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Complex Numbers
The complex number system
Indian mathematician Mahavira (850 A.D.) was first to mention in his work 'Ganitasara Sangraha'; 'As in
nature of things a negative (quantity) is not a square (quantity), it has, therefore, no square root'. Hence
there is no real number x which satisfies the polynomial equation x
2
+ 1 = 0.
A symbol
1
, denoted by letter i was intrdouced by Swiss Mathematician, Leonhard Euler
(1707-1783) in 1748 to provide solutions of equation x
2
+ 1 = 0. i was regarded as a fictitious or
imaginary number which could be manipulated algebrically like an ordinary real number, except that its
square was 1. The letter i was used to denote
1
, possibly because i is the first letter of the Latin
word 'imaginarius'.
To permit solutions of such polynomial equations, the set of complex numbers is introduced. We can
consider a complex number as having the form a + bi where a and b are real number. It is denoted by
z i.e. z = a + ib. a is called as real part of z which is denoted by (Re z) and b is called as imaginary
part of z, which is denoted by (Im z).
Any complex number is :
(i) Purely real, if b = 0 ;
(ii) Imaginary, if b = 0.
(iii) Purely imaginary, if a = 0
Note : (a) The set R of real numbers is a proper subset of the Complex Numbers. Hence the complete
number system is N c W c I c Q c R c C.
(b) Zero is purely real as well as purely imaginary but not imaginary.
(c) i = 1 is called the imaginary unit.
Also i = 1; i
3
= i ; i
4
= 1 etc.
(d)
a b
= a b only if atleast one of a or b is non - negative.
(e) If z = a + ib, then a ib is called complex conjugate of z and written as z = a ib
(f) Real numbers satisfy order relations where as imaginary numbers do not satisfy order relations
i.e. i > 0, 3 + i < 2 are meaningless.
Self Practice Problems
(1) Write the following as complex number
(i)
16
(ii)
x
, (x > 0) (iii) b +
ac 4
, (a, c> 0)
(2) Write the following as complex number
(i) x (x < 0) (ii) roots of x
2
(2 cosu) x + 1 = 0
Answers : (1) (i) 0 + 4i (ii) x + 0i (iii) b + i ac 4
(2) (i) 0 + i x (ii) cos u + i sin u , cos u i sin u
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Algebraic Operati ons:
Fundamental operations with complex numbers
In performing operations with complex numbers we can proceed as in the algebra of real numbers,
replacing i
2
by 1 when it occurs.
1. Addition (a + bi) + (c + di) = a + bi + c + di = (a + c) + (b + d) i
2. Subtraction (a + bi) (c + di) = a + bi c di = (a c) + (b d) i
3. Multiplication (a + bi) (c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
= (ac bd) + (ad+ bc)i
4. Division
di c
bi a
+
+
=
di c
bi a
+
+
.
di c
di c

=
2 2 2
2
i d c
bdi bci adi ac

+
=
2 2
d c
i ) ad bc ( bd ac
+
+ +
=
2 2
d c
bd ac
+
+
+
i
d c
ad bc
2 2
+

Inequalities in imaginary numbers are not defined. There is no validity if we say that imaginary number
is positive or negative.
e.g. z > 0, 4 + 2i < 2 + 4 i are meaningless.
In real numbers if a
2
+ b
2
= 0 then a = 0 = b however in complex numbers,
z
1
2
+ z
2
2
= 0 does not imply z
1
= z
2
= 0.
Example # 1 : Find multiplicative inverse of 3 + 2i.
Solution : Let z be the multiplicative inverse of 3 + 2i. then
z . (3 + 2i) = 1
z =
i 2 3
1
+
=
( ) ( ) i 2 3 i 2 3
i 2 3
+

z =
13
3

13
2
i
|
.
|

\
|
i
13
2
13
3
Ans.
Self Practice Problem :
(3) Simplify i
n+100
+ i
n+50
+ i
n+48
+ i
n+46
, n e I .
Answer : 0
Equality In Complex Number :
Two complex numbers z
1
= a
1
+ ib
1
& z
2
= a
2
+ ib
2
are equal if and only if their real and imaginary parts
are equal respectively
i.e. z
1
= z
2
Re(z
1
) = Re(z
2
) and I
m
(z
1
) = I
m
(z
2
).
Example # 2 : Find the value of x and y for which (2 + 3i) x
2
(3 2i) y = 2x 3y + 5i where x, y e R.
Solution (2 + 3i)x
2
(3 2i)y = 2x 3y + 5i
2x
2
3y = 2x 3y
x
2
x = 0
x = 0, 1 and 3x
2
+ 2y = 5
if x = 0,y =
2
5
and if x = 1, y = 1
x = 0, y =
2
5
and x = 1, y = 1
are two solutions of the given equation which can also be represented as
|
.
|

\
|
2
5
, 0
& (1, 1)
|
.
|

\
|
2
5
, 0
, (1, 1)
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Example # 3 : Find the value of expression x
4
4x
3
+ 3x
2
2x + 1 when x = 1 + i is a factor of expression.
Solution : x = 1 + i
x 1 = i
(x 1)
2
= 1
x
2
2x + 2 = 0
Now x
4
4x
3
+ 3x
2
2x + 1
= (x
2
2x + 2) (x
2
3x 3) 4x + 7
when x = 1 + i i.e. x
2
2x + 2 = 0
x
4
4x
3
+ 3x
2
2x + 1 = 0 4 (1 + i) + 7 = 4 + 7 4i = 3 4i
Example # 4 : Solve for z if z
2
+ |z| = 0
Solution : Let z= x + iy
(x + iy)
2
+
2 2
y x + = 0
x
2
y
2
+
2 2
y x + = 0 and 2xy = 0
x = 0 or y = 0
when x = 0 y
2
+ | y | = 0
y = 0, 1, 1
z = 0, i, i
when y = 0 x
2
+ | x | = 0
x = 0 z = 0
Ans. z = 0, z = i, z = i
Example # 5 : Find square root of 9 + 40i
Solution : Let x + iy = i 40 9 +
(x + iy)
2
= 9 + 40i
x
2
y
2
= 9 ...............(i)
and xy = 20 ...............(ii)
squaring (i) and adding with 4 times the square of (ii)
we get x
4
+ y
4
2x
2
y
2
+ 4x
2
y
2
= 81 + 1600
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
= 1681
x
2
+ y
2
= 41 ...............(iii)
from (i) + (iii) we get x
2
= 25 x = 5
and y
2
= 16 y = 4
from equation (ii) we can see that
x & y are of same sign
x + iy = (5 + 4i) or (5 + 4i)
sq. roots of a + 40i = (5 + 4i)
Ans. (5 + 4i)
Self Practice Problem
(4) Solve for z : z = i z
2
(5) Given that x, y e R, solve : 4x + 3xy + (2xy 3x)i = 4y (x
2
/2) + (3xy 2y)i
Answers : (4)
2
3

2
1
i, 0, i (5) x = K, y =
3
2
K
K e R
Representation of a complex number :
Early in the 19
th
century, Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777 1855) and William Rowan Hamilton
(1805 1865) independently and almost simultaneously proposed idea of defining complex number as
ordered pair of real numbers. i.e. a + ib = (a, b)
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To each complex number there corresponds one and only one point in plane, and conversely to each
point in the plane there corresponds one and only one complex number. Because of this we often refer
to the complex number z as the point z.
(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representati on) :
Every complex number z = x + i y can be represented by a point on the Cartesian plane
known as complex plane (Argand diagram) by the ordered pair (x, y).
Length OP is called modulus of the complex number which is denoted by |z| & u is called the
argument or amplitude.
|z| = x y
2 2
+ and tan u =
|
.
|

\
|
x
y
(angle made by OP with positive xaxis)
Note : (i) Argument of a complex number is a many valued function. If u is the argument of a complex
number then 2nt + u; n e I will also be the argument of that complex number. Any two
arguments of a complex number differ by 2nt.
(ii) The unique value of u such that t < u s t is called the principal value of the argument.
Unless otherwise stated, amp z implies principal value of the argument.
(iii) By specifying the modulus & argument a complex number is defined completely. For the complex
number 0 + 0 i the argument is not defined and this is the only complex number which is only
given by its modulus.
(b) Trignometric/Pol ar Representation :
z = r (cos u + i sin u) where |z| = r; arg z = u ; z = r (cos u i sin u)
Note : cos u + i sin u is also written as CiS u
(c) Euler' s Formula :
z = re
iu
, |z| = r, arg z = u
z =
u i
re
Proof of this formula is beyond scope of present discussion. Aheuristic proof serving as motivation
for this formula is by considering expansion.
e
x
= 1 +
! 1
x
+
! 2
x
2
+
! 3
x
3
+ ..........
put x = i u
e
iu
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

u
+
u
.......
! 4 ! 2
1
4 2
+ i
|
|
.
|

\
|

u
+
u
u .......
! 5 ! 3
5 3
= cos u + i sin u.
Note: If u is real then
cos u =
2
e e
i i u u
+
sin u =
i 2
e e
i i u u

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(d) Vectorial Representati on :
Every complex number can be considered as the position vector of a point. If the point P
represents the complex number z then, OP

= z & |OP

| = |z|.
Agrument of a Complex Number :
Argument of a non-zero complex number P(z) is denoted and defined by arg(z) = angle which OP
makes with the positive direction of real axis.
If OP = |z| = r and arg(z) = u, then obviously z = r(cosu + isinu), called the polar form of z. 'Argument of
z' would mean principal argument of z(i.e. argument lying in ( t, t] unless the context requires
otherwise. Thus argument of a complex number z = a + ib = r(cosu + isinu) is the value of u satisfying
rcosu = a and rsinu = b.
Let u = tan
1
a
b
(i) a > 0, b > 0 p.v. arg z = u
(ii) a = 0, b > 0 p.v. arg z =
2
t
(iii) a < 0, b > 0 p.v. arg z = t u
(iv) a < 0, b = 0 p.v. arg z = t
(v) a < 0, b < 0 p.v. arg z = (t u)
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(vi) a = 0, b < 0 p.v. arg z =
2
t
(vii) a > 0, b < 0 p.v. arg z = u
(viii) a > 0, b = 0 p.v. arg z = 0
Example # 6 : Express the complex number z = 1 +
2
i in polar form.
Solution. z = 1 + i 2
| z | =
( )
2
2
2 ) 1 ( +
= 2 1+ = 3
Arg z = t tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
= t tan
1
) 2 ( = u (say)
z =
3
(cos u + i sin u ) where u = t tan
1
2
Self Practice Problems
(6) Find the principal argument and |z|. If z =
i 2
) i 9 ( i

+
(7) Find the |z| and principal argument of the complex number z = 6(cos 310 i sin 310)
Answers : (6) tan
1
11
17
,
5
82
(7) 6, 50
Geometrical Representation of Fundamental Operations :
(i) Geometrical representation of addition.
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If two points P and Q represent complex numbers z
1
and z
2
respectively in the Argand plane, then the
sum z
1
+ z
2
is represented by the extremity R of the diagonal OR of parallelogram OPRQ having
OP and OQ as two adjacent sides.
(ii) Geometric representation of substraction.
(iii) Modulus and argument of multiplication of two complex numbers.
Theorem : For any two complex numbers z
1
, z
2
we have |z
1
z
2
| = |z
1
| |z
2
| and
arg (z
1
z
2
) = arg (z
1
) + arg (z
2
).
Proof : z
1
= r
1
1
i
e
u
, z
2
= r
2
2
i
e
u
z
1
z
2
= r
2
r
2
) ( i
2 1
e
u + u
|z
1
z
2
| = |z
1
| |z
2
|
arg (z
1
z
2
) = arg (z
1
) + arg (z
2
)
i.e. to multiply two complex numbers, we multiply their absolute values and add their
arguments.
Note : (i) P.V. arg (z
1
z
2
) = P.V. arg (z
1
) + P.V. arg (z
2
)
(ii) |z
1
z
2
.... z
n
| = |z
1
| |z
2
| ..... |z
n
|
(iii) arg (z
1
z
2
.... z
n
) = arg z
1
+ arg z
2
+ ..... + arg z
n
(iv) Geometrical representation of multiplication of complex numbers.
Let P, Q be represented by z
1
= r
1
1
i
e
u
, z
2
= r
2
2
i
e
u
repectively. To find point R representing
complex number z
1
z
2
, we take a point L on real axis such that OL = 1 and draw triangle OQR
similar to triangle OLP. Therefore
OQ
OR
=
OL
OP
OR = OP.OQ i.e. OR = r
1
r
2
and R O

Q = u
1
R O

L = P O

L + Q O

P + R O

Q = u
1
+ u
2
u
1
+ u
1
= u
1
+ u
2
Hence, R is represented by z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
) ( i
2 1
e
u + u
(v) Modulus and argument of division of two complex numbers.
Theorem : If z
1
and z
2
(=0) are two compl ex numbers, then
2
1
z
z
=
| z |
| z |
2
1
and
arg
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
z
z
= arg (z
1
) arg (z
2
)
Note : P.V. arg
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
z
z
= P.V. arg (z
1
) P.V. arg (z
2
)
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(vi) Geometrical representation of the division of complex numbers.
Let P, Q be represented by z
1
=
1
i
1
e r
u
, z
2
=
2
i
2
e r
u
respectively. To find point R representing
complex number
2
1
z
z
, we take a point L on real axis such that OL = 1 and draw a triangle OPR
similar to OQL. Therefore
OQ
OP
=
OL
OR
OR =
2
1
r
r
and R O

L = P O

L P O

R = u
1
u
2
Hence, R is represented by
2
1
z
z
=
2
1
r
r
) ( i
2 1
e
u u
.
Conjugate of a complex Number :
Conjugate of a complex number z = a + ib is denoted and defined by z = a ib.
In a complex number if we replace i by i, we get conjugate of the complex number. z is the mirror
image of z about real axis on Argand's Plane.
Geometrical representation of conjugate of complex number.
|z| = | z |
arg ) z ( = arg (z)
General value of arg ) z ( = 2nt P.V. arg (z)
Proper t i es
(i) If z = x + iy, then x =
2
z z +
, y =
i 2
z z
(ii) z = z z is purely real
(iii) z + z = 0 z is purely imaginary
(iv) Relation between modulus and conjugate. |z|
2
= z z
(v)
z z =
(vi) ) z z (
2 1
=
1
z
2
z
(vii) ) z z (
2 1
=
1
z
2
z
(viii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
z
z
=
) z (
) z (
2
1
(z
2
= 0)
Theorem : Imaginary roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate
pairs
Proof : If z
0
is a root of a
0
z
n
+ a
1
z
n1
+ ...... + a
n1
z + a
n
= 0,
a
0
, a
1
, ....... a
n
e R, then
n
0 0
z a +
1 n
0 1
z a

+ ....... + a
n1
z
0
+ a
n
= 0
By using property (vi) and (vii) we have
n
0 0
z a +
1 n
0 1
z a

+ ....... +
0 1 n
z a

+ a
n
= 0

0
z is also a root.
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Note : If w = f(z), then w = f( z )
Theorem : |z
1
z
2
|
2
= |z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
(z
1 2
z +
1
z z
2
)
= |z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
2 Re(z
1 2
z )
= |z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
2 |z
1
| |z
2
| cos (u
1
u
2
)
Example # 7 : If
1 z
1 z
+

is purely imaginary, then prove that | z | = 1


Solution : Re |
.
|

\
|
+

1 z
1 z
= 0

1 z
1 z
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 z
1 z
= 0

1 z
1 z
+

+
1 z
1 z
+

= 0
z z z + z 1 + z z z + z 1 = 0
z z = 1
| z |
2
= 1
| z | = 1 Hence proved
Self Practice Problem
(8) If
2 1
2 1
z z 2
z 2 z

is unimodulus and z
2
is not unimodulus then find |z
1
|.
(9) If z = x + iy and f(z) = x
2
y
2
2y + i(2x 2xy), then show that f(z) =
2
z + 2iz
(10) If x + iy =
id c
ib a
+
+
prove that (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
=
2 2
2 2
d c
b a
+
+
Answer : (8) |z
1
| = 2
Di stance, Tri angul ar I nequal i ty
If z
1
= x
1
+ iy
1
, z
2
= x
2
+ iy
2
, then distance between points z
1
, z
2
in argand plane is
|z
1
z
2
| =
2
2 1
2
2 1
) y y ( ) x x ( +
In triangle OAC
OC s OA + AC
OA s AC + OC
AC s OA + OC
using these in equalities we have ||z
1
| |z
2
|| s |z
1
+ z
2
| s |z
1
| + |z
2
|
Similarly from triangle OAB
we have ||z
1
| |z
2
|| s |z
1
z
2
| s |z
1
| + |z
2
|
Note : (a) ||z
1
| |z
2
|| = |z
1
+ z
2
|, |z
1
z
2
| = |z
1
| + |z
2
| iff origin, z
1
and z
2
are collinear and origin lies
between z
1
and z
2
.
(b) |z
1
+ z
2
| = |z
1
| + |z
2
|, ||z
1
| |z
2
|| = |z
1
z
2
| iff origin, z
1
and z
2
are collinear and z
1
and z
2
lies
on the same side of origin.
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10
Example # 8 : If |z 5 7i| = 9, then find the greatest and least values of |z 2 3i|.
Solution : We have 9 = |z (5 + 7i)| = distance between z and 5 + 7i.
Thus locus of z is the circle of radius 9 and centre at 5 + 7i. For such a z (on the circle), we
have to find its greatest and least distance as from 2 + 3i, which obviously 14 and 4.
Example # 9 : Find the minimum value of |1 + z| + |1 z|.
Solution |1 + z| + |1 z| > |1 + z + 1 z| (triangle inequality)
|1 + z | + |1 z| > 2
minimum value of (|1 + z| + |1 z|) = 2
Geometrically |z + 1| + |1 z| = |z + 1| + |z 1|
which represents sum of distances of z from 1 and 1
it can be seen easily that minimum (PA + PB) = AB = 2
Example # 10 :
z
2
z
= 1 then find the maximum and minimum value of |z|
Solution :
z
2
z
= 1
z
2
| z |
s
2
2
z
s | z | +
z
2

Let | z | = r

r
2
r
s 1 s r +
r
2
r +
r
2
> 1 r e R
+
..............(i)
and
r
2
r
s 1 1 s r
r
2
s 1
r e [1, 2] ..............(ii)
from (i) and (ii) r e [1, 2]
r e [1, 2]
Ans. |z|
max
= 2, |z|
min
=1
Self Practice Problem
(11) |z 3| < 1 and |z 4i| > M then find the positive real value of M for which these exist at least
one complex number z satisfy both the equation.
(12) If z lies on circle |z| = 2, then show that
3 z 4 z
1
2 4
+
s
3
1
Answer : (11) M e (0, 6)
Rotati on
Important results :
(i) arg z = u represnets points (non-zero) on ray eminating from origin making an angle u with
positive direction of real axis
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11
(ii) arg (z z
1
) = u represents points (=z
1
) on ray eminating from z
1
making an angle u with positive
direction of real axis
Example # 11 : Solve for z, which satisfy Arg (z 3 2i) =
6
t
and Arg (z 3 4i) =
3
2t
.
Solution : From the figure, it is clear that there is no z, which satisfy both ray
Example # 12 : Sketch the region given by
(i) Arg (z 1 i) > t/3
(ii) |z| s 5 & Arg (z i 1) > t/6
Solution :
(i)
t
t
(ii)
t
t
Self Practice Problems
(13) Sketch the region given by
(i) |Arg (z i 2)| < t/4 (ii) Arg (z + 1 i) s t/6
(14) Consider the region |z 15i| s 10. Find the point in the region which has
(i) max |z| (ii) min |z|
(iii) max arg (z) (iv) min arg (z)
Answers : (13) (i) (ii)
(14) (i) 25i (ii) 5 i (iii) t tan
1
2
5
(iv) tan
1
2
5
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12
Rotation theorem :
(i) If P(z
1
) and Q(z
z
) are two complex numbers such that |z
1
| = |z
2
|, then z
2
= z
1
e
iu
where u = ZPOQ
(ii) If P(z
1
), Q(z
2
) and R(z
3
) are three complex numbers and ZPQR = u, then
|
|
.
|

\
|

2 1
2 3
z z
z z
=
2 1
2 3
z z
z z

e
iu
(iii) If P(z
1
), Q(z
2
), R(z
3
) and S(z
4
) are four complex numbers and ZSTQ = u, then
2 1
4 3
z z
z z

=
2 1
4 3
z z
z z

e
iu
Example # 13 : If arg
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 z
1 z
=
3
t
then interpret the locus.
Solution : arg
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 z
1 z
=
3
t
arg
|
.
|

\
|


z 1
z 1
=
3
t
Here arg
|
.
|

\
|


z 1
z 1
represents the angle between lines joining 1 and z, and 1 and z. As this
angle is constant, the locus of z will be a larger segment of circle. (angle in a segment is
constant).
Example # 14 : If A(2 + 3i) and B(3 + 4i) are two vertices of a square ABCD (take in anticlock wise order) then
find C and D.
Solution : Let affix of C and D are z
3
and z
4
respectively.
Considering ZDAB = 90 and AD = AB
we get
) i 3 2 ( ) i 4 3 (
) i 3 2 ( z
4
+ +
+
=
2
i
e
AB
AD
t
z
4
(2 + 3i) = (1 + i) i
z
4
= 2 + 3i+ i 1 = 1 + 4i
and
) i 4 3 ( ) i 3 2 (
) i 4 3 ( z
3
+ +
+
=
2
i

e
AB
CB
t
z
3
= 3 + 4i (1 + i) (i)
z
3
= 3 + 4i + i 1 = 2 + 5i
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
Self Practice Problems
(15) z
1
, z
2
, z
3
, z
4
are the vertices of a square taken in anticlockwise order then prove that
2z
2
= (1 + i) z
1
+ (1 i) z
3
(16) Check that z
1
z
2
and z
3
z
4
are parallel or, not
where, z
1
= 1 + i z
3
= 4 + 2i
z
2
= 2 i z
4
= 1 i
(17) P is a point on the argand diagram on the circle with OP as diameter, two point Q and R are
taken such that ZPOQ = ZQOR = u. If O is the origin and P, Q, R are represented by complex
z
1
, z
2
, z
3
respectively then show that z
2
2
cos 2u = z
1
z
3
cos
2
u
(18) If a, b, c ; u, v, w are complex numbers representing the vertices of two triangles such that
c = (1 r) a + rb, w = (1 r) u + rv where r is a complex number show that the two triangles are
similiar.
Answers : (16) z
1
z
2
and z
3
z
4
are not parallel.
Demoivres Theorem:
Case I
Statement :
If n is any integer then
(i) (cos u + i sin u )
n
= cos nu + i sin nu
(ii) (cos u
1
+ i sin u
1
) (cos u
2
+ i sin u
2
) (cosu
3
+ i sin u
2
) (cos u
3
+ i sin u
3
) .....(cos u
n
+ i sin u
n
)
= cos (u
1
+ u
2
+ u
3
+ ......... u
n
) + i sin (u
1
+ u
2
+ u
3
+ ....... + u
n
)
Case II
Statement : If p, q e Z and q = 0 then
(cos u + i sin u)
p/q
= cos
|
|
.
|

\
| u + t
q
p k 2
+ i sin
|
|
.
|

\
| u + t
q
p k 2
where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ......, q 1
Note : Continued product of the roots of a complex quantity should be determined using theory of equations.
Self practice problems :
(19) Prove the identities :
(a) cos 5u = 16 cos
5
u 20 cos
3
u + 5 cos u; (b) (sin 5u) / (sin u) = 16 cos
4
u 12 cos
2
u + 1,
if u = 0, t , 2t .........
(20) Prove that indetities (a) sin
3
u =
4
3
sin u
4
1
sin 3u , (b) cos
4
u =
8
1
cos 4u +
2
1
cos 2u +
8
3
Cube Root of Unity :
(i) The cube roots of unity are 1,
+ 1 3
2
i
,
1 3
2
i
.
(ii) If e is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 + e + e = 0. In general 1 + e
r
+ e
2r
= 0;
where r e I but is not the multiple of 3.
(iii) In polar form the cube roots of unity are :
cos 0 + i sin 0; cos
2
3
t
+ i sin
2
3
t
, cos
4
3
t
+ i sin
4
3
t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
(iv) The three cube roots of unity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the verties of an
equilateral triangle.
(v) The following factorisation should be remembered :
(a, b, c e R & e is the cube root of unity)
a
3
b
3
= (a b) (a eb) (a eb) ; x
2
+ x + 1 = (x e) (x e
2
) ;
a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b) (a + eb) (a + e
2
b) ; a
2
+ ab + b
2
= (a be) (a be
2
)
a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
3abc = (a + b + c) (a + eb + ec) (a + eb + ec)
Example # 15 : Find the value of e
192
+ e
194
Solution : e
192
+ e
194
= 1 + e
2
= e
Example #16: If 1, e, e
2
are cube roots of unity, then prove that
(i) (1 e + e
2
) (1 + e e
2
) = 4
(ii) (1 e + e
2
)
5
+ (1 + e e
2
)
5
= 32
(iii) (1 e) (1 e
2
) (1 e
4
) (1 e
8
) = 9
(iv) (1 e + e
2
) (1 e
2
+ e
4
) (1 e
4
+ e
8
) .......... to 2n factors = 2
2n
Solution : (i) (1 e + e
2
) (1 + e e
2
) = ( 2e) ( 2e
2
) = 4
Self Practice Problem
(21) Find
=
e + e +
10
0 r
r 2 r
) 1 (
(22) It is given that n is an odd integer greater than three, but n is not a multiple of 3. Prove that
x
3
+ x
2
+ x is a factor of (x + 1)
n
x
n
1
(23) If x = a + b, y = ao + b| , z = a| + bo where o, | are imaginary cube roots of unity show that
xyz = a
3
+ b
3
(24) If x
2
x + 1 = 0, then find the value of
2
5
1 n
n
n
x
1
x

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
Answers : (21) 12 (24) 8
n
th
Roots of Unity :
If 1, o
1
, o
2
, o
3.
.... o
n 1
are the n, n
th
root of unity then :
(i) They are in G.P. with common ratio e
i(2t/n)
(ii) 1
p
+ o
1
p
+ o
2
p
+.... +o
n
p
1
= 0 if p is not an integral multiple of n
= n if p is an integral multiple of n
(iii) (1 o
1
) (1 o
2
)...... (1 o
n 1
) = n &
(1 + o
1
) (1 + o
2
)....... (1 + o
n 1
) = 0 if n is even and 1 if n is odd.
(iv) 1. o
1.
o
2.
o
3.
........ o
n 1
= 1 or 1 according as n is odd or even.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
15
Example # 17 : Find the roots of the equation z
6
+ 64 = 0 where real part is positive.
Solution : z
6
= 64
z
6
= 2
6
. e
i(2n + 1)t
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
z = 2
6
) 1 n 2 ( i
e
t
+
z = 2
6
i
e
t
, 2
2
i
e
t
, 2
6
5
i
e
t
, 2
6
7
i
e
t
, 2
2
3
i
e
t
, 2
6
11
i
e
t
roots with +ve real part are = 2
6
i
e
t
, 2
6
11
i
e
t
Example # 18 : Find the value
=
|
.
|

\
| t

t
6
1 k
7
k 2
cos
7
k 2
sin
Solution :
=
|
.
|

\
| t
6
1 k
7
k 2
sin

=
|
.
|

\
| t
6
1 k
7
k 2
cos
=
=
t
6
0 k
7
k 2
sin

=
t
6
0 k
7
k 2
cos
+ 1
=
=
6
0 k
(Sum of imaginary part of seven seventh roots of unity)

=
6
0 k
(Sum of real part of seven seventh roots of unity) + 1
= 0 0 + 1 = 1
Self Practice Problems
(25) Resolve z
7
1 into linear and quadratic factor with real coefficient.
(26) Find the value of cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
.
(27) Find all values of ( 256)
1/4.
Interpret the result geometrically.
Answers : (25) (z 1)
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
1 z
7
2
cos 2 z
2
.
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
1 z
7
4
cos 2 z
2
.
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
1 z
7
6
cos 2 z
2
(26)
2
1
(27) (

t |
.
|

\
| +
+ t |
.
|

\
| +
4
1 r 2
sin i
4
1 r 2
cos 4
, r = 0, 1, 2, 3; vertices of a square in a
circle of radius 4 & centre (0, 0)
The Sum Of The Following Series Should Be Remembered :
(i) cos u + cos 2 u + cos 3 u +..... + cos n u =
( )
( )
sin /
sin /
nu
u
2
2
cos
n + |
\

|
.
|
1
2
u.
(ii) sin u + sin 2 u + sin 3 u +..... + sin n u =
( )
( )
sin /
sin /
nu
u
2
2
sin
n + |
\

|
.
|
1
2
u.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
16
Note : If u = (2t/n) then the sum of the above series vanishes.
Logarithm Of A Complex Quantity :
Log
e
(o + i |) =
1
2
Log
e
(o + |) + i
2
1
n t
|
o
+
|
\

|
.
|

tan
where n e I.
Example #19: Find the value of
(i) log (1 +
3
i) Ans. log2 + i(2nt +
3
t
)
(ii) log(1) Ans. i t
(iii) 2
i
Ans. cos(ln2) + i sin(ln2) = e
i(ln2)
(iv) i
i
Ans.
2
). 1 n 4 (
e
t
+
(v) |(1 + i)
i
| Ans.
4
). 1 n 8 (
e
t
+
(vi) arg ((1 + i)
i
) Ans.
2
1
n(2).
Solution : (i) log (1 +
3
i) = log
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
t +
t
n 2
3
i
e 2
= log 2 + i
|
.
|

\
|
t +
t
n 2
3
(iii) 2
i
= e
in 2
= [cos (n 2) + i sin (n 2)]
Self Practice Problem
(28) Find the real part of cos (1 + i)
Answer : 1 cos
e 2
e 1
2
+
Geometrical Properties :
Section formula
If z
1
and z
2
are affixes of the two points P and Q respectively and point C divides the line segment
joining P and Q internally in the ratio m : n then affix z of C is given by
z =
n m
nz mz
1 2
+
+
where m, n > 0
If C devides PQ in the ratio m : n externally then z =
n m
nz mz
1 2

Note : If a, b, c are three real numbers such that az


1
+ bz
2
+ cz
3
= 0 ; where a + b + c = 0 and a,b,c are not
all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z
1
, z
2
& z
3
are collinear.
(1) If the vertices A, B, C of a A are represented by complex numbers z
1
, z
2
, z
3
respectively and
a, b, c are the length of sides then,
(i) Centroid of the A ABC =
z z z
1 2 3
3
+ +
:
(ii) Orthocentre of the A ABC =
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
17
( ) ( ) ( )
C sec c B sec b A sec a
z C sec c z B sec b z A sec a
3 2 1
+ +
+ +
or
C tan B tan A tan
C tan z B tan z A tan z
3 2 1
+ +
+ +
(iii) Incentre of the A ABC = (az
1
+ bz
2
+ cz
3
) (a + b + c).
(iv) Circumcentre of the A ABC = :
(Z
1
sin 2A + Z
2
sin 2B + Z
3
sin 2C) (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C).
(2) amp(z) = u is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle u to the positive x axis.
(3) |z a| = |z b| is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b.
(4) The equation of a line joining z
1
& z
2
is given by, z = z
1
+ t (z
1
z
2
) where t is a real parameter.
(5) z = z
1
(1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through the point z
1
& perpendicular to the
line joining z
1
to the origin.
(6) The equation of a line passing through z
1
& z
2
can be expressed in the determinant form as
z z
z z
z z
1
1
1
1 1
2 2
= 0. This is also the condition for three complex numbers z, z
1
, z
2
to be collinear..
The above equation on manipulating, takes the formo o z z r + + = 0 where r is real and o is
a non zero complex constant.
Note : If we replace z by ze
iu
and z by
u i
e z
then we get equation of a straight line which makes an angle
u with the given straightl line.
(7) The equation of circle having centre z
0
& radius is :
|z z
0
| = or z z z
0
z z
0
z + z
0
z
0
= 0 which is of the form
zz z z + + o o + k = 0, k is real. Centre is o & radius =
k
2
| | o .
Circle will be real if k
2
| | o > 0..
(8) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z
1
& z
2
as diameter is
arg
z z
z z

2
1
=
t
2
or (z z
1
) ( z z
2
) + (z z
2
) ( z z
1
) = 0.
(9) Condition for four given points z
1
, z
2
, z
3
& z
4
to be concyclic is the number
z z
z z
z z
z z
3 1
3 2
4 2
4 1

. should be real. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear


points z
1
, z
2
& z
3
can be taken as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
z z z z
z z z z


2 3 1
1 3 2
is real

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
z z z z
z z z z


2 3 1
1 3 2
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
z z z z
z z z z


2 3 1
1 3 2
.
(10) Arg
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
1
z z
z z
= u represent (i) a line segment if u = t
(ii) Pair of ray if u = 0 (iii) a part of circle, if 0 < u < t.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
18
(11) Area of triangle formed by the points z
1
, z
2
& z
3
is
1 z z
1 z z
1 z z
i 4
1
3 3
2 2
1 1
(12) Perpendicular distance of a point z
0
from the line
0 r z z = + o + o
is
| | 2
| r z z |
0 0
o
+ o + o
(13) (i) Complex slope of a line 0 r z z = + o + o is e =
o
o
.
(ii) Complex slope of a line joining by the points z
1
& z
2
is e =
2 1
2 1
z z
z z

(iii) Complex slope of a line making u angle with real axis e = e


2iu
(14) Dot and cross product
Let z
1
= x
1
+ iy
1
and z
2
= x
2
+ iy
2
be two complex numbers [vectors]. The dot product [also
called the scalar product] of z
1
and z
2
is defined by
z
1
z
2
= |z
1
| |z
2
| cos u = x
1
x
2
+ y
1
y
2
= Re } z z {
2 1
=
2
1
} z z z z {
2 1 2 1
+
where u is the angle between z
1
and z
2
which lies between 0 and t
If vectors z
1
, z
2
are perpendicular then z
1
z
2
= 0
1
1
z
z
+
2
2
z
z
= 0.
i.e. Sum of complex slopes = 0
The cross product of z
1
and z
2
is defined by
z
1
z
2
= |z
1
| |z
2
| sin u = x
1
y
2
y
1
x
2
= Im } z z {
2 1
=
i 2
1
} z z z z {
2 1 2 1

If vectors z
1
, z
2
are parallel then z
1
z
2
= 0
1
1
z
z
=
2
2
z
z
.
i.e. Complex slopes are equal.
Note : e
1
& e
2
are the compelx slopes of two lines.
(i) If lines are parallel then e
1
= e
2
(ii) If lines are perpendicular then e
1
+ e
2
= 0
(15) If |z z
1
| + |z z
2
| = K > |z
1
z
2
| then locus of z is an ellipse whose focii are z
1
& z
2
(16) If |z z
0
| =
| | 2
r z z
o
+ o + o
then locus of z is parabola whose focus is z
0
and directrix is the
line z o + z o + r = 0 (Provided 0 r z z
0 0
= + o + o )
(17) If
2
1
z z
z z

= k = 1, 0, then locus of z is circle.


(18) If ||z z
1
| |z z
2
|| = K < |z
1
z
2
| then locus of z is a hyperbola, whose focii are
z
1
& z
2
.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
19
Match the following columns :
Column - I Column - II
(i) If | z 3+2i | | z + i | = 0, (i) circle
then locus of z represents ..........
(ii) If arg
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 z
1 z
=
4
t
, (ii) Straight line
then locus of z represents...
(iii) if | z 8 2i | + | z 5 6i | = 5 (iii) Ellipse
then locus of z represents .......
(iv) If arg |
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
i 5 2 z
i 4 3 z
=
6
5t
, (iv) Hyperbola
then locus of z represents .......
(v) If | z 1 | + | z + i | = 10 (v) Major Arc
then locus of z represents ........
(vi) | z 3 + i | | z + 2 i | = 1 (vi) Minor arc
then locus of z represents .....
(vii) | z 3i | = 25 (vii) Perpendicular bisector of a line segment
(viii) arg |
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
i z
i 5 3 z
= t (viii) Line segment
Ans. I (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii)
II (vii) (v) (viii) (vi) (iii) (iv) (i) (viii)
(a) Reflection points for a straight line :
Two given points P & Q are the reflection points for a given straight line if the given line is the
right bisector of the segment PQ. Note that the two points denoted by the complex
numbers z
1
& z
2
will be the reflection points for the straight line o o z z r + + = 0 if and only if;
o o z z r
1 2
0 + + = , where r is real and o is non zero complex constant.
(b) Inverse points w.r.t. a circle :
Two points P & Q are said to be inverse w.r.t. a circle with centre 'O' and radius , if:
(i) the point O, P, Q are collinear and P, Q are on the same side of O.
(ii) OP. OQ =
2
.
Note : that the two points z
1
& z
2
will be the inverse points w.r.t. the circle z z z z r + + + = o o 0 if and only
if z z z z r
1 2 1 2
0 + + + = o o .
Ptolemys Theorem :
It states that the product of the lengths of the diagonals of a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle
is equal to the sum of the products of lengths of the two pairs of its opposite sides.
i.e. |z
1
z
3
| |z
2
z
4
| = |z
1
z
2
| |z
3
z
4
| + |z
1
z
4
| |z
2
z
3
|.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
20
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
Example # 20 : If z
1
and z
2
are two complex numbers and c > 0, then prove that
|z
1
+ z
2
|
2
s (1 + c) |z
1
|
2
+ (1 + c
1
) |z
2
|
2
Solution : We have to prove :
|z
1
+ z
2
|
2
s (1 + c) |z
1
|
2
+ (1 + c
1
) |z
2
|
2
i.e. |z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
+ z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
2
s (1 + c) |z
1
|
2
+ (1 +c
1
) |z
2
|
3
or z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
2
s c|z
1
|
2
+ c
1
|z
2
|
2
or c|z
1
|
2
+
c
1
|z
2
|
2
z
1
z
2
z
1
z
2
> 0
(using Re (z
1
z
2
) s |z
1
z
2
|)
or
2
2 1
| z |
c
1
z c
|
|
.
|

\
|

> 0 which is always true.


Example # 21 :If u
i
e [t/6, t/3], i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and z
4
cos u
1
+ z
3
cos u
2
+ z
2
cos u
3
. + z cos u
4
+ cosu
5
=
3 2
,
then show that |z| >
4
3
Solution : Given that
cosu
1
. z
4
+ cosu
2
. z
3
+ cosu
3
. z
2
+ cosu
4
. z + cosu
5
= 2\3
or |cosu
1
. z
4
+ cosu
2
. z
3
+ cosu
3
. z
2
+ cosu
4
. z + cosu
5
| = 2\3
2\3 s |cosu
1
. z
4
| + |cosu
2
. z
3
| + |cosu
3
. z
2
| + cosu
4
. z| + |cosu
5
|
u
i
e [t/6, t/3]

2
1
s cosu
i
s
2
3
3 2
s
2
3
|z|
4
+
2
3
|z|
3
+
2
3
|z|
2
+
2
3
|z| +
2
3
3 s |z|
4
+ |z|
3
+ |z|
2
+ |z|
Case I : If |z| > 1, then above result is automatically true
Case II : If |z| < 1, then
3 < |z| + |z|
2
+ |z|
3
+ |z|
4
+|z|
5
+ .........
3 <
| z | 1
| z |

3 3 |z| < |z| |z| >


4
3
Hence by both cases, |z| >
4
3
Example #22: Two different non parallel lines cut the circle |z| = r in point a, b, c, d respectively. Prove that
these lines meet in the point z given by z =
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
d c b a
d c b a

+
Solution : Since point P, A, B are collinear

1 b b
1 a a
1 z z
= 0 z ( ) b a z (a b) + ( ) b a b a = 0 (i)
Similarly, points P, C, D are collinear, so
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
21
z ( ) d c z (c d) + ( ) d c d c = 0 (ii)
On applying (i) (c d) (ii) (a b), we get
z ( ) b a (c d) z ( ) d c (a b) = ( ) d c d c (a b) ( ) b a b a (c d) (iii)

z z
= r
2
= k (say)
a
=
a
k
,
b
=
b
k
,
c
=
c
k
etc.
From equation (iii) we get
z
|
.
|

\
|

b
k
a
k
(c d) z
|
.
|

\
|

d
k
c
k
(a b) =
|
.
|

\
|

c
kd
d
ck
(a b)
|
.
|

\
|

a
bk
b
ak
(c d)
z =
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
d c b a
d c b a

+
Example #23: If z
1
= a + ib and z
2
= c + id are complex number such that |z
1
| = |z
2
| = 1 and Re ) z z (
2 1
= 0, then
show that the pair of complex numbers w
1
= a + ic and w
2
= b + id satisfies the following
(i) |w
1
| = 1 (ii) |w
2
| = 1 (iii) Re ) w w (
2 1
= 0
Solution : a = cos u , b = sin u
c = cos |, d = sin |
Re ) z z (
2 1
= 0 u | =
2
nt
n = 1 c = sin u, d = cos u
w
1
= cos u + i sin u
w
2
= sin u i cos u
|w
1
| = 1, |w
2
| = 1
w
1 2
w = cosu sinu sinu cosu + i(sin
2
u cos
2
u) = i cos 2u
Re ) w w (
2 1
= 0
Example #24: Let z
1
and z
2
be complex numbers such that z
1
= z
2
and |z
1
| = |z
2
|. If z
1
has positive real part and
z
2
has negative imaginary part, then show that
2 1
2 1
z z
z z

+
is purely imaginary..
Solution : z
1
= r (cosu + i sin u),
2
t
< u <
2
t
z
2
= r (cos| + i sin |), t < | < 0

2 1
2 1
z z
z z

+
= i cot
|
.
|

\
| | u
2
,
4
t
<
2
| u
<
4
3t
Hence purely imaginary
Example # 25 : If z
1
, z
2
& z
3
are the affixes of three points A, B & C respectively and satisfy the condition
|z
1
z
2
| = |z
1
| + |z
2
| and |(2 - i) z
1
+ iz
3
| = |z
1
| + |(1 i) z
1
+ iz
3
| then prove that A ABC in a right
angled.
Solution : |z
1
z
2
| = |z
1
| + |z
2
|
z
1
, z
2
and origin will be collinear and z
1
, z
2
will be opposite side of origin
Similarly |(2 - i) z
1
+ iz
3
| = |z
1
| + |(1 i) z
1
+ iz
3
|
z
1
and (1 i) z
1
+ iz
3
= z
4
say, are collinear with origin and lies on same side of origin.
Let z
4
= z
1
, real
then (1 i) z
1
+ iz
3
= z
1
i (z
3
z
1
) = ( 1) z
1

1
1 3
z
) z z (

= ( 1) i
1
1 3
z 0
z z

= me
it/2
, m = 1
z
3
z
1
is perpendicular to the vector 0 z
1
.
i.e. also z
2
is on line joining origin and z
1
so we can say the triangle formed by z
1
, z
2
and z
3
is right angled.