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Power Station

ACB (India) Ltd.


30MW Power Plant, Chakabura
An ISO 9001 Certified Company
FOREWORD
For development of technical competence for execution of any technical activity
efficiently and safely, the individual handling/in charge of the activity must have to fulfill
two important requirements.
a) Up to dated adequate direct knowledge related to the concerned portion of the
activity.
b) Required skill which can come only with training including on the job and
experience of dealing with the activity.
The technical personnel too should have sufficient related knowledge of the other fields
(other than his own field) of the activity without which the activity cannot be completed.
Only with possession of the above, it becomes possible to achieve the desired results
from the efficient performance of any activity and consequently achieve the commercial
and financial results so that the ventures continue to remain viable and in conformity
with the projected objectives of the venture.
The above two are very essential to perform the activity not only competently but also in
a safe manner. Unsafe operations will eventually lead to accidents and increased down
time which will impinge on the commercial results of the venture. Accidents lead to
increased down time, affecting the performance directly and contribute very negatively
in an indirect manner by bringing down the morale of the team as some accidents cause
injuries contributing to pain and human misery.
This booklet is commendable effort in providing valuable information and knowledge
relating to the important aspects of thermal power generation like Boilers, Steam
Turbines, Turbo Generators, Water Treatment Plant and Coal Handing Plant which will
be extremely useful to the personnel who are involved in the operation of the thermal
power generating plants.
It is very necessary that this booklet is made to reach the concerned personnel who
must go through the same as well meeting session need to be arranged for interaction,
clarification and also to get feed back to ascertain the extent to which the concerned
personnel have imbibed the knowledge.
I feel very happy that such booklet is being published and hope that such efforts shall
continue on other aspects of various technologies.
Date : Tuesday, February 16, 2010 Ganesh Chandra Mrig
Place : Gurgaon Managing Director
FOREWORD
I had spent some 35 years in Power Plant O&M before coming to Chakabura Plant.
During that period I had seen Boilers and Turbines of different Manufacturers such as
Franco Toshi Italy, CEM France, Babcock & Wilcox; ABL, BHEL, Polish and so on. It
taught me that names and labels may change but the vkRek <kapk or the
Substance remains the same in a Thermal Power Plant. Incidentally I had never seen
nor worked an AFBC Boiler!
During my initial period in Chakabura I realized that I was dealing with a totally Green
team of engineers. Most of them could not differentiate between an ID Fan and a FD Fan
and none of them knew that the motor of a submersible pump had a cooling jacket which
must be filled with DM water before its first trial!
This was a wakeup call for the teacher in me and soon I started a daily Q&A session at
individual level and subsequently in groups. These helped me realize that these
beginners must get guidance, encouragement and backing to gain knowledge and
confidence. Experience is gained only through experience and not much can be done
there! During commissioning and initial gestation we had second phase of learning - The
on job training.
I realized that learning from commissioning engineers of Franco Toshi, HEIL, CEM,
BHEL, ABL etc.. was a far richer experience than! The situation obtaining was
compounded by exit of several bright engineers. With passage of time; arrived stability;
performance of the unit improved and a neat and clean plant took shape. We carried out
the First Overhaul Works in April 2009 in 2 weeks as planned and the unit stabilized
again at a high performance level. This was when I became restless due to fear of
complacency among my team becauseI knew that many nay most of them do not
possess in-depth knowledge required to understand subtle changes in plant
parameters/ behavior etc. In my wisdom the proper solution was to provide them with a
write-up touching all important areas of power plant.
The outcome is Window to Power Station.
Most of the content has been obtained from websites, books, manuals and has been
edited to make it concise and precise. I have also added my comments and remarks
wherever felt necessary.

CHAKABURA POWER PLANT
Tel : 07815-285804, 97550-91379
P. S. ATHAVALE, (GM)
PREFACE
1. Introduction 1
2. A TPS at a Glance 3
3. Steam generator
3.1 Coal 8
3.2 Air 11
3.3 Combustion System 12
3.3.1 Fluidization system 13
3.4 Details of Boiler Plessure Parts 15
3.5 Fans 26
3.6 Electro Static Precipitator 32
3.7 Ash handling system 41
4. Turbine 43
4.1 Governing system 46
4.2 Gland sealing system 49
4.3 Air evacuation system 50
4.4 Rankine cycle 50
4.5 Regenerative heating system 52
4.6 Condenser 54
4.7 Cooling tower 55
4.8 Vibration Monitoring System 58
5. Turbo Generator 60
5.1 The operation of generator on infinite bus-bar 65
5.2 Circuit breaker 71
5.3 Transformers 77
5.4 Motors 87
5.5 Variable Frequency Drive 88
5.6 UPS 93
6. Water Treatment Plant 103
6.1 Pre treatment plant 104
6.2 Reverse Osmosis System 106
6.3 Water chemistry
6.3.1 Boiler water chemistry 109
6.3.2 Cooling water chemistry 114
7. Control & Instrumentation
7.1 DCS 118
8. Lubricating oil & additives 139
9. Plant Performance History
9.1 Monthly Gen, Exp. PLF & A.F. 140
9.2 Details of Unit trippings/outage period 142
9.3 Problems, modifications and achievments 145
...... INDEX ......
Sr.No
Chapter Title PageNo
1
Importance and need of Electricity cannot be overemphasized in a modern world. It
is the most convenient form of energy because:
i) Travels at speed of light (only slower than the human mind!)
ii) Transmission is without pollution.
iii) Can be easily converted to other forms such as Heat, Light, and Mechanical.
Since energy can neither be created nor destroyed; Generation of Electrical
Energy (Power) means conversion of other form to Electrical Thus we have Wind
Power, Tidal Power, Solar Power, Hydro Electric Power and Thermal Power (Which
includes Nuclear Power). Of all these, Coal based Thermal Power is the major player with
@75% share.
Our country with an estimated 90 Gigatons of Bituminous/Sub-bituminous and 2
Gigatons of Anthracite (1 Gigaton= 1000 milliontons) has @ 10 % of the (recoverable)
Total World Reserves of Coal. Needless to say that we will harness coal based thermal
power for time to come. However the quality of this coal is inferior in terms of its Gross
Calorific Value and Ash content. The ash content varies from 30 to 60 %. This means that
substantial component of coal mined is bad as a fuel. If consumed by Thermal Power
Plants, as mined, such coal will mean
1. Higher Transport Cost.
2. Higher Specific Coal Consumption.
3. Higher expenditure on Ash management.
4. Poor Loadability of Generating Units.
5. Higher wear and Tear of Power Plant equipments and Pressure Parts.
6. More Auxiliary power Consumption.
MOEF (Ministry of Environment & Forests) Government of India, therefore, issued
directives to the Thermal Power Producers to use coal with a maximum ash content of
34%. Large number of Coal beneficiation (or Washery) plants came into being as a natural
consequence.
ACB (India) Ltd. the pioneer in coal beneficiation is the largest in India with installed
capacity of over 30 MMT per annum!!
Beneficiation Plants use Density Differential between Coal and extraneous (non-
coal) impurity by Float & Sink method. Different equipments are available to separate
1.
Introduction
Window to Power Station
2
Window to Power Station
Coal and Impurities. These include Rotating Barrel, Jigs (Batak, Baume etc.) using Heavy
Medium such as Magnetite or Water with compressed air for pulsation so as to stratify a
given mass of coal as per density/quality.
Selection of a particular type of Washery/Benefication Equipment is done after conducting
wash ability tests and plotting the results on a curve or graph showing the results of a
series of float-and-sink tests. A number of these curves are drawn to illustrate different
conditions or variables, usually on the same axes, thus presenting the information on one
sheet of paper. Wash ability curves are essential when designing a new coal or mineral
washery. There are four main types of wash ability curves: characteristic ash curve,
cumulative float curve, cumulative sink curve, and densimetric or specific gravity curve.
Generally speaking 20% of coal washed is rejected not suitable as fuel in a
conventional Boiler. But there is still combustible matter in this Reject. This is where a
Fluidized Bed Combustor or Boiler plays its role. If we consider the fact that our country
consumes 400 million Tons of coal per year we will generate 80 million tons of Reject if all
of this was washed. This is adequate to feed a 6000 MW Power Plant with fluidized Bed
Boilers. Thus there is a large potential for growth of such Generating stations.
3
A Thermal Power Plant uses 5 main devices to generate electrical energy.
1. Boiler or Steam Generator to convert chemical energy in the fossil fuel into heat of
combustion and transfer this heat to water. And generate dry steam of desired
pressure, temperature and degree of superheat.
2. Steam Turbine to convert heat energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotation to
drive the Generator.
3. Condenser to reject heat from the steam
exhausted from Turbine after doing work.
And to recover water for recycling.
4. Water Pump to feed high-pressure water to
the Boiler at the expense of a fraction of
energy generated (@ 2.4%).
5. A Turbo-Generator to convert mechanical
energy into electrical using Turbine as
Prime Mover.
It has been indicated elsewhere that beneficiation of coal generates substantial
rejects which cannot be utilized in a conventional PF boiler. Fluidized Bed boilers can burn
this coal-reject with particle size 4-6 mm effectively without pulverizing. These boilers
have a bed made out of crushed refractory material. Particle size of the bed-material is 0.8
3
2.4 mm, bulk density @ 1100Kg/m and thermal conductivity of 0.24 cal/gm. Air nozzles
below the bed are used to fluidize it. The Furnace is divided in 8 compartments with 20,000
Kg. bed material spread over. For initial light-up Charcoal or Firewood chips are laid on top
of the bed in FIRST compartment and ignited with a torch. 4 Oil Burners located at 250mm
elevation are also fired from the front side. On fluidization the whole mass of bed material
in Compartment 1 becomes hot and reaches a temperature of 900-1000 C Whence
(reject) coal firing is started. When Coal Flame is self sustainable oil and Charcoal firing is
stopped. As hot bed material spills over to adjoining Compartments the temperatures
there also rise sufficiently to accept Coal Feed. This is briefly the process of Boiler Light-up.
Details are omitted purposely. Details of dimensions, numbers, cross-section etc. are
given separately.
2.1 Boiler or Steam Generator
2.
A Thermal Power Station at a Glance
Window to Power Station
4
Window to Power Station

A steam turbine is an engine in which heat energy of the steam is transformed into
work. First, the steam expands through nozzle(s) and heat is converted into kinetic
energy. Then, that kinetic energy is converted into work for spinning turbine blades. The
usual turbine has four main parts. The rotor is the rotating part which carries the blades or
buckets. The stator consists of a cylinder and casing within which the rotor turns. The
turbine has a base frame on which the casing is mounted, and finally there are nozzles or
flow passages which expand the steam. The cylinder, casing, and frame are often
combined. Other parts necessary for proper operation would include a control system,
a piping, a lubrication system, and a separate condenser.
There are many different types of turbines. The basic classification being
a) Impulse
(i) Simple or single-stage.
(ii) Velocity-stage, Curtis.
(iii) Pressure stage, Rateau.
(iv) Combination pressure- and velocity-stage.
(b) Reaction, Parsons.
(c) Combination impulse and reaction.
Most power plant turbines have One Impulse Stage followed by Reaction stages.
Our 30MW Turbine has 15 stages (1 impulse wheel (stage) + 14 reaction stages). Bleeds
are provided after 5th Stage (HP Heater), 10th Stage (De-aerator) and 13th Stage (LP
Heater) for regenerative feed water heating.
2
) Labyrinth Seals - the Turbine casing receives High Pressure (84Kg/cm steam at
one end and discharges to condenser at a pressure much below atmosphere
2
(0.1 Kg/cm ). Hence both ends have to be sealed to avoid leakage of steam outside and
ingress of air inside. In addition there is differential pressure across each stage of Fixed
Nozzles (Diaphragms) in turbine which need sealing to prevent steam bypassing the
moving blades. This is achieved by providing Labyrinth Gland Seals. These are serrations
on the Turbine Shaft and matching grooves on the stator casing so as to provide a high
resistance path for leakage steam. The actual arrangement is very complex with
stepped/double-stepped/vernier type labyrinths for glands and Axial-Radial labyrinths for
inter-stage seals etc. With Turbine shaft speeds of 7059 rpm the labyrinth clearances
are also critical (@ 0.5mm).
Working principle of Generator - The working principle of the Alternator OR
Generator is very simple. When a conductor is placed in a changing magnetic flux an emf
is induced proportional to the rate of change of flux.
2.2 Steam Turbine
2.3 Turbo Generator
5
Window to Power Station
The Generator Rotor is an electromagnet which provides magnetic flux in the air-gap ofA
the Alternator and the rotation of Turbine provides a constant variation (Sinusoidal).. The
conductor is in the form of Coils or Winding on the Stator (armature).
The situation complicates when a LOAD is connected to stator. The flow of load-
current through the Armature (Stator winding) gives rise to armature-reaction which
opposes the change of flux by
a) Cancelling the Flux demagnetising.
b) Braking the Generator Rotor- slowing down the speed.
To nullify the effect of armature reaction an AVR (automatic voltage regulator) is
introduced which controls the field-excitation-current to maintain the terminal voltage
constant. AVR is a critical device and is responsible for safe operation of Generator within
the Capacity Curve at all times.
An Operation Engineer must have conceptual understanding of these requirements and
should keep a watch on electrical parameters. He/She should know that Overvoltage and
Under-voltage Trip is set at 10% of 11KV. In case 132KV Grid voltage is HIGHER we
have to shift the GT Tap to LOWER position. A close look at the OLTC panel will clarify
why?
A) Raw Water and Pre-treatment
We have constructed an Anicut at Korai village on the confluance of Salia and
3
Kholar Nallahs. The dam has a storage capacity of @ 200,000 M . The present dam
height is 2 m and 8 nos of auto-opening flood-gates are provided. These gates open
without external power during floods and close automatically when water recedes. They
are hydraulically damped to prevent crash-closing during monsoon floods.
An intake-well is constructed upstream of dam on Salia Nalla for drawl of raw water
with the help of (2x 100 TPH + 2x250 TPH ) 4 Pumps and a 400mm size MS-ERW pipeline.
Normally 2 pumps are in service and bring water to the water pre treatment plant. This
comprises :-
1. A settling cum clarifier tank. Here chemicals are dosed for clarifloculation
so as to bring down the turbidity.
2. RGF- or rapid gravity filter where water from settling tank passes through a
graded sand filter to arrest suspended particals left over. The output water to
3
a storage tank of 16000 M . This tank is the reservoir for CW make up and
input to RO/DM treatment plant
2.4 Water Treatment Plant
6
Window to Power Station
Power plant requires 2 different qualities of water
a. For Boiler -The boiler water has to be free from all dissolved salts to avoid
deposits on tubes. It must also be free from oxygen which causes corrosion.
This is achieved by Demineralization and De-aeration. RO i.e. Reverse
Osmosis process is used to remove all dissolved salts from water. The
product of RO plant is passed through a Mixed Bed of Anion & Cation to yield
high quality DM water.
Such DM water is highly aggressive under high temperature conditions
obtained in boiler and therefore it is maintained in alkaline regime between
9.8 to 10.2 pH. TSP (tri-sodium phosphate) is dosed to remove hardness
and to boost pH in the boiler Drum. Feed Water is de-aerated before going
to boiler and to scavange any oxygen traces left Hydrazine is dosed in the
suction line of BFP. O in water is brought down to < 7parts per billion.
2
b. Circulating Water CW:- Old power-plants used Softened Water with
hardness less than 40. This was when Condenser Tubes were of
Brass/Admiralty- Brass. This required a Zeaolite Softening plant. Water
requirement was much higher. Now Condenser Tubes are of SS which do
not corrode and clear water is adequate as CW. To optimize water
requirement COC (Cycles of concentration) are increased to 7-8. The
philosophy followed is to keep the solids in solution and not to allow them to
form scale on Condenser Tubes. This is achieved by dosing a) Scale
Inhibitors- orthophosphate & phophonates b) De-scaling agent- Sulphuric
Acid. c) Micro biocides to kill algae and bacteria.
The function of CHP is to supply required quantity and quality of coal to the boiler. It
receives coal from washery through a conveyor belt, screens it with a vibrating screen and
sends -6mm size to the boiler bunker. Oversize coal is sent to the ring-granulator for
crushing to -6mm. There is provision to receive coal through trucks. Such coal is fed
through a ground hopper and then to the vibrating screen. Since the required (size &
quantity) of coal is available as received the CHP is mostly limited to conveying.
2.5 Coal Handling Plant.
7
Window to Power Station
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3.
Steam Generator
Window to Power Station
3.1 COAL
Coal formation is the outcome of a slow geological process taking millions of years.
Under suitable conditions dead biotic matter (such as trees) get successively transformed
in Peat, Jet, Lignite, Sub-bituminous, Bituminous coal , Anthracite, Graphite etc .Of these
members of Coal family thermal power plants utilize Lignite, Sub-bituminous &
Bituminous varieties only.
World coal reserves: At the end of 2006 the recoverable coal reserves amounted
to 800 - 900 Gigatons (1 Gigaton=1000 Million Tons. At the present consumption rate, this
would last 264 years. The largest reserves are found in the USA, Russia, Australia, China,
India and South Africa.
Proved recoverable coal reserves at end-2006 (in million tonnes)
9
Window to Power Station
Recent discoveries in the region of Pakistan have given rise to a discovery of nearly 185
billion tonnes.
Coal Beneficiation or Coal Washing :- The Coal Deposits in our country are huge in terms of
quantity. However the quality of this coal is inferior in terms of its Gross Calorific Value and Ash
content. The ash content varies from 20 to 60 %. Thus substantial portion of our coal reserve is
difficult to use as a fuel.
If consumed by Thermal Power Plants as mined this will mean.
1. Higher Specific Coal Consumption.
2. Higher Transport Cost.
3. Higher expenditure on Ash management.
4. Poor Loadability of Generating Units.
5. Higher wear and Tear of Power Plant equipments and Pressure Parts.
MOEF (Ministry of Environment & Forest) Government of India therefore issued directives
to the Thermal Power Producers to use coal with a maximum ash content of 34%. Large number of
Coal beneficiation (or Washery) plants came into being as a natural consequence.
ACB India Ltd. is a pioneer in coal beneficiation and the largest with an installed
capacity of over 30 MMT per annum!!
Coal Beneficiation Plant works on principle of Density Differential between Coal and
extraneous (non-coal) impurity by Float & Sink method. Different equipments are available to
separate Coal and Impurities. These include Rotating Barrel, Jigs (Batak, Baume etc.) using
Heavy Medium such as Magnetite or Water with compressed air for pulsation so as to stratify coal
as per density/quality. Selection of a particular type of Washery/Beneficiation Equipment is done
after plotting results of several float & sink tests on a curve or graph. A number of these curves are
drawn to illustrate different conditions or variables, usually on the same axes, thus presenting the
information on one sheet of paper. Washability curves are essential when designing a new coal or
mineral washery. There are four main types of washability curves: characteristic ash curve,
cumulative float curve, cumulative sink curve and densimetric or specific gravity curve
Elements in Coal
There are 3 elements in coal that combine with Oxygen in the air during the combustion
process. The main and important element is Carbon which could be around 20%.Then there is
Hydrogen in the range of 1 % to 2 % and Sulphur in the range of 0.3 % to 0.8 % . Apart from this
there is Volatile matter, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Ash.
Stoichiometric or theoretical air quantity.
This is calculated based on the chemical reaction between the elements and oxygen.
1. Carbon combines with Oxygen to form Carbon-dioxide and heat.
C+ O > CO 1 C +32/12 O > 44/12 CO 1 kg
2 2 2
Carbon +2.67 kg Oxygen > 3.67 kg
2. Hydrogen Combines with Oxygen to form Water and heat
2H + O > 2H O 1 H +32/4 O >36/4 H O 1 kg Hydrogen
2 2 2
2
+8 kg Oxygen >9 kg Water
10
Heat of combustion (GCV) table
Window to Power Station
3. Sulfur- S + O > SO 1 S +32 /32 O >64 /32 SO 1 kg Sulfur
2 2 2
+1 kg Oxygen >2 kg Sulfur Dioxide.
Heating value
The heating value or calorific value is a characteristic for each substance, and is the
amount of heat energy released during the combustion of unit mass of the substance,in: kcal/kg,
kJ/kg etc. Heating value is commonly determined by use of a bomb calorimeter.
Higher Heating Value (HHV) (or Gross Calorific Value) is determined by bringing all the
products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature, and in particular
condensing any vapor produced. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion since
the enthalpy change for the reaction assumes a common temperature of the compounds before
and after combustion, in which case the water produced by combustion is liquid.
Lower Heating Value (LHV) (or net calorific value) is determined by subtracting the heat of
vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value. This treats any H O formed as a
2
vapor. The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not realized as heat.
Gross heating value (see ARB) accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor, and
includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion. This value is important for fuels like wood or
coal, which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning.
ARB (As Received Basis) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured with all
moisture and ash forming minerals present.
ADB (Moisture Free) or Dry indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured after
the fuel has been dried of all inherent moisture but still retaining its ash forming minerals.
11
Temperature Density Specific heat Thermal
capacity conductivity
- t - - - - c - - l -
p
3
(C) (kg/m ) (kJ/kg K) (W/m K)
0 1.293 1.005 0.0243
40 1.127 1.005 0.0271
80 1.000 1.009 0.0299
120 0.898 1.013 0.0328
140 0.854 1.013 0.0343
Window to Power Station
Ratio compared to
Molecular
Dry Air(%)
Mass
Chemical
Gas
-M-
Symbol
By By
(kg/kmol)
Volume Weight
Oxygen 20.95 23.20 32.00 O2
Nitrogen 78.09 75.47 28.02 N2
Carbon
Dioxide 0.03 0.046 44.01 CO2
Hydrogen 0.00005 ~ 0 2.02 H2
Argon 0.933 1.28 39.94 Ar
Neon 0.0018 0.0012 20.18 Ne
Helium 0.0005 0.00007 4.00 He
Krypton 0.0001 0.0003 83.8 Kr
Xenon 9 10-6 0.00004 131.29 Xe
3.2 AIR
Common properties for air are indicated in the table below Specific Heat Cp of Air is 1 to
1.01 kJ/kg C. Its Thermal Conductivity increases from 0.024 to 0.034 W/mC with temp. rise from
0C to 140C
Constituents of Air
Air is a mixture of gases - 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen (by volume) with traces of water
vapor, carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components. Air is usually modeled as a uniform
(no variation or fluctuation) gas with properties averaged from the individual components.
12
Window to Power Station
Other components in air in parts per million (ppm).
1. Sulfur dioxide - SO - 1.0. 2. Methane - CH - 2.0.
4 2
3. Nitrous oxide - N O - 0.5 4. Ozone O - 0 to 0.07.
3 2
5. Nitrogen dioxide - NO - 0.02. 6. Iodine - I - 0.01
2 2
7. Carbon monoxide - CO - 0 to traces. 8. Ammonia - NH - 0 to traces
3
The water or vapor content in air varies. The maximum moisture carrying capacity of air
depends primarily on temperature .The composition of air is unchanged until elevation of
approximately 10,000 m. The average air temperature diminishes at the rate of 0.6C for each
100 m vertical height
"One Standard Atmosphere" is defined as the pressure equivalent to that exerted by a
2
760 mm column of mercury at 0C sea level and at standard gravity (9.81m/sec )
Air contains 23.2 % by weight of Oxygen.
The theoretical Air required to burn the coal is calculated accordingly..
The Heating value of Coal also depends on the elemental Carbon and Hydrogen. This
means that the air required and the heating value have an almost fixed relationship. The
theoretical air required for a unit heating value is practically a fixed value. This is around 0.332 kg
of air for one MJ(1MJ= 239 Kcal) of heat input. This is true for a wide range of coals used in power
plants.
As a power engineer it is sufficient to remember that for our unit we should have 4kg air per
kg of coal. It should also be borne in mind that composition of air does not change. However its
3 3
density reduces from1.2kg/m (20C) to 0.8kg/m (160C) as temperature rises.
Combustion reaction: Combustion is the high temperature oxidation of the combustible
elements of a fuel with heat release. Combustion is the chemical reaction which takes place when
combustible element (Carbon in coal) combines with the oxygen in air, and in so doing gives off
large quantity of heat.
The basic chemical equation for complete combustion are
C+O ------ CO + HEAT
2 2
1(g) + 2.67 (g) -------3.67(g) + 33.94 kj
From above equation 1gram of Carbon requires 2.67 grams of oxygen (11.50 gram of air)
for complete combustion and will produce 3.67 gram of Carbon dioxide and release 33.94 kj of
heat.
When insufficient oxygen is present, the carbon will be burned incompletely with the formation of
carbon monoxide i.e 2C+O ------2CO.
2
1. In order to burn a fuel completely, four basic conditions must be fulfilled.
2. Supply enough air for complete combustion of fuel.
3. Secure enough turbulence for thorough mixing of fuel and air.
4. Maintain a furnace temperature high enough to ignite the incoming fuel air mixture.
5. Provide a furnace volume large enough to allow time for combustion to be completed.
3.3 COMBUSTION SYSTEM
13
Window to Power Station
3.3.1. FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION
Fluidized bed: When air or gas is passed through an inert bed of solid particles such as crushed
refractory material or sand on a grid, the air initially will seek a path of least resistance and pass
upward. With further increase in the velocity, the air bubbles through the bed and particles attain a
state of high turbulence. Under such conditions, the bed assumes the appearance of a fluid.
Hence the name is 'Fluidized Bed'.
Mechanism of Fluidized Bed Combustion: If the bed material in a fluidized state and is
heated to ignite the temperature of the fuel and the fuel is injected continuously into the bed, fuel
will burn rapidly and the bed attains a uniform temperature due to effective mixing. This is called
fluidised bed combustion.
While it is essential that temperature of bed should be at least equal to ignition temperature
o
of and it should never be allowed to approach ash fusion temperature (1150 C) to avoid melting of
ash. This is achieved by extracting heat from the bed by conductive and convective heat transfer
through tubes immersed in the bed.
If air velocity is too low, fluidization will not occur and if the gas velocity becomes too high ,
the particles will be entrained in the gas stream and lost. Hence to sustain the stable operation of
the bed , it must be ensured that the air velocity is maintained between minimum fluidisation
velocity and particle entrainment velocity.
Advantages of FBC boiler:
1. It is designed to burn low grade coals like washery rejects.
2. Low combustion temperature of the order of 800C 900C facilitates burning of coal with
low ash fusion temperature, prevents NOx formation
3. High sulfur coals can be burnt efficiently without much generation of SOx by feeding lime
stone.
4. High turbulence of bed facilitates quick start-up and shut down.
Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB)
The point at which the heat transfer from a fuel rod rapidly decreases due to the insulating
effect of a steam blanket that forms on the rod surface when the temperature continues to
increase.
Boiling:- Water is boiled in the Steam Generator to form steam. However the process is not
simple and it is necessary to understand various stages or phases involved. As an operation
engineer it is sufficient to know that heat transfer between the Heating Surface and the Heat
Recipient (water/steam) depends primarily on the temperature difference. There are 3 main
regimes of thermodynamic heat transfer namely Natural Convection, Nucleate and Film Boiling. If
we look at the Pool Boiling Curve with T on Abscissa and Heat (transfer) Flux on the Ordinate we
get a plot as shown below.
14
Window to Power Station
Pool Boiling (Nukiyama) Curve
Heater temperature
H
e
a
t

s
u
p
p
l
y
AB-NUCLEATE
BOILING
BC-FILM BOILING
OA-CONVECTION
The segment O-A is the initial heating as per Convection Mode. The temperature rises smoothly
with no bubble formation. This is when T is up to 8-10 C. The portion A-B shows a high rate of
heat transfer and reaches a peak value at B. This is when local heat is sufficient to activate
nucleation sites on the heating surface and vapor bubbles are formed. Very rapid bubble formation
causes strong velocities within the liquid film and heat transfer increases. At B the heat flux
reaches its maxima T @ 100C. This is called the Critical Temperature Difference Point or DNB
(departure from nucleate boiling) or Burn-out point. Several physical and thermodynamic
phenomena are occurring as we approach B. The numerous nuclei and rapid evolution of bubbles
prevent the liquid particles reaching the heating surface which is starved. The heat flux starts
reducing from B and reaches minima at C. A further increase in T increases the heat flux again.
This is where Film Boiling starts. Here a continuous layer of vapor covers the heating surface
retarding heat flux. This layer thickens as T is increased. But a further increase in Temperature
(T @ 500C) increases heat transfer due to Radiation and perhaps convection within the vapor
film.
15
Window to Power Station
3.4 Details & Specification of Boiler Pressure Parts
2
125 TPH, 515C, 87kg/cm
Furnace Data
Bed Size :- 10.13 x 6.34 Mtr.
Expanded Bed Height - 1.06 Mtr
Heat I/P --: 99675486 Kcal / Hr
Or 416643.5 MJ/ Hr
2
Heating Surface Area = 5664.5 M
3

Boiler Volume = 80.3 M
2
LHS Safety Valve set Pr 102 kg/ cm
2
RHS Safety Valve Set Pr 103 kg/ cm
2
M.S.L - 91 Kg /cm
Natural Circulation Circuit :-
It Consists of pressure parts Circuit , Beginning from Down-Comers to the
Steam Drum Via Risers . Natural Circulation occurs betn the water in Down Comers
&Water steam mixture in water walls.
The Hydrostatic Head- is the difference at the feet of the down comers and the water walls
is equal to the sum of pressure drops due to the friction & acceleration of flow medium in the circuit .
circulation will be higher at the lower pressures & at low loads.
Circulation will be reduced when feed water temp increases and when drum level is low.
The Steam & Water System -:- It Consists mainly of Economiser, Steam
drum,Evaporator ,Bed Evaporator, Superheater ( CSH, RSH, BSH) & Desuper heater
( Primary, Secondary).
Parts of Evaporator :-
Steam Drum -01
Down Comers 06
I/L Bottom Ring Headers 04
Bed Coils (240 coils )
Bed Coils headers (04 nos)
Water Walls ( 15 panels)
Roof Headers ( 08 nos)
Risers ( 14 nos)
Parts of super heater :-
Convection super Heater 01
Radiant Super heater 01
Bed Super heater 01
DE- SUPER HEATER :-
Primary De superheater-01
Secondary De superheater-01
16
Window to Power Station
Primary De superheater Located Betn CSH O/L & RSH I/L
Secondary De superheater- Located Betn RSH O/L & BSH I/L
Bed Evaporator
Bed Coil Tube Types
Outer coil 156 nos
Inner coil 84 nos
Total Coils 240 nos
Tube size - D 51 x 6.35 thk ( Both types)
Tube Material SA 210 Gr A1 ( For Both types)
Convection superheater Coils
No of coils 65 ( 65 nos of loops)
No of banks 01
Type of flow Cross
Coil Type - Pendant type
Tube size D 44.5 x 4.5 mm
Tube material SA 210 Gr A1
Longitudinal pitch -130 mm
Radiant Superheater Coils
No of coils 60 ( 12 loops each contains 5 coils , 12 x 5)
No of banks 01
Type of flow Cross
Coil Type - Platen type ( Rectangular)
Tube size D 44.5 x 4.5 mm
Tube material SA 213 T11, SA 213 T22, SA 213 T91
Longitudinal pitch -89 mm
Bed Superheater Coils
Bed Coil Tube Types
Outer coil 36 nos
Inner coil 36 nos
Total Coils 72 nos
Tube size - D 44.5 x 5thk ( Both types)
Tube Material SA 213 T 91 ( For Both coils)
Coil Type - U-Bend
Water Wall
Type Membrane type (with fins)
Tube size - D 51 x 4.5thk
Tube Material carbon steel , SA 210Gr A1
17
Window to Power Station
8.6 Mtr
1.37 Mtr
9.6 Mtr
shellthk= 90MM
CAP - 125 TPH
PR - 87 KG/CM
MAX SuperHeated Temp- 5155c
Saturated Temp - 313c
Hydro Test Pr - 154 Kg/cm
BOILER MAKE :- CetharVessels Pvt Ltd
FUEL :-Washary Rejects
TYPE :-AFBC,SingleDrum,WaterTubeBoiler
BOILER ACESSORIES :- ECONOMISER,APH,SUPERHEATER
BOILER MOUNTINGS & FITTINNGS :-
1) Bi-colorWater level guages :- 02nos
2) Remote Electronic Level Gauge- 02 nos
3) Ram Bottoms Safety Valve- 03 nos
4) Local pressure Guage - 01 nos
5) N\U+2082 Capping/ Aux stub - 01
6) Drum Vent - 01
7) Steam O/L stubs- 04
8) Down comers - 06
9) Risers - 14 nos
10) Feed Pipe - 01
11) Steam seperators - 26 nos
12) Screen Box - 24 Nos
13) Drain pipes - 07 Nos
14) CBD Connections - 01
15) IBD Connections - 01
STEAM DRUM
Mat= SA 516 GR 70
Down Comer
Quantity 06 Nos
Pipe size D 273.1 x 15.09 thk (4 nos) , D 219 x 12.7 Thk
Pipe Material SA 106Gr B
2
2
18
AIR PREHEATER
SPECIFICATIONS
Type - Recuperative Type (Tubular)
Air Flow--- Through tubes
Gas Flow -- Over Tubes
No of passes-- 03
By Pass--Bet n Pass-I & Pass-II
Ducting Material- M.S.
Total Air Heater Tubes4680 Nos
Each Pass 1560 Tubes
Tube Material M.S (Except Top 325 Tubes)
Tube Size 60.3 x 2.34 thk (m.s), Length= 4mts
Tube Sheet 25mm Thk, Hole Dia = 61.3
Grade -- ASTM-A423GR I/ Corten steel.(Ist pass 325tubes)
Air I/L Temp Ambient
Hot Air Temp155C
APH:- Aph is a accessory of boiler . In airpreheater , air used for combustion of fuel is being
preheated & supplied to the furnace by means of forced draught fans. The air at ambient temp is
drawn from atmosphere & heated to the temp of 155C then used for conveying & combustion of
coal. The sensible heat from the flue gases left after economiser is recovered in aph to increase
the combustion efficiency & thermal efficiency of boiler. The hot flue gases at 250 270C enters
in APH and the ambient air flowing through the tubes picks up this sensible heat by heat transfer
& gains the temp upto 155C. The internal construction drawing is attached.
Window to Power Station
DRUM INTERNALS
RISER
RISER
DOWN COMER
TURBO SEPERATOR
SCREEN DRIER
FEED PIPE
DRAIN PIPE
BAFFLE
STEAM OUTLET
VORTEX
SPINNER
19
ECONOMISER
specifications
Tube Size = 51Dia x 4.5thk
Tube Material = SA 210Gr A1
2
Heating surface Area = 2989m
3
Water Holding Capacity = 25.95m
Eco coil Type I = 24 Nos ( Bank no-1)
Eco coil Type II= 24 Nos (Bank no-2)
Total Coils = 48 Nos
Feed water I/L Temp = 200C
Feed water O/L Temp = 295C
Economiser :-
It is a accessory of boiler. where feed water for evaporator is preheated & pumped to the steam
drum of boiler. The feed water enters at about 200C & leaves the economizer at 295- 300C. In
economizer,the sensible heat from the flue gases at 450- 460C is get transfered to the feed water
flowing through the coils gains the temp upto 300C.Economiser increase the thermal efficiency of
boiler. The internal construction drawing is attached.
Window to Power Station
Flue Gases O/L
I/L
3940 x 5379
ASH
HOPPER
AIR PREHEATER
PASS-1
PASS-2
PASS-3
1560 Tubes M.S
325 Tubes Corten
steel
1560 Tubes
1560 Tubes
Hot
AirO/L
Flue GAS
Cold
AIR
I/L
Aerofoil
BY PASS
DAMPER
Tube
sheet=25mmthk
20
Window to Power Station
6666
9
2
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6
ECONOMISER
ECO I/L
HEADER
ECO O/L
HEADER
BANK II
Bank I
Total Coils = 48 Nos
Bank I = 24 Coils
Bank II = 24 Coils
Tube Size = 51 x 4.5 thk
Tube Material = SA210GrA1
21
Window to Power Station
CSH COIL
30
30
200
57
GOOSE NECK
1580
4212
3291
5969.5
BURNER OPENING
RSH COIL
WATER WALL
RSH O/L HDR
RSH O/L LINK
RSH I/L HDR
Roof Center HDR
75
75
900
1044.5
De-superheater-1
CSH I/L
CSH I/L HEADER
CSH O/LHDR
CONNECTING LINK
BOILER FURNACE
10.13mx6.34m
BED SIZE
BOTTOM RING HEADER
EXPANSION BELLOW
TOP HEADER
22
Window to Power Station
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23
Window to Power Station
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24
Window to Power Station
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Window to Power Station
26
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FANS,
BLOWER AND COMPRESSOR
Equipment Specific Ratio Pr. rise mmwc
Fans Upto 1.11 Upto 1136.
Blowers 1.11 to 1.20 1136 to 2066
Comprs Above 1.2 -
Window to Power Station
TYPICAL FAN PEAK EFFICIENCIES
TYPE PEAK h %
CENTRIFUGAL
Airfoil,Backward
Curved & Inc. 79-83
Modified Radial 72-79
Radial 69-75
Pressure Blower 58-68
Forward Curved 60-65
AXIAL FANS
Vane Axial 78-85
Tube Axial 67-72
Propeller 45-50
3.5 FANS
Introduction :- Fans provide air for ventilation and carry away flue gas. Fans generate a
pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers, or other
components in a fan system. The fan rotor receives energy from a motor shaft and transmits it to
the air/gas.
Fans, blowers and compressors are differentiated by the method used to move the air,
and by the system pressure they must operate against.
Fan Types
Fan selection depends on the volume flow rate, pressure, type of material handled, space
limitations, and efficiency. Fan efficiencies differ from design to design and also by types. Typical
ranges of fan efficiencies are given in table below.
Specific Ratio= Outlet Pressure / Inlet Pressure
Fans fall into two general categories: centrifugal flow and axial flow.
In centrifugal flow, airflow changes direction twice - once when entering and second when leaving
(Forward curved, backward curved or inclined, radial).
TYPES OF CENTRIFUGAL FAN BLADES
27
Window to Power Station
In axial flow, air enters and leaves the fan with no change in direction (propeller, tubeaxial,
vaneaxial)Vaneaxial fans are similar to tubeaxials, but with addition of guide vanes that improve
efficiency by directing and straightening the flow. Propeller fans usually run at low speeds and
moderate temperatures. They experience a large change in airflow with small changes in static
pressure. They handle large volumes of air at low pressure or free delivery. Propeller fans are often
used indoors as exhaust fans. Outdoor applications include air-cooled condensers and cooling
towers. Efficiency is low approximately 50% or less.
The major types of centrifugal fan are: radial, forward curved and backward curved.
Radial fans are preferred because of their high static pressures (upto 1400 mmwc).They
are simple in design and can handle heavily contaminated airstreams , high temperatures and
medium blade tip speeds.
Forward-curved fans are used in clean environments, lower temperatures, low tip speed
and high-airflow work - best suited for large volumes of air against relatively low pressures.
Backward-inclined fans are more efficient than forward-curved fans. Backward-inclined
fans reach their peak power consumption and then power demand drops off well within their
useable airflow range. Backward-inclined fans are known as "non-overloading" because changes
in static pressure do not overload the motor
Thus, the system resistance increases substantially as the volume of air flowing through
the system increases; square of air flow. Conversely, resistance decreases as flow decreases. To
determine what volume the fan will produce, it is therefore necessary to know the system
resistance characteristics.In existing systems, the system resistance can be measured. In systems
that have been designed, but not built, the system resistance must be calculated. Typically a
system resistance curve is generated with for various flow rates on the x-axis and the associated
resistance on the y-axis.
TYPICAL FAN PERFORMANCE CURVE (not for our plant) OF A CENTRIFUGAL FAN.
28
Window to Power Station
Fan characteristics can be represented in form of fan curve(s). The fan curve is a performance
curve for the particular fan under a specific set of conditions. The fan curve is a graphical
representation of a number of inter-related parameters. Typically a curve will be developed for a
given set of conditions usually including: fan volume, system static pressure, fan speed, and brake
horsepower required to drive the fan under the stated conditions. Some fan curves will also
include an efficiency curve so that a system designer will know where on that curve the fan will be
operating under the chosen conditions. In the many curves shown in the Figure, the curve static
pressure (SP) vs. flow is especially important.
The intersection of the system curve and the static pressure curve defines the operating
point. When system resistance changes, the operating point also changes. Once the operating
point is fixed, the power required could be found by following a vertical line that passes through the
operating point to an intersection with the power (BHP) curve. A horizontal line drawn through the
intersection with the power curve will lead to the required power on the right vertical axis. In the
depicted curves, the fan efficiency curve is also presented.
In any fan system, the resistance to air flow (pressure) increases when the flow of air is
increased. As mentioned before, it varies as the square of the flow. The pressure required by a
system over a range of flows can be determined and a "system performance curve" can be
developed (shown as SC & SC in Figure ).
1 2
A fan operates along a performance given by the manufacturer for a particular fan speed.
(The fan performance chart shows performance curves for a series of fan speeds.) At fan speed
N , the fan will operate along the N performance curve as shown in figure.
1 1
SYSTEM CURVE S FOR 2 AIR REQUIREMENTS Q & Q .
1 2
29
Window to Power Station
The fans operate under a predictable set of laws concerning speed, power and pressure.
A change in speed (RPM) of any fan will predictably change the pressure rise and power
necessary to operate it at the new RPM.
Fan Design and Selection Criteria :-
Precise determination of air-flow and required outlet pressure are most important in
proper selection of fan type and size. The air-flow required depends on the process requirements;
normally determined from heat transfer rates, or combustion air or flue gas quantity to be
handled.System pressure requirement is usually more difficult to compute or predict. Backward-
curved fans provide the most stable operation. Also, the power required by most backward
curved fans will decrease at flow higher than design values.
This system curve can then be plotted on the fan curve to show the fan's actual operating
point at "A" where the two curves (N1 and SC1) intersect. This operating point is at air flow Q1
delivered against pressure P1.
Operating point on this curve will depend on the system resistance; fan's operating point at
"A" is flow (Q1) against pressure (P1).Two methods can be used to reduce air flow from Q1 to Q2 :
First method is to restrict the air flow by partially closing a damper in the system. This action
causes a new system performance curve (SC2) where the required pressure is greater for any given
air flow.
The fan will now operate at "B" to provide the reduced air flow Q2 against higher pressure P2.
Second method to reduce air flow is by reducing the speed from N1 to N2, keeping the
damper fully open. The fan would operate at "C" to provide the same Q2 air flow, but at a lower
pressure P3.
Thus, reducing the fan speed is a much more efficient method to decrease airflow since less
power is required and less energy is consumed. This is why VFD comes into picture and is described
separately in this book.
Fan Laws
30
Window to Power Station
Forward curved fans, however, are less efficient than backward curved fans and power rises
continuously with flow. Thus, they are generally more expensive to operate despite their lower first
cost. Aerofoil designs provide the highest efficiency (upto 10% higher than backward curved
blades), but they tend to develop imbalance due to ash entry in the hollow of blades.
Flow-rate capabilities and performance is also dependant on the fan enclosure and duct
design. Spiral housing designs with inducers, diffusers are more efficient as compared to square
housings. Density of inlet air is another important consideration, since it affects both volume flow-
rate and capacity of the fan to develop pressure. Inlet and outlet conditions (whirl and turbulence
created by grills, dampers, etc.) can significantly alter fan performance curves from that provided
by the manufacturer (which are developed under controlled conditions). Bends and elbows in the
inlet or outlet ducting can change the velocity of air, thereby changing fan characteristics (the
pressure drop in these elements is attributed to the system resistance). All these factors, termed as
System Effect Factors, should, therefore, be carefully evaluated during fan selection since they
wouldmodify the fan performance curve.
The choice of safety margin also affects the efficient operation of the fan In the case of
boiler; the induced draft (ID) fan can be designed with a safety margin of 20% on volume and 30%
on head. The forced draft (FD) fans and primary air (PA) fans do not require any safety margins.
However, safety margins of 10 % on volume and 20% on pressure are maintained for FD and PA
fans.
The inlet damper positioning is also to be checked regularly so that the "full open" and "full
close" conditions are satisfied.
Flow Control Strategies
Typically, once a fan system is designed and installed, the fan operates at a constant
speed.
There may be occasions when a speed change is desirable. Various ways to achieve
change in flow are: pulley change, damper control, inlet guide vane control, variable speed drive
and series and parallel operation of fans.
Two fans together side by side:-
Two fans in parallel will result in doubling the volume flow, but only at free delivery. As
Figure shows, when a system curve is over-laid on the parallel performance curves, the higher the
system resistance, the less increase in flow results with parallel fan operation.
Series operation can be defined as using multiple fans in a push-pull arrangement. By
staging two fans in series, the static pressure capability at a given airflow can be increased, but
again, not to double at every flow point, as the above Figure displays. In series operation, the best
results are achieved in systems with high resistance. Combined performance curves are generally
unstable, unpredictable and a function of the fan and motor construction and the operating point. In
a power plant ID Fans operate in Parallel mode and FD+PA Fans in Series mode.
31
Window to Power Station
Series and Parallel Operation of Fans.
32
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR(ESP)
MAKE-ALSTOM, TYPE-OHTA-58/1150
An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial
emission-control unit. It is designed to trap and
remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream
of an industrial process.
Window to Power Station
ESP Sectional View
Specification of ESP
3
Flue Gas Flow Rate 60.9 m /sec
Avg. Gas Velocity 0.5 m/sec
Pressure Drop Across ESP 25 mmWC.
Operating Temp- 140 deg. C
3
Inlet Dust Concentration 112 gm/ Nm
3
Outlet Dust Concentration - 50mg/ Nm .
Flue gas treatment time 33.85 Sec.
2
Collecting surface area 9576 M .
2
Current density- 0.3 Amps/M
3.6 ESP
33
Construction Details of an ESP
WORKING PRINCIPLE
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Basic Principles
Electrostatic Precipitation is the most effective method for removal of solid dust particles from the
industrial flue gases. The Electrostatic Precipitator consists of a large steel chamber and the
electrode system. The high voltage DC supply applied between the emitting and collecting
electrodes, with the emitting electrode connected to the negative terminal. The collecting
electrodes are connected to the positive terminal, which earthed. When flue gas pass through the
chamber because of the high DC voltage the solid particles are ionized and travel towards
collecting electrodes and collected. The rapping mechanism raps the collecting electrodes and
the dust drops in the hoppers. The dust collected in hoppers is finally disposed off.
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Six activities take place in ESP
Corona Discharge formation.
Ionization of Particles.
Corona formation.
Ionization - Charging of particles.
Migration - Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces
Collection - Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces
Charge Dissipation - Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces
Particle Dislodging - Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper
Particle Removal - Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point.
When the potential difference between the wire and
plate electrode increases, a voltage is reached
when an electrical breakdown of gas occur near the
wire. When the gas molecules get excited, electron
shift towards the high energy level. The bluish glow
around the wire is called Corona Discharge. An
advance state of corona discharge is spark break
down. Corona discharge take place at (peak) DC
voltage of 50 to 95KV.
ESP operates on Negative Corona (Ionization
electrode is at Negative Polarity)
The field strength is high near the emitter electrode and gradually reduces.
The space between wire and plate can be divided in to an ACTIVE zone & PASSIVE zone.
In Active zone the electric field strength is vary strong, which accelerate the free electrons
leaving
from the emitter. These electrons acquires sufficient energy to ionized molecules in gas
upon
collision, producing +ve charge particles & additional electrons. These additional
electrons
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through the particles.
The flow of current is function of dust particle resistivity.
also accelerate and ionize more gas molecules. And the chain reaction continue.until the field
strength decreases to the point that the released electrons do not acquire sufficient energy for
ionization.
The positive ion are attracted towards the ve electrode. Deposition of +ve ions reduces
the emission of electrons, Periodic cleaning of electrode by rapping mechanism will free
the particle and collected in the hopper.
Passive Zone:- Electrons from active zone enters into passive zone. Here the field
strength are insufficient for further ionization.
The Gas molecules passing through the inter electrode space are subjected to intense
bombardment of electron released from active zone. These ions collide with gas
particles and charged them.
Flue Gas molecules being electronegative (strong affinity towards electrons or has a
tendency to absorb electron). Due to composition of Coal ash mainly consist of SiO2 (40
to 65% by wt) & Al2O3 (25 to 40% by wt) and few other elements. Oxygen in Sio2 & Al2O3
makes it highly electronegative.
Particles charging is depends upon the size of particles.
Particles size above 1 m charging by Field charging.
Particles size below 0.2 m charging by diffusion charging ( due to the random collision
of particles).
These ionized gas molecules move towards the collecting electrode driven by the
electrostatic field and attain a velocity known as migration velocity.
Charging of Particles.
Migration of Charged Particles.
Collection of Charged Particles.
These ionized gas molecules move towards the collecting electrode driven by the
electrostatic field and attain a velocity known as migration velocity.
The charged gas particles are only lightly held on the collecting electrode.
The force that holding the particles on collecting surface result from the flow of current
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For better collection efficiency the resistivity of dust
particles should in range of 105 to 1010 -cm.
Due to high carbon in flue gas & Large particle size,
Resistivity of particle is too low (ie below 105 -cm).
Then not enough charge is retained by the particles
and the particles re appear in the Gas stream.
If the resistivity is too high (ie above 1010 -cm), then
the flow of current is not enough to hold the particle on
the collecting plate.
Dislodging of particles from the collecting electrode is done by Rapping Mechanism.
Gas particles form a layer (cake) on the collecting electrode. When rapped loose from the
collecting plate, fall as a COARSE Aggregate. So that it can not re-appear into gas
stream.
Rapping cycle timing is maintained, to provide sufficient time for the layer formation on
the plate.
The Dust load at bottom is higher. Bottom Rapping is more
effective.
The rapping acceleration required for Collecting electrode is
around 100 to 150g for Collecting Electrode (where
g=9.8m/s2 is acceleration due to gravity).
The rapping acceleration for emitter electrode is around
50g.

Dislodging of Particles.
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BACK CORONA
ACE-16 CONTROLLER SETTING PARAMETERS
Back Corona discharge is formed by a series of micro discharges in the air space
between the dust particles deposited on the collecting plate.
Causes of Back Corona
Due to improper rapping impact or cycle time.
High resistivity ash due to the use of low sulfur coal.
If the layer of collected materials is allowed to reach a thickness more than desirable
before rapping the plate (due to failure of rapping system or in correct rapping cycle time).
The thick layer of dust on collecting plate act as an insulating layer. When its resistivity
exceed a threshold (more than 1011 -cm) than that in gas space due to ions flow. The
high resistivity increase ions holding capacity of dust layer.
The voltage drop across the dust layer becomes become so high cause sparking (ie
Vb>threshold voltage) in the dust layer. Threshold voltage is the max voltage that it can
withstand with out breakdown.
But here discharge takes place from +ve to ve, which causes emission large amount +ve
ions in to the space. Hence, named as Back Corona.
These +ve ions in free space discharge negatively charged ions. As a result neutralizing
of charged particles take place.
Thus reduce the collection efficiency.
The ACE-16 is based on Intel 8088, which has an internal 16-bit architecture with
external 8-bit data interface.
The controller unit regulates the avg. value of the current in a closed loop control system.
The current and thereby the corona discharge voltage is adjusted by means of thyristor
control.
Thyrister control the AC voltage applied to high voltage rectifier Xmer unit (HVRT)

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Arc Detection and Quenching
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The output voltage depends on firing angle . varies
from 120 to 150.
Secondary of HVRT is rectified by full wave rectifier ckt.
After every spark Voltage/Current is brought down to zero.
And maintained it at zero for preset period.
Voltage again built up at a fast rate to the predefined value.
This method of control result in effective spark quenching
and at the same time helps in maintaining a higher average
voltage.
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IMPORTANT COMPONENTS
High Voltage Transformer Rectifier Unit.
MAKE--HIND RECTIFIER LTD.
RATING- 108 KVA.
Sr.No- 2005K17134/A/ 1 to 4.
Input 360 V/ 2Phase / 300 Amps /50Hz.
Output - 67KV / 1.61 Amps.
DC Peak Voltage 95KV/1150 mA.
Rectifier Unit Full wave Bridge Rectifier.
Emitter Electrode (Spiral type).
Material- special stainless Steel UHB 904L.
Quantity Installed 4 fields x 1026 nos.= 4104
Nos.
Diameter of Wire 2.7mm.
Effective length (each spiral unit) 5 Mtrs.
Distance between Emitter
Distance between emitter & Collecting Plate-
200 mm.
Collecting Plate.
Material - Cold Rolled Sheet.
Shape Modified G Profile. (for better
performance).
Thickness 1.25mm.
Active Height 14 Mts.
Distance between Plate 400 mm.
No. of Gas Passage / Stream 19 Nos.
No. of Electrode Installed - 4 field x 120 Nos.=480Nos
Rapping Assembly & Gas Distribution Plate
No. of Rapper Units-
Emitter Electrode- 4 Nos.
Collecting Electrode 4Nos.
Distributor plate 1No.
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Controller.
Microprocessor Based
Support Insulator.
Material Alumina.
Shape- Conical.
Leakage Distance 370 mm
Flash over voltage 125 KV
Ash Collecting Hopper
No. of Hopper 4.
Capacity of Hopper 87 m3
Valley angle 55.
Dry Ash evacuation system.
Make Macawber Beekay Pvt. Ltd.
Capacity of Field I 23 CFT (0.65 m3) / Cycle.
Capacity of Field II 23 CFT (0.65 m3) / Cycle.
Capacity of Field III 12 CFT (0.34 m3) /
Cycle.
Capacity of Field IV 6 CFT (0.17 m3)
/Cycle.
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3.7 Ash handling plant
GENREAL
Ash generated from the boiler is collected at four location of fluidized bed , economizer
hoppers , air heater hopper and electrostatic precipitator hoppers.
The fludised bed is providec with 2 nos bottom dains per compartment one for manual
and one is provided with bed ash cooler . the bottom ash drains shall be used for emergency
purpose and when the bed build up rate is high .Excessive pressure drop in the bed shall be used
as an indication to operate the bottom drains of bed.
The economizer bottom is provided with 2 nos of each hopper with isolation gate
arrangement . The over flow pipe provided in the ash hopper with isolation gate arrangement to
facilitate the disposal of ash while ash handling system is in maintaince.
BED ASH SYSTEM
This boiler is having eight compartment and each compartment is having one no. of ash
Drain point. The maximum designed ash collection rate per compartment drain pipe is 50 kg/hr.
The ash drain pipe has been connected to the bed ash cooler, Where the bed ash of 900 C will
be cooled to 175 C. Each ash drain pipe will be having separate ash discharge point and these
ash discharge point will be connected to ash handling system. The ash drain will be having a by
pass discharge point for any emergency drain. As these emergency drain are not connected with
coolers the ash drained through this drain will be having a temperature of 900 C [ ie the actual
bed operating temperature] the bed ash cooler is same as like of FBC system. The atmospheric
air has been tapped at the outlet of F. D. fan and fed through the air nozzles provided in the ash
cooler, where the air and bed ash will be mixed and get cooled. The cooled ash has to be
collected through the ash handling system and it can be conveyed to storage silo.The hot air from
the ash coolers have been connected through ducts to air heater flue gas outlet.In case of ash
cooler maintenance/failure,the ash can be removed manually through the bottom of ash drain
pipe gate arrangement.
Power cylinder operated shutoff dampers are provided at the air inlet of ash cooler. These
dampers can be operated from the DCS panel either manually or automatically. To accomplish
the above, individual pressure transmitters are provided in each air box compartments so that
whenever the air box pressure is getting increased due to the buildup of bed ash materials, an
alarm will be generated to indicate the operator to perform the task manually .The same can be
operated automatically considering the programs done in the DCS according to the logics
provided.
The sequence of cooling of bed ash should be such that ash in alternate compartment is
cooled repeatedly. The operation sequence is decided in such a way that only one compartment
can be operated at a time.



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Air inlet in the bed ash coolers is controlled by the power cylinders whose
operating time is decided and set in the DCS. The compartment damper (i.e. ash cooler
air inlet damper) will be opened only for a pre-set time.
When the time is elapsed the adjacent compartments damper will be opened. The
compartment not in operation shall not be considered in the sequence of operation.
The timing sequence (i.e. one cooler to other) can be 5 minutes (maximum) and it
should be decided during commissioning of the cooler.
4.
Steam Turbine
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Introduction : The steam turbine can be said to resemble a steam windmill. Pressurized
steam is accelerated through a nozzle and then directed (almost) tangentially onto blades
attached to a rotating wheel. Torque is generated by reaction forces as steam is redirected
by the blades. There must always be some axial velocity so the redirected flow of steam
can make way for the incoming flow. Axial-flow turbines have a rotor, which has number of
disc wheels (of gradually increasing diameters) shrunk on to a shaft, and sets of
circumferential rows of blades mounted on it. A conical casing encases the rotor and has
rows of fixed blades mounted on it. The casing blades remain stationary, and are also
known as stator Diaphragms or guide blades. Rotor blades are set in alternate rows with
the stator blades. Steam is admitted at one end of the turbine, and travels in the space
between rotor and casing through sets of fixed and moving blades to the exhaust where it
passes to a condenser. Steam flow is directed by nozzles or fixed blades onto the moving
blades, providing a turning moment. As steam passes through the turbine, its pressure
decreases and its specific
volume increases. The flow area
between rotor and casi ng
therefore needs to increase
progressively, and the blades
become longer. Clearances
between moving blade tips and
the casing, and between the fixed
blade tips and the rotor, are kept
small to reduce leakage through
the gaps, so as much steam as
possible impinges on the blades.
As a result, there is less friction
and vibration in a turbine.
Virtually all modern steam
turbines are axial-flow
To maxi mi ze t urbi ne
efficiency the steam is expanded,
generating work, in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the
energy is extracted from them and are known
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as either impulse or reaction turbines. Most steam turbines use a mixture of the reaction
and impulse designs: each stage behaves as either one or the other, but the overall
turbine uses both. Typically, higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower
pressure stages are reaction type
Impulse turbines
An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets.
These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like buckets,
convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop occurs
across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage.
As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from inlet pressure to the
exit pressure . Due to this higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam
leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large
portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy
due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving
loss".
Reaction turbines
In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form
convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the
steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the
rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire
circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed
relative to the speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the
rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor, with
no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and
temperature, reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.
Features of Steam Turbines
Impulse and Reaction Turbines
There are three principal types of axial-flow turbines: impulse turbines, reaction
turbines, and a combination of the impulse and reaction turbine contained in the same
casing.
The main difference between impulse and reaction turbines is in the action of the
steam and the manner in which the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy.
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Impulse Turbines :
In an impulse turbine, steam passes through stationary converging (subsonic) or
converging-diverging (super-sonic) nozzles, which reduce its pressure (and its
temperature) and increase its velocity, thus converting its "heat energy" (enthalpy) into
kinetic energy. These nozzles direct steam at high velocity onto curved blades which are
attached to the rotor.
Steam leaves the blades at an angle similar to that of its entry, but in the opposite direction
with respect to the axis of wheel rotation. The change in momentum due to deflection of
the steam produces a corresponding force on the blades, using the steam's kinetic energy
to drive the turbine shaft.
However, if the steam were allowed to expand from boiler pressure to condenser
(exhaust) pressure through just one set of nozzles, the excessively high velocity
developed could not be used efficiently without running the turbine at excessive speeds.
Hence only 1 Impulse stage is provided followed by reaction stages.
Reaction Turbines
Reaction turbines use the principle of the reaction force. The reaction principle
states that the force required to accelerate a body has an equal and opposite reaction In a
reaction turbine the fixed and moving blades are shaped such that the passages between
the blades act as nozzles.
Therefore there is a pressure drop across both the fixed and moving blades.
(Note: in impulse turbines there is no pressure drop across the blades
either fixed or moving). In reaction turbines, the fixed blades are identical in shape
to the moving blades,
As steam moves through the moving blades, it gives them an impulse. The velocity
increases in the converging (fixed) passages between the fixed blades, and the steam
imparts an impulse force to the fixed blades. Since the blades are fixed, there is an equal
and opposite reaction force imparted to the previous moving blades. Therefore there are
TWO forces on the moving blades - an impulse force (from the previous fixed blade) and a
reaction force (from the next fixed blade) - both of these forces driving the moving blades.
Although the total force driving the moving blades is a combination of an impulse
force and a reaction force, this design of turbine is always referred to as reaction turbines.
Therefore we have the pressure falling steadily throughout the fixed and moving blades.
The drop in pressure is equal across the fixed and moving blades. Unlike impulse stage
there is pressure drop in moving blades in reaction stages and therefore steam tends to
leak around the blade tips.
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4.1 Turbine Governing System
GOVERNING SYSTEM: OVERVIEW
Governing system is an important control system in the power plant as it regulates the
turbine speed, power and participates in the grid frequency regulation. For starting, loading
governing system is the main operator interface. Steady state and dynamic performance of the
power system depends on the power plant response capabilities in which governing system plays
a key role. With the development of electro- hydraulic governors, processing capabilities have
been enhanced but several adjustable parameters have been provided. A thorough
understanding of the governing process is necessary for such adjustment.
Need for governing system
The load on a turbine generating unit does not remain constant and can vary as per
consumer requirement. The mismatch between load and generation results in the speed (or
frequency) variation. When the load varies, the generation also has to vary to match it to keep the
speed constant. This job is done by the governing system. Speed which is an indicator of the
generation load mismatch is used to increase or decrease the generation.
Basic scheme
Governing system controls the steam flow to the turbine in response to the control signals
like speed error, power error. It is a closed loop control system in which control action goes on till
the power mismatch is reduced to zero. Inlet steam flow is controlled by the control valve or the
governor valve. It is a regulating valve. The stop valve shown in the figure ahead of control valve is
used for protection. It is either closed or open. In emergencies steam flow is stopped by closing
this valve by the protective devices.
The governing process can be functionally expressed in the form of signal flow
block diagram shown. The electronic part output is a current signal and is converted into a
hydraulic pressure or a piston position signal by the electro- hydraulic converter (EHC).
Control valves are finally operated by hydraulic control valve servo motors.
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The steam flow through the control valve is proportional to the valve opening in the
operating range. So when valve position changes, turbine steam flow changes and turbine power
output also changes proportionally. Thus governing system changes the turbine mechanical
power output.
In no load unsynchronized condition, all the power is used to accelerate the rotor only
(after meeting rotational losses) and hence the speed changes. The rate of speed change is
governed by the inertia of the entire rotor system. In the grid connected condition, only power
pumped into the system changes when governing system changes the valve opening. When the
turbine generator unit is being started, governing system controls the speed precisely by
regulating the steam flow. Once the unit is synchronized to the power system grid, same control
system is used to load the machine. As the connected system has very large inertia ('infinite bus'),
one machine cannot change the frequency of the grid. But it can participate in the power system
frequency regulation as part of a group of generators.
As shown in the block diagram, the valve opening changes either by changing the
reference setting or by the change in speed (or frequency). This is called primary regulation.
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC GOVERNING SYSTEM:-Basically the controls can be described as i)
speed control when the machine is not connected to the grid or in isolation and ii) load control
when the machine is connected to the grid.
The governing system has three functional parts: i) sensing part ii) processing part and iii)
amplification. These functions are realized using a set of electronic, hydraulic and mechanical
elements, in the electro-hydraulic governor (EHG), as shown in Fig.in next page.
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Earlier, only mechanical-hydraulic elements were employed in mechanical-hydraulic
governor (MHG). With the developments in electronics technology, the microprocessor- based
and digital signal processor (DSP) based governors are being used.
Sensing: to sense speed and power (or MW). The well known fly ball governor is a
mechanical speed sensor which converts speed signal in to a mechanical movement signal.
Nowadays electronic sensors using Hall Effect principle and/or hydraulic sensor (a special pump
whose output pressure varies with pump speed linearly) is used for speed measurement.
Processing: In digital governors the processing is done using software blocks.
Amplification is necessary to obtain sufficient power to operate the steam control valve
(where forces due to steam pressure also act)
Regulation or droop characteristic
Whenever there is a mismatch in power, speed changes, the governing system senses
this speed change and adjusts valve opening which in turn changes power output. This action
stops once the power mismatch is made zero. But the speed error remains. What should be the
change in power output for a change in speed is decided by the 'regulation'. If 4 % change in speed
causes 100 % change in power output, then the regulation is said to be 4 % (or in per unit 0.04).
The regulation can be expressed in the form of power frequency characteristic as shown
below. At 100 % load the generation is also 100 %, frequency (or speed) is also 100%. When load
reduces frequency increases, as generation remains the same. When load reduces by 50 %,
frequency increases by 2 %, in the characteristic shown. When load reduces by 100 %, frequency
increases by 4 %. In other words 4 % rise in frequency should reduce power generation by 100 %.
This 4 % is called 'droop' of 4 %. The characteristic is of 'drooping' type. Droop or regulation is an
important parameter in the frequency regulation. In thermal power plants droop value is generally
4 % or 5 %.
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In terms of control system steady state gain it is expressed as inverse of droop: gain of 25
in per unit corresponds to 4 % (or 0.04 p.u) droop.
In our unit woodward 505E is provided to control the hydraulic servo motor to operate the
CV and ESV
Glands are used on turbine to prevent or reduce the leakage of steam or air between
rotating and stationary components which have a pressure difference across them; this
particularly where the turbine shaft passes through the cylinder.
At the front side of the turbine gland the steam pressure is higher than the atmospheric
pressure so there will be steam leakage outward and at the rear side of the turbine glands the
steam pressure is below the atmospheric pressure so there will be a leakage of air inwards and it
effects condenser performance.
Labyrinth glands are used to prevent shaft leakage with with carbon rings and gland leak-
off. Labyrinth seal consists of series of thin strips fixed with the casing which maintains the
smallest possible clearance with the shaft, the small construction makes the steam throttled to
lower pressure many times, till only a very small quantity leaks.
Our 30MW turbine has got 2 sets of gland seals one at front side and second at rear side.
2
These glands are sealed by steam from PRDS-2 at a pressure of 1.15 kg/cm abs to 1.10
2
kg/cm abs and temperature between 230 to 250C.
4.2 Gland sealing system
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4.3 Air evacuation system
Air leaks into the condenser shell through flanges. Some air also comes along with steam,
which has leaked into the exhaust end of the turbine along the shaft.
As the air-water vapour mixture approaches the cold tube surface, water vapour
condenses and air being non-condensable gas forms an air film around the condensate.
This air film affects the condenser performance badly because i) it reduces the heat
transfer ii) it reduces condenser vacuum and turbine exhaust pressure thus reducing the turbine
output.
A Steam Jet Air Ejector (SJAE) is used to remove air from condenser shell. Auxiliary steam
from PRDS-2 is used as the motive steam for the ejector. The vacuum created at the nozzle throat
draws air from the shell along with some steam and the combined flow gets compressed while
flowing through the diffusor part. The escaping vapour is condensed in the inter condenser and the
remaining air is again drawn by the vacuum created at the nozzle throat of the second stage. The
mixture of motive steam and air is further compressed in diffuser. In the after condenser the vapour
is condensed and air, now at a pressure higher than atmosphere, is vented out. Cooling water
flowing through both inter condenser and after condenser is the condensate from the hotwell prior
to its flow through the LPH.
The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. In a thermal
power plant heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, of water as the working fluid. This cycle
generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world, including virtually all solar
thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants.
4.4 Rankine cycle
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T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Entropy
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
2
3
4
Heat rejected from working fluid
W
o
r
k

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
e
d

t
o

f
e
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
Heat transfered to the steam
W
o
r
k

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
e
d

f
r
o
m

s
t
e
a
m
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
11
12
13
14
15
CW I/O
When the all the following four processes are ideal the cycle called Rankine cycle.
a) For steam boiler , this would be reversible constant pressure heating process of water to form
steam .
b) For turbine the ideal process would be a reversible adiabatic expansion of steam.
c) For the condenser it would be reversible constant pressure heat rejection as the steam condenses
till it becomes saturated liquid.
d) For the pump the ideal process would be the reversible adiabatic compression of the liquid ending
at the initial pressure.
ECONOMISER,EVAPORATOR AND SUPER HEATER:
Heat transfer to water in the steam generator takes place in the three different regimes.
1. Water is first heated sensibly in the economiser in the liquid phase at a certain pressure till it
becomes saturated liquid.
2. Evaporator or Boiler : phase change or boiling with the state changing by absorbing the latent
heat of vaporization at that pressure.
3. Super heater : The saturated vapour is further heated at a constant pressure in vapour/gaseous
phase.
These states are identified by number in the above diagram.
Process 6-7: CEP; 9-10: BFP: Water is pumped from low to high pressure, at the expense of
little input energy (@2.2%).
Process 10-11-12: The high pressure water enters a boiler where it is heated at constant
pressure by coal combustion to become a dry saturated vapour and then to superheated steam
i.e 13-14-15-1.
Process 1-2-3-4-5: The superheated steam expands through a turbine, generating power. This
decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur.
Process 5-6: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant
pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. The pressure and temperature of the
condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling water and efficiency of heat transfer. Only
latent heat is to be removed.
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In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine
would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 6-7 and 9-10 would
be represented by vertical lines on the T-s diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot
cycle.
This is a general way of showing the power plant process and modifications due to Bleed
Steam for Regenerative Feed Water Heating. There would be a further modification in a
Reheat Cycle.
FEED WATER HEATERS
To improve the cycle efficiency regenerative feed water heaters are used in steam power
plants, to raise the feed water temperature before it enters to the economiser.
Feed water heaters are shell and tube heat exchanger. The heaters receive bled steam from
the turbine at pressure determined by equal temperature rise from the condenser to the boiler
saturation temperature.
Our 30MW unit have Two heaters i) Low pressure heater (LPH), ii) High pressure
heater(HPH)
LPH is located between the condensate pump and the deaerator and the HPH is located
between the BFP and Economiser.
When bled steam entering a feedwater heater is superheated, as in a HPH, the heater
includes a desuper heating zone where steam is cooled to its saturation temperature. It s followed by
a condensing zone where the steam is condensed to a saturated liquid rejecting the latent heat of
condensation. This liquid is called heater drain, is than cooled below its saturation temperature in a
sub cooling zone before the drain is cascaded backward.LPH drain to condenser flash box and HPH
drain to deaerator.
DEAERATOR
Deaerator is used to remove the
dissolved gases from feed water used in
generating steam and it is also is one of the
feedwater heater is a contact type open
heater. Why gases need to be removed
from boiler feedwater
The presence of oxygen, Carbon
dioxide in feed water makes the water
corrosive, as they react with the metal to
form iron oxide. Particularly at elevated
temperature the solubility of these gases in
water decreases wi th i ncrease i n
temperature and becomes zero at the
boiling or saturation temperature. So these
gases are needed to be removed from the system. This is achieved by embodying into the freed
system a deaerating unit.
4.5 Regenerative heating system
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Typically a feedwater inlet to deaerator should be operated at 85C to 90C. This leaves an
oxygen content of around 2 mg / litre (ppm).The addition of an oxygen scavenging chemical
(sodium sulphite, hydrazine) will remove the remaining oxygen and prevent corrosion.
This system reduces dissolved oxygen concentration to less than 0.005 cc/liter (7 ppb),
and completely eliminates the carbon dioxide concentration.
Our 30 MW unit Deaerator, pegged at 4.0 kg/cm(abs) is provided in turbine regenerative
cycle to provide properly deaerated feedwater for boiler, limiting gases (mainly oxygen) to
0.005cc/Litre. It is direct contact type heater with feed storage tank of 20 MT capacity.
The heating steam is normally supplied from turbine extraction but during starting and low
load operation the steam is supplied from main steam line through PRDS-1.
Deaerator comprises of two chambers: Deaerator column and feed storage tank.
Deaerating column: It is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of vertical construction
mounted on feed storage tank. The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time to
achieve efficient deaeration. The feedwater is admitted at the top of the deaerating column and
flows downwards through the spray valves and trays. Steam enters from the underneath of the
tray and flows in counter direction of the condensate. while flowing upwards through the trays,
scrubbing and heating is done, thus the liberated gas move upward along with the steam. Steam
gets condensed above the trays and liberated gases escape to atmosphere from the orifice.
Location of Deaerator:
A deaerator is placed at a height of about 13.5 mts above BFP suction to avoid flashing and
cavitation during a rapid load drop. During a load drop turbine bleed steam pressure in the heaters
and deaerator tends to drop.This causes flashing in the deaerator as the water is stored at boiling
point,corresponding to the pressure at full load. So to avoid the flashing in deaerator and cavitaion
to the feed pump, The suction pipe height gians static head as it descends must be greater than
the rate of pressure decay in the deaerator.
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4.6 Condenser :
The functions of condenser are:
a) To reduce turbine exhaust pressure so as to increase the specific output of the turbine.
b) To convert exhaust steam to water for reuse thus saving on feed water requirement.
c) Convenient point for introducing make up water and deaeration of make up water.
d) To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature for the steam. Thus saving on
steam required per unit of electricity.
Type of condenser: It is basically a heat exchanger and hence can be of two types.
i) Direct contact type: Condensation of steam takes place by directly mixing exhaust steam
and cooling water. Requirement of cooling water is much less but cooling water quality
should be equal to condensate quality.
ii) Surface contact type: Condensation of exhaust steam takes place on the outer surface
of the tubes which are cooled by water flowing inside them. It consists of a shell which
encloses the steam space. Tubes carrying cooling water pass through the steam space.
The tubes are supplied cooling water from inlet water box and discharged after taking
away heat from the steam.
Description of condenser for 30MW (SIEMENS) Turbine: The condenser has been
designed to create vacuum at exhaust of steam turbine at 14th and 15th stages and to provide
pure condensate for reusing as feed water for the boiler. The cooling water tubes of condenser has
been arranged to ensure efficient heat transfer from steam to cooling water passing through the
tubes, and at the same time the resistance to flow of steam reduced to the barest minimum.
If the circulating cooling water temperature in condenser is low, it creates low back
pressure (VACUUM) for the turbine. This pressure is equal to the corresponding steam
temperature ( ex. 0.074 bar at 40C) is a function of the cooing water temperature.It is also known
that the enthalpy drop or turbine work per unit pressure drop is much greater at the low pressure
end than at the high pressure end of a turbine.
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ACB(I)Ltd., 30MW COOLING TOWER
4.7 Cooling Tower
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How cooling tower works ?
Heat and Mass transfer
1 kg of water on evaporation removes approximately 530 kcals of heat
The heat given up by the water falling inside the tower equals the heat gained by
the air rising through the tower
The hot water entering the tower is distributed within the structure in a manner that
exposes a very large water surface to the air passing through.
Water distribution is accomplished by means of spray nozzles and distribution
pans or by means of various types of fill.
This fill increases the exposed water surface to maximize contact with the air,
increasing the rate of heat transfer.
Cooling Tower Types
Cooling towers fall into two main categories: Natural draft and Mechanical draft.
Mechanical draft towers are available in the following airflow arrangements:
1. Counter flows induced draft. 2. Counter flow forced draft.
3. Cross flow induced draft.
Water losses in cooling tower
Water losses include evaporation, drift (water entrained in discharge vapor), and
blow down (water released to discard solids).
Drift losses are @ 0.01 0.015% of circulation.
Evaporation Loss = 0.016 x water flow rate x (T1-T2)
Blow down Loss = Evaporation Loss (cycles-1)
where cycles is the ratio of solids in the circulating water to the solids in the make-up
water
Total Losses = Drift Losses + Evaporation Losses + Blow down Losses
/
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Cooling Tower Types
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Thermal Performance
The difference between the WBT and the tower leaving or cold water temperature (CWT)
is called the approach temperature or the approach.
Approach temperatures generally fall between 3C and 11C.
The difference between the tower leaving and hot water temperature (HWT) and the CWT
is called the range
Thermal performance of an evaporative tower is primarily dependent upon the entering
air, wet bulb temperature (WBT) and relative humidity (RH).
The entering WBT is an independent variable that dictates cooling tower selection.
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4.8 T. G. Vibration Measuring & Monitoring System
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T.G. Gear Box
Window to Power Station
Turbo-Generator Gear Box
Model : NF 34 19D
Serial No: 30-6215
Power 31800 KW
Input RPM 7064.5
Out put RPM 1500
Gear ratio 4.7097
Lubricating Oil ISO VG 46
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T.G. Gear Box
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Turbo-Generator Gear Box
Model : NF 34 19D
Serial No: 30-6215
Power 31800 KW
Input RPM 7064.5
Out put RPM 1500
Gear ratio 4.7097
Lubricating Oil ISO VG 46
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Principle of Operation of Synchronous Electrical machine.
The Synchronous Generator belongs to the family of
Rotating Electrical machine. The basic physical
process involved is the conversion of mechanical
energy in to Electrical Energy. Therefore, to understand
the principle of electrical machine. One has to
understand the basic law of physics governing the
operation of electric machine.
GENERATOR RATING
MAKE - TOYO DENKI
MACHINE NO. - 2K603164-01
TYPE - TC 210
OUTPUT POWER - 37500KVA
STANDARD - IS4722
NO. OF PHASE/POLE - 3PH/4 POLE
VOLTAGE - 11000 VOLT
RATED AMPERE - 1964 AMPS
FREQUENCY - 50Hz.
RMP - 1500 RPM
POWER FACTOR - 0.80
OVER SPEED - 1800 RPM FOR 2 MINUTES
COOLING - CACW
COOLER SYSTEM
HEAT LOAD - 255KW,
VOL OF AIR CIRCULATED-12M3/S
VOL OF WATER CIRCULATED-550LPM
EXCITATION - BRUSH LESS
INSULATION CLASS- STATOR, ROTOR EXCITER F
5.
Turbo Generator
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MAKE - TOYO DENKI
MACHINE NO. - 2K603164-01
TYPE - GZA 73
OUTPUT POWER - 181 KW
VOLTAGE - 337 VOLT
RATED AMPERE - 536 AMPS
FREQUENCY - 150Hz.
RMP - 1500 RPM
NO. OF PHASE/POLES 3PH / 12 POLES
EXCITATION VOLTAGE 80.5 V
EXCITATION CURRENT 18.6 A
EXCITATION SYSTEM SEPARATE EXCITATION FROM PMG
POWER FACTOR - 0.95 (LAG)
INSULATION CLASS - F
OVER SPEED 1800RPM FOR 2 MINUTES
Rotating Diode SKN 240/16
IF Avg 240 AMPS
Anode to stud - 6Nos.
Cathode to stud 6 Nos.
EXCITER
MAKE - STAMFORD
TYPE - BC 11644D2
SERIAL NO. - 05092731
OUTPUT - 15 KVA
VOLT - 220 V
RPM - 1500
PF - 0.80
RATING - CONTINEOUS
NO. OF PHASE - 3PH
FREQUENCY - 50Hz.
INS CLASS - H
EXCITATION SYSTEM
VOLT - 52V
CURRENT -2.20A
PMG
(PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR)
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Electromechanical Energy Conversion
Electromagnetic Power & Torque.
The prime mover is required to drive the generator. In steady state, the mechanical torque
should balance with the electromagnetic torque (due armature current as discussed in.. ) and the
mechanical loss torque due to friction and windage.
(Torque, also called moment of force is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an
axis.). The Power is the product of torque & syn.Speed. hence the Power required by the prime
mover should balance the electromagnetic power & the power losses.
According to the law of conservation of energy the net power should be equals to zero.
Means there is no losses but it can be converted in other form as below.
Input energy to Generator:
Mechanical energy by Turbine.
Electrical energy (Field Excitation) by AVR.
Out Put Energy are:
Electrical Energy
Electrical Losses- in Generator Iron loss, Winding Loss, etc.
Mechanical Loss- friction loss.
STATOR
The stator, also known as the armature, of a synchronous machine is made of thin laminations of
highly permeable steel in order to reduce the core losses. The stators (armatures) of synchronous
generators are wound with three phase winding. The three windings are exactly alike in shape but
o
are displaced from each other by exactly 120 electrical degrees.
SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
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ROTOR
Two types of rotors are used in
synchronous generators.
Cylindrical rotor.( 2 or 4-pole, high-
speed turbo-generator).
Salient-pole rotor.( low- and medium-
speed generators).
The rotor is rotated at the synchronous
speed by a prime mover such as a
steam turbine. The rotor winding carries dc current so as to produce constant flux per pole. The
filed winding usually receives power from a Exciter via rectifier. The Exciter is driven by the same
prime mover driving the synchronous generator .
Exciter
The exciter is an 3 phase 150 Hz generator with 12 poles. Normally Exciter is mounted on the
same shaft as the synchronous machine. The field winding of exciter is powered by AVR system.
AVR (AUTO VOLTAGE REGULATOR)
Automatic Voltage Regulator is a thyrister based device. AVR controls the terminal voltage of
generator by controlling the voltage & current of Exciter Field coil. The power supply to the AVR is
either from PMG or Transformer.
PMG (Permanent Magnet Generator)
The permanent magnet generator which is also mounted on the same shaft of synchronous
generator. It has a permanent magnet in its field winding. It helps to built the terminal voltage during
start-up condition. The function of PMG is to supply power to AVR.
Relation Ship between Electrical & Mechanical angle.
To understand the Electrical & Mechanical angle. Let us study the flux distribution in 2 & 4 pole syn.
Machine.
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The air gap flux density is sinusoidal. For Two pole machine, When the rotor rotates for one
revolution, the induce EMF varies for one cycle. As shown in fig-a. we found that electrical () &
mechanical (m) degree are same. =mtor rotates for one revolution m=2, the induce emf
varies for two cycle =4. As shown in fig-b. hence
In 4 Pole machine, when roE =2 M.
As per grid code the frequency of power supply is maintained at 50Hz (50 cycle per second).
To maintained the frequency at 50Hz. The angular speed should to maintained..
2 poles Machine- 3000 rpm.
4 Poles Machine 1500 rpm.
hence, the Rotor speed equals to the rotating magnetic field for a rated given frequency ie 50Hz. It
means the rotor & the rotating field are rotating at a same speed called Synchronous speed.
Syn. Machine - Two Main Working Fluxes are.
Rotating Field flux F (Due to Exciter).
Stator /Armature flux S (due to armature current).
Effective Air Gap Flux- R is the sum of the F+ S.
Case1:Rotor is at standstill condition:
The rotor magnetic field if energized will develop a flux but will not induce emf as there is
no movement. The resistance of rotor being low heavy current will flow and damage its
winding. Hence AVR should not be turned ON in standstill Condition.
Case 2: Rotor is rotated at syn.Speed (Rated speed) at no load.
Rotor is driven by prime mover at the rated speed(ie synchronous speed). Rotor magnetic
field is energized by AVR. AVR will try to increase the terminal voltage to the rated voltage
by increasing the field voltage required to setup the field current. The field current will
produce field flux- F, which is rotated at a syn. Speed.
This rotating field flux- F induced an emf in the armature winding (faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction). Now we consider that there is no load connected(OPEN CKT)
in the armature winding. No armature current flows means no armature reaction, armature
flux- S=0.
Prime mover(Turbine) will provide sufficient Torque/Power to maintain it syn. Speed
against the inertia & friction loss of machine. AVR will provide sufficient flux to maintain
Terminal Voltage as per set point.
Case 3:- Rotor spinning at Synchronous speed and Stator Loaded (balanced 3ph load).
This is similar to above but now the load current will generate a magnetic field to oppose
the rotor flux and will also create an electromagnetic force to retard the Rotor. AVR will
counter the flux reduction by boosting excitation and Turbine Governor will admit more
steam to maintain speed and equilibrium will be at a position of rotor slightly behind
(lagging) the no-load condition. This angular lag is called Load Angle and depends on the
load applied. If load increases this angle increases. It should be borne in mind that
Electrical Load angle for a 2 pole machine is the same as Mechanical Load angle while for
a 4 pole machine like ours electrical angle is 2 times the mechanical angle. AVR monitors
and limits load angle to @ 70 electrical.

65
The Generator Eequivalent Electrical Circuit
Window to Power Station
Armature Resistance (Ra) Voltage Drop
If Ra is the per-phase resistance of the armature winding, then IaRa is the voltage drop across it.
Armature (Xa) Leakage-Reactance Voltage Drop
The current in the armature winding produces a flux- S. A part of the flux, the so-called leakage
flux, links the armature winding only and gives rise to a leakage reactance Xa. The leakage
o
reactance causes a voltage drop , which leads by 90 .
Armature Reaction :
The flux produced by the armature winding reacts with the flux set up by the poles on the rotor,
causing the total flux to change. Such an interaction between the two fluxes is known as the
armature reaction
Armature Reactance voltage Drop
The flux R, in turn, induces an emf in the armature winding, called the armature reaction emf.
Magnetization Reactance(Xm)
Reactance due to the armature reaction is called Magnetization reactance. It is symbolized as Xm
Synchronous Reactance
The sum of armature leakage reactance & the magnetization reactance is called the
Synchronous reactance-Xs (Xs=Xa+Xm).
Synchronous Impedance : Zs=Xs+Ra.
Ea Terminal voltage at no-load condition.
Vt terminal voltage at load condition.
Vt= Ea + IaxZs.
In order to simplify the ideas as much as possible the resistance of the generator will be neglected; in
practice this assumption is usually reasonable. Figure 1 (a) shows the schematic diagram of a machine
connected to an infinite busbar along with the corresponding phasor diagram (b)

5.1 The operation of generator on infinite bus bar


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If losses are neglected the power output from the turbine is equal to the power output from
the generator. The angle between the E and V phasors is known as the load angle is dependent
on the power input from the turbine shaft. With an isolated machine supplying its own load the
latter dictates the power required and hence the load angle; when connected to an infinite-busbar
system, however, the load delivered by the machine is no longer directly dependent on the
connected load. By changing the turbine output and hence the generator can be made to take on
any load the operator desires, subject to economic and technical limits.
From the phasor diagram in figure 1 (b), the power delivered to the infinite
busbar = VI cosf per phase but,
This expression is of extreme importance as it governs to a large extent the operation of a
power system. The above equation shown in below plotted figure. The maximum power is
obtained at d = 90. If d becomes larger than 90 due to an attampt to obtain more than P max.
increase in d results in less power output and the machine becomes unstable and loses
synchronism. Loss of synchronism results in the interchange of current surges between the
generator and network as the poles of the machine pull into synchronism and then out again.
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5.2 Circuit breakers
A Circuit Breaker (CB) is a device used to open or close an electric power circuit either
during normal system operation or during abnormal fault conditions. During abnormal
conditions, when excessive current develops, a circuit breaker opens to protect equipment
and surroundings from possible damage. These abnormal currents are usually the result
of short circuits created by lightning, accidents, or failure of equipments.
CB is an advanced version of the switch we use for fan or light in our homes. It consists of
following Basic parts:-
1) Two contacts, ie Fixed contact and Moving contact.
2) Opening / Closing Mechanism.
3) Arc quenching medium.
The main objective of CB is to
1) Extinguish the arc between the contacts when CB opens.
2) To provide insulation between the contacts when open.
3) To provide near-zero resistance in closed condition.
During opening of CB arcing occurs followed by a complex process of ionization of
medium, plasma discharge, current zero, restriking arc etc. The important factor is to open
the contacts speedily and to cool the surroundings so as to de-ionize the medium. All this
happens within a fraction of a second @ 20 milliseconds!
CBs given below use various methods or medium to extinguish the arc.
1) Air / Air-Blast Circuit Breaker.
2) Increased the length of arc.
3) Oil circuit breaker.
4) Vacuum circuit breaker.
5) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breaker.
Vacuum & SF6 breakers are more popular and widely used in generating plant &
distribution system due to:
1) Compact in size. 2) High Reliability.
3) High durability. 4) Low Maintenance cost.

Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Vacuum as a medium offers highest insulating strength. It has far superior arc quenching
properties than any other medium. Low pressure is measured in Torr. (1torr=1mmHg).
Pressure below 10-5 torr is considered to be high vacuum.
-7 -5
Principle: When the contacts of the breaker are opened in vacuum (10 to 10 torr)
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Description Rating
Make Manufacturer Name Siemens
Type Type 3AH3116-2
Ur Rated voltage 12KV
Frequency Supply frequency 50Hz
Ir Continuous Rated Ampere 3150Amps
Isc Short circuit current rating 40KA
Isc time Maximum time CB with stand Isc
with-out damage 3 sec
DC Comp DC component in % of Isc 32%
Up 75KV
Ic Charging Current 25Amps
Rated operation
sequency 3mins CO-3min-CO
Vacuum Circuit Breaker Rating: (Generator Breaker)
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produced between the contacts by the ionization of metal vapours of contacts. The arc is quickly
extinguished because the metallic vapours, electrons, and ions produced during arc condense
quickly on the surfaces of the circuit breaker contacts due to high vacuum, resulting in quick
recovery of dielectric strength. As soon as the arc is produced in vacuum, it is quickly extinguished
due to the fast rate of recovery of dielectric strength in vacuum.
Construction: figure below shows the parts of a typical vacuum circuit breaker. It consists of fixed
contact, moving contact and arc shield mounted inside a vacuum chamber. The movable member
is connected to the control mechanism by stainless steel bellows .This enables the permanent
sealing of the vacuum chamber so as to eliminate the possibility of leak .A glass vessel or ceramic
vessel is used as the outer insulating body. The arc shield prevents the deterioration of the internal
dielectric strength by preventing metallic vapours falling on the inside surface of the outer
insulating cover.
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SF Circuit Breaker.
6
Why SF ?
6
Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF ) is an excellent gaseous dielectric for high voltage power
6
applications. It has been used extensively in high voltage Circuit breakers and other
switchgears employed by the power industry.The combined electrical, physical, chemical
and thermal properties offer many advantages. Some of the outstanding properties of SF
6
making it desirable to use in power applications are:
1) Physical Properties:
3
a) It is five times heaver than air. Density of SF is 6.1 kg/m . Molecular
6
wt-146.
b) Due to Large molecular size & mass reduces the propagation of free
lectrons
c) It is colorless, odorless & non toxic.
2) Chemical Properties:
a) SF has six atom of Fluorine and one atom of sulphur.
6
b) SF is stable at normal temperature.
6
3) High dielectric strength: Dielectric strength of SF is 2.5 times that of Air. By
6
increasing pressure at 3.5 bar its dielectric strength is that of fresh Insulating oil.
4) Unique arc-quenching ability: SF gas disassociates at about 1800C.consuming
6
heat which helps reduce the arc temperature. The fluorine being the most electro
negative element captures free electrons from arc and reduces current drastically.
5) Excellent thermal stability.
6) Good thermal conductivity.
Construction: Fig- shows the parts of a typical SF circuit breaker. It consists of fixed and
6
moving contacts enclosed in a chamber called arc interruption chamber containing SF
6
gas. This chamber is connected to SF gas reservoir. When the contacts of breaker are
6
opened the valve mechanism permits a high pressure SF gas from the reservoir to flow
6
towards the arc interruption chamber. The fixed contact is a hollow cylindrical current
carrying contact fitted with an arc horn. The moving contact is also a hollow cylinder with
rectangular holes in the sides to permit the SF gas to let out through these holes after
6
flowing along and across the arc. The tips of fixed contact, moving contact and arcing horn
are coated with copper-tungsten arc resistant material. Since SF gas is costly, its
6
reconditioned and reclaimed by a suitable auxiliary system after each operation of the
breaker. The annual leak rate of SF is less than 0.02%.
6
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Particulars Description Rating
Rated Voltage System voltage 132KV 145KV
Rated Lighting Up to 650KV, CB can withstand the lighting 650KV
Impulse withstand impulse voltage with out damaging it
Voltage Up
Ud Rated Power Frequency with stand voltage 275KV
Rated Frequency System frequency 50Hz
Rated Normal Continuous Current carrying capacity 3150 Amps
Current (In) of Breaker
Rated Short Circuit The maximum short-circuit current that can 40KAmps
Breaking Current Isc safely interrupt with out damaging the CB
Rated Short circuit The safe time duration that the CB can with 3 Sec.
Duration Tth stand short circuit current.
Rated out of phase 10KA
breaking current Id
First Pole to FPTCF refers to the re-striking voltage or 1.5
Clear Factor transient recovery voltage (TRV) across the
first pole to clear,
Than the voltage across the other two pole
which clear later. Since all 3 poles of CB may
not trip simultaneously.
FPTCF= TRV / Phase voltage after interruption.
Rated Line Charging Minimum charging 50Amp
Breaking Current It
Rated Operating ---- O- 0.3s-
CO-
Sequency 3min-CO
Rated Prs. Of SF6 ---- 6 bar
at 20C(Gauge)
132KV SF6 Circuit Breaker Specifications
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Working Principle:
1) Breaker in On position
The current path assembly is formed by the two terminal,the first fixed tube (5), the moving
contact (12) and the second fixed tube (11). The tube ends constructed as graphite are quenching
nozzles. The moving contact (12) comprises spring-loaded contact fingers that are attached to the
puffer cylinder (10) arranged in a ring. The puffer cylinder (14) contains an annular piston. The
moving contact (12), puffer cylinder (10) form the moving part of the breaker chamber.
2) Precompression
The Fixed piston (11) and puffer cylinder (10) are moved in opposite directions by the
operating rod and couplers. The moving part is driven by an operating rod to the effect that the SF6
pressure between the piston and the puffer cylinder increases. The moving contact moves with the
puffer cylinder towards the open position.
3) Quenching
When the contacts separate, the moving contact tube which acts as a shut-of valve, releases the
SF6. An arc is drawn between one nozzle and the contact tube. It is driven - in a matter of
milliseconds - between the nozzles by the gas jet and its own electrodynamic forces. The puffer
cylinder encloses the arc-quenching arrangement like a pressure chamber. The compressed SF6
flows axially through the nozzle. The high pressure flow of SF6 rapidly absorbs the free electrons in
the arc path to form immobile negative ions which are ineffective as charge a carriers. The result is
that the medium between the contacts quickly builds up high dielectric strength and causes the
extinction of the arc
4) Breaker in Off position
After arc extinction the moving contact tube moves into the open position.
Because of this, the gap between
the fixed and moving contacts when the breaker is open need only be a tiny amount
A circuit breaker in which a pair of contacts is hermetically sealed in a vacuum envelope;
the contacts are separated by using a bellows to move one of them; an arc is produced by metallic
vapor boiled from the electrodes, and is extinguished when the vapor particles condense on solid
surfaces.
The contacts are located in a part termed the interrupter. When the contacts are parted,
opening the metallic conductive circuit, an electric arc is created between the contacts. This arc is a
high-temperature ionized gas with an electrical conductivity comparable to graphite. Thus the
current continues to flow through the arc. The function of the interrupter is to extinguish the arc,
completing circuit-breaking action.
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5.3 TRANSFORMER
The transformer is a static device that
transfers electrical energy from one circuit
to another by electromagnetic induction
without the change in frequency.
The transformer is an electromagnetic
conversion device in which electrical energy
received by primary winding is first converted
into magnetic energy which is reconverted back
into an electrical energy in other circuit.
The primary & secondary winding are not connected electrically, but coupled magnetically.
Fundamentals of Transformer.
Transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic Induction.
The transformer is based on two
principles:
Firstly An AC in Primary Coil produces
a alternating magnetic flux in the Core.
Secondly This changing flux induces
an EMF across the ends of the
S e c o n d a r y . I m p r e s s e d
voltage(Primary) & Induced EMF
(Secondary) are in the ratio of turns of
the two windings. Thus a X'mer can be
Step-Up or Step-Down.
An Analogy of Transformer
The transformer may be considered as a simple two-
wheel 'gearbox' for electrical voltage and current. The
primary winding is analogous to the input shaft and the
secondary winding to the output shaft. In this
comparison, current is equivalent to shaft speed, voltage
to shaft torque.
In a gearbox, mechanical power (speed multiplied by
torque) is constant (neglecting losses) and is equivalent to electrical power (voltage multiplied
by current) which is also constant.
The gear ratio is equivalent to the transformer step-up or step-down ratio.
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Transformer Theory
NO LOAD CONDITION
Vp - Applied alternating sinusoidal voltage at
the primary side.
Ip Current Ip will flow which is also a sine
wave.
Ip produces a Flux in the core. Flux is in
time phase with Ip. i.e. when Ip=0, =0
similarly when Ip=Max, =Max.
Flux is also sinusoidal wave.
Flux develop a induced EMF across the
primary winding.
That is why high inrush current flows
momentarily at the time of charging of
transformer and drop to normal value due to back emf by the law of
electromagnetic induction.
Sinusoidal (alternating) flux link the secondary coil. Induced an EMF in the
secondary coil Vs.
In No-Load condition primary current only maintain the magnetization in the core &
losses.
LOADED CONDITION
When Load is connected across the
secondary of transformer.
Load current flows, develop a flux s
which tries to oppose the flux develop by
the primary current.
Now Primary current will develop the
magnetizing & Load Current flux.
Magnet i zi ng f l ux mai ntai ned t he
secondary voltage.
Leakage Flux
The magnetic flux which interlinks only
with the primary winding, and does not
interlink with the secondary winding. And
the same for the secondary winding.
Leakage Flux causes a leakage inductance.
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Construction of Transformer
IRON & STEEL CORE.
Core is manufactured from lamination of
CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented silicon
steel, Which gives very low specific loss at
operating flux density.
Core joints of the laminations are designed
such that the electromagnetic flux is always
in the direction of grain orientation.
The composition of a transformer core
depends on such factors as voltage, current,
and frequency.
Commonly used core materials are Air, Soft
iron, and Steel.
Air-core transformers are used when the
voltage source has a high frequency (above
20 kHz).
Iron-core transformers are usually used
when the source frequency is low (below 20
kHz).
A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful
better power transfer than does the air-core
transformer.
A transformer whose core is constructed of
laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat
readily; thus it provides for the efficient
transfer of power. These steel laminations
(see figure 5-2) are insulated with a non-
conducting material, such as varnish, and
then formed into a core.
The purpose of the laminations is to reduce
the losses.
An important point to remember is that the
most efficient transformer core is one that
offers the best path for the most lines of flux
with the least loss in magnetic and electrical
energy.
Core material for Power Transformer are
available in various grades (generally called M3, M4, M5 & M6).
Window to Power Station
79
Construction of Transformer
IRON & STEEL CORE.
Core is manufactured from lamination of
CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented silicon
steel, Which gives very low specific loss at
operating flux density.
Core joints of the laminations are designed
such that the electromagnetic flux is always
in the direction of grain orientation.
The composition of a transformer core
depends on such factors as voltage, current,
and frequency.
Commonly used core materials are Air, Soft
iron, and Steel.
Air-core transformers are used when the
voltage source has a high frequency (above
20 kHz).
Iron-core transformers are usually used
when the source frequency is low (below 20
kHz).
A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful
better power transfer than does the air-core
transformer.
A transformer whose core is constructed of
laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat
readily; thus it provides for the efficient
transfer of power. These steel laminations
(see figure 5-2) are insulated with a non-
conducting material, such as varnish, and
then formed into a core.
The purpose of the laminations is to reduce
the losses.
An important point to remember is that the
most efficient transformer core is one that
offers the best path for the most lines of flux
with the least loss in magnetic and electrical
energy.
Core material for Power Transformer are
available in various grades (generally called M3, M4, M5 & M6).
Window to Power Station
80
Construction of Transformer
WINDING CONDUCTOR.
Copper Winding Strips Single and double cotton covered
Round / Rectangular conductor as per IS 7391.
Double / Triple and Multiple paper covered Round /
Rectangular Conductor as per IS 7404.
Varnish bonded Double glass fibre (yarn) covered braided.
As per IS 6181 & IS 4685.
Nomex covered Round / Rectangular conductor.
These conductors are required by the manufacturers of
transformers, HT Motors, Alternators, Electromagnets, Welding Machine, etc.
General Properties are Material with minimum copper content of 99.9% as per IS 191
INSULATION / DIELECTRIC MATERIALS.
Insulating material used in transformer are in the form of Tape
or Sheet.
Insulating Tapes
to provide mechanical holding power.
to provide insulation between layers of wire in wrapped coils.
Various levels of thickness, tensile strength, dielectric
strength and temperature class are depend on the Insulation
Class ie B,F,H& N.
Insulation Sheet.
To provide insulation in between the winding layers.
To provide insulation between winding wire & core.
TYPES OF INSULATING MATERIALS.
Insulating materials are classified depending on their
Electrical, Thermal & Mechanical properties.
Various types of insulating materials are Epoxy, Fiber Glass ,
Mica, PVC, Ceramic, Kapton
etc.
Window to Power Station
81
Construction of Transformer
TRANSFORMER OIL. :Transformer oil serves two purposes.
Cooling medium and Insulation.
Insulating oils are manufactured by fractional distillation of crudes. They can be from
Naphthenic or Paraffinic base. Paraffinic oils are not suitable for low temperatures due
to wax content. Refining is required to remove unwanted ingredients. Synthetic oils are
superior in life and quality. Additives are used to improve performance. These are anti-
oxidants and water repellents for most part.
Window to Power Station
82
Construction of Transformer
Conservator
COOLING SYSTEM:- Cooling units are classified as ONAN/ONAF- Oil flows through the
winding and external
cooler unit attached to
the tank by thermo-
syphon effect.
Thermo-syphon refers to
a method of passive heat
exchange based on
natural convection which
circulates liquid without
t he necessi t y of a
mechanical pump.
Convective movement of
the liquid starts when
liquid in the loop is
heated, causing it to
expand and become less dense than the cooler liquid in the bottom of the loop.
Convection moves heated liquid upwards in the system as it is simultaneously replaced by
cooler liquid returning by gravity. A good thermo-syphon should have very little hydraulic
resistance.
Conservator is provided to take care of the
expansion and contraction of transformer oil during
normal operation.
Modern conservator have air cell (Flexible
Separator) is fitted inside a conservator tank,
isolating insulating oil from the atmosphere, and thus
preventing contamination of gas and/or moisture
from coming into contact with the transformer oil.
The Air Cells are manufactured using time tested
combination of Nylon (Polyamide) fabric and thick
coating of Elastomers i.e. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Polychloroprene (CR)
and Hypalon (CSM). The rubber compounds are so formulated, so as to minimize
separator degradation and resist leakage of air through membranes.
Air
cell
Breather
pipe
Ho
ok
Air
cell
Buchholz
relay
connection
pipe
Oil Gauge
Air
cell
Breather
pipe
Ho
ok
Air
cell
Buchholz
relay
connection
pipe
Oil Gauge
Window to Power Station
83
Construction of Transformer
BUCHHOLZ RELAY
Buchholz relay is a gas- actuated relay installed in oil-
immersed transformers for protection against all kind of
internal faults. It is installed in the pipe between the
conservator and main tank at an angle of 60.
This relay is used in oil-immersed transformers of rating
above 750 kVA.
Heat due to the fault causes decomposition of some
transformer oil in the main tank.
The products of decomposition mainly contain
70 % of hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas being light tries
to go into the conservator and in the process gets trapped
in the upper part of the relay chamber. When a
predetermined amount of gas gets accumulated in
buchholz relay operates.

SILICA GEL BREATHER:- Expansion and contraction of oil causes breathing action in the
conservator tank. It breath through silicagel breather. Silicagel absorbes any moisture present
in the air breathed in. It acts as a dehydrating agent. Breather container is filled with silica gel
crystal. It appears in blue in color due to cobalt chloride as color indicator.
When saturated with moisture, the color fades. Then it needs to be replaced.
Cobalt chloride is carcinogenic & harmful to human being, so it is advisable to use orange silica
gel with organic indicator.
Modern Transformers use a balloon or air-cell for breathing and silica-gel breather will be
obsolete.
Window to Power Station
84
Construction of Transformer
TAP CHANGER
A tap changer is a device fitted to power transformer for
regulation of the output volltage to required levels. This is
normally achieved by changing the turns ratio of the
transformer.
Tap changers of power transformer are of two type
OLTC (OnLoad Tap Changer)
OCTC (Off Load Tap Changer)
On-load tap changer generally consist of a diverter switch
and a selector switch operating as a unit to transfer current
from one voltage tap to the next with out breaking the load
current.
OLTC posses fundamental features to divert the load
current while switching is being carried out. Ie Resistive or
Reactive
High speed resistor switching is mostly used by tap
changer.
The tapped portion of the winding may be located
At the line end of the winding
In the middle of the winding
The resistive Tap changing mechanism is shown below
Window to Power Station
85
Window to Power Station
VOLTAGE SURGE
The high voltage surge may be due lightning, switching operation & arching ground.
The wave have high amplitude & high frequency.
Transformer winding is designed to withstand the voltage surges.
For 145 KV system - impulse voltag 550 KV for Un Earthed system
impulse voltage 650 KV for Earthed system
Internal Faults
Faults located with in the transformer. Faults may be
Phase to earth fault or phase to phase fault or inter turn faults.
Fault in Tap changer
Over Current
Depends upon the fault MVA or % impedance.
Generally designed for 120% of full load.
Over Heating
Due to continuous over load operation.
Protection is based on the measurement of temperature of oil and winding.
Temperature range is depend upon the class of insulation i.e.
B-130, F-155, H-180.
Un-restricted Earth Faults
Restricted Earth Faults
Differential Protection
Over/Under Voltage Protection
Over Fluxing
Buchholze Protection.
86
37.5 MVA TRANSFORMER RATING
MAKE AREVA
TYPE OF COOLING ONAN ONAF
RATED MVA 30 37.5
RATED KV HV/LV 132/11
RATED AMP HV 134.4 164.2
LV 1576.4 1970.6
Impedance nor. tap 10.28 12.85
Vector group Ynyno
Insulation level HV L1 AC 275KV
HVN L1 95 AC 38KV
LV/LVN L1 75 AC 28KV
TRANSFORMER OIL IS 335
QUANTITY 23000LTRS.
7.5 MVA TRANSFORMER RATING
MAKE - AREVA
TYPE OF COOLING - ONAN
RATED MVA 7.5
RATED KV HV/LV 33/11
RATED AMP HV 131.2
LV 393.6
Impedance nor. tap 8.68
Vector group Ynyno
Insulation level HV/HVN L1 170 AC 70KV
LV/LVN L1 75 AC 28KV
TRANSFORMER OIL IS 335
Window to Power Station
87
Construction
5.4 Motors
Principle of operation
A Induction motor is a singly excited
A.C Machine.
Stator winding is powered by an A.C.
source.
Rotor winding receives energy from
stator by the principle of electro-
magnetic Induction. (ie transformer
action)
The rotor current generates a torque to
oppose the rotating field of stator and in the
process causes rotation. It would reach
synchronous speed if there was no friction
nor any load on the motor. Due to load and
friction it rotates with a Slip !.
Motor Protection
Over Current.
Thermal Protection
Single Phasing Or Unbalance
Short Circuit
Stalling Protection (locked Rotor Protection) 50s
Earth Fault Protection 50g
Differential
Undervolatge
Negative Phase Sequence
Window to Power Station
88
Window to Power Station
5.5 VFD Fundamentals
Variable Frequency Drive Fundamentals
AC Motor Speed - The speed of an AC induction motor depends upon two factors:
1) The number of motor poles
2) The frequency of the applied power.

AC Motor Speed Formula: RPM = (120 x Frequency) / Number of Poles
Example: For example, the speed of a 4-Pole Motor operating
at 50 Hz would be:
120 x 50 / 4 = 6000 / 4 = 1500 RPM
Inverter Drives - An inverter is an electronic power unit for generating AC power. By using an
inverter-type AC drive, the speed of a conventional AC motor* can be varied through a wide speed
range from zero through the base (50 Hz) speed and above (often to 90 or 120 hertz).
Voltage and Frequency Relationship - When the frequency applied to an induction motor is
reduced, the applied voltage must also be reduced to limit the current drawn by the motor at
reduced frequencies. (The inductive reactance of an AC magnetic circuit is directly proportional to
the frequency according to the formula XL = 2 P f L. Where: P= 3.14, f = frequency in hertz, and L=
inductive reactance in Henrys.)
Variable speed AC drives will maintain a constant volts/hertz relationship from 0 - 50 Hertz. For a
415 motor this ratio is 8.3 volts/Hz. To calculate this ratio divide the motor voltage by 50 Hz. At low
frequencies the voltage will be low, as the frequency increases the voltage will increase. (Note: this
ratio may be varied somewhat to alter the motor performance characteristics such a providing a
low-end boost to improve starting torque.)
Depending on the type of AC Drive, the
microprocessor control adjusts the output
voltage waveform, by one Of several methods,
to simultaneously change the voltage and
frequency to maintain the constant volts/hertz
Ratio throughout the 0 - 50 Hz range. On most
AC variable speed drives the voltage is held
constant above the 50 hertz frequency. The
diagram below illustrates this voltage/frequency
relationship.
VFD Speed Torque Characteristics
Blue = Horsepower
Red = Torque
Green = Motor Nameplate Frequency (50 Hz)
In Constant Torque Area - VFD supplies rated motor nameplate voltage and motor develops full
horsepower at 50 hertz base frequency.
89
DC Link Positive Terminal C
1
Size of pictured module :
4.25" wide x 2.5" deep x 1.5" high
DC Link Negative Terminal E
2
Module Schematic Diagram
Base-Emitter Singal Input Pins
Phase Output Terminals E C
1 2
Module Mounting Holes
Heat Sink on Module Back-Plane
VFD Output Section Schematic
DC Link Positive
Free-Wheeling Diodes(6)
Protect IGBT's from reverse bias
inductive surges due to motor field
decay which results when the transistors
turn off.
One Output Module
Three-Phase Motor
DC Link Negative
Voltage PulsesResultant Current
PWM Waveform Phase A to B
Window to Power Station
In Constant Horsepower Area - VFD delivers motor nameplate rated voltage from 50 Hertz to 120
hertz (or drive maximum). Motor horse power is constant in this range but motor torque is reduced
as frequency increases.
*Inverter Duty Motors - Initially standard AC motors were employed on inverter drives. Most
motor manufacturers now offer Inverter Duty Motors which provide improved performance and
reliability when used in Variable Frequency Applications. These special motors have insulation
designed to withstand the steep-wave-front voltage impressed by the VFD waveform, and are
redesigned to run smoother and cooler on inverter power supplies.
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Output Module
Shown below is a typical Medium Voltage VFD transistorized output module. One of these
modules is used for each phase in a three-phase drive. Modules are a complete functional block
that may include: multi-stage amplifiers, resistors, capacitors and free-wheeling diodes.
Transistors are switched on and off by logic level base-to-emitter signal (or gate signal in the case
of IGBT's) from the VFD microprocessor control. The length of time the transistors are turned on
(duty cycle) determines the pulse width.
90
DC Link Positive DC Link Positive
DC Link Positive
DC Link
Negative DC Link
Negative
DC Link
Negative
B
A
C
B
A
C
B
A C
Three-Phase Motor
0-60 Deg
VAB = O
VBC = +E
VCA = -E
60-120 Deg
VAB =+E
VBC = O
VCA = -E
Three-Phase Motor
60-120 Deg
VAB =+E
VBC = -E
VCA = 0
Three-Phase Motor
Window to Power Station
The black arrows on the emitter of each transistor indicate the direction of conventional current
through the transistors. This is a three-phase drive, so at certain times during the cycle
transistors will be turned on to cause current flow through the A - C and B - C motor windings
(see next page) but for clarity this is not shown in the above illustration. For this analysis also
assume that the free-wheeling diodes are non-conducting.
Transistors 1A and 2B are turned on and off by the microprocessor control and current flows from
the DC bus positive, through the motor windings as shown by the red arrows producing the positive
(red ) voltage pulse, and back to the DC bus negative. To generate the next half-cycle transistors
1B and 2A will be turned on and off and the current flow will reverse through the motor winding as
shown by the green arrows which result in the negative (green) pulse.
The following illustrations show the switching sequence of the output transistors, SCR's, or GTO's
used in a VFD to produce a three-phase AC waveform. Since each these devices are functioning
as solid-state switches, the circuit operation can be easily visualized by representing these devices
as open or closed mechanical switches.
Switches closed to the positive bus are shown in red, switches closed to the negative bus are
shown in black, and open switches are shown in gray. When a particular winding is connected to
the same bus potential (either positive or negative) the voltage across that winding will be zero. If a
winding is connected so that the positive voltage is connected to the first letter of the winding label
(for example the A in AB) the voltage produced across that winding is positive. If a winding is
connected so that the positive voltage is connected to the second letter of the winding label (for
example B in AB) the current flow reverses and the voltage produced across that winding will be of
a negative polarity.
Below each diagram is a table listing of the number of electrical degrees through which the
switches operate and the resultant phase voltage produced. Note: On a six-step drive the output
devices will be closed throughout the listed operating range; on a PWM drive, pulses will be
91
DC Link Positive DC Link Positive DC Link Positive
DC Link Negative DC Link Negative DC Link Negative
B
A C
B
A C
B
A C
Three-Phase Motor
180 - 240 Deg
VAB = O
VBC = -E
VCA = +E
240-300 Deg
VAB =-E
VBC = O
VCA = +E
Three-Phase Motor
300 - 360 Deg
VAB =-E
VBC = +E
VCA = 0
Three-Phase Motor
VAB
VBC
VCA
0
o
60
o
120
o
180
o
240
o
300
o
360
o
60
o
120
o
PWM Sine Wave Synthesis
Low Frequency High Frequency
Smaller pulse widths produce
lower resultant voltage.
Pulse Width
Larger pulse widths produce
higher resultant voltage.
Pulse Width
One Cycle One Cycle
DC Link Voltage
Resultant Sine Wave Current
Window to Power Station
Waveform Development
The development of a variable frequency drive three-phase waveform is shown below. Refer to the
previous page to see the switching sequences that produce a particular portion of the waveform.
92
Window to Power Station
PWM Drive Characteristics
!
VFD drive DC link voltage is constant .
!
Pulse amplitude is constant over entire frequency range and equal to the DC link
voltage.
!
Lower resultant voltage is created by more and narrower pulses.
!
Higher resultant voltage is created by fewer and wider pulses.
!
Alternating current (AC) output is created by reversing the polarity of the voltage
pulses.
!
Even though the voltage consists of a series of square-wave pulses, the motor
current will very closely approximate a sine wave. The inductance of the motor acts to
filter the pulses into a smooth AC current waveform.
!
Voltage and frequency ratio remains constant from 0 - 50 Hertz. For a 415V motor
this ratio is 8.3 volts/Hz. To calculate this ratio divide the motor voltage by 50 Hz. At low
frequencies the voltage will be low, as the frequency increases the voltage will increase.
(Note: this ratio may be varied somewhat to alter the motor performance characteristics
such as providing a low-end boost to improve starting torque.)
!
For frequencies above 50 Hz the voltage remains constant. Some AC drives switch
from a PWM waveform to a six-step waveform for 60 Hz and above.
93
5.6 UPS
UNINTERRUPTED POWER SYPPLY THE UPS
H A S A B AT T E RY B A N K WH I C H
AUTOMATICALLY PROVIDE CONTINUITY OF
ELECTRICAL POWER EVEN IN CASE OF
FAILURE OF MAINS SUPPLY FOR LIMITED
TIME.
SYSTEM RATING - 2X35KVA
SYSTEM SR.NO. - U06861/62
BATTERY - VRLA
ARCHITECTURE
SOURCE-1
SOURCE-2
SOURCE-3
Transfor
Transformer
Controlled
Rectifier
Buck-
Boost
Buck-
Boost
converter
Inverter
Static
Static
LOAD
1
PHAS
E
220V,
50Hz.
COMMON BATTER
BANK

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Transformer
SOURCE-1
SOURCE-2
SOURCE-3
Transformer
Transformer
Controlled
Rectifier
-
converter
-
Inverter
Static
Switch
Static
Switch
Switch
LOAD
1-PHASE
220V,
50Hz.
COMMON BATTERY
BANK

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Transformer
PARALLEL REDUNDANT SYSTEM
Window to Power Station
94
Window to Power Station
UPS can deliver single phase or 3 phase
supply as per requirements.
UPS CONFIGURATION
STANDALONE SYSTEM
Normal Mode Operation
In normal mode of operation, load is connected to mains power supply through dc
converter. Inverter continuously supplies stable AC power to the load.
The rectifier cum battery charger converts input AC to DC.
The DC in turn is used for the inverter input as well as for charging the batteries.
Inbuilt Constant Voltage charge control circuit maintains the battery at fully charged.
Battery Mode Operation
When the AC Input voltage drops below the specified limits or in case of power failure
or in case of rectifier malfunction.
The inverter will continue to supply constant output voltage to the load.
Utilizing the battery power as a source.
Static Bypass Operation
In case of failure of an inverter
Output power is maintained by the static Bypass circuit
The transfer from inverter to bypass takes place without any interruption.
The retransfer operation from Bypass to the inverter is possible only in the
synchronized condition.
Manual Bypass operation
This feature affords maintenance of UPS system by transferring the load to bypass
mode manually.
UPS can deliver single phase or 3 -phase
supply as per requirements.
HOT STANDBY SYSTEM
Two UPS are connected in Hot Standby configuration. Load is connected to UPS1.
Output of UPS2 is connected to standby source to UPS1.
UPS1 & UPS2 are backed either by common battery bank or separate battery bank.
In case of failure of UPS1, Load gets transferred to UPS2 automatically via a Static
switch.
In case of failure of UPS2 load gets transferred to Bypass source.
After rectification of fault, Load is automatically retransferred to healthy UPS.
95
Window to Power Station
L
O
A
D
BATTERY
BANK
AC TO DC
RECTIFIER
LC FILTER
DC TO AC
INVERTER
DC TO DC
BUCK-BOOST
CONVERTER
CAPACITOR
1
O/P
L
O
A
D
BATTERY
BANK
AC TO DC
RECTIFIER
LC FILTER
DC TO AC
INVERTER
DC TO DC
BUCK-BOOST
CONVERTER
CAPACITOR
1-f
O/P
3-f
I/P
PARALLEL REDUNDANT SYSTEM
In this system two UPS are connected in Parallel redundant configuration. The output
of two systems are common.
In case of failure of one UPS, the entire load is transferred to the other one. Thus both
the UPS should be able to provide 100% load individually.
In case of failure of both the system(main-fail & battery-low) the load is automatically
transferred to bypass source via static switch without any interruption.
On rectification of fault or mains resumption, the load is retransferred.
Both UPS are backed by either separate or common battery bank.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
96
COMPONENTS OF UPS
RECTIFIER
BUCK BOOST CHARGER / CHOPPER.
INVERTER
AUTOMATIC STATIC BYPASS TRANSFER CIRCUIT.
VRLA Battery
Window to Power Station
AC TO DC RECTIFIER
DC
VOLTAGE
RIPPLE
VOLTAGE
AVG.
VOLTAGE
SC
R
SC
R
DIO
DE
DIO
DE
GATE
SC
R
DIO
DE
GAT
E
GATE
LC CIRCUIT
RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVE FORM RECTIFIER 3 fINPUT VOLTAGE WAVE FORM
SCR (SILICON CONTROL
RECTIFIER)
GAT
E
AC TO DC RECTIFIER
DC
VOLTAGE
RIPPLE
VOLTAGE
AVG.
VOLTAGE
SCR
DIODE
GATE GATE
LC CIRCUIT
RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVE FORM
SCR (SILICON CONTROL
RECTIFIER)
GAT
E
GATE
SCR SCR
DIODE DIODE
97
Window to Power Station
AC TO DC RECTIFIER
It works on the principle of 3 Phase full wave half controlled SCR diode bridge.
The charger is based on the principle of the controlling the conduction angle of SCR.
The SCR (Silicon controlled rectifier is a three terminal device i.e. anode , cathode &
gate. The scr will not conduct even if it is forward biased until sufficient gate to cathode
voltage applied.
The Gate to cathode voltage is applied in the form of pulse, which is generated from
external pulse generating Circuit.
The SCR will start conduction at the instant gate pulse is applied.
By varying the occurrence of the pulse with respect to time axis can vary the instant at
which pulse is generated.
During Positive half cycle of AC supply, anode of SCR will be +ve than cathode, SCR
will be forward biased.
During Negative half cycle of AC supply, anode of SCR will be ve than cathode, SCR
will be reverse biased.
Gate pulse have to be applied in the + ve half cycle only.
The SCR will start conduction at the instant of pulse occurrence & remain ON till the
ve half cycle starts & latching current remain sufficient for SCR.
The rectifier output voltage is depends on the conduction of SCR in the +ve half cycle.
If SCR conduct for whole cycle, than 100% output voltage is available.
If SCR conduct for half a cycle than 50% output voltage is available.
The rectifier output voltage can be controlled by varying the conduction of SCR in the
+ve half cycle.
The latching current should be sufficient to keep ON the SCR after triggering the SCR
otherwise SCR will go OFF.
Latching current is maintained by Bleeder resistance connected in parallel with bridge,
to provide latching current to the SCR in case of NO load & to discharge the capacitor
when charger is switched OFF.
Diode & SCR are protected from the surge current by snubber circuit & Fuses. The
rectifier DC voltage is filtered with LC filter to limit the ripple content to 3%.
98
Window to Power Station
DC TO DC (BUCK BOOSTER) CONVERTER
A BUCK (Step Down) Converter followed by a
BOOST (Step Up) Converter
the DC-DC converter uses a combination of buck-
booster converter & Boost converter mode to charge
a battery.
the constant current constant voltage (CCCV)
algorithm is used to charge the battery.
The switching action is down by semiconductor
switch IGBT(Insulated gate bipolar semiconductor).
This switching ON & OFF is called DC Chopping.
The switching action of IGBT is controlled by two
PWM signals
from microcontroller.
The converter can be Buck or Boost by selecting different
combination of switch SW1 and SW2 driving by PWM (pulse
width modulation.
MODES OF WORKING
FLOAT CHARGING Constant Voltage Charging
topology
BOOST CHARGING Constant Current Charging
topology.
Important guide lines to manage the PWM signals
driving the two switches
The frequency of both the PWM signals should be
same
The duty cycle of PWM1 signal must be greater than
PWM2 signal.
PWM1 signal should be enable before PWM2
signal.
PWM1 should be disable after PWM2 signal.
99
INVERTER (single pahse)
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Inverter converts Direct Current (DC) to an Alternating
Current AC.
DC to AC conversion take place by sequential switching
operation of four switches ie K1,K'1,K2 & K'2
K1,K'1,K2 & K'2 switches are IGBT.
with K1 & K'2 switch ON current flows in one direction.
with K'1, & K2switch ON current flows in reverse
direction.
Direction of current changes (alternate) with the
switching operation.
The On & Off time determines the magnitude of output
voltage.
What is IGBT?
The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a semiconductor switching device that controls
electric energy.
IGBT has a High efficiency and fast switching device.
Type of Modulation
PWM (Pulse width Modulation)-
Constant Frequency operation.
The On time is varied by changing the width of pulse.
Frequency Modulation
Frequency vary
Window to Power Station
100
Automatic Static bypass switch
Static bypass switch consists of one inverse parallel connected pair of SCR per phase. Each pair is
capable of delivering full rated load current.
STATIC BYPASS operation is based on SCR Modes of
operation
In the normal "off" state, the device restricts current to the
leakage current.
When the gate-to-cathode voltage exceeds a certain
threshold, the device turns "on" and conducts current. The
device will remain in the "on" state even after gate current is
removed so long as current through the device remains
above the holding current.
Once current falls below the holding current for an
appropriate period of time, the device will switch "off".
If the gate is pulsed and the current through the device is
below the holding current, the device will remain in the "off"
state.
Functioning of static bypass switch
The static bypass switch will transfer from the inverter to the another inverter or bypass AC
power source
inverter under/ Over voltage.
inverter overload.
inverter shutdown or failure in any case.
Automatic retransfer conditions
The system will automatically retransfer the load to the inverter from bypass AC souce.
the inverter & AC bypass source should be synchronized.
Transfer Time
Transfer time switch from inverter to bypass AC power is less than 4ms including sensing.

=
INVERTE
R
Static Bypass with two
anti parallel SCR per
phase
LOAD
1
PHAS
E
220V,
50Hz.

=
INVERTE
R
Static Bypass with two
anti parallel SCR per
phase
LOAD
1
PHAS
E
220V,
50Hz.
Window to Power Station
101
Construction of VRLA Battery
1) Positive Plate Robust tubular plates
consisting of a Lead calcium alloy,
otimized for high corrosion resistance
2) Negative Plate Grid Plate construction
consisting of Lead calcium alloy.
3) Separator - Micro-porous and robust for
electrical separation of +ve & -ve plates
and optimized for low internal resistance.
4) Housing
5) Poles
6) Valves Release gas in case of excess
pressure and protects the cell against
atmosphere.
7) GEL or AMG
GEL:- Their acid is immobilized by adding
"fumed" silica to the sulfuric acid solution
and then sealing the battery. They
internally recombine most of the gases
(hydrogen and oxygen) generated during
charging and are maintenance free due to
this.
AMG(Advanced Glass Mat) :- In
Advanced AGM batteries the acid is
absorbed into a very fine glass mat and
held in place by capillary action. This
construction technique, in coordination
with double wall design, and sealing has
many advantages.
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Window to Power Station
D.G.Set:
Specification: Type : HC 444 F1 ,380 KVA ,
415 V , 529 Amps , 0.8 PF , 1500 RPM , 50Hz ,
3-Phase ,
Air Compressors:
3-No's of ELGI Make.
For Instrument air supply
Model 205115
Power 75 KW
Capacity 14.54 M/min.
Rated pr. 8.0 Kg/cm
Air Compressors:-
3No's of Kirlosker Make
for ash handling system.
Model KES 55-7.5
Power 55KW
RPM 2965
Capacity 9.5CMM
Rated pr.- 7.0 Kg/cm
5.7 Spec. of D.G. Set and Compressors
103
Water and its Sources
Water is one of the fundamental elements constituting the universe. It is the most
abounded liquid in nature.
Raw Water
Due to presence of impurities in natural water it is termed Raw Water.
Types of impurities present in Water
1. Dissolved impurities
Inorganic salt- cations-Ca +, Mg +, Na+, K+, Fe +, Al + and some times traces
2 2 2 3
2-
Zn + and Cu +, anion-Cl-, SO , NO -, HCO -, and some times F- and NO -,Gases
3 3
2 2 2 4
e.g. CO , O , N , Oxides of N and some times NH ,H S, Organic salts.
2 2 2 2 3 2
2. Suspended impurities
a) Inorganic e.g. clay and sand, b) Organic e.g. oil globules, vegetable and animal matter.
3. Colloidal impurities
Finely divided clay and silica, aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, organic
waste products,
4. Bacterial impurities
Bacteria, other micro-organisms.
Need for treatment of water
Treatment of Water means to control the impurities present so that it meets
desired quality parameters.
6.
Water Treatment Plant
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Special requirements of power-plant
In case of thermal power station most objectionable impurities of raw water are
dissolved solids which give rise to scale deposition problem. Boiler feed make-up water
needs complete removal of suspended and dissolved solids.
Removal of impurities
Floating solids are removed at river intake by screening and suspended solids,
colloid, organic matters are removed in pretreatment and dissolved solids are removed in
R.O. based D.M. Plant. So treatment plant has two sections one pre treatment another is
post treatment.
a) Micro-organisms Removal : Raw water received
is dosed with sodium hypo chlorite for chlorinating it to
kill bacteria and to avoid biological slime growth in
downstream structures.
b) Clarification : This chlorinated raw water flows into
the high rate solid contact reactor after addition of poly
electrolyte & coagulant dose (coagulants remove the
colloidal impurities by conglomeration of colloidal
particles into bigger particles having enough mass to
settle by gravity & polyelectrolyte for formation of flocks).High Rate Solid Contact Reactor
sediments suspended solids at the bottom of reactor & clear water at the top flows to Rapid
Gravity Filter.
6.1 PRETREATMENT PLANT
Parameters Raw Water Clarified Water R.G.F. Outlet
pH 7.2-8.2 7.2-8.2 7.2-8.2
Conductivity (m / cm) < 500 < 500 < 500
TDS (ppm) < 350 < 350 < 350
Turbidity (NTU) < 300 < 50 < 10
FRC (ppm) ---- < 0.2 < 0.2
T - Hardness (ppm) < 150 < 150 < 150
Silica (ppm) 10-20 10-20 10-20
Ca - Hardness (ppm) < 100 < 100 < 100
Mg - Hardness (ppm) < 40 < 40 < 40
M Alkalinity (ppm) < 150 < 150 < 150
P Alkalinity (ppm) Nil Nil Nil
Chloride (ppm) < 50 < 50 < 50
Iron (ppm) < 1.0 < 1.0 < 1.0
Clarifloculator
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Analysis of Raw/Clarified/Filtered Water
105
Chlorination Chemistry

HOCl, hypo-chlorous acid, formed when sodium hypochlorite is added to water,
penetrates the normally resistant surfaces of microorganisms like Salmonella typhi,
destroying them. Whether the acid remains in the form of HOCl or as the ions H+ and OCl-
depends on the acidity, or pH of the solution.
Rapid Gravity Filter (RGF)
The fine suspended particles which remain untapped in clarified water are
removed by RGF which is a filter of graded pebbles with size varying from 3 to 60mm and
sand of 0.7mm in layers.
When clogged by particulate matter the media filter is cleaned with a backwash
cycle consisting of air scouring to loosen & scrub the media, After gravity filter water
3
collected in storage tank capacity 7500 x 2 M .
Post Treatment : D.M. Water Process
Continuous Micron Filtration (CMF)
Filtered water from RGF enters the bottom of the CMF filter tank .And passes over
& around the micro porous hollow fiber membranes wall by suction pressure into the
centre of each membranes fiber. Filtrate flow passes from the top of each modules rack to
the filtrate manifold. The unit filtration pump creates suction pressure to given available
transemembrane pressure of up to 85kpa.
Filtrate is delivered under pressure to storage. It's called CMF STORAGE TANK.
Activated Carbon Filter (ACF)
Carbon is used as a filter bed through which water is passed. The impurity that is
left behind is extracted methodically.
Activated Carbon filter has limitations
Filtration: Carbon tends to extract absorbable products from the flow with which it
is contact, causing premature saturation.
Biological media: The surface of carbon offers ideal conditions bacterial growth.
This phenomenon does assist purification but can also be very dangerous if not properly
controlled. The main function of activated carbon is oxidation of water by free chlorine.
C + Cl2 + H2O = C (unaffected) + 2HCl + O2.
Membrane Filter: Reverse osmosis membranes actually retain not only all large
molecules but the rate of flow across the membrane is small and requires pressures of the

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order 50 bars. However reverse osmosis plant followed by DM Plant can produce water of
almost ultimate purity and is very economical in handling brackish water/sea water or even
with a water having total dissolve salts or more than 500 ppm.
Micron Cartridge Filter
It polishes the filter water removing solids down to the 5 micron range. The SDI limit
to feed to the RO system is < 4 micron. This is possible by passing the filtered water through
the MCF.
The main function is to remove the Dissolved salts.
Principle of Operation
Reverse osmosis is a membrane separation process for removing solvent from a
solution. When a semi permeable membrane separates a dilute solution from a
concentrated solution, solvent crosses from the dilute to the concentrated side of the
membrane in an attempt to equalize concentrations. The flow of solvent can be prevented
by applying an opposing hydrostatic pressure to the concentrated solution. The magnitude
of the pressure required to completely impede the flow of solvent is defined as the "osmotic
pressure". If the applied hydrostatic pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure flow of solvent
will be reversed, that is, solvent will flow from the concentrated to the dilute solution. This
phenomenon is referred to as Reverse Osmosis.
Before entering RO modules the feed water is given 2 doses. Filtered water
contains chlorine, and Ca & Mg hardness that must be removed before it enters the RO
membrane system.
1. Anti Scalent
is a polymeric organic compound used for this purpose. The hardness salts of Ca
and Mg precipitate easily if their concentration exceeds solubility limit. Antiscalent
increases the solubility of these ions and are rejected from the RO concentrate outlet.
2. Sodium Meta Bisulphite (Na2S2O5)
Removes excess chlorine carried over from the pretreatment plant. Chlorine damages
membranes of RO severely.
Na2S2O5 + H2O >>>> 2NaHSO3 (2 moles of Sodium Bi-sulfite)
6.2 REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM
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The amount of salt rejection by semi-permissible membrane is proportional to the
TDS concentration of the feed water but it is independent of the applied pressure.
The rate of purified water production is proportional to the pressure applied to the
membrane.
An increase in operating pressure will raise the rate of water production without
affecting salt rejection. That means greater the applied pressure, better quality water &
greater productivity.
Working Process of RO Modules
Pressurized feed water enters the membrane vessel & flows through the cannel
between the spiral winding of the first spiral wound elements. Some of the feed water
permeates through 2000A thick membrane &travels a spiral path to the permeate water
collection tube at the centre of the element. The feed water then encounters the next
cartridge in the vessel &the process is repeated. The permeate from each element exits
from the common permeate tube in the membrane vessel. The feed water become more
concentrated as it passes through each membrane element &exits from the membrane
vessel as concentrate.
Degasser Tower & Tank
Reverse osmosis product water passes through the degasser tower for the removal
of dissolved CO2& is stored in the degasified water storage tank.
MIXED BED is an ion exchange process. It comprises a cation resin & anion resin
bed. When the resin bed gets exhausted it needs to be regenerated with the help of acid &
alkali. The air scouring is also provided with the twin lobe air blower for mixing the cation
&anion resin thoroughly.
Resins
Ion exchange resins are synthetic organic polymers. Most commonly used resin are
gel type polystyrene resins which is manufactured by polymerization of vinyl benzene
(styrene) and 8-10% Divinyl Benzene cross linked to increase stability of resin. Ion
exchange resin are manufactured in bead from 0.3mm or 1.2mm optimum size 0.6mm.
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Smaller size would restrict flow and with higher size, retention time would not be sufficient
for proper exchange.
Deionization Process
The metal salts, acids, and bases are primarily inorganic compounds; they are
ionized in water and could be removed by contact with ion exchange resins. In deionization
process, the resins exchange hydrogen ions (H+) for the positively charged ions ( Ni, Cu,
Na) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) for negatively charged sulfates, chromates and chlorides.
Because the quantity of H+ and OH ions is balanced, the result of the ion exchange is
relatively pure, neutral water.
Cation Exchange Resins are nothing but acid and can be simply represented as R-
H+ where R is resin matrix, completely insoluble in water and H+ is mobile in water.
R- - H+ +CaCl2 R- - Ca++ + HCl
R- - H+ +CaCO3 R- - Ca++ + H2CO3
Strong Acid Cation (SAC) When functional group attached to resin matrix is strong
acid group.
Weak Acid Cation When the attached functional group is of weak acid, it is called
WAC resin WAC can only split weak electrolyte (Carbonate and bicarbonate) only.
Anion Exchange Resin represented as R+-OH- and is an alkali/base. OH- is only
mobile in water.
SBA When the functional group is strong base it is called SBA resins.
WBA: - When the functional group attached is weak base it called weak base resin.
H+Cl- + R+ - OH- R-CL + H+OH- (H2O)
H2+CO3- - + R+ - OH- R-CO3 + H+OH-(H2O)
Selectivity of Ions Resins have a preference for exchange and depends on charge
and size of the ion. Triple charge is preferred to double and double is preferred to single
charge. Charge being same preference is given to bigger size ions.
Thus for cation Ca++ > Mg++ > Na+ > H+
Similarly for anion HSO4- > NO3- > Cl- > SiO3- -
Sodium Slip
When water containing Ca, Mg, Na ions is passed through cation exchanger bed, Ca
ions are retained in 1st layer then Mg and in the last Na ions are retained. Ion exchange
reactions are reversible (for regeneration and reuse).
The reaction in the bottom part of the bed is with sodium salt (say NaCl).
R-H + NaCl R-Na + HCl
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At very low concentration of R-Na back reaction produces NaCl
R-Na + HCl R-H + NaCl
The cation effluent containing some sodium when passes through anion exchanger,
acids are converted to water but sodium salts are converted to NaOH.
R-OH + NaCl R-Cl + NaOH
R-OH + HCL R-Cl + H2O
The effluent coming out of anion bed contains NaOH that increases the pH and
conductivity of anion effluent. Further, similar to Na-slip, silica slip takes place from anion
exchanger.
MIXED BED Ion Exchanger:- is normally regenerated with 4% NaOH & HCL.
Main objective is to avoid corrosion and deposition problem in the system. Samples
are collected from different places and tested at regular interval to know the condition of the
unit.
Parameters like total solids/conductivity, silica are controlled to maintain quality of
steam and to lower the blow down requirement in boilers where as pH, phosphate, oxygen,
Cu-oxide, Fe-oxide etc. are controlled to minimize corrosion and deposition in boiler.
In steam, silica is controlled to avoid deposition of silica in turbine blade which is very
difficult to remove when deposited in insoluble form; pH is maintained to minimize corrosion.
In condensate pH is maintained to minimize corrosion, NH3 is controlled to avoid
stress corrosion cracking of condenser.
The advantage of taking sample from different location is that if some thing goes
wrong it can be easily pinpointed.
SWAS unit is for on-line monitoring of chemical parameters but has not proved
reliable so far. The following samples, chemical parameters and limiting values are given
In next page.
6.3 Water chemistry
6.3.1. Boiler Water Chemistry
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*Remark: Conductivity without passing cation column,
Dissolved oxygen in feed water sample is maintained < 7 ppb
D.M. Water quality is maintained as
pH- 6.8 to 7.2, Conductivity - <1.5 s/cm, Silica (reactive)-<0.02 ppm,
Total Hardness - Nil, TDS - 0.75 ppm
Parameters required to be maintained:
1. Total Dissolved Solids :
Higher TDS in feed water will carry and increase TDS in boiler, which will lead to
foaming, carryover, if not controlled by increased blow down. Blow down means loss of
costly DM water, conditioning chemicals and heat. Another important factor is that the feed
water is used as spray media for attemperation. With high TDS water, the solid will be
carried over with steam and deposit in the secondary super heater, turbine stop valve etc.
2. Conductivity
Total Dissolved solids in all water are determined by measuring conductivity. Pure
water contains very less ion and so its conductivity is poor around 0.056 s/cm at 25C.
When solids dissolve in water they dissociate and number of ions increases which
increase conductivity of water. Hence concentration of dissolved solids is proportional to
the conductivity of water. For feed water type water, 0.5 ppm solid may increase
conductivity by 1 s/cm. Conductivity is monitored in water / steam to know how much solid
is present in that water / steam.
3. Silica In feed water is controlled to limit specified. Higher silica will increase
blow down reducing plant efficiency. Further, when this feed water is used for
attemperation this will increase the silica level in steam resulting in silica deposition in
turbine.
Parameters Boiler Supper Saturated Feed Condensate
Drum Heated Steam Water Water
Steam
pH 9.8 - 10.2 8.8 9.2 8.8 9.2 8.8 9.2 8.8 9.2
Conductivity < 200 * < 5.5 * < 5.5 * < 5.5 * < 5.5
T.D.S. (ppm) < 100 < 2.75 < 2.75 < 2.75 < 2.75
Silica (ppm) < 3.0 < 0.20 < 0.20 < 0.20 < 0.20
Total Hardness (ppm) BDL Nil Nil Nil Nil
Hydrazine (ppm) ------ ------ ------ < 20 ------
NH3 (ppm) ------ < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5
Phosphate (ppm) 5 20 ------ ------ ------ ------
Chloride (ppm) < 6.0 ------ ------ ------ ------
P- Alk. (ppm) 4 - 15 ------ ------ ------ ------
M Alk. (ppm) 10 - 30 ------ ------ ------ ------
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4. pH
It is (nearly) the inverse logarithm of the H ion concentration in acquous solution.
INTERPRETATION OF WATER PARAMETERS
pH = -log (H+) If pH > 7 Alkaline. If pH < 7 Acidic. If pH = 7 Neutral
ALKALINITY
ALKALINITY ( OH- , CO3-- & HCO3- )i) P Alkalinity = OH- + CO3 --(at pH = 8.3 & above )
ii) Total Alkalinity = OH + CO3 + HCO3..iii) M Alkalinity = HCO3- + CO3 --
pH is maintained for corrosion control in the feed system Steal is protected by
formation of impervious protective layer of Fe3O4 on its surface. This is black color and
called magnetite. As long as this protective oxide layer remain intact base metal is
protected from corrosion. At low pH (acid) and at very high pH this oxide layer get dissolved
exposing the base metal to corrosive environment.
5. Oxygen It is controlled to minimize corrosion. In addition to De-aerator
chemical scavenger hydrazine is dosed in BFP suction attain O2 level of 0.007 ppm in feed
water.
N2H4 + O2 N2 + H2O
At higher temperature hydrazine itself decomposes to produce ammonia and
nitrogen
3 N2H4 4 NH3 + N2
Oxygen is highly corrosive when present in hot water. Even small concentrations
can cause serious problems. Because pits can penetrate deep into the metal, oxygen
corrosion can result in rapid failure of feed water lines, economizers, boiler tubes, and
condensate lines. Additionally, iron oxide generated by the corrosion can produce iron
deposits in the boiler.
At 60F and atmospheric pressure, the solubility of oxygen in water is
approximately 8 ppm. Efficient mechanical deaeration reduces dissolved oxygen to 7 ppb
or less. For complete protection from oxygen corrosion, a chemical scavenger is required
after mechanical deaeration.
With proper care during commissioning and alkali boil-out a thin protective layer of
Fe3O4 (magnetite) about 0.005 to 0.01 mm thick by reaction between iron and water in an
Oxygen-free environment.
3Fe + 4H2O = Fe3O4 + 4H2
iron water magnetite hydrogen
This protects boiler from further corrosion..
Carbon Dioxide is the most important dissolved gas after oxygen to accelerate the
corrosion. Low pH corrosion in steam and return lines are caused by carbonic acid.
Carbonic acid is formed by the reaction of water and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide
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comes in the system from air in leakage in low pressure region. Other source is condenser
tube leakage. The direct effect of H2CO3 is to reduce condensate pH, leading to
generalized loss of metals and grooving of condensate lines. When CO2 and O2 both
present, corrosion rate is very high. Low pH conditions are controlled by adding volatile
alkaline chemical. In high pressure unit ammonia is used for this.
Carbon dioxide can enter a condensate system as a dissolved gas or it can be
chemically combined in the bicarbonate or carbonate alkalinity of the feed water. Generally.
dissolved carbon dioxide is removed in the deaerating heater. The following reactions
show the breakdown of naturally occurring bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity to carbon
dioxide.
NH3 (ammonia) used for removal of CO2: -
CO2 + 2NH3 + H2O (NH4)2CO3 (Ammonium carbonate)
Chloride: - Chloride is harmful as its ion breaks through any passive/protective
layers to induce corrosion. Further, chloride ions induce stress corrosion cracking to
austenic steel.
MgCl2+Fe+H2O=Mg(OH)2+FeCl2+H2
FeCl2+2H2O= Fe(OH)2+2HCl
Tri Sodium Phosphate (Na3PO4): - is a pH buffer and limits the localized
concentration of caustic. On hydrolysis Trisodium Phosphate gives sodium hydroxide and
disodium phosphate.
Na2HPO4 (DSP) + H2O NaH2PO4 (MSP) + NaOH .
NaOH thus produced helps to maintain pH of boiler water and Na2HPO4 removes
hardness.
-3
Phosphate PO4 Chemistry:- Soluble phosphate and alkali are added to the boiler
system to promote the precipitation of calcium and magnesium ions in a desired sludge
form. This sludge was removed via a manual blowdown, provided that the sludge remained
in a fluid form.
A minimum pH value of 9.5 was required to precipitate the calcium properly.
However, with the proper addition of alkalinity, pH levels of 9.8 to 10.2 were maintained to
drive the reactions to completion. These reactions were also irreversible.
The desired boiler sludges are formed by the following reactions:
+2 -3
10Ca + 6PO4 + 2OH- 3Ca3(PO4)2Ca(OH)2 (Calcium hydroxyapatite)
-2 -2
3Mg + 2SiO3 + 2OH- + H2O 2MgSiO3Mg(OH)2H2O (Serpentine sludge)
Both serpentine and calcium hydroxyapatite are relatively non-adherent to boiler
metal and are easily removed by manual blowdown. The amount of phosphate, alkali and
silicate required is based on these reactions plus an excess to drive the reactions to
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completion. Without enough hydroxyl alkalinity, the potential for calcium acid phosphate to
precipitate is high. Calcium acid phosphate is a tenacious scale that cannot be removed
while the boiler is operating.
Corrosion control techniques vary according to the type of corrosion encountered.
Major methods of corrosion control include maintenance of the proper pH, control of
oxygen, control of deposits, and reduction of stresses through design and operational
practices.
Caustic Corrosion : Concentration of caustic (NaOH) can occur either as a result
of steam blanketing (which allows salts to concentrate on boiler metal surfaces) or by
localized boiling beneath porous deposits on tube surfaces.
Boiler feedwater systems using demineralized or evaporated makeup or pure
condensate may be protected from caustic attack through coordinated phosphate/pH
control. Phosphate buffers the boiler water, reducing the chance of large pH changes due
to the development of high caustic concentrations. Excess caustic combines with disodium
phosphate and forms trisodium phosphate. Sufficient disodium phosphate must be
available to combine with all of the free caustic in order to form trisodium phosphate.
Blow down
Intermittent Blow down is designed to remove any sludge formed in the boiler.
Properly controlled it lowers the dissolved solids, suspended solid etc.
Continuous Blow Down (C.B.D.) removes concentrated boiler water continuously. It
is adjusted to decrease or increase the blow down depending upon the test results.
Corrosion, scale deposition and fouling are the major problems encountered in
cooling water system.
The objectives of cooling water treatment are:-
1) Prevention of scale deposition on heat exchange surface.
2) Prevention of organic and slime growth on heat exchange surface.
3) Prevention of mud deposition on heat exchange surface
4) control of organic growths is intake culvert
5) Minimize corrosion through out the cooling water system.
Cycle of concentration
Depending up on the evaporation loss, windage loss and bleed off a certain amount
of solid build up occurs in the system. This can be presented by cycle of concentration.
6.3.2 Cooling Water Chemistry
Concentration of a stable compound say chloride in recirculating
Cycles of Concentration = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Concentration of the same stable compounds in say chloride in makeup water
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Scale occurrence in cooling water systems
Most common Less frequent
Calcium- corbonate/ sulphate/phosphate. Iron oxide
Magnesium silicate Zinc phosphate*
Silica (SiO2) Calcium fluoride
Iron carbonate
* From corrosion control treatment chemicals.
Calcium carbonate indicators
Langelier Saturation Index + Indicates scaling tendency
LSI = pH act. - pHs - or 0 indicates non scaling
Ryznar stability Index >6 indicates scaling tendency
RSI= 2pHs pH act. < 6 indicates non scaling
Prevention of scale formation : Factors affecting scale formation are :-
i) High alkalinity. ii) High Ca content. iii) High pH. iv) High temperature.
v) High pH. And High dissolved solids.
By influencing above factors scale formation may be controlled.
System Details of 30 MW cooling Tower
Maintaining of cooling water and makeup water chemical analysis as
1. Chemical parameters of Makeup water
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Water Holding Capacity (M) 1800
Circulation Rate (M/Hr) 5250
Temperature Difference inlet / outlet(?T) 0C 9-10
Evaporation Loss (M/Hr.) 70
Cycle of Concentration 7
Make up (M/Hr.) 81.70
Bleed off (M/Hr) 11.7
Condensate Tube Material SA249 TP304
SN Parameters Makeup Water Circulating Water
1 pH 7.5 8.0 7.5 8.2
2 Total Dissolved solids 250-350 (ppm) <2500 (ppm)
3 P-Alkalinity (as CaCO3) Nil Nil
4 Total Alkalinity (as CaCO3) 100-180 (ppm) As per pH (ppm)
5 Total Hardness (as CaCO3) 150-250 (ppm) 1750 (Max) (ppm)
6 Ca Hardness (as CaCO3) 100-150 (ppm) 1050 (Max) (ppm)
7 Mg Hardness (as CaCO3) 50-100 (ppm) 700 (Max) (ppm)
8 Chloride (as CaCO3) 40-60 (ppm) <420 (ppm)
9 Dissolved Silica (as SiO2) 10-15 (ppm) <100 (ppm)
10 Iron (as Fe) <1.0 (ppm) <1.0 (ppm)

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Presently we are maintaining above chemical parameters with 6 to 7 cycle of
concentration.
COOLING WATER TREATMENT PROGRAMME - MODE OF ACTION
Taking into account the make up water quality, system details and performance
criteria, the treatment programme is designed to operate the CW System in controlled pH
regime (7.5-8.0) at 7 COC and utilizes synergy of Phosphate Phosphonate and azole
chemistry for corrosion control along with state of the art polymer component for scale and
deposit control. Microbe control treatment mainly relies on Nonoxidising biocides alongwith
intermittent dosing of chlorine.
CORROSION CONTROL MECHANISM
The products provide environment friendly non chromate liquid formulations based
on ortho Phosphate, phosphonate, zinc and azole system having stressed environment.
The treatment promotes tenacious film on cathodic as well as anodic areas of metal surface
which withstands system upsets and under dosing etc and controls ferrous as well as yellow
metal corrosion over entire spectrum of water treatment.
SCALE AND DEPOSIT CONTROL is achieved by high stress polymer which is a
blend of high performance Poly Acrylic Acid-Sulphonic Acid Co-polymer (PA/SA) and
terpolymer. It stabilises scale forming ions, disperses inorganic foulants (like iron oxide,
zinc hydroxide and other particulate matter), silt, mud etc and enhances efficiency of
corrosion control treatment by following mechanism.
Increasing the solubility of low solubility salts such as calcium carbonate, calcium
sulphate, zinc hydroxide and calcium phosphate etc. by sequestration
Distortion of crystal structure so that particles formed do not have adherent nature.
Keeping inorganic particles and silt etc in dispersed state by charge reinforcement
and similar charge repulsion
MICROBICIDAL MECHANISM
The bactericidal/microbicidal action of quaternary ammonium compound and
isothiazolinones is due to disruption of intermolecular interactions. This causes dissociation
of the cells' membrane of microorganisms, which induces leakage of cell's contents. Other
biomolecular complexes within the bacterial cell can also undergo dissociation. Enzymes,
which finely control a wide range of respiratory and metabolic cellular activities, are
particularly deactivated thus disrupting respiratory and cellular activities.
Condenser Tube Leakage Detection
Normal method is to monitor conductivity of condensate. Increase in conductivity
indicates condenser tube leakage. But the increase may be due to chemical dosing
(ammonia/Hydrazine etc.). However in boiler this effect is concentrated. TDS, conductivity,
SiO2 etc. will increase but phosphate decreases pH may increase or decrease depending
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upon the CW.
The effects of CW leakage into condensate
Leakage of cooling water into condenser steam side can have serious
consequences. The cooling water carries impurities with it, into condensate system. It
contains sodium chloride (Nacl). These impurities are then carried forward into the Boiler.
The presence of chloride in the boiler water constitutes a potential hazard, because acid
chlorides can be formed and tube erosion can result. So it is very important that CW
leakage should be detected.
Condensate corrosion:-
Steam generated in boiler is transported to turbine through pipes. Steam
condensate is also returned to boiler feed water. Corrosion occurs because of the low pH.
The chief source of acid in steam is carbon di oxide (CO2). High temperature and pressure
decomposes Bicarbonate HCO3 give carbon di oxide, some of which dissolves in steam
making it acidic (Carbonic Acid H2CO3)
HCO3 - < --> HO + CO2.
HO + CO2 + H2O ( Steam ) --> H2CO3
This lowers the condensate pH and leads to corrosion of return lines. Oxygen can
enter a condensate system from other sources even if the deaerator is functioning properly.
Oxygen causes a deep pitting of condensate lines.
High Velocity and low pH can result in extremely severe corrosion conditions. The
best way to minimize this is by keeping the pH above 9.0 Other gases which can be
corrosive in the condensate system are Ammonia, Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur di oxide.
Impure steam can create problems of carryover, priming and foaming in boiler.
Steam gets contaminated because of the boiler water it carries with it or because of salt and
silica which are, soluble in steam at high pressure. Solids carried over with steam can get
deposited on super heater and turbine. Carryover can also affect the product quality.
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7.1 Distributed Control System (DCS)
Introduction
Benefits Of DCS
Architecture of DCS
Distribution Control System (DCS)
Software Part
Make Siemens Teleperm XP-1000
The DCS, is connected to primary and final control elements such as temperature
and pressure transmitters, flow meters, gas analyzers, pH and conductivity sensors,
contact switches, valves and motors, and so on. From these field devices it receives
electrical signals, for example, 4 -20 mA, 15 V DC, 24 V AC, and 120 V AC. The DCS
converts these signals (digitizes them). Once converted, they can be used by the computer
to
1) Control loops 2) Execute special programmed logic.
3) Monitor inputs 4) Alarm the plant operations.
5) Trend, log, and report data. 6) Perform many other functions.
High reliability- Reduced human error.
Faster identification of faults in both product and processing machinery.
Historical storage, Trending. Auto control.
Safe Operation of plant. Lowest cost of generation. Longest equipment life.
Minimum environmental affect.
Maximum efficiency. Interlocking System (Safety).
To avoid damage of the equipment and injury to the people.
Configuration Diagram of Aryan 30MW Power plant
There are three major parts in software side.
Soft OM (Operating & Monitoring)
Soft AS (Automation system)
GUES+ (GRAFHICAL USER ENGINEERING STATION)
Soft OM (Operation & Monitoring Software):- Soft OM (Which has Mimic) is installed
in HMI OPERATOR WORK STATION
7.
Control & Instrumentation
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Soft OM system is an integrated operation, monitoring and information system. This
document browses through the user functionality of the entire system and its sub-systems.
The application software is a modular package suitably adapted to meet the functional
requirements, which are as follows:-
General
a) Graphic Displays
b) Alarm Display/Event Display/C&I Fault List Display/ Operator
c) Action Display
d) Plant Control/Operation Display
e) Logs and Report Generation Operator Displays
a) Area Display b) Group Display c) Alarm summary Displayed) Status Display
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Engineering Functions
a) Generation and modification of graphics /displays /logs & reports.
b) Generation /modification /addition of operation tiles.
c) System Diagnostic.
d) Maintenance logs.
e) The OS processes the following inputs:
f) Binary signals of the process. g) Analog signals of the process.
Besides these, the OM system also indicates and operates the following:
A) Operation of Open loop drives.
B) Operation of Controllers.
C) Set point changing.
D) Auto /Man changeover
SOFT AS (Automation System) Controller
It is installed in controller (which has Tripping, protection, Interlocks, Monitoring
Logics.)
Soft AS is a cost effective and very powerful automation system for distributed
control. It has CPU architecture with fast response time achieved through the ultra
high speed processing and data handling capabilities of the resident upper end
processors.
Soft AS implements all functions like open loop control closed loop control and
monitoring. It supports fully the automation hierarchy (individual control level, group
control level, unit control level) of the control structure in a plant. All the process control
algorithms implemented in the system conform to the concepts laid down for
distributed control systems. Soft AS also incorporates Integrated Sequence Of Event
Recording facility. Input / Output modules mounted in I/O stations serve as the
interface to the process. These I/O stations communicate to the Soft AS CPUs via
PROFIBUS. Thus Soft AS acquires measured values and statuses from the process
via PROFIBUS, carries out the control functions and transmits the resulting
commands to the process.
Soft AS is designed to address redundancy issues at each level, starting from
I/O and field communication to CPU and system bus. It provides the user the flexibility
to freely choose the configuration and the extent of redundancy. The system can be
designed completely redundant, partially redundant or non-redundant. Use of both
remote and local I/Os is possible. Remote I/O configurations provide the user with the
benefits of reduced cabling, reduced termination panels, faster and easier
commissioning and maintenance. Additionally, Soft AS is supported with engineering
and commissioning tool, GUES for planning and documentation, as well as greater
ease of modification during commissioning. The high performance open Operation
and Monitoring System SoftOM is used as operator interface for process control. It is a
highly intelligent, open and decentralized system designed for Process Automation.
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The high degree of processing capability, short response time, complete modularity,
flexibility and online system engineering makes it a very powerful system. Soft AS CPUs
are based on the latest universal hardware with very fast processors running on Windows
environment. They have a flexible architecture for cost effective solutions. These CPUs are
based on 32 bit Intel processors, upgradable to 64 bit with high-speed internal bus system.
Communication and exchange of signals from the Soft OM to the process and vice
versa takes place via Soft AS. The smallest processing unit in the Soft AS CPU is called
Process Logic Unit (PLU), which handles the control, data transfer and protection routines.
Multiple PLUs runs parallel and synchronously in the
CPU distributing the control tasks amongst themselves, resulting in very fast
processing cycles (typically 50ms).
3) GUES
Graphical User Engineering Station
GUI based Graphical User Engineering System (GUES) is used for configuring the system
as well as building process logic for Soft AS. GUES is a multi-user window-based
engineering tool for Soft AS. It provides a comprehensive engineering
Environment right from project planning to the generation and documentation of the
control configurations of Soft AS.
GUES+ offers flexible engineering through interactive GUI based graphics editor. It
includes
Features such as generating graphical assembly of logic using standard and predefined
set of symbols, resource management, signal exchange and automatic generation of
software code.
By using simple and standard guidelines GUES
ensures reduction in engineering time and +
perfection in quality of engineering. Online
engineering modifications can also be done with
GUES+.
Signal Processing:- In DCS signal comes in
form of 4-20mA or 24v,by primary sensing
element then it goes to (I/O)Input/output module
then it goes to I/M Interface module; IM module
onverts in to digital form(computer languages )
then it is processed by controller and Vice Versa.

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Control System
1) Open loop control system (OLCS)
2) Close loop control system (CLCS):- In a closed-loop control system, a sensor
monitors the field parameter and feeds the data to a controller which compares it with the
Set Point and continuously adjusts the system input as necessary to maitain the parameter.
Automatic or Closed loop control system (CLCS) in Boiler
1. Drum level control.
2. Furnace draught control.
3, MS temperature control.
4. Combustion control
The water level in the steam/water drum sensed by level transmitter is related to, but
not a direct indication of the quantity of water in the drum. This is due to the fact that water
density is different at different temperatures and correction is required. Weight of a given
water column will be less as its temperature increases.
As steam demand increases, there is an initial lowering of the drum pressure
resulting in an artificial rise in drum level as the steam bubbles expand and swell the drum
water level. This phenomenon sends a false control signal to reduce feed water flow, when
in fact the feed water flow should be increasing to maintain mass balance. Conversely, on a
loss of steam demand, there is an initial rising of steam drum pressure which acts to lower
the drum level by compressing the steam bubbles and shrinking the drum water level. This
sends a false signal to increase feed water flow when in fact it should be decreasing to
maintain mass balance Processes experiencing sudden or large load changes, can result
in 'phasing' of the Shrink and swell effect causing the water level controller to lose control of
the drum level and result in nuisance low water trips or high water priming and carry-
overThe three-element control strategy can easily handle large and rapid load changes
Drum Level Control
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because it is matching the mass balance between the steam flow from the boiler and the
feed water flow to it. This strategy is a must on multiple boilers sharing the same feed water
header and supply system, due to the variations in the available feed water flow to any one
boiler, while two or more boilers are on line.
This is irrespective of boiler size. Additionally if the boilers are subjected to sudden or
unpredictable demand changes such as in a batching process, this strategy is capable of
matching these demands without operator trim corrections or supervision.
Aryan 30 MW Power plant (Boiler Drum level control logic diagram)
In our 30 MW plant we use three element control system. Above diagram shown
controlling drum level using through actuating 100% feed control valve in auto as well as
30% CV manual control in cold startup.
In any automatic control system, the four basic functions that occur are
Measurement; Comparison; Computation and Correction.
The elements needed to perform the functions of an automatic control system are:
1. Primary Sensing Element or Measuring element.
2. Control Element including error detecting Element, Comparator, and Controller.
3. Final Control Element.
It consists of transducer & signal conditioning device. The transducer measuring the
value of plant parameters or physical quantity such as pressure, temperature, flow, level,
vibration, speed etc. in to proportional electrical signal. The output signals are standard
signals and can then be processed by other equipment to provide indication, alarms or
Functions of Automatic Control
Elements of Automatic Control
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automatic control. Following physical quantities are generally measured in Power plant.
1. Pressure measuring element. 2. Temperature measuring element.
2. Flow measuring element. 4. Level measuring element.
3. Turbovisiory element. 6. Analytical measuring element
Transmitter is used to convey signal from one place to another. The transmitter
comprises a transducer which converts a physical quantity/condition in to an electrical
signal.Thus the transmitter senses the change in process variable within a certain range &
produces an output current within the range (4-20 mAdc).
Operating principle of Pressure transmitter 4 types are used. They are Strain gauge
type , Resistive type , Inductive type , Capacitance type
FLOW and Level MEASURING INSTRUMENT is also a DP transmitter.
Temperature Measuring Instrument
Remote temperature measuring instrument:

The resistance of certain metals will change as temperature changes. This
Characteristic is the basis for the operation of an RTD. RTD elements are normally
constructed of platinum, copper, or nickel.
Remote pressure measuring instrument
1. RTD
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2. Thermocouple: The thermocouple is a device that converts thermal energy into
electrical energy.
The final control element is probably the most important because it exerts a direct
influence on the process. Final control devices contain the essential pieces of equipment to
convert the control signal (generated by a process controller) into the action needed to
correctly control the process.
Following 4 types of final control element use in our power plant
1) Control valve. 2) Power cylinder. 3) Bleed off valve. 4) Solenoid valve
A control valve is simply a variable orifice that is used to regulate the flow of a
process fluid according to the requirement. Control valves are consist of two major parts:
1. Valve Body: Which contains all the mechanical components necessary to influence
fluid flow? The valve body is mounted in the process fluid line and is used to control the flow
of fluid in the process
Globe valves are mostly used in power plant as Control Valves.
Final Control Element
Control Valve Basics
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2. Valve actuator: Which provides the mechanical power necessary to move the
components within the valve body? It is connected to the valve's plug stem and moves the
valve between the open and closed positions to regulate flow in the process.
Beed off (Butterfly) valve: In our plant this type of valve is used in air bleed line of
wind box & known as Air Bleed off valve. It acts as a damper or as a throttle valve in a pipe
and consists of a disk turning on a diametric axis. Like the ball valve its actuation rotation
from fully closed to fully open is 90.
This power cylinder is used in following area in 30 MW power plant
Power cylinder : This is generally used in process for on-off control system.
FD line damper in each compartment 08 nos.
1) PA line damper in each compartment 08 nos.
2) Discharge damper in ID, PA & FD FAN. 06 nos.
3) ASH Handling system for operating the dome valve 07 nos.

Reed switch for indication of stroke position. A magnetic band around the
circumference of the piston operates reed switches to indicate positions of stroke
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In 30 MW Power plant this type of control valve is used in following process control
Boiler Side Control Valves Details
Drum level control valve Make: MIL Controls 02 nos. one for 30% load & 100% load.
Desuperheater temperature control valve Make: MIL Controls 02 nos.
PRDS-I Pressure & temperature control valve Make: Forbes Marshall 02 nos.
PRDS-II Pressure & temperature control valve Make: Forbes Marshall 02 nos.
Dearator pressure control valve Make: MIL Controls 01 no 100% load.
Hot well level control valve Make : FISHER Control -02 nos. 100% load each.
HP Heater level control valve Make : FISHER Control - 04 nos. 100% load each.
02 nos used in normal drain line & 02 nos used in emergency drain line.
LP Heater level control valve Make : FISHER Control -02 nos. 100% load each.
Gland steam Pressure & Temperature control valve Make:MAZDA Control -04 nos.
100% load each. 02 Nos for press control & 02 nos for temp. control.
Iii) 1 Pa Fan Interlocking
Boiler Supervisory System
Boiler Control & Optimization
Temperature is measured from each compartment of Furnace.
Pressure is measured from air-box of each compartment of Furnace.
Oxygen in flue gas is measured to ensure proper combustion in Furnace.
Speed signal is taken from VFD of each DCF.
Boiler & its auxiliary's protection & interlock
ID Fan interlock
i) Suction damper should be closed.
ii) Discharge damper should be closed.
iii) Bearing temperature of Drive end & Non drive end should be normal.
iv) Drum level should be normal.
v) Furnace draught should be normal.
FD Fan interlock
i) Suction & discharge damper should be closed condition.
ii) ID Fan should be running should be running.
iii) Furnace pressure normal.
PA FAN INTERLOCK :- Boiler is provided with 2 PA fans of 100% capacity each. Any
one PA fan is required to run the boiler at 100% MCR. However we find 1 fan is
inadequate due to motor capacity.
Turbine Side Control Valves Details
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PA FAN-I Motor can be switched on, when the following conditions are satisfied.
a) FD fan-I or II motor running.
b) PA fan-I suction damper closed (or) PA fan-II motor running.
c) PA fan-I delivery damper closed.
d) PA fan-II suction damper closed (or) PA fan-II motor running.
e) PA fan -II delivery damper closed (or) PA fan-II motor running.
f) PA fan I bearing temperature normal at drive end and non drive end.
g) Boiler drum- level normal.
h) Furnace pressure normal.
The PA fan I motor can be switched on either from local remote .When PA fan I
motor is in local mode, the motor can be stared from the LPBS without any interlocks.
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8.
Lubricating Oil & Additives
Relative movement between two surfaces involves friction, heat and wear. To
minimize these, lubricants are used. Oils and Greases are the two main substances used
for rotating machines .. Solid lubricants such as Graphite and Molybdenum-di-sulphide
are used in special applications (not involving continuous movement). Type of lubricant
and the lubrication system to be provided depends on the application.
Considering two mating surfaces under load conditions; a pressure is developed
within the lubricant due to the frictional (viscous) resistance to movement. A microfilm is
formed which helps to carry the load avoiding a metal-metal contact. This can happen if the
microfilm can sustain the load/pressure without sheering or disintegrating. This is the
subject matter of a branch called Tribology.
a) Internal.
b) External friction: on contact surface
Static friction: sliding friction (eg: sliding bearing, belt)
Kinetic friction: rolling friction (eg: rolling bearing, cam)
(1) Dry friction: no anti-friction material or safety film.
(2) Boundary friction: two parts separated by boundary film.
(3) Liquid friction: two parts separated by fluid film.
Classifications of Friction:
1. Classified by trend of relative movement
2. Classified by friction condition
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l =
thickness of the oil film
arithmetic average deviation of the two surface outline
(4) Mixed fiction: mixture of the three.

When the friction condition is between the boundary friction and fluid friction,
thickness of the film is used to determine the friction condition. Roughness l of the wearing
surfaces is an important consideration in lubrication. It is defined as the ratio of Oil Film
thickness and the arithmetic average of the distance between the high and low points of a
surface (also called the centerline average CLA) denoted by l.
(2) As film thickness increases in relation to roughness fewer asperities make contact.
Engineers use the ratio of film thickness to surface roughness to estimate the life
expectancy of a bearing system. The relation of bearing life to this ratio is very complex and
not always predictable. In general, life expectancy is extended as the ratio increases. Full
film thickness is considered to exist when the value of this ratio is between 2 and 4. When
this condition prevails, fatigue failure is due entirely to subsurface stress. However, in most
industrial applications, a ratio between 1 and 2 is achieved. At these values surface
stresses occur, and asperities undergo stress and contribute to fatigue as a major source of
failure in antifriction bearings.
Generally speaking F 1) l< 1 boundary friction. 2) l =1~3 mixed friction
3) l > 3 liquid friction.
In the mechanical transmission, the majority condition of friction surface is mixed friction.
Two shining faces in contact
(before application of load )
Small asperities are destroyed by the normal force
Definition
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l =
thickness of the oil film
arithmetic average deviation of the two surface outline
(4) Mixed fiction: mixture of the three.

When the friction condition is between the boundary friction and fluid friction,
thickness of the film is used to determine the friction condition. Roughness l of the wearing
surfaces is an important consideration in lubrication. It is defined as the ratio of Oil Film
thickness and the arithmetic average of the distance between the high and low points of a
surface (also called the centerline average CLA) denoted by l.
(2) As film thickness increases in relation to roughness fewer asperities make contact.
Engineers use the ratio of film thickness to surface roughness to estimate the life
expectancy of a bearing system. The relation of bearing life to this ratio is very complex and
not always predictable. In general, life expectancy is extended as the ratio increases. Full
film thickness is considered to exist when the value of this ratio is between 2 and 4. When
this condition prevails, fatigue failure is due entirely to subsurface stress. However, in most
industrial applications, a ratio between 1 and 2 is achieved. At these values surface
stresses occur, and asperities undergo stress and contribute to fatigue as a major source of
failure in antifriction bearings.
Generally speaking F 1) l< 1 boundary friction. 2) l =1~3 mixed friction
3) l > 3 liquid friction.
In the mechanical transmission, the majority condition of friction surface is mixed friction.
Two shining faces in contact
(before application of load )
Small asperities are destroyed by the normal force
Definition
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high points or asperities. This condition is characteristic of boundary lubrication. Boundary
lubrication occurs whenever any of the essential factors that influence formation of a full
fluid film are missing. The most common example of boundary lubrication includes
bearings, which normally operate with fluid film lubrication but experience boundary
lubricating conditions during routine starting and stopping of equipment. Other examples
include gear tooth contacts and reciprocating equipment.
In addition to lubrication oil also carry away the heat and wear debris. The wear
debris collects in the oil tank and generally does not cause damage to bearings as it gets
trapped in filters.
There are 2 basic types namely a) Mineral b) Synthetic.
Mineral oils are manufactured by fractional distillation of the Crude Oil. Fractional
distillation of Crude produces a range of oils including Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel in the 1st
stage and Lubricating Oils, Petroleum Gelly,Tar,Asphalt in subsequent stages.The product
depends on the boiling temperature range.This is due to the fact that Mineral Oil is made up
of numerous hydrocarbons. The longer chain hydrocarbons yield oils of higher boiling point,
have higher viscocity. Lower chain hydrocarbon products are fuel oils.
Further there are 2 types of hydrocarbon chains yielding Paraffinic or Napthenic Oils.
Paraffinic are more stable more viscous, have higher pour point,low specific gravity and
have wax content useful for lubricating oils. By contrast Napthenic Oils have less viscocity,
low pour point, no wax and higher specific gravity they are preferred where low pour point is
essential.
Oil thus produced is required to be refined to remove undesirable impurities and
hydrogenated to remove compound which may oxidize.
Synthetic oil lubricants are produced from chemical synthesis rather than from the
refinement of existing petroleum or vegetable oils. Synthetic oils perform better than
mineral oils in the following respects:
a) Better oxidation stability or resistance.
b) Better viscosity index.
c) Much lower pour point, as low as 46C.
d) Lower coefficient of friction.
The advantages offered by synthetic oils are most notable at either very low or very
high temperatures. Good oxidation stability and a lower coefficient of friction permit
operation at higher temperatures. The better viscosity index and lower pour points permit
operation at lower temperatures.
The major disadvantage to synthetic oils is the initial cost, which is approximately
three times higher than mineral-based oils. However, the initial premium is usually
recovered over the life of the product, which is about three times longer than conventional
Lubricating Oils:
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lubricants.
Factors to be considered when selecting synthetic oils include pour and flash points;
demulsibility; lubricity; rust and corrosion protection; thermal and oxidation stability;
antiwear properties; compatibility with seals, paints, and other oils; and compliance with
testing and standard requirements.
a) Viscosity. the viscosity of an oil is a measure of the oil's resistance to shear between
the individual layers. It varies inversely with temperature. Viscosity is also affected by
pressure; higher pressure causes the viscosity to increase, and subsequently the load-
carrying capacity of the oil also increases.
b) Viscosity index: - commonly designated VI, is an arbitrary numbering scale that
indicates the changes in oil viscosity with changes in temperature. A high VI indicates small
oil viscosity changes with temperature.
c) Pour point: - is the lowest temperature at which an oil will flow.
d) Cloud point. Is the temperature at which dissolved solids in the oil, such as paraffin
wax, begin to form and separate from the oil.
e) Flash point and fire point. The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a
lubricant must be heated before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to
burn. The fire point for a lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point.
f) Acid number or neutralization number. The acid or neutralization number is a
measure of the amount of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the acid contained in
a lubricant. Acids are formed as oils oxidize with age and service. The acid number for an oil
sample is indicative of the age of the oil and can be used to determine when the oil must be
changed.
heavy load forms the oil film with difficulty choose high viscosity oil.
high speed high friction choose low viscosity oil.
high temperature diluted oil choose high viscosity oil.
high beta ratio easily piled out choose the oil with high viscosity.
Is a semifluid to solid mixture of a fluid lubricant, a thickener, and additives. lubricant
that performs the actual lubrication can be petroleum oil, synthetic oil, or vegetable oil. The
thickener gives grease its characteristic consistency and is sometimes thought of as a
three-dimensional fibrous network or sponge that holds the oil in place. Common
thickeners are soaps and organic or inorganic nonsoap thickeners. Additives enhance
Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
Lubricant selection guidelines-
Grease
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performance and protect the grease and lubricated surfaces. Grease has been described
as a temperature-regulated feeding device: when the lubricant film between wearing
surfaces thins, the resulting heat softens the adjacent grease, which expands and releases
oil to restore film thickness.

The function of grease is to remain in contact with and lubricate moving surfaces
without leaking out under gravity or centrifugal action, or be squeezed out under pressure.
Its major practical requirement is that it retain its properties under shear at all temperatures
that it is subjected to during use.
Notable disadvantages of grease:
1) Poor cooling. Due to its consistency grease cannot dissipate heat by convection unlike
circulating oil.
2) Resistance to motion. Grease has more resistance to motion at start-up than oil, so it is
not appropriate for low torque/high speed operation.
Dispersed in its base fluid, a soap thickener gives grease its physical character.
Soap thickeners not only provide consistency to grease, they affect desired properties
such as water and heat resistance and pumpability. They can affect the amount of an
additive, such as a rust inhibitor, required to obtain a desired quality. The soap influences
how a grease will flow, change shape, and age as it is mechanically worked and at
temperature extremes. Each soap type brings its own characteristic properties to grease.
Commonly used greases and their characteristic properties are:-
Calcium-base : good water resisting property, poor thermal stability and cheap.
Sodium-base : good thermal and anti-corrosion property; poor water resisting property.
Lithium-base : good water resisting property, poor thermal stability.
Aluminium-base : good water resisting property, rust inhibition poor thermal stability.
Additives in the form of solid lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide and graphite
are added to grease in certain applications for high temperatures (above 315C) and
extreme high-pressure applications. Incorporating solid additives requires frequent grease
changes to prevent accumulation of solids in components (and the resultant wear).
Smooth, buttery-textured lithium grease is by far the most popular when compared
to all others. The normal grease contains lithium 12-hydroxystearate soap. It has a
dropping point around 204 C and can be used at temperatures up to about 135C. It has
good shear stability and a relatively low coefficient of friction,
Lithium complex grease and lithium soap grease have similar properties except the
complex grease has superior thermal stability as indicated by a dropping point of 260C. It
is generally considered to be the nearest thing to a true multipurpose grease.
Function
Soap Thickeners
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Gears
1. General
Gear Types
i) Herringbone:
ii) Bevel.
iii) Worm
Energy is transmitted from a power source to a terminal point, through gears that
change speeds, directions, and torque. The important objectives accomplished
bylubricants include: reduction of friction and wear, corrosion prevention, operating noise,
improvement in heat transfer, and removal of foreign or wear particles from the critical
contact areas of the gear tooth surfaces.
l Spur gears. Tooth contact is primarily rolling, with sliding occurring during
engagement and disengagement.
l Rack and pinion. Is essentially a variation of spur gears.
l Helical. Helical gears operate with less noise and vibration than spur gears. The
load is distributed over several teeth, their angular cut, teeth meshing results in
thrust loads along the gear shaft. Require thrust bearings to absorb the thrust load
and maintain gear alignment.
Are essentially two side-by-side opposite-hand helical gears. This
design eliminates thrust loads, but alignment is very critical to ensure correct teeth
engagement.
Bevel gears are used to transmit motion between shafts with intersecting
center lines. The intersecting angle is normally 90 deg but may be as high as 180 deg.
When the mating gears are equal in size and the shafts are positioned at 90 degrees to
each other, they are referred to as miter gears. The teeth of bevel gears can also be cut in a
curved manner to produce spiral bevel gears, which produce smoother and quieter
operation than straight cut bevels.
. Operation of worm gears is analogous to a screw. The uniform distribution
of tooth pressures on these gears enables use of metals with inherently low coefficients of
friction such as bronze wheel gears with hardened steel worm gears. These gears rely on
full fluid film lubrication and require heavy oil compounded to enhance lubricity and film
strength to prevent metal contact.
iv) Hypoid. Hypoid gears are similar to spiral bevel gears except that the shaft center
lines do not intersect. Hypoid gears combine the rolling action and high tooth pressure of
spiral bevels with the sliding action of worm gears. This combination and the all-steel
construction of the drive and driven gear result in a gear set with special lubrication
requirements, including oiliness and antiweld additives to withstand the high tooth
pressures and high rubbing speeds.
v) Annular. Annular gears have the same tooth design as spur and helical gears, but
unlike these gears, the annular gear has an internal configuration. The tooth action and
lubrication requirements for annular gears are similar to spur and helical gears.
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3. Gear Wear and Failure
Fatigue.
Wear.
i) Adhesion.
Gear failures can be traced to mechanical problems or lubricant failure.The most
common failures are due to particle contamination of the lubricant.Water contamination
can cause rust on working surfaces.
Normal wear. Normal wear occurs in new gears during the initial running-in period.
The rolling and sliding action of the mating teeth create mild wear that appears as a smooth
and polished surface.
Pitting. Pitting occurs when fatigue cracks are initiated on the tooth surface or just
below the surface. Usually pits are the result of surface cracks caused by metal-to-metal
contact of asperities or defects due to low lubricant film thickness. High-speed gears with
smooth surfaces and good film thickness may experience pitting due to subsurface cracks.
New gears contain surface imperfections or roughness that are inherent to the
manufacturing process. During the initial run-in period, these imperfections are reduced
through wear. Smoothing of the gear surfaces is to be expected . Mild wear will occur even
when adequate lubrication is provided, but this wear is limited to the oxide layer of the gear
teeth. Mild wear is beneficial because it increases the contact areas and equalizes the load
pressures on gear tooth surfaces. Furthermore, the smooth gear surfaces increase the film
thickness and improve lubrication.
The amount of wear that is acceptable depends on the expected life, noise, and
vibration of the gear units. Excessive wear is characterized by loss of tooth profile, which
results in high loading, and loss of tooth thickness, which may cause bending fatigue.
Wear cannot be completely eliminated. Speed, lubricant viscosity, and temperature
impose practical limits on gear operating conditions. Gears that are highly loaded, operate
at slow speeds, i.e., less than 30 m/min , and rely on boundary lubrication are particularly
subject to excessive wear. Slow-speed adhesive wear is highly dependent upon lubricant
viscosity. Higher lubricant viscosities provide significant wear reduction, but viscosities
must be carefully selected to prevent overheating.
ii) Abrasion. Abrasive wear is caused by particle contaminants in the lubricant.
Remove internal contamination from new gearboxes. Drain and flush the lubricant before
initial start-up and again after 50 hours of operation. Refill with the manufacturer's
recommended lubricant. Install new filters or breathers.
iii) Polishing. Polishing wear is characterized by a mirror-like finish of the gear teeth.
Polishing is caused by antiscuff additives that are too chemically reactive.
iv) Scuffing. Solidphase welding characterized by material transfer between sliding
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surfaces. Is generally due to poor lubrication. Scratching is due to mis-match of faces.
I) Film strength. Good film strength helps prevent metal contact and scoring between
the gear teeth.
ii) Lubricity (oiliness). Lubricity is necessary to reduce friction.
iii) Adhesion. Helps prevent loss of lubrication due to throw-off associated with gravity
or centrifugal force especially at high speeds.
iv) Gear speed. gear speed is a factor in the selection of proper oil viscosity. The pitch
line velocity determines the contact time between gear teeth. High velocities are generally
associated with light loads and very short contact times. For these applications, low-
viscosity oils are usually adequate. In contrast, low speeds are associated with high loads
and long contact times. These conditions require higher-viscosity oils.
v) Temperature. Ambient and operating temperatures also determine the selection of
gear lubricants.
Normal gear oil operating temperature ranges from 50 to 55 C above ambient. Oils
operating at high temperature require good viscosity and high resistance to oxidation and
foaming. Oil for gears operating at low ambient temperatures must be able to flow easily
and provide adequate viscosity. Therefore these gear oils must possess high viscosity
indices and low pour points.
Types of gear lubricants
i) Rust and oxidation oils. These petroleum-based oils are frequently referred to as RO
gear oils. RO oils are the most common gear lubricants and have been formulated to
include chemical additives that enhance their performance qualities.
ii) Synthetic oils are better but costlier.
(2) Special compounds and greases. These lubricants include special greases
formulated for boundary lubricating conditions such as low-speed, low-load applications
where high film strength is required. These lubricants usually contain a base oil, a thickener,
and a solid lubricant such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) or graphite.
Worm gears operate under high sliding velocity and moderate loads. The
sliding action produces friction that produces higher operating temperatures than those
that occur in other gear sets. Normal operating temperature for worm gears may rise to
93C and is not a cause for concern. Lubricants for worm gears must resist the thinning due
to high temperatures and the wiping effect of sliding action, and they must provide
adequate cooling. Mineral oils compounded with lubricity additives are recommended.
Extreme pressure additives are usually not required for worm gears.
4. Gear Lubrication

139
Window to Power Station
140
Window to Power Station
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141
Window to Power Station
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142
Window to Power Station
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144
Window to Power Station
Bed coil leakage due to
caustic gauging in the
coils.(12 O' clock position).
B o i l e r F e e d P u m p s
failure/seizure due to sudden
decrease of pump suction
pressure and vaporization of
feed water in Deaerator leads
to dry running of pump. On
account of sudden load
reduction in the event of
switching off if One ID or One FD
fan.
FD fan motor reactor /choke
got burnt due to overheat.
Bed ash cooler system not
working due to inadequate
capacity and cooling system.
Coal feeding to bunker is
difficult during rainy season,
due to choking of chutes also
frequent failure of flip flow
vibrating screen due to feather
springs damage.
Unburnt (LOI) in ash is high in
AFBC @ 5% to 8% so Cement
plants are not accepting the
Ash.
Bed coi l t hi cknes s t es t
conducted and replaced
affected coils.
Augmentations
a) BFP suction line number
of bends reduced to 5 from 11.
b) ID / FD fan motor control
circuit by replacing SPPR by
MPR 300 (multi functional relay)

C) Deaerator pegging
steam line kept in hot stand-by
to maintain the constant
pressure in Deaerator in the
event of Turbine bleed pressure
reduces during sudden load
reduction.
d) BFP with 15 stages instead
of 14 stages being procured.
Augmentati on of cool i ng
system to all the VFD panels
and cooling duct.
Bed ash coolers provided by
CVL r emov ed and al l
compartments bottom ash
drains connected to common
header with water jacketing for
cooling and compressed air
for conveyance.
a)Locally made new vibrating
screen has been installed for
emergency.
b)Flip flow screen feather
springs removed and taken in
service.
c)Coal storage sheds erected.
d)BC-9 conveyor installed for
proper mixing of 4000 CV coal.
Thermact additive tried in
combustion and could bring it
down to 2.5% against 2%
required by Cement plants.
a) Faul t y cont r ol l er SMPS
changed.
Plant outage minimized.
a)Feed Pump suction head
improved.



b)Mal-tripping of FD/ID fan
motors avoided.
c) T he phenomenon of
vaporization of feed water in
deaerator has been avoided
and mai ntai ned constant
suction pressure to the pump.
d)Tripping of unit due low drum
level will be avoided.
Now panels are not getting
overheated.
Operation became easy and
safe.
Coal f eedi ng t o bunker
became easy in any condition.
Partially successful.
PROBLEMS M0DIFICATIONS ACHIEVEMENTS
9.3 Problems, Modification & Achievements.
145
Window to Power Station
DCS controller hang-up, stand-
by cont r ol l er f aul t y and
Engineering station hard disk
failure. Dust accumulation on
controllers.
Turbine over speeding in the
event of grid failures.
Cooling water inlet pressure to
condenser is 1.5 kg/cm,which
is less than rated pressure of 2.5
kg/cm at 30MW, and 3.0
kg/cm at V W O condition.
Frequent Vacuum drop due to
flow of HPH condensate to
condenser flash box through
emergency drain line.
De-super heat water spray
quantity is more as tapping is
from HPH outlet(200C) instead
of BFP out let (145C)
RSH O/L Steam temp. control is
di f f i cul t dur i ng s t ar t - up
condition as super heating
arrangement is not provided
between CSH & RSH.
b) hard disk changed.
c)Glass partition has been done
for DCS control panel from
control room.
a) Wood war d gov er nor
tuning with the control valve
has done.
b)Provided 3min.delay to trip
Turbine on inlet pressure high.
a)Cooling tower pond wall
height increased by 0.5 mtr.
b) CW pumps i mpel l er s
replaced with higher capacity.
c)CT fan blade angle increased.
a) HP H/ L P H baf f l e pl at e
complete welding has been
done by M/s Siemens and M/s
Mazda.
b)Ejector drain pipe line's steam
trap and height of siphon
changed.
c)Air evacuation line from
condenser to ejector rerouted.
Modification to be done in next
shut down.
New de-super heating line to be
installed in next shut down.
Tripping due to DCS fault
avoided.
Over speeding of Turbine
avoided.
CW pump suct i on head
i mpr oved but coul d not
achieved the pressure 2.5
kg/cm at the inlet of condenser.
No vacuum drop.
Less de-super heat spray hence
better steam to Turbine.
Rapid loading after trip out will
be possible.
PROBLEMS M0DIFICATIONS ACHIEVEMENTS
DESCRIPTION 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL
GRID FAILURES 34 33 16 83
BOILER TUBE LEAKAGE 2 6 2 10
BOILER AUX.FAIL 12 6 22 40
TURBINE AUX.FAIL 11 NIL 16 27
DCS FAILURES NIL 4 3 7
OTHERS 7 7 3 17
TOTAL 66 56 62 184
UNIT TRIPPINGS SINCE COMMISSIONING
146
Window to Power Station