'erts p"$sical
8uatit$ ito displacemet.t"is displacemet ils #i'e as iput to a electrical trasducer
&"ic" #i'es a electrical output
!4.(ist some electrical transducer?
A.reasistace trasducer
/.capaciti'e trasducer
c.iducti'e trasducer
d.'olta#e trasducer
1:.#efine analog and digital transducer?
A aalo# trasducer is oe &"ic" produces t"e output o! cotiious !uctio o! time.
A di#ital trasducer is oe &"ic" produces t"e output i discrete !uctio o! time.
1;.What is meant by mechanical transducer?
I mec"aical trasducer t"e detecta/le 'aria/le are mec"aical displacemet or 'elocit$.
!7.#efine the term amplification?
Ampli!icatio is t"e process o! icreasi# t"e &ee3 si#al ad t"e de'ice used !or t"is
purpose is called as ampli!ier.
1<.What is a mechanical amplifier?
7"e ampli!icatio is doe &it" t"e "elp o! mec"aical de'ices suc" as #ears9le'er is
called as mec"aical ampli!icatio.
!.7"at is a !luid ampli!ier)
It cosist o! a pisto c$lider assem/l$.t"e c$lider is o! diameter 2 ad t"e output tu/e
is o! diameter d9 so it ca /e used !or ampli!icatio.
%".(ist the commonely used electric and electronic transducer?
a.AC ad 2C ampli!ier
/.operatioal ampli!ier.
c.c"ar#e ampli!ier
d.c"opper ampli!ier
21.What is charge amplifier?
A c"ar#e ampli!ier co'erts c"ar#e ito 'olta#e.
%%.What is operational amplifier?
T"e operatioal ampli!ier "as ma$ solid state elemets i a compact pac3a#e ad is
/asicall$ a 2C di!!eretial 'olta#e ampli!ier.
26.What is chopper amplifier?
C"opper ampli!ier is a AC ampli!ier used to ampli!$ 2C iput /$ usi# a c"opper.
%4.What is meant by pr1 amplifier?
A pre ampli!ier is t"e oe t"at ecouters t"e icomi# si#al !irst9/e!ore it is po&er
ampli!ied /$ t"e su/se8uet sta#es o! processi#.
PART (
1.2-plain in detail three electrical transducer?
1.resistace trasducer===.*2 mar3s+
2.iducti'e trasducer===..*: mar3s+
6.capaciti'e trasducer===.*; mar3s+
2. 2-plain charge amplifier in detail?
2e!iitio=..*2 mar3s+
2escriptio=*: mar3s+
Operatio=...*6 mar3s+
>i#ure===.*? mar3s+
Ad'ata#e=..*2 mar3s+
6.2-plain hydaulic transmission in detail?
2e!iitio=..*2 mar3s+
2escriptio=*: mar3s+
Operatio=...*6 mar3s+
>i#ure===.*? mar3s+
Ad'ata#e=..*2 mar3s+
?.2-plain 341recorder in detail?
2e!iitio=..*2 mar3s+
2escriptio=*: mar3s+
Operatio=...*6 mar3s+
>i#ure===.*? mar3s+
Ad'ata#e=..*2 mar3s+
:.2-plain photoelectric transducer in detail?
2e!iitio=..*2 mar3s+
>i#ure===.*? mar3s+
Operatio=...*6 mar3s+
>i#ure===.*? mar3s+
Ad'ata#e=..*2 mar3s+
;.2-plain (5#6 in detail?
2e!iitio=..*2 mar3s+
>i#ure=== *?mar3s+
2escriptio=*: mar3s+
Operatio=...*6 mar3s+


Module III
"hort Ans!er
!. What is meant by displacement measurement?
2isplacemet measuremet meas measuri# t"e mo'emet o! a poit
!rom oe positio to aot"er.
%. (ist of the $arious transducers used for displacement measurement?
T"e 'arious trasducers t"at are sesiti'e to displacemet are listed.
a+ Resistace potetiometers
/+ 2i!!eretial tras!ormers
c+ Capacitace trasducers
d+ @aria/le iductio trasducers
e+ Pie%o electric trasducers.
3. #efine 5elocity
@elocit$ is rate o! c"a#e o! displacemet &it" respect to time9 t"at is time
rate o! motio.
4. 7tate any three mechanical tachmeters used to measure angular $elocity.
a+ Re'olutio couter ad timer
/+ Tac"ometers
c+ 0ad Speed idicator
5. (ist the $arious contact less electrical tachometers?
a+ Iducti'e pic3 up tac"ometer
/+ Stro/oscope tac"ometer
c+ P"otoelectric tac"ometer
d+ Capacitor tac"ometer
6. #efine 5ibration8
I! t"e d$amic displacemet A time 'ariatio is cotious ad respecti'e
i ature9 it is termed as 'i/ratio.
7. What is 9)iezo1electric effect?
Certai materials posses t"e a/ilit$ to #eerate a electric potetial &"e su/5ected to
mec"aical strai or co'ersel$ to c"a#e dimesios &"e su/5ected to 'olta#e. T"is
is termed as BPie%o.electric e!!ectC.
8. What is the difference between weight and mass?
7ei#"tD T"e 7ei#"t o! t"e /od$ is t"e !orce e4erted o t"e /od$ /$
t"e #ra'itatioal acceleratio. 7ei#"t &ill 'ar$ !rom poit
to poit o t"e eart"Cs sur!ace.
MassD Mass is de!ied as t"e measure o! 8uatit$ o! matter. Mass
is
i'aria/le.
. Write the basic principle on which a pendulum scale wor,s?
It is a momet compariso de'ice. T"e u3o& !orce is co'erted to
tor8ue &"ic" is t"e /alaced /$ t"e tor8ue o! a !i4ed stadard mass arra#ed as a
pedulam.
!". Write the basic principal on which a mechanical torsion meter wor,s?
7"e a s"a!t is coected /et&ee a dri'i# e#ie ad dri'e load9 a
t&ist *a#ula displacemet+ occurs o t"e s"a!t /et&ee its eds. T"e a#le o!
t&ist is measured ad cali/erated i terms o! tor8ue.
!!. (ist the types of #ynamometers?
2$amometers are o! t"ree t$pes amel$
. A/sorptio 2$amometers
. 2ri'i# 2$amometers ad
. Trasmissio 2$amometers.
!%. :i$e e-amples for ;dsorption dynamometers?
E#D.
. Pro$ /ra3ers
. 0$draulic or !luid !rictio /ra3es
. Edd$ curret d$amometers
!3. What are dri$ing dynamometers?
T"ese d$amometers pro'ide eer#$ to operate t"e de'ices to /e tested
&"ile measuri# tor8ue E po&er
!4. What are transmission dynamometers?
T"ese d$amometers are passi'e de'ices. T"e$ are placed at re8uired
locatio i a mac"ie !or sesi# t"e tor8ue at t"e place.
!5. #efine the term strain?
Strai is t"e relati'e c"a#e i dimesios9 t"at is9 c"a#e i le#t" o! a
#i'e ori#ial le#t".
C"a#e i le#t" mm
Strai F .......................... F ...........
*2imesioless+
Ori#ial le#t" mm
!6. What is )iezo resisti$ity?
T"ere &ill /e a c"a#e i resisti'it$ o! a coductor &"e it is straied ad
t"is propert$ is called as BPie%o resisti'it$C.
!7. What is :uage factor?
T"e !ractioal c"a#e i resistace due to a uit c"a#e i le#t" *Uit
strai+ is called as Gua#e !actor.
2RER
Gau#e !actor 9 > F ...........
2LEL
!8. What is self1temperature compensation?
I t"is arra#emet9 t"e e!!ect o! temperature "as /ee elimiated usi# a
B2UMM- GAUGEC i t"e ad5acet arm o! t"e &"eat stoe /rid#e.
!. (ist a few applications of pressure measurement?
T"e pressure o! steam i a (oiler is measured !or esuri# sa!e operati#
coditios o! t"e /oiler.
Pressure measuremet is doe i cotiuous processi# idustries suc" as
mau!acturi# ad c"emical idustries.
%". What id <onization?
Ioi%atio is t"e process o! 3oc3i# o!! a electro !rom a atom ad
t"us produci# a !ree electro ad a positi'el$ c"ar#ed io.
%!. #efine 'umidity?
T"e amout o! &ater 'apour cotaied i air or #as is called as "umidit$.
It is usuall$ measured as a/solute "umidit$9 relati'e "umidit$ or due poit
temperature.
%%. What is 'umidity ratio?
>or a #i'e 'olume o! air &ater 'apour mi4ture.
Mass o! &ater . @apour
0umidit$ ratio F .....................................
Mass o! tr$ air
%3. (ist three areas where temperature measurement is important?
I process idustries &"ic" i'ol'es re#ios o! t"e eart".
I stud$i# situatios i 'arious re#ios o! t"e eart".
I Stud$i# t"e temperature o! molte metal i !oudries.
%4. (ist fi$e properties a material should ha$e to be an element of a bimetallic strip?
. Coe!!iciet o! e4pasio
. Modulus o! elasticit$
. Elastic limit a!ter cold rolli#
. Electrical coducti'it$
. 2uctilit$
. Metallur#ical a/ilit$
%5. (ist the common metals used in bi1metallic strips?
0i#"
e4pasio
;o! e&pansion
(rass
I'ar *allo$ o! Nic3el & Iro+ Nic3el.Iro allo$s &it"
C"romium & Ma#aese
%6. What are secondary or rate meters?
Rate meters are also called secodar$ meters as t"e$ do ot measure !lo&
directl$ t"at is9 t"e$ measure somet"i# &"ic" is associated &it" !lo& suc" as
pressure9 'elocit$ positio9 temperature etc.
%7. What is fre=uency?
>re8uec$ is t"e um/er o! e'ets occurri# i a uit.time.
%8. What is noise?
I simple9 oise is u&ated soud. Prolo#ed am/iet oise le'els
usuall$ permaetitl$ dama#e "eari#
%. What is 7ound pressure?
T"e istataeous di!!erece i air pressure ad t"e a'era#e air pressure at
a poit &"ere t"e soud &a'e preset is called soud pressure.
3". What is flow $isualization?
Iorder to measure t"e true 'alue o! t"e !lo& 'aria/les met"ods "a'e /ee
de'eloped t"at doCt distur/ t"e !luid stream. Suc" met"ods are called as !lo&
'isuali%atio met"ods.
;ong Ans!er
!. +riefly discuss on one type of contact lens electrical tachometer?
Re!erD. Measuremets & cotrols /$ S. ("as3ar. P. NoD H.11
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+
%. 2-plain with a diagram a pendulum scale of multile$a type?
Re!er D. Measuremet & cotrols /$ S. ("as3ar P. NoD.11.I?
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+
3. With a neat diagram>e-plain the wor,ing of a prony bra,e for estimating power?
Re!er D. Measuremet & cotrols /$ S.("as3ar P. NoD.16.2
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+
4. 2-plain the wor,ing of a +owdon tube pressure gauge?
Re!er D.Measuremet & cotrols /$ S.("as3ar
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+
5. 2-plain the wor,ing of a optical pyrometer?
Re!er D. Measuremet & cotrols /$ S.("as3ar
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+
6. With a neat diagram e-plain the shadow graph method for $iewing flow
phenomenia?
Re!er D. Measuremet & cotrols /$ S.("as3ar
Priciple D. 2 *Mar3s+
2escriptio D. 6 *Mar3s+
Operatios D. ? *Mar3s+
>i#ures D. : *Mar3s+
Applicatio D. 2 *Mar3s+

Module I@
A<T/MATI$ $/-T#/; "="T%M"
S0ORT ANS7ER JUESTIONS
1. 2E>INE A S-STEM)
( system is said to be made of a number of components such that the behaviour
of the over all combination can be predicted if )

(a) the behaviour of each component can be predicted *and
(b) the interaction between each component is $nown.
( system is obtained when a number of components are connected in a
sequence to perform a specific function.
2. 70AT IS A CONTROL S-STEM)
+uppose in a system the output quantity is controlled by altering the input
quantity then such a system is called a control system.

6.2E>INE TERMS CONTROLLE2 @ARIA(LE &CONTROLLE2 ME2IA)

(a) %ontrolled variable)The quantity or condition characteri,ing a process
whose value is held constant by a controller or is changed according to a certain
algorithm designed with the interests of the nature of function the system is
performing

(b) %ontrolled medium) The process material in the control system in which the
variable to the controlled e-ists.

?.NAME T0E T7O T-PES O> CONTROL S-STEMS)

There are two types of control systems namely
(a).pen loop control system (feed bac$ control system)
(b)%losed loop control system(non# feed bac$ control system)

:. LIST T0E (ASIC ELEMENTS O> A >EE2 (ACK CONTROL S-STEM)

The basic bloc$s of a feedbac$ system are
(a)/eed bac$ path
(b)/orward path
(c)"rror detecting device
In general the forward path of a system will have the following elements
#(mplifier
#"rror sensor
#%ompensating networ$


;. 70AT ARE ERROR 2ETECTORS)

"rror detector is a device which compares the feed bac$ signal obtained from the
output with the input (command) signal and determines there from the deviation
$nown as actuating signal.


1. E,PLAIN T0E MEANING O> CONTROL ACTION. LIST T0E COMMON
MO2ES O> CONTROL)

The control action refers to the manner in which the control elements manipulate
The error signal into a manipulated variable to do the necessary corrective
action.&isted below are the types of modes of control or control action or controllers.
(a)proportional control(p)
(b)integral control(i)
(c)derivative control(d)
(d)two position control
(e)multi position(floating control)
<. 70AT ARE RELA-S)
It may be defined as protective device which are e-tensively used in high 0 low
power operations ali$e to prevent any urge in current from destroying the
components in the circuit
H. 70AT ARE SER@O AMPLI>IERS)
+ervo amplifiers is linear power amplifier that increases the intensity of the
error signal to an e-tend that it is capable for driving the motor

1I. 70AT IS SER@O MEC0ANISM)

( servo mechanism is power amplifying feedbac$ control system in which the
controlled variable is mechanical position or a time *derivative of the mechanical
position such as velocity and acceleration

11. 70AT IS A SER@O MOTOR)

This is a type of servo mechanism in which the velocity of the system is maintain as
constant
1elocity2dq3dt is constant
q2position of output
hence this type of feedbac$ is called derivative feedbac$
12. 70AT IS T0E (ASIC ELEMENT O> MEC0ANICAL S-STEM)

To analyse mechanical systems the three ideali,ed elements#spring*mass 0 damper
is used

16. LIST T0E T0REE (ASIC ELEMENTS O> ELECTRICAL S-STEM)

The three basic elements of electrical system are resistor*inductor 0 capacitor
1?. 2E>INE RESISTANCE9CAPACITANCE9IN2UCTANCE)

4esistance)it is that which opposes the flow in general. It is defined as the change
in potential difference required to cause a unit change in flow rate
4 electrical2de3di
2e3i
%apacitance)( capacitor is a storing element. %apacitance is defined as
change in quantity contain or stored per a unit change in some reference variable
% ele2change in quantity demanded3change in a reference variable
2q3e
Inductance)Inductance is that which opposes acceleration. It is defined as
change in potential difference required to cause a unit change in acceleration
1:.LIST T0E CLASSI>ICATIONS O> 0-2RRULIC S-STEMS AN2
E,PLAIN T0EM)

5ydraulic systems can be classified into two types*
(a) liquid level system
(b) hydraulic devices.
&iquid level systems are those incorporated*storage tan$s and connecting
pipes
The devices using incompressible oil as their wor$ing medium are
hydraulic device

1;.70AT ARE PNEUMATIC S-STEMS)

+ystems which use compressible fluids as wor$ing medium are called as pneumatic
systems.(ir is an e-ample of such fluids.

16. D"/I7" +"+ITI1IT8 I7 4"&(8 T"%57.&.98:

It is defined as the ability of the relay to select the fault within a desirable ,one
of protection.

1;.<5(T (4" T5" T<. %&(++I/I%(TI.7 ./ D% +"41. =.T.4+:

D% servo motors is classified into two.
(a) sliding contact motors with commutators and brushes.
(b) >rushless or contact less motors with transistor commutator.

They are again classified into.
(a) ?ermanent magnet motors
(b) "lectromagnet field motors
(c) (rmature control motors
(d) %ylindrical armature motors.
(e) /ield control motors.
1@.D"/I7" AI4%5.//+ +"%.7D &(< ./ 1.&T(9":
The law states that Bthe algebraic sum of voltages around a closed loop is ,eroC.
2D.<5(T I+ ( 1.&T(9" 4"9E&(T.4:
( voltage regulator is a electronic circuit where a stable D% voltage*independent of
load current* temperature and (% line voltage varies.
<-IT >
APP;I$ATI/- /3 $/-T#/; "="T%M
: MA#("
1.What is system?
7"e a um/er o! elemets or compoets are coected i a se8uece a speci!ic
!uctio 9t"e #roup t"us !ormed is called as a s$stem.
2.What is meant by control system?
I a s$stem &"e t"e output 8uatit$ is cotrolled /$ 'ar$i# t"e iput
8uatit$9t"e s$stem is called as cotroll s$stem.
6..ommand signal of e-citation.
T"e iput 8uatit$ to t"e s$stem is called commad si#al o! e4citatio.
?.What is controlled $ariable or response?
T"e output 8uatit$ !rom t"e s$stem is called 'aria/le or respose.
:.Gi'e t"e application of control system?
1. Go'eri# o! speed
2. 3ietic ad process cotrol
6. pressure9temperature9!luid le'el ad !lo& cotrol
?. T"rust ad !li#"t cotrol
:. P"oto electric cotrol
;.What is gyroscope?
T"e #$roscope cosist o! a &"eel or disc mouted o a a4le.T"e a4le is
supported /$ /eari#s !i4ed o a !rame.&or3 called ier #im/al*li#a#e+.
1.What is meant by photo electric control?
P"oto diode sesor is a li#"t acti'ated diode coected i re'erse /ias.7"e li#"t
!all o t"e diode9it #eates ellectric curret.
<.#ifferentiate the terms >.ommand and &esponse?
CommadD T"e result o! t"e act o! ad5ustmet9ie Closi# a 'alue9mo'i# a le'er
etc is 3o& as commad.
ResposeD T"e su/se8uet result o! t"e s$stem to t"e commad is 3o& as
respose.
H.:i$ethe application of gyroscopic principle?
1. I istrumet or to$ Ko& as #$roscope.
2. I s"ip i order to miimi%e t"e rolli# ad pitc"i# e!!ect o! &a'es.
6. I aeroplaes moorail cars #$campasses etc
1I.What is a triac switching circuit?
TRIAC is a cotrolled s&itc"i# de'ice. It turs ON & O>> /ased o t"e
s&itc"i# pulse or tri##eri# pulse #i'e.
11.What is meant by go$erning of speed?
T"e speed at costat rate is ac"i'ed /$ usi# #o'eri# circuits is called
#o'eri# o! speed.
12. What is meant by photo diode sensor?
P"oto diode sesor is a li#"t actiuated diode coected i re'erse /ias. 7"e li#"t
ra$s !all o t"e diode i #eerator electric curret.t"is electric curret is directl$
proportioal to t"e icidetal li#"t.
1; MARKS
1.2-plain the ,inetic and process control?
KINETICD
It represets motio o! a o/5ect.Process meas #o'eri# o! s$stem.*2+
>LO7 C0ARTD
Numerical cotrol s$stem.*;+
OPERATION *:+
A2@ANTAGES AN2 2IS A2@ANTAGES.*6+
2. 2-plain pressure>temperature>fluid le$el>flow control?
(ASIC APPLICATION*2+
>LO7 C0ARTD
pressure9temperature9!luid le'el9!lo& cotrol*1I+
OPERATION *?+
6. 7tate and e-plain the thrust and flight control?
G-ROSCOPE*;+
>IGURE*:+
OPERATION*:+
?. 2-plain photo electric controls?
P0OTO ELECTRIC PRINCIPLE*2+
P0OTO 2IO2E SENSOR*2+
TRIAC S7ITC0ING CIRCUIT*2+
>IGURED
P"oto electric cotrol*:+
OPERATION*:+
:.*i+With the aid of schematic diagram describe how the temperature control in central
heating system is achi$ed in an industry?*H+
*ii+#iscuss a control system that can be used inorder to control of water le$el in a
cistern.*1+ *A.U No' 2II6+