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1
Introduction :
An equation involving independent and dependent variables and the derivatives of the dependent vari
ables is called a differential equation. There are two kinds of differential equation:
1.1 Ordinary Differential Equation : If the dependent variables depend on one independent vari
able x, then the differential equation is said to be ordinary.
for example
dx
dy
+
dx
dz
= y + z,
dx
dy
+ xy = sin x ,
dx
dy
2
dx
y d
3
3
+
+ y = e
x
,
k
2
2
dx
y d
=
2 / 3
2
dx
dy
1

.

\

+
, y = x
dx
dy
+ k

.

\

+
2
dx
dy
1
1.2 Partial differential equation : If the dependent variables depend on two or more indepen
dent variables, then it is known as partial differential equation
for example y
2
y
z
y
x
z
2
c
c
+
c
c
= ax,
0
y
z
x
z
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
Order and Degree of a Differential Equation:
2.1 Order : Order is the highest differential appearing in a differential equation.
2. 2 Degree :
It is determined by the highest degree of the highest order derivative present in it after the
differential equation is cleared of radicals and fractions so far as the derivatives are concerned.
Note : In the differential equation, all the derivatives should be expressed in the polynomial form
f
1
(x, y)
1
n
m
m
dx
y d
(
(
+ f
2
(x, y)
2
n
1 m
1 m
dx
y d
(
(
+ ........ f
k
(x, y)
k
n
dx
dy
(
= 0
The above differential equation has the order m and degree n
1
.
Example # 1
Find the order & degree of following differential equations.
(i)
2
2
dx
y d
=
4 / 1
6
dx
dy
y
(
(

.

\

+
(ii) y =


.

\

+
2
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
e
(iii) sin


.

\

+
2
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
= y (iv) e
y'
xy + y = 0
Differential Equation
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Solution.
(i)
4
2
2
dx
y d


.

\

=
6
dx
dy
y 
.

\

+
order = 2, degree = 4
(ii)
2
2
dx
y d
+
dx
dy
= ny
order = 2, degree = 1
(iii)
2
2
dx
y d
+
dx
dy
= sin
1
y
order = 2, degree = 1
(iv) 3
3
dx
y d
e
x
2
2
dx
y d
+ y = 0
equation can not be expressed as a polynomial in differential coefficients, so degree is
not applicable but order is 3.
Self Practice Problems :
(1) Find order and degree of the following differential equations.
(i)
dx
dy
+ y =
dx
dy
1
(ii)


.

\

3
3
dx
y d
dx
dy
e
= n


.

\

+1
dx
y d
5
5
(iii)
2
2 / 1
y
dx
dy
(
(
+ 
.

\

=
2
2
dx
y d
Answer (1) (i) order = 1, degree = 2 (ii) order = 5, degree = not applicable.
(iii) order = 2, degree = 2
Formation of Differential Equation:
Differential equation corresponding to a family of curve will have :
(a) Order exactly same as number of essential arbitrary constants in the equation of curve.
(b) No arbitrary constant present in it.
The differential equation corresponding to a family of curve can be obtained by using the following
steps:
(i) Identify the number of essential arbitrary constants in equation of curve.
NOTE : If arbitrary constants appear in addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, then we can
club them to reduce into one new arbitrary constant.
(ii) Differentiate the equation of curve till the required order.
(iii) Eliminate the arbitrary constant from the equation of curve and additional equations obtained in
step (ii) above.
Example # 2
Form a differential equation of family of straight lines passing through origin.
Solution
Family of straight lines passing through origin is y = mx wherem is a parameter.
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Differentiating w.r.t. x
dx
dy
= m
Eliminating m from both equations, we obtain
dx
dy
=
x
y
which is the required differential equation.
Example # 3
Form a differential equation of family of circles touching xaxis at the origin
Solution
Equation of family of circles touching xaxis at the origin is
x
2
+ y
2
+ y = 0 ..........(i) where is a parameter
2x + 2y
dx
dy
+
dx
dy
= 0 .........(ii)
Eliminating from (i) and (ii)
dx
dy
= 2 2
y x
xy 2
\

= 0
(4) Form a differential equation of family of parabolas with focus as origin and axis of symmetry
along the xaxis.
Answer (2)
2
2
dx
y d
+ b
2
y = 0 (4) y
2
= y
2
2
dx
dy

.

\

+ 2xy
dx
dy
Solution of a Differential Equation:
Finding the dependent variable from the differential equation is called solving or integrating it. The
solution or the integral of a differential equation is, therefore, a relation between dependent and
independent variables (free from derivatives) such that it satisfies the given differential equation
NOTE : The solution of the differential equation is also called its primitive, because the differential
equation can be regarded as a relation derived from it.
There can be three types of solution of a differential equation:
(i) General solution (or complete integral or complete primitive) : A relation in x and y satisfying
a given differential equation and involving exactly same number of arbitrary constants as order of
differential equation.
(ii) Particular Solution : A solution obtained by assigning values to one or more than one arbitrary
constant of general solution.
(iii) Singular Solution : It is not obtainable from general solution. Geometrically, General solution
acts as an envelope to singular solution.
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4.1. Differential Equation of First Order and First Degree :
A differential equation of first order and first degree is of the type
dx
dy
+ f(x, y) = 0, which can also be
written as : Mdx + Ndy = 0, where M and N are functions of x and y.
Solution methods of First Order and First Degree Differential Equations :
5.1 Variables separable : If the differential equation can be put in the form, f(x) dx = (y) dy
we say that variables are separable and solution can be obtained by integrating each side
separately.
A general solution of this will be
}
) x ( f dx =
}
 dy ) y (
+ c, where c is an arbitrary constant
Example # 4
Solve the differential equation (1 + x) y dx = (y 1) x dy
Solution
The equation can be written as 

.

\
 +
x
x 1
dx = 

.

\

y
1 y
dy
}

.

\

+1
x
1
dx =
} 

.

\

y
1
1
dy
n x + x = y ny + c
ny + nx = y x + c
xy = ce
yx
Example # 5
Solve :
dx
dy
= (e
x
+ 1) (1 + y
2
)
Solution.
The equation can be written as
dx ) 1 e (
y 1
dy
x
2
+ =
+
Integrating both sides,
tan
1
y = e
x
+ x + c.
Example # 6
Solve : y x
dx
dy
= a

.

\

+
dx
dy
y
2
Solution.
The equation can be written as
y ay
2
= (x + a)
dx
dy
2
ay y
dy
a x
dx
=
+
) ay 1 ( y
1
a x
dx
=
+
dy
MATHS
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.

\

+ =
+ ay 1
a
y
1
a x
dx
dy
Integrating both sides,
n (x + a) = n y n (1 ay) + n c
n (x + a) = n 

.

\

ay 1
cy
cy = (x + a) (1 ay)
where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
5.1.1 Polar coordinates transformations :
Sometimes transformation to the polar coordinates facilitates separation of variables. In this
connection it is convenient to remember the following differentials:
(a) If x = r cos u ; y = r sin u then,
(i) x dx + y dy = r dr (ii) dx
2
+ dy
2
= dr
2
+ r
2
du
2
(iii) x dy y dx = r
2
du
(b) If x = r sec u & y = r tan u then
(i) x dx y dy = r dr (ii) x dy y dx = r
2
secu du.
Example # 7
Solve the differential equation xdx + ydy = x (xdy ydx)
Solution.
Taking x = r cosu, y = r sinu
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
2x dx + 2ydy = 2rdr
xdx + ydy = rdr .........(i)
x
y
= tanu
2
x
y
dx
dy
x
= sec
2
u .
dx
du
xdy y dx = x
2
sec
2
u . du
xdy ydx = r
2
du ........(ii)
Using (i) & (ii) in the given differential equation then it becomes
r dr = r cosu. r
2
du
2
r
dr
= cosu du
r
1
= sinu +
2 2
y x
1
+
=
2 2
y x
y
+
+
2 2
y x
1 y
+
+
= c where ' = c
(y + 1)
2
= c(x
2
+ y
2
)
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5.1.2 Equations Reducible to the Variables Separable form : If a differential
equation can be reduced into a variables separable form by a proper substitution, then it is
said to be
Reducible to the variables separable type. Its general form is
dx
dy
= f(ax + by + c) a, b =
0. To solve this, put ax + by + c = t.
Example # 8
Solve
dx
dy
= (4x + y + 1)
2
Solution.
Putting 4x + y + 1 = t
4 +
dx
dy
=
dx
dt
dx
dy
=
dx
dt
4
Given equation becomes
dx
dt
4 = t
2
4 t
dt
2
+
= dx (Variables are separated)
Integrating both sides,
}
+
2
t 4
dt
=
}
dx
2
1
tan
1
2
t
= x + c
2
1
tan
1

.

\
 + +
2
1 y x 4
= x + c
Example # 9
Solve sin
1

.

\

dx
dy
= x + y
Solution.
dx
dy
= sin (x + y)
putting x + y = t
dx
dy
=
dx
dt
1
dx
dt
1 = sin t
dx
dt
= 1 + sin t
t sin 1
dt
+
= dx
Integrating both sides,
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}
+ t sin 1
dt
=
}
dx
}
t cos
t sin 1
2
dt = x + c
}
) t tan t sec t (sec
2
dt = x + c
tan t sec t = x + c
t cos
t sin 1
= x + c
sin t 1 = x cos t + c cos t substituting the value of t
sin (x + y) = x cos (x + y) + c cos (x + y) + 1
Self Practice Problems :
(5) Solve the differential equation x
2
y
dx
dy
= (x + 1) (y + 1)
(6) Solve the differential equation
2 2
y x
ydy xdx
+
+
=
2
x
xdy ydx
(7) Solve :
dx
dy
= e
x + y
+ x
2
e
y
(8) Solve : xy
dx
dy
= 1 + x + y + xy
(9) Solve
dx
dy
= 1 + e
x y
(10)
dx
dy
= sin(x + y) + cos (x + y)
(11)
dx
dy
= x tan (y x) + 1
Answer
(5) y n (y + 1) = nx
x
1
+ c (6)
2 2
y x + +
x
y
= c
(7)
y
e
1
= e
x
+
3
x
3
+ c (8) y = x + n x (1 + y) + c
(9) e
y x
= x + c (10) log
1
2
y x
tan +
+
= x + c (11) sin (y x) =
c
2
x
2
e
+
5.2 Homogeneous Differential Equations :
A differential equation of the form
dx
dy
=
) y , x ( g
) y , x ( f
where f and g are homogeneous function of
MATHS
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x and y, and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential equaiton and can be
solved easily by putting y = vx.
Example # 10
Solve 2
x
y
+


.

\


.

\

1
x
y
2
dx
dy
Solution.
Putting y = vx
dx
dy
= v + x
dx
dv
2v + (v
2
1)

.

\

+
dx
dv
x v
= 0
v + x
dx
dv
=
1 v
v 2
2
x
dx
dv
=
1 v
) v 1 ( v
2
2
+
}
+
) v 1 ( v
1 v
2
2
dv =
}
x
dx
}

.

\

+
v
1
v 1
v 2
2
dv = n x + c
n (1 + v
2
) n v = n x + c
n
x .
v
v 1
2
+
= c
n
y
y x
2 2
+
= c
x
2
+ y
2
= yc' where c' = e
c
Example # 11
Solve : (x
2
y
2
) dx + 2xydy = 0 given that y = 1 when x = 1
Solution.
dx
dy
=
xy 2
y x
2 2
y = vx
dx
dy
= v +
dx
dv
v + x
dx
dv
=
v 2
v 1
2
}
+
2
v 1
v 2
dv =
}
x
dx
n (1 + v
2
) = nx + c
at x = 1, y = 1 v = 1
n 2 = c
MATHS
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n
)


.

\

+ x .
x
y
1
2
2
= n2
x
2
+ y
2
= 2x
5.2.1 Equations Reducible to the Homogeneous form
Equations of the form
C By Ax
c by ax
dx
dy
+ +
+ +
=
.........(1)
can be made homogeneous (in new variables X and Y) by substituting x = X + h and y = Y + k,
where h and k are constants to obtain,
dX
dY
=
) C Bk Ah ( BY AX
) c bk ah ( bY aX
+ + + +
+ + + +
. .........(2)
These constants are chosen such that ah + bk + c = 0, and Ah + Bk + C = 0. Thus we obtain
the following differential equation
dX
dY
=
BY AX
bY aX
+
+
.
The differential equation can now be solved by substituting Y = vX.
Example # 12
Solve the differential equation
dx
dy
=
4 y x 2
5 y 2 x
+
+
Solution.
Let x = X + h, y = Y + k
dX
dy
=
dX
d
(Y + k)
dX
dy
=
dX
dY
...........(i)
dX
dx
= 1 + 0 ...........(ii)
on dividing (i) by (ii)
dx
dy
=
dX
dY
dX
dY
=
4 k Y h 2 X 2
5 ) k Y ( 2 h X
+ + +
+ + +
=
) 4 k h 2 ( Y X 2
) 5 k 2 h ( Y 2 X
+ + +
+ + +
h & k are such that h + 2k 5 = 0 & 2h + k 4 = 0
h = 1, k = 2
dX
dY
=
Y X 2
Y 2 X
+
+
which is homogeneous differential equation.
Now, substituting Y = vX
dX
dY
= v + X
dX
dv
X
dX
dv
=
v 2
v 2 1
+
+
v
}
+
2
v 1
v 2
dv =
}
X
dX
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}


.

\

+
+ ) v 1 ( 2
3
) 1 v ( 2
1
dv = n X + c
2
1
n (v + 1)
2
3
n (1 v) = n X + c
n
3
) v 1 (
1 v
+
= nX
2
+ 2c
3
) Y X (
) X Y (
+
2
2
X
X
= e
2c
X + Y = c'(X Y)
3
where e
2c
= c
1
x 1 + y 2 = c' (x 1 y + 2)
3
x + y 3 = c' (x y + 1)
3
Special case :
Case  1 In equation (1) if
B
b
A
a
= , then the substitution ax + by = v will reduce it to the form in
which variables are separable.
Example # 13
Solve
dx
dy
=
5 y 6 x 4
1 y 3 x 2
+
+
Solution.
Putting u = 2x + 3y
dx
du
= 2 + 3 .
dx
dy
3
1

.

\

2
dx
du
=
5 u 2
1 u
dx
du
=
5 u 2
10 u 4 3 u 3
+
}
13 u 7
5 u 2
dx =
}
dx
7
2
}
du . 1
7
9
}
13 u 7
1
. du = x + c
7
2
u
7
9
.
7
1
n (7u 13) = x + c
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4x + 6y
7
9
n (14x + 21y 13) = 7x + 7c
3x + 6y
7
9
n (14x + 21y 13) = c'
Case  2 In equation (1), if b + A= 0, then by a simple cross multiplication equation (1) becomes
an exact differential equation.
Example # 14
Solve
dx
dy
=
1 y x 2
5 y 2 x
+
+
Solution.
Cross multiplying,
2xdy + y dy dy = xdx 2ydx + 5dx
2 (xdy + y dx) + ydy dy = xdx + 5 dx
2 d(xy) + y dy dy = xdx + 5dx
On integrating,
2xy +
2
y
2
y =
2
x
2
+ 5x + c
x
2
4xy y
2
+ 10x + 2y = c' where c' = 2c
(C) If the homogeneous equation is of the form :
yf(xy) dx + xg(xy)dy = 0, the variables can be separated by the substitution xy = v.
Self Practice Problems :
Solve the following differential equations
(12)

.

\

y
dx
dy
x
tan
1
x
y
= x given that y = 0 at x = 1
(13) x
dx
dy
= y x tan
x
y
(14)
dx
dy
=
3 y x 2
3 y 2 x
+ +
+
(15)
dx
dy
=
3 y 2 x 2
1 y x
+ +
+ +
(16)
dx
dy
=
5 x 2 y 3
5 y 2 x 3
+
+
Answers (12)
2 2
y x + =
x
y
tan
x
y
1
e
(13) x sin
x
y
= C
(14) x + y = c (x y + 6)
3
(15) 3(2y x) + log (3x + 3y + 4) = C
(16) 3x
2
+ 4xy 3y
2
10x 10y = C
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5.3 Exact Differenti al Equation :
The differential equation M + N
dx
dy
= 0 ...........(1)
Where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct
differentiation (without any subsequent multiplication, elimination etc.) of an equation of the
form f(x, y) = c
e.g. y
2
dy + x dx +
x
dx
= 0 is an exact differential equation.
NOTE : (i) The necessary condition for (1) to be exact is
x
N
y
M
c
c
=
c
c
.
(ii) For finding the solution of exact differential equation, following results on exact differentials
should be remembered :
(a) xdy + y dx = d(xy) (b)
2
x
ydx xdy
= d

.

\

x
y
(c) 2(x dx + y dy) = d (x
2
+ y
2
)
(d)
xy
ydx xdy
= d

.

\

x
y
ln
(e) 2 2
y x
ydx xdy
+
= d

.

\

x
y
tan
1
(f)
xy
ydx xdy +
= d(ln xy)
(g) 2 2
y x
ydx xdy +
= d 

.

\

xy
1
Example # 15
Solve : y dx + x dy = 2 2
y x
ydx xdy
+
Solution.
ydx + xdy = 2 2
y x
ydx xdy
+
d (xy) = d (tan
1
y/x)
Integrating both sides
xy = tan
1
y/x + c
Example # 16
Solve : (2x ny) dx +
0 dy y 3
y
x
2
2
=


.

\

+
Solution.
The given equation can be written as
ny (2x) dx + x
2


.

\

y
dy
+ 3y
2
dy = 0
ny d (x
2
) + x
2
d (ny) + d (y
3
) = 0
d (x
2
ny) + d (y
3
) = 0
Nowintegrating each term, we get
x
2
ny + y
3
= c
Self Practice Problems :
(17) Solve : xdy + ydx + xy e
y
dy = 0
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(18) Solve : ye
x/y
dx (xe
x/y
+ y
3
) dy = 0
Answers (17) n (xy ) + e
y
= c (18) 2e
x/y
+ y
2
= c
Li near Di fferential Equation :
A linear differential equation has the following characteristics :
(i) Dependent variable and its derivative in first degree only and are not multiplied together
(ii) All the derivatives should be in a polynomial form
(iii) The order may be more than one
The m
th
order linear differential equation is of the form.
P
0
(x)
m
m
dx
y d
+ P
1
(x)
1 m
1 m
dx
y d
+ .................... + P
m1
(x)
dx
dy
+ P
m
(x) y = (x),
where P
0
(x), P
1
(x) ..................P
m
(x) are called the coefficients of the differential equation.
NOTE :
dx
dy
+ y
2
sinx = lnx is not a Linear differential equation.
6.1 Linear differential equations of first order :
The differential equation
dx
dy
+ Py = Q , is linear in y. (Where P and Q are functions of x only).
Integrating Factor (I.F.) : It is an expression which when multiplied to a differential equation converts
it into an exact form.
I.F for linear differential equation =
}
Pdx
e
(constant of integration will not be considered)
after multiplying above equation by I.F it becomes;
dx
dy
.
}
Pdx
e
+ Py .
}
Pdx
e
= Q.
}
Pdx
e
dx
d
) e . y (
Pdx
}
=
}
Pdx
e Q.
}
Pdx
e . y =
}
+
}
C e Q
Pdx
.
.
NOTE : Some times differential equation becomes linear, if x is taken as the dependent variable, and y as
independent variable. The differential equation has then the following form :
dy
dx
+ P
1
x = Q
1
.
where P
1
and Q
1
are functions of y. The I.F. now is
}
dy P
1
e
Example # 17
Solve
dx
dy
+
3
2
x 1
x 3
+
y =
3
2
x 1
x sin
+
Solution.
dx
dy
+ Py = Q
P =
3
2
x 1
x 3
+
MATHS
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IF = }
dx . P
e
= }
+
dx
x 1
x 3
3
2
e
=
) x 1 ( n
3
e
+
= 1 + x
3
General solution is
y(IF) =
}
+ c dx ). IF ( Q
y (1 + x
3
) =
}
+
3
2
x 1
x sin
(1 + x
3
) dx + c
y(1 + x
3
) =
}
2
x 2 cos 1
dx + c
y(1 + x
3
) =
2
1
x
4
x 2 sin
+ c
Example # 18
Solve : x nx
dx
dy
+ y = 2 n x
Solution.
dx
dy
+
nx x
1
y =
x
2
P =
nx x
1
, Q =
x
2
IF = }
dx . P
e
= }
dx
nx x
1
e
=
) nx ( n
e
= n x
General solution is
y. (n x) =
}
+ c dx . nx .
x
2
y (n x) = (n x)
2
+ c
Example # 19
Solve the differential equation
t (1 + t
2
) dx = (x + xt
2
t
2
) dt and it given that x = t/4 at t = 1
Solution. t (1 + t
2
) dx = [x (1 + t
2
) t
2
] dt
dt
dx
=
) t 1 (
t
t
x
2
+
2
t 1
t
t
x
dt
dx
+
=
which is linear in
dt
dx
Here, P =
t
1
, Q =
2
t 1
t
+
IF =
dt
t
1
e
}
= e
nt
=
t
1
General solution is 
x
t
1
=
}

.

\

+
2
t 1
t
.
t
1
dt + c
t
x
= tan
1
t + c
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
15
putting x = t/4, t = 1
t/4 = t/4 + c c = 0
x = t tan
1
t
6.2 Equations reducible to linear form
6.2.1 By change of variable.
Often differential equation can be reduced to linear form by appropriate substitution of the
nonlinear term
Example # 20
Solve : y sinx
dx
dy
= cos x (sinx y
2
)
Solution.
The given differential equation can be reduced to linear formby change of variable by a suitable
subtitution.
Substituting y
2
= z
2y
dx
dy
=
dx
dz
differential equation becomes
dx
dz
2
x sin
+ cos x.z = sin x cos x
dx
dz
+ 2 cot x . z = 2 cos x which is linear in
dx
dz
IF =
x sin n 2
dx x cot 2
e e
=
}
= sin
2
x
General solution is 
z. sin
2
x =
}
+ c dx . x sin . x cos 2
2
y
2
sin
2
x =
3
2
sin
3
x + c
6.2.2 Bernoul l i s equati on :
Equations of the form
dx
dy
+ Py = Q.y
n
, n = 0 and n = 1
where P and Q are functions of x, is called Bernoullis equation and can be made linear in v by
dividing by y
n
and putting y
n+1
= v. Now its solution can be obtained as in (v).
e.g. : 2 sin x
dx
dy
y cos x = xy
3
e
x
.
Example # 21
Solve :
2
2
x
y
x
y
dx
dy
=
(Bernoulli's equation)
Solution.
Dividing both sides by y
2
2 2
x
1
xy
1
dx
dy
y
1
=
..... (1)
Putting
y
1
= t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
16
dx
dt
dx
dy
y
1
2
=
differential equation (1) becomes,
2
x
1
x
t
dx
dt
=
2
x
1
x
t
dx
dt
= +
which is linear differential equation in
dx
dt
IF =
}
dx
x
1
e
= e
nx
= x
General solution is 
t. x =
}
x .
x
1
2
dx + c
tx = nx + c
y
x
= nx + c
Self Practice Problems :
(19) Solve : x (x
2
+ 1)
dx
dy
= y (1 x
2
) + x
2
nx
(20) Solve : (x + 2y
3
)
dx
dy
= y
(21) Solve : x
dx
dy
+ y = y
2
log x
(22) Solve the differential equation
xy
2

.

\

dx
dy
2y
3
= 2x
3
given y = 1 at x = 1
Answers (19)


.

\

+
x
1 x
2
y = x n x x + c (20) x = y (c + y
2
)
(21) y (1 + cx + log x) = 1 (22) y
3
+ 2x
3
= 3x
6
Cl ai raut s Equati on :
The differential equation
y = mx + f(m), ..............(1), where m =
dx
dy
is known as Clairauts Equation.
To solve (10), differentiate it w.r.t. x, which gives
dx
dy
= m + x
dx
dm
+
dm
) m ( f d
dx
dm
x
dx
dm
+
dm
) m ( f d
dx
dm
= 0
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
17
either
dx
dm
= 0 m = c ...........(2)
or x + f'(m) = 0 ............(3)
NOTE : (i) If m is eliminated between (1) and (2), the solution obtained is a general solution of (1)
(ii) If m is eliminated between (1) and (3), then solution obtained does not contain any arbitrary
constant and is not particular solution of (1). This solution is called singular solution of (1).
Example # 22
Solve : y = mx + m m
3
where, m =
dx
dy
Solution.
y = mx + m m
3
..... (i)
The given equation is in clairaut's form.
Now, differentiating wrt. x 
dx
dm
m 3
dx
dm
dx
dm
x m
dx
dy
2
+ + =
m = m + x
dx
dm
m 3
dx
dm
dx
dm
2
+
dx
dm
(x + 1 3m
2
) = 0
dx
dm
= 0 m = c ..... (ii)
or x + 1 3m
2
= 0 m
2
=
3
1 x +
..... (iii)
Eliminating 'm' between (i) & (ii) is called the general solution of the given equation.
y = cx + c c
3
where, 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
Again, eliminating 'm' between (i) & (iii) is called singular solution of the given equation.
y = m (x + 1 m
2
)
y =

.

\
 +
+ 
.

\
 +
3
1 x
1 x
3
1 x
2 / 1
y =
3
2
3
1 x
2 / 1

.

\
 +
(x + 1)
y = 2
2 / 3
3
1 x

.

\
 +
y
2
=
27
4
(x + 1)
3
27y
2
= 4 (x + 1)
3
Self Practice Problems :
(23) Solve the differential equation
Y = mx + 2/m where, m =
dx
dy
(24) Solve : sin px cos y = cos px sin y + p where p =
dx
dy
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
18
Answers (23) General solution : y = cx + 2/c where c is an arbitrary constant
Singular solution : y
2
= 8x
(24) General solution : y = cx sin
1
(c) where c is an arbitrary constant.
Singular solution : y =
2
2
1 2
x
1 x
sin 1 x
Orthogonal Trajectory :
An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts every member of a
given family of curve at right angle.
Steps to find orthogonal trajectory :
(i) Let f (x, y, c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
(ii) Differentiate the given equation w.r.t. x and then eliminate c.
(iii) Replace
dx
dy
by
dy
dx
in the equation obtained in (ii).
(iv) Solve the differential equation obtained in (iii).
Hence solution obtained in (iv) is the required orthogonal trajectory.
Example # 23
Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of straight lines passing through the origin.
Solution.
Family of straight lines passing through the origin is 
y = mx ..... (i)
where 'm' is an arbitrary constant.
Differentiating wrt x
m
dx
dy
=
..... (ii)
Eliminate 'm' from (i) & (ii)
y =
x
dx
dy
Replacing
dx
dy
by
dy
dx
, we get
y =
dy
dx
x
x dx + y dy = 0
Integrating each term,
2
y
2
x
2 2
+ = c
x
2
+ y
2
= 2c
which is the required orthogonal trajectory.
Example # 24
Find the orthogonal trajectory of y
2
= 4ax (a being the parameter).
Solution.
y
2
= 4ax ..... (i)
2y
dx
dy
= 4a ..... (ii)
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
19
Eliminating 'a' from (i) & (ii)
y
2
= 2y
dx
dy
x
Replacing
dx
dy
by
dy
dx
, we get
y = 2 

.

\

dy
dx
x
2 x dx + y dy = 0
Integrating each term,
x
2
+
2
y
2
= c
2x
2
+ y
2
= 2c
which is the required orthogonal trajectories.
Self Practice Problems :
(25) Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles concentric at (a, 0)
(26) Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles touching x axis at the origin.
(27) Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of rectangular hyperbola xy = c
2
Answers (25) y = c (x a) where c is an arbitrary constant.
(26) x
2
+ y
2
= cx where c is an arbitrary constant.
(27) x
2
y
2
= k where k is an arbitrary constant.
Geometrical application of differential equation :
Forma differential equation froma given geometrical problem. Often following formulae are useful to
remember
(i) Length of tangent (L
T
) =
m
m 1 y
2
+
(ii) Length of normal (L
N
) =
2
m 1 y +
(iii) Length of subtangent (L
ST
) =
m
y
(ii) Length of subnormal (L
SN
) = my
where y is the ordinate of the point, m is the slope of the tangent 
.

\

dx
dy
Example # 25 Find the nature of the curve for which the length of the normal at a point 'P' is equal to the radius
vector of the point 'P'.
Solution. Let the equation of the curve be y = f(x). P(x, y) be any point on the curve.
Slope of the tanget at P(x, y) is
dx
dy
= m
Slope of the normal at P is
m' =
m
1
P(x,y)
O
G(x+my,0)
Equation of the normal at 'P'
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
20
Y y =
m
1
(X x)
Coordinates of G (x + my, 0)
Now, OP
2
= PG
2
x
2
+ y
2
= m
2
y
2
+ y
2
m =
y
x
dx
dy
=
y
x
Taking as the sign
dx
dy
=
y
x
y . dy = x . dx
2
y
2
=
2
x
2
+
x
2
y
2
= 2
x
2
y
2
= c (Rectangular hyperbola)
Again taking as ve sign
dx
dy
=
y
x
y dy = x dx
2
y
2
=
2
x
2
+ '
x
2
+ y
2
= 2'
x
2
+ y
2
= c' (circle)
Example # 26
Find the curves for which the portion of the tangent included between the coordinate axes is
bisected at the point of contact.
Solution.
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve.
Equation of tangent at P (x, y) is 
B
P
(
x
,
y
)
A
Y y = m (X x) where m =
dx
dy
is slope of the tangent at P (x, y).
Coordinates of

.

\

0 ,
m
y mx
A
& B (0, ymx)
P is the middle point of A & B
m
y mx
= 2x
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
21
mx y = 2mx
mx = y
dx
dy
x = y
x
dx
+
y
dy
= 0
nx + ny = nc
xy = c
Example # 27
Show that (4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0 represents a hyperbola having the lines x + y = 0 and
2x + y + 1 = 0 as asymptotes
Solution.
(4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0
4xdx + 3 (y dx + x dy) + dx + 2y dy + dy = 0
Integrating each term,
2x
2
+ 3 xy + x + y
2
+ y + c = 0
2x
2
+ 3xy + y
2
+ x + y + c = 0
which is the equation of hyperbola when h
2
> ab & A = 0.
Now, combined equation of its asymptotes is 
2x
2
+ 3xy + y
2
+ x + y + = 0
which is pair of straight lines
A = 0
2.1 + 2 .
2
3
.
2
1
.
2
1
2 .
4
1
1 .
4
1
4
9
= 0
= 0
2x
2
+ 3xy + y
2
+ x + y = 0
(x + y) (2x + y) + (x + y) = 0
(x + y) (2x + y + 1) = 0
x + y = 0 or 2x + y + 1 = 0
Example # 28
The perpendicular from the origin to the tangent at any point on a curve is equal to the abscissa of the point
of contact. Find the equation of the curve satisfying the above condition and which passes through (1, 1)
Solution.
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve
Equation of tangent at 'P' is 
Y y = m (X x)
mX Y + y mx = 0
Now,


.

\

+
2
m 1
mx y
= x
y
2
+ m
2
x
2
2mxy = x
2
(1 + m
2
)
dx
dy
xy 2
x y
2 2
=
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
22
x
v 2
v 2 1 v
dx
dv
2 2
=
}
+
dv
1 v
v 2
2
=
}
x
dx
n (v
2
+ 1) = n x + n c
x


.

\

+1
x
y
2
2
= c
Curve is passing through (1, 1)
c = 2
x
2
+ y
2
2x = 0
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