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Working with air valves

IVL Flow Control


Unit 1 Washington Street Netherton Dudley West Midlands DY2 9PH
Valves manufacturer
During the research and realisation of new products,
CSA has al ways focused hi s efforts on:
- Listening to the customers needs and finding the
best solution both at the design and operational
phases.
- Guiding our R&D department to develop ranges
of modern, reliable and complementary products.
- Adopting production techniques that, even while
complying with the severest quality standards, would
allow us to reduce delivery times.
- Guaranteeing complete technical support for our
customers and prompt after-sales assistance.
This philosophy characterizes us not only as a valve
manufacturer but also as a reliable partner whom
you can always depend on for consulting and
solutions.
The production cycle, aimed at the constant
improvement of our products and complete customer
satisfaction, ensures prede-termined margins of
tolerance by establishing production standards,
which guarantee that the semi-finished products
reach the next production stage with the required
specifications.
All our valves are made of ductile cast iron GJS
400-15 / 500-7 in absolute compliance with European
standards, and are suitable for PN 25-40 bar.
The manufacturing process is carried out exclusively
by means of numerically controlled lathes, mills,
and horizontal machining units. Subsequent step-
by-step controls are based on strict quality
procedures.
Painting, pre-treated by sand blasting grade SA 2.5
is carried out inside a fluidized bed containing epoxy
powder, which guarantees maximum surface
protection. All our products are tested under water
pressure and certified.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
1
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The control and management of air in pipelines used for water supply is
often a hidden problem, sometimes damages and inefficiencies coming
from the absence of air valves are underestimated, this catalogue aims at
imparting the basics fundamentals about the problems caused by the
presence of air in pipelines, how to solve it and the procedure for a proper
air valves sizing and location.
How air enters pipe systems
Water used in civil engineering applications contains a percentage of dissolved air which is
approximately 2%, as a result of pressure drop or increase in temperature it can come out
of solution. This effect is even greater in sewage applications because of the bacterial activity
that may lead to the formation of gases.
In addition to the air coming out of solution the most common ways in which air enters our
systems are:
- entrainment at the inflow or outflow locations;
- entrainment due to vortices at the inlet;
- air inlet through pumps because of low sump level or vortices;
- hydraulic jumps that may form on the descending slopes;
- negative pressure at the inlet of the pipe;
- air can enter the pipe at those sections where joints and fittings are located in case of
negative pressure conditions;
- incomplete air evacuation when filling the conduct.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 2
Why air is a problem
the presence of air pockets distributed along the pipe profile is responsible for the following
problems:
- Air pockets reduce the effective cross section increasing headloss and reducing the capacity
in terms of flow rate eventually interrupting the water supply.
-During hydraulic transients the presence of air pockets, that are strongly compressed and
deformed, are likely to amplify the surge pressures experienced.
- Air pockets will lead to hydraulic jumps in the pipe and blow back effects with vibrations and
structural damages of the system.
- Air will cause difficulties in measuring and filter operations.
- The presence of air will reduce pump efficiency;
- In ferrous pipes the presence of air will enhance corrosion having compressed oxygen in
contact with the wet wall of the pipe itself.
- The presence of air pockets will increase the total headloss of the system requiring a higher
pumps power and energy costs.
As above explained, air must be degassed or released in high quantities from the pipe system
and it is also very important to let air in to avoid negative pressure problems when the following
arise:
- a breakage causing water leakage;
- accidental and uncontrolled draining operations.
H
Q
The following picture is showing the typical problems caused by the presence of air pockets
accumulated in pumping systems.
The air pockets and the consequent reduction of the flow rate capacity is evident looking at
the working point obtained by the intersection between the pumps curve and the hydraulic
resistance of the system. If we indicate the design working point by green the presence of
air pockets will make it move to the left, becoming red, reducing the flow rate and increasing
the pumps head at the same time ( with a higher cost of energy). The downside effect is
also the increased cost of the pumps maintenance.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
3
Increases of head losses caused by air
Intensive research carried out over the last 10 years along with numerical analysis reveleade
that the presence of air pockets distributed along the pipe profile is responsible for the following
problems:
In gravity systems the presence of air pockets results in capacity reduction, if the static head
is not higher than the sum of the head loss we will have an interruption of the flow and an
overflow through the upstream tank
In pumping systems the air accumulation results in the rising energy consumption and flow
reduction ( as shown in the previous page).
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 4
D
Importance of pipe profiles
All pipelines must be designed to create a saw-toothed layout with slopes laid at minimum
of 2-3% for downward slope and 0,2-0,3% for upward slope. This structure helps air
accumulation in the highest parts and thus its discharge through air release valves properly
located, nevertheless for practical reasons downward slopes with lower gradients are also
used in practice as well as sub horizontal segments. This is not recommended since air
would not accumulate in one point but it would travel uncontrolled along the system.
Air removal
Air entrained by different causes is conveyed through the pipeline and accumulates at the
high points forming air pockets that become larger and larger as more bubbles join in.
Once air pockets, accumulated on the high points, are large enough they split and part of the
air goes downstream. On air pockets three forces are acting such as the buoyancy force, the
hydrodynamic force and the friction force against the pipes wall. On descending slopes the
resultant force can be directed upwards preventing the air pockets from moving downstream
and creating even more headlosses.
During the design of pipeline profiles we must therefore also check and understand the
movement of air bubbles and air pockets, which is still matter of investigation. Almost every
reader on the subject agrees on the fact that the minimum velocity needed to flush air pockets
downstream in downward sloping pipe depends on the pipe DN and pipe gradient, in addition
to experimental coefficients as a results of specific tests. It is good practice and common
understanding that the minimum design flow to ensure air movement in downward sloping
pipes should be in the range between 0,8 and 2 mt/sec depending on the installations, pipe
DN and layout.
( please consult CSA for further information).
v
c
=
4
*
g
*
D

*
tan
2
AV AV
D D
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
5
Fundamentals of air valves
Before talking about air valves sizing and to CSA methodology it is important to know the
fundamentals of air valves and their definitions.
Air release valves
Air release valves, also called single function air valves,
are designed only to release air pockets accumulated
during working conditions. Something important we
must take into account about this model is that they
dont have any capacity of air inflow during pipe draining,
and outflow during filling, due to the limited passage
through the nozzle, therefore they wont provide any
protection for the pipeline against negative pressure
conditions.
Air/Vacuum valves
Vacuum air valves, also called double function air valves, are designed to protect the pipeline
during pipe draining and pipe filling.
In case of pipe draining we
must allow the entrance of
large volumes of air, when the
pr essur e dr ops bel ow
atmospheric values, to avoid
negative pressure conditions
and damages to the system.
In case of pipe filling we must
discharge large volumes of air
to avoid the creation of air
trapped in dead ends, with
possible upsurges, and to
speed up the filling process
savi ng ti me and money.
Example of CSA air/vaccum air valve Mod. FOX 2F
Example of CSA air release valve Mod. Ventolo
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 6
Combination air valves
Vacuum air valves, also called three functions air valves, are designed to protect the pipeline
during pipe draining and pipe filling and to discharge air pockets during working conditions.
Example of CSA combination air valve Mod. FOX 3F
CSA is leading the way with innovative and reliable air
valves. Entirely manufactured in ductile cast iron and
stainless steel some of the most significant technical benefits
compared to the existing alternatives on the market are:
- unless otherwise specified full bore capacity, that is to say
that the outlet passage is equal to the inlet passage through
the flange.
- CSA has been the first company in the world to develop
a single chamber full bore combination air valve, to avoid
the problems typical of the double float design allowing at
the same time for reduced space and weight with a PN 40
bar product.
- high flow capacity thanks to shapes and passages into
the body studied with advanced computational fluid dynamics
calculations.
- cylindrical floats and obturator in solid polypropylene to
avoid deformation, calcium deposits and jamming, typical
problems of spherical floats.
- air release subset in stainless steel AISI 316 with gasket
compression control to minimize the risk of leakage.
- diffuser to avoid premature closure in stainless steel.
- seat completely made in stainless steel.
- nuts and bolts in stainless steel.
- body designed to be interchangeable between the 2F and
3F versi ons ( and ot her model s on request ).
- supplied with cover in ductile cast iron or cap e filter in
stainless steel. Outlet for submerged installation and
conveyed exhaust available on request.
In case of pipe draining we
must allow the entrance of
large volumes of air, when
the pressure drops below
atmospheric values, to
avoid negative pressure
conditions and damages
to the system.
In case of pipe filling we
must di scharge l arge
volumes of air to avoid the
creation of air trapped in
dead ends, with possible
upsurges, and to speed up
the filling process saving
time and money.
During working conditions
the air valve will discharge
air pockets through the
nozzle
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
7
IVL technical advantages
Air valve locations without considering water hammer and transient analysis.
The following picture has to be considered as a pure indication for air valves location
along the profile and without considering any transients or water hammer effects, for
that reason a gravity conveyance system has been chosen.
Types of air valve recommended
High points Combination air valves
Changes in slopes descending Combination air valves
Changes in slopes ascending Vacuum air valves
Long ascending segments Vacuum air valves every 600/800 mt
Long ascending segments Combination air valves every 600/800 mt
Long horizontal run Avoid if possible if unavoidable air release
valves or combination air valves every
600/800 mt
3
2
3
2
3
3
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 8
To do that we must allow the entrance of air whose volume will be equal to the amount of
water discharged in two situations:
Air valves sizing.
In terms of air valves sizing we must basically calculate the air valve DN, whose air flow
capacity which will be able to protect the pipe against negative pressure conditions.
Pipe burst analysis
Assuming a pipe burst on the most critical locations of our pipelines
Pipe draining analysis
Simulating the pipeline drainage operation through the drains located on the pipeline
Pipe collapse pressure
The following formula has to be used purely as an indication to assess the pipe resistance
to possi bl e col l apse. Pl ease contact CSA for a detai l ed buckl i ng anal ysi s.
Where :
C is the friction coefficient
S is the slope
D is the pipe DN
Where :
Ao is the drain section
Cv is the discharge coefficient
DH is the available pressure head
Where :
E is the Elasticity modulus
s is the pipe thickness
D is the pipe DN
M is the Poisson ratio
( )
Q
burst
=
1.852
SD
4.87
C
1.852
10.69
Q
=
C
v
A
0
2 gDH
P
cr
=
2E
(1 - M )
2
S
D
3
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
9
For easier consultation, resulting flow rates have been traced for each DN from free discharge
on given slopes for an adequate air valve sizing.
6
P
I
P
E
L
I
N
E

S
L
O
P
E

(
m
m
/
m
)
PIPE DN
Just as an example below the air flow capacity of one of CSA model, namely the combination
air valve FOX 3F-M. The chart is referring in particular to the inflow capacity during pipe
draining. Lets assume that the burst analysis conducted on a critical section of our pipeline
produced a value of 2500 m3/h of water discharged.
Entering the line corresponding to 2500 m3/h on the plot we have to choose the right Dn of
air valve depending on the allowable negative pressure the system can tolerate. Purely as
an indication we have depicted in red the part with the negative pressure which we consider
to be dangerous for the pipe ( that values depend on pipe material, thickness and other
parameters. Please contact CSA for further information).
In yellow we will refer to a an inflow which may create problem to some situations in terms
of negative pressure, with the green band we have shown the safe area designers should
work with.
Going back to our example it goes without saying that using a CSA FOX 3F DN 100 air valve
to cope with 2500 m/h we would produce a negative of almost 1,8 meters becoming 0,7
meters with the DN 125 mm. A DN 80 air valve in this condition would create full vacuum
si nce t he maxi mum capaci t y i s way bel ow t he request ed 2500 m3/ h.
The procedure explained above has to be carried out throughout the entire pipeline.
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
PORTATA D'ARIA IN ENTRATA PER SVUOTAMENTO CONDOTTA
m3/h
BAR 0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200 R 200/300 R 250/300 R 125/150 R
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 10
Air valves sizing
CSA has developed a sizing software fully interfaced with windows able to:
-perform steady state analysis of the profile
-calculate HGL
-model up to 9 different boundary conditions
-verify the pressure along the line.
In addition to that the software run air valves sizing and location. The software takes also
into account the movement of air pockets and the locations where there are likely to accumulate,
that is to provide warning messages in case of velocities lower that the required value to
flush air pockets downstream of downward sloping pipes.
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
11
Water hammer
Water hammer is by definition a pressure wave, created by the sudden change in the
liquid velocity, travelling across the systems with a speed obtained by using the following
formula and called wavespeed.
The pressure wave can be either positive or negative and changes direction and
magnitude overtime depending on the pipe profile, boundary conditions, derivations and
more.
In case of pump failure the effect will be a negative pressure wave propagating
downstream, due to that beside segments of the pipe subject to negative pressure
conditions particular attentions has to be to paid to those locations where the HGL drops
below the pipe profile to a minimum equal to the vapor pressure..should that last long
enough vapor pockets will be generated with a separation of the two water columns
that, once the rejoin each other closing the void, will produce pressure surges sometimes
devastating for the entire system. This is called column separation. In the picture below
a typical example of a pumping systems with knee where that event is likely to occur.
A detailed surge analysis of pressurized systems must always be carried out, as water
hammer depends on many factors. Also in gravity systems designers must consider the
worst scenario that could engender and trigger critical events, as an example rapid and
uncontrolled closures of sectioning devices, rapid filling of pipelines and so on.
a
c
=
K
w
1 +
1
K
D
Ee
Where :
K is the bulk modulus of water
Rhw is the density of water
D is the pipe DN
E is the elastic modulus of the pipe
e is the pipe thickness
c1 is a factor taking into account pipe restraints and anchorage
!
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 12
For water conveyance systems protections, either pumping or gravity systems, it is
therefore important to run water hammer analysis to asses and understand the wave
propagation and determine what kind of equipments the pipeline may be in need of.
With regards to air valves we shouldnt be using combination or vacuum air valves but
special solutions, which CSA has been studying and designing through an ongoing
research.
The importance of anti water hammer air valves
Air vacuum air valves or combination air valves are likely to generate problems in case
of transients (either caused by pump failure for example or rapid filling of the pipeline)
because they will create upsurges during the closing phase. That is mainly related to
their high air inflow and outflow capacity. Should the pressure drop below atmospheric
where the air valve is located the latter will allow the entrance of large volumes of air
thus avoiding negative pressure. When the water column comes back, during the second
phase of water hammer, the air valve will discharge air at a very high speed followed
by the incoming water column. Due to the difference in density between water and air,
once water reaches the air valve, the float will be pushed up against the seat abruptly
producing the same effect of an instantaneous valve closure with a free discharge outlet,
having a very high velocity running through. The magnitude of the water hammer can
be so high to produce pipe bursts, damages to air valves and other components.
In the following graph is depicted the overpressure generated by a combination air valve
in a pipeline during a transient event as a consequence of pump failure, where the
spikes indicate the closure phases of the air valve. The same effects and problem occur
in case of rapid pipe filling, according to a survey 40% of pipe bursts are generated by
uncontrolled rapid filling.
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000
250
200
150
100
50
0
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
13
The automatism is composed of a metallic disk (with
2 or more adjustable nozzles) calculated using
advanced simulation tools for water hammer
analysis, a guide bar and a stainless steel
counteracting spring that lays directly on the sealing
seat. Such simple construction guarantees high
reliability and it may fit both the 2 and the 3 functions
CSA air release valves.
1) During vacuum condition
the mobile block is laid over
the aerodynamic diffuser, the
antishock disk comes down
pulling the stainless steel
spring allowing the entrance
of a large volume of air
through the main orifice, to
compensate for the vacuum
effect.
2) When negative pressure
conditions end, the stainless
steel spring pulls back the
anti-shock disk to close the
main orifice. Internal air must
therefore flow out through
the smal l di sk ori fi ces
creating a back-pressure
inside the conduct that will
slow down the incoming
water col umn avoi di ng
upsurges.
3) In working conditions the
air valve will discharge air
pockets accumulated along
the profile through the nozzle
and the anti shock adjustable
holes.
Working principle
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 14
IVL Anti - slam technology (AS)
Applications
The AS technology of CSA air valves, used in two functions and three functions, make them
suitable for any location and applications and proved to be the right and safer choice under
many circumstances. CSA AS air valves should be used anytime and everywhere, in particular
in those locations exposed to severe transient conditions as follows:
Changes in slopes with the risk of
column separation
Thanks to the CSA AS technology the
pipe will be protected against negative
pressure conditions slowing down the
approaching water columns, thus
cushioning the upsurge created by the
rejoining of the two pressure fronts.
Submersible pumps between the
pump and the check valve
In such situation we need an air valve
to discharge the air coming from the
suction side during pump start up.
Using a traditional air vacuum or a
combination air valve we will generate
a dangerous upsurges due to the
uncontrolled water column approach.
The AS technology will slow down
the incoming water column, due to
the air outflow through the adjustable
nozzles, providing at the same time
enough air inflow capacity to avoid
negative pressure conditions in case
of pump shut down.
Downstream of pumps
With pumping stations, where in
case of power failure the pressure
is likely to drop below atmospheric,
CSA AS air valve will be the right
solution in terms of protection thanks
to the large air inflow capacity, to
avoid the risk of negative pressure
conditions, slowing down the
returning water front to prevent
further i ncrease i n pressure.
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
15
The automatism is composed of three components,
namely the float and the upper flat, joined together by
means of the air release system, in addition to the
dynamic flat. The latter has been designed and tested
to sense the increase in velocity and in differential
pressure and come up, reducing the outflow and creating
a cushioning effect for the incoming water column, should
the air speed become greater than a safety threshold.
During pipe filling the air valve will
discharge air through the main orifice
generating a Dp which is proportional
to the air flow.
During vacuum conditions the automatism
is laid on top of the aerodynamic diffuser,
the dynamic flat is on top of the obturator
to allow the entrance of large volumes of
air to avoid negative perssure conditions.
Should the air velocity become
greater that 40 mt/sec the dynamic
flat will come up, reducing the outflow
and creating a cushion effect for the
incoming water column.
In working conditions the air valve will
discharge air pockets, accumulated
along the profile, through the nozzle and
the orifice obtained in the dynamic flat.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 16
IVL RFP technology (rapid filling prevention)
The following pictures has to be considered as a pure indication for air valves location
along the profile, also considering transients effects, providing water hammer prevention.
The proper choice of air valves depends on many factors such as profile, pipe materials,
and other water hammer prevention devices installed. More important it is related to the
results of the water hammer analysis. This is the reason why both for waterworks and
sewage systems it is important to run transient analysis to asses and understand the
wave propagation and determine what kind of protection the pipeline may be in need of,
and to assess the effect of the air valves previously sized with the standard procedure.
In the graph above for example we show the result of pump failure with only air valves
installed as a protection tool, the plot clearly shows the location where negative pressure
will occur on the pipeline therefore the air valves positioning and selection below.
Types of air valve recommended
Standad single function air release valve, if the segment is more than 2 KM long
three functions RFP air valves are recommended.
E
L
E
V
A
T
I
O
N
PUMP
HORIZONTAL RUN
HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE
L
O
N
G

D
E
S
C
E
N
T
LONG ASCENT
RESERVOIR
DRAIN VALVE
DRAIN VALVE
DRAIN VALVE
Two functions anti hammer air valves will avoid negative pressure conditions,
allowing large entrance of air volumes in case of pump failure/ pipe draining,
providing at the same time water hammer protection thanks to the AS technology
and the controlled air outflow.
Three functions anti hammer air valves will avoid negative pressure conditions,
allowing large entrance of air volumes in case of pump failure/ pipe draining,
providing at the same time water hammer protection thanks to the AS technology
and the controlled air outflow. They will also ensure the proper air release of air
pockets accumulated in working conditions.
Three functions RFP air valves will avoid negative pressure conditions, allowing
large entrance of air volumes in case of pump failure/ pipe draining, providing
at the same time water hammer protection thanks to the RFP technology controlling
the outflow in case of excessive air velocity. They will also ensure the proper air
release of air pockets accumulated in working conditions.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
17
Installation and further
details
On those locations where air
pockets are likely to gather it is
very important to create some
sort of accumulation chamber,
between the pipeline and the
air valve, as shown on the
picture. The dimension of the
chamber DN indicated depends
on the pipe DN and profile, and
is recommended in general up
to a max of 800 mm above
whi ch vortex may occur.
Please contact CSA for further
information.
An example of how to deal with
high points. A three function air
valve has to be placed on top
of an accumulation chamber, it
is important to install the air
valve on the downstream side
of the high point due to the
position of the air pocket which,
pushed by the hydrodynamic
force of water from one side
and the buoyancy and friction
force from the other, will be likely
to remain near the change in
slope.
These locations are often
exposed to water hammer
effects therefore anti-slam air
valves are recommended.
On descending changes in
slope we always design on
conservative assumptions,
therefore ai r pockets are
expected to accumulate on the
change in slope due to low
velocity conditions.
Three functions air valves will
be necessary.
On ascending changes in slope
air vacuum air valves will be
needed since the air pockets
will be always flushed upstream,
these points are often exposed
to water hammer conditions
therefore air valves with anti-
slam technology are highly
recommended.
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IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 18
Horizontal or sub horizontal
s e g me n t s , e i t h e r
ascending or descending,
have to be avoided when
possible. If present in our
systems air valves spaced
with 800-1000 mt max
have to be placed for
protection against negative
conditions, for the proper
air release ( if horizontal
and descendi ng) and
especially if exposed to
t r ansi ent condi t i ons.
An automatic three function anti water hammer air valve is located downstream of the prv
while upstream we do have a single air release, to prevent air from reaching the control
chamber of the valve. Again a small accumulation below the two air valves is recommended
During regulation and control hydraulic control valves, direct acting PRV or PSV modulating
devices are needed. Any time we do produce a pressure drop we release air out of water.
In the following installation we do have two triple function air valve, located upstream and
downstream of the control valve next to changes in slope.
Also in this case accumulation chambers on both sides are recommended.
800 - 1000 m
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
19
Installation
Before installation make sure to
accurately clean the pipeline to avoid
that any foreign bodies like stones or
building material may damage the air
release valves.
Air release valves must be positioned
in locations wide enough and easily
accessible to allow maintenance,
operations and inspection. They must
be placed in a perfectly vertical position,
and on a T piece to allow for air
accumulation in order to improve the air
valves performances.
The pit must be equipped with a drainage
system for cleaning operations, and
ventilation pipes to allow air intake and
out-flow for the proper air recirculation.
A sectioning device, being either a gate
valve or a butterfly valve, must be
provided.
Maintenance
CSA air valves are simple and sturdy and for that they dont require any particular maintenance,
their performances and life spam depends on working conditions.
For combination models we recommend to check the air release system at least twice per
year, as well as the o-ring status.
Every component can be easily replaced from the top without having to remove the valve
from the pipeline.
For further information please consult the installation and maintenance manual enclosed
with every valve, or simply contact CSA technical support.
DRAIN
Venting pipe with DN
equal to the air valve
d=0,5D
h
=
D
MANHOLE
D
Venting pipe with DN
equal to the air valve
Gate valve
Air valve
Spacer
I VL
I VL
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 20
Water hammer analysis
CSA Hyconsult
CSA Hyconsult was founded to provide
designers and consultants, involved in
the design of water distribution and
sewage systems, with accurate and
unique technical support.
CSA Hyconsult offers itself as the ideal
partner for carrying out hydraulic
modeling and conducting transient
analysis, entirely through the use of
modern computati onal tool s and
advanced cal cul us al gor i t hms.
Simulations are essential to predict
system responses to events under a
wide range of conditions without
disrupting the actual system.
Using simulations, problems can be
anticipated in possible or existing
si tuati ons, and sol uti ons can be
evaluated in order to invest time, money
and material in the most productive
manner.
Research and innovation
CSA has always regarded knowledge
as being indispensable for the kind of
research that consi stentl y feeds
innovation at all levels.
The R&D department at CSA constantly
strives to improve product performance
and continually searches for new
solutions to meet our customers needs.
Twenty years of experience in valve
design and sizing, supported by
advanced comput at i onal t ool s,
cooperation with external entities at the
highest level, and test facilities for the
verification of theoretical results which
are available for our customers,
guarantee our professionalism and
reliability.
I VL
I VL
I VL
I VL
HYCONSULT
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
21
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the evacuation and the entrance
of large volumes of air during filling and draining operations.
Two function air valve
Mod. FOX 2F - C*
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on
request) PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Full polypropylene cylindrical float (**).
- * Cap in ductile cast iron.
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flowing in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F- C please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
22
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40bar/580psi; Minimum pressure 0.3bar/4.35psi.
D C
A
B
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
142
174 300
275 185
200 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50
142 275 165
Flanged 150 325
490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375
= 490
325
Flanged 150R 267 = 425 285 300
12,4
3,2
8,6
19,7
9,0
36,0
56,0
6,2
58,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
Air performance chart
Technical features
Body, Cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
1
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200 R 125/150 R
2/50/65 80 100 150/200 R 125/150 R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
23
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of large amounts
of air in case of draining or pipe burst, and the discharge with controlled speed thanks to an exclusive AS
mechanism.
Anti-shock two function air valve
Mod. FOX 2F - C* - AS
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard (other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Full polypropylene cylindrical float (**).
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic
disk with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and
a counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Cap in ductile cast iron.
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
The FOX 2F - C - AS is provided with a mechanism
called AS. This is composed of a metallic flat with
holes and a counteracting spring which, during
vacuum conditions, is pulled down to open the
passage through the main orifice allowing the entrance
of large volumes of air.
2) Controlled air discharge
Once the negative pressure ends the flat comes up
thanks to the spring, with the purpose of reducing
the section during the discharge phase therefore
slowing down the velocity of the approaching water
column.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F - C - AS please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfect vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
24
D C
A
B
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
142
174 300
275 185
200 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50
142 275 165
Flanged 150 325
490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375
= 490
325
Flanged 150R 267 = 425 285 300
12,8
3,6
8,8
21,5
9,2
38,0
58,0
6,6
59,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
Technical features
Body, Cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
AS guide bar and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
m3/h
0
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
BAR
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
m3/h m3/h
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
BAR
0 50 100
BAR 1,3
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1
0 50 25 75 25 75
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
25
The air valve will ensure the proper operation and protection of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of
large amounts of air, in case of draining or pipeline burst, and maintaining the discharge velocity within a safety
level by means of a rapid filling preventer mechanism.
Two function air valve with rapid filling preventer
mechanism Mod. FOX 2F - C* - RFP
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
2) Controlled air discharge
The FOX RFP air valve is provided with a mechanism
that avoids water hammer caused by rapid filling
thanks to a special system called rapif filling preventer
( RFP). This is obtained by means of a special upper
flat which will reduce the discharged air flow when
the differential pressure across the air valve rises
above a prefixed level ( usually between 0,02 and
0,03 bar). This will slowdown the approaching water
column reducing the consequent upsurge created
by the air valve closure.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F - C - RFP please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for cosistent and accurate float assembly guiding
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and upper disk.
- Rapid filling preventer mechanism to avoid water
hammer caused by rapid filling
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Cap in ductile cast iron.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena
at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
26
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
Technical features
Body, Cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel / bronze
Float in polypropylene
RFP flat in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel A2
Gaskets NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
Q(m3/h)
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
20 10 50 40 30 100 300 200 500 400 2000 1000 5000 10000
2"/50 80 100 150/200R
BAR
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
20 10 300 50 40 30 200 100 500 400
100 80 2"/50
Q(m3/h)
BAR
2000 1000 5000
150/200R 1"
1"
D C
A
B
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65 142
174 300
275 185
200 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50 142 275 165
Flanged 150 325 490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375 =
490 325
12,4
3,2
8,6
19,7
9,0
56,0
6,2
58,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
27
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the evacuation of large volumes
of air during filling operations.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on
request) NP 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a solid polypropylene
cylindrical float (**)
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flows in. FOX 2F-EO will make
sure to perform this task avoiding the air entrance
thanks to a special system, composed of a spring,
flat and o-ring, which its high sensitivity and accuracy
allows the air discharge with a DP across the valve
between 0,03 and 0,05 bar.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F-EO please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
Exit only vacuum air valve
Mod. FOX 2F - EO
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
28
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
On request minimum pressure of 0,15 bar with the high sensitivity low
pressure version
Technical features
Body and flanges in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated using fluidized
bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel.
Spring in stainless steel.
Flat in stainless steel / brass.
Air flow performance charts.
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200 11,1 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R 51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 34,5 300
C
A
B
D
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200R 200/250R
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
250/300R 125/150R
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 m3/h 20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
29
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the evacuation and the entrance
of large volumes of air during filling and draining operations.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard (other drillings on
request) PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Full polypropylene cylindrical float (**).
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- * Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flowing in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F-M please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
Two function air valve
Mod. FOX 2F - M*
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
30
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
Technical features
Body in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated using fluidized bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200
11,1
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R
51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 34,5 300
C
A
B
D
150/200R 125/150R
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
1 2/50/65 80 100 200/250R
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000
250/300R
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200R
200/250R
250/300R 125/150R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 31
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of large amounts
of air in case of draining or pipeline burst, and the discharge with controlled speed.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on
request) PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Full polypropylene cylindrical float (**).
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic
disk with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and
a counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
The FOX 2F - M - AS is provided with a mechanism
called AS. This is composed of a metallic flat with
holes and a counteracting spring which, during
vacuum conditions, is pulled down to open the
passage through the main orifice allowing the entrance
of large volumes of air.
2) Controlled air discharge
Once the negative pressure ends the flat comes up
thanks to the spring, with the purpose of reducing
the section during the discharge phase therefore
slowing down the velocity of the approaching water
column.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F- M - AS please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Anti-shock two function air valve
Mod. FOX 2F - M* - AS
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
32
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
Technical features
Body in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated using fluidized bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
AS stem and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200
11,5
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,5
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,3
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
99,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 20,0
B
51,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,3
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
130,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R
53,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
124,0
105,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 36,0 300
8,8
C
A
B
D
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
0
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R 200/250R
m3/h
BAR
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000
250/300R
BAR
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0
50 100 150
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R 200/250R
300 350 250 200
m3/h
Air flow performance charts.
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
m3/h
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0 50 100 150 200 250
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
200/250R
BAR
300
250/300R
350 400 450 500
250/300 R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
33
The air valve will ensure the proper operation and protection of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of
large amounts of air,in case of draining or pipeline burst, and maintaining the discharge velocity within a safety
level by means of a rapid filling preventer mechanism.
Two function air valve with
rapid filling preventer mechanism
Mod. FOX 2F - M* - RFP
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
2) Controlled air discharge
The FOX RFP air valve is provided with a mechanism
that avoids water hammer caused by rapid filling
thanks to a special system called rapid filling preventer
( RFP). This is obtained by means of a special upper
flat which will reduce the discharged air flow when
the differential pressure across the air valve rises
above a prefixed level ( usually between 0,02 and
0,03 bar). This will slowdown the approaching water
column reducing the consequent upsurge created
by the air valve closure.
For air flow performances of FOX 2F-M- RFP please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for cosistent and accurate float assembly guiding
NP 40.
-Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and upper disk.
- Rapid filling preventer mechanism to avoid water
hammer caused by rapid filling
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Mesh and cap in stainless steel.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena
at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
34
C
A
B
D
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
Technical features
Body and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
RFP flat in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
20 10 50 40 30 100 300 200 500 400 2000 1000 5000 10000
2"/50 80 100 150/200R 200/250R
BAR
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
20 10 300 50 40 30 200 100 500 400
100 80 2"/50
Q(m3/h)
BAR
2000 1000 5000
150/200R 200/250R
Q(m3/h)
20000
250/300R
250/300R 1"
1"
10000
EXECUTION A C(M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200
11,1
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R
333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg.
C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R 51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375 =
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 35
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the release of the air pockets during
working conditions, the evacuation and the entrance of large volumes of air during filling and draining operations.
Water combination air valve
Mod. FOX 3F - C*
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flows in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the main orifice due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F-C please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and an upper disk in
Polypropylene.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending)
wear resistant thanks to gasket compression
control.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Cap in ductile cast iron.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfect vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
36
D C
A
B
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure
40bar/580 psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65 142
174 300
275 185
200
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50 142 275 165
Flanged 150 325 490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375 = 490 325
Flanged 150R
267 = 425 250
12,4
3,2
8,6
19,7
9,0
33,0
56,0
6,2
58,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scfm)
35
40
bar
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
psi
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O3 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
Flanged 125
267 425 285 300 = 36,0
=
Technical features
Body, cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
1
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200 R 125/150 R
2/50/65 80 100 150/200 R 125/150 R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 37
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the air release during working
conditions, the entrance of large amounts of air in case of draining or pipeline burst, and the discharge with
controlled speed.
Anti-shock water combination air valve
Mod. FOX 3F- C*- AS
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal ribs
for consistent and accurate float assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and an upper disk in polypropylene.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending) wear resistant
thanks to gasket compression control.
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic
disk with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and
a counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Cap in ductile cast iron.
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
The FOX 3F- C- AS is provided with a mechanism
called AS. This is composed of a metallic flat with
holes and a counteracting spring which, during
vacuum conditions, is pulled down to open the
passage through the main orifice allowing the entrance
of large volumes of air.
2) Controlled air discharge
Once the negative pressure ends the flat comes up
thanks to the spring, with the purpose of reducing
the section during the discharge phase therefore
slowing down the velocity of the approaching water
column.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing the water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the main orifice due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F- C - AS please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena
at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfect vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
38
D C
A
B
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
142
174 300
275 185
200 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50
142 275 165
Flanged 150 325
490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375
= 490
325
Flanged 150R 267 = 425 285 300
12,8
3,6
8,8
21,5
9,2
38,0
58,0
6,6
59,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
28
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scf/min)
35
40
P(bar)
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
P(psi)
60
Technical features
Body, cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
AS stem and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
m3/h
0
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
BAR
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
m3/h m3/h
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
BAR
0 50 100
BAR 1,3
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1
0 50 25 75 25 75
Air flow performance charts.
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
39
The air valve will ensure the proper operation and protection of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of
large amounts of air, in case of draining or pipeline burst, and maintaining the discharge velocity within a safety
level by means of a rapid filling preventer mechanism.
Combination air valve with rapid filling preventer
mechanism Mod. FOX 3F- C*- RFP
Operating principle
1) Controlled air discharge
The RFP mechanism is obtained by means of a
special upper flat, which will reduce the discharged
air flow when the differential pressure across the air
valve rises above a prefixed level. This will slowdown
the air velocity and the approaching water column,
reducing the consequent upsurge created by the air
valve closure.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases the air
valve will allow the entrance of as much air as the
quantity of out-flowing water to avoid vacuum
conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure reaches the water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop to free the nozzle hole helping
the release of air pocket, while RFP flat will maintain
the main orifice closed due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F- C -RFP please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for cosistent and accurate float assembly guiding
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and upper disk, assembled by
nozzle and gasket holder, and by a RFP flat also
in polypropylene to avoid water hammer caused by
rapid filling.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending)
wear resistant thanks to controlled gasket
compression.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Cap in ductile cast iron.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena
at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 40
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580
psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
Technical features
Body, Cover and flange
GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
RFP flat in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
150/200R
20 10 50 40 30 100 300 200 500 400 2000 1000 5000 10000
2"/50 80 100 150/200R
BAR
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
20 10 300 50 40 30 200 100 500 400
100 80 2"/50
Q(m3/h)
BAR
2000 1000 5000
Q(m3/h)
1"
1"
D C
A
B
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
28
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scf/min)
35
40
P(bar)
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
P(psi)
60
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65 142
174 300
275 185
200 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 113 =
= Flanged 50 142 275 165
Flanged 150 325 490 285
340
=
Flanged 100 = 217 350 220
B
Threaded 2
CH75 142 260
=
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 200R
165
185
205
235
300
375 =
490 325
12,4
3,2
8,6
19,7
9,0
56,0
6,2
58,0
205
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
41
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the release of the air pockets
during working conditions and the evacuation of large volumes of air during filling operations.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
NP 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and an upper disk in
polypropylene.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending) wear
resistant thanks to gasket compression control.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flows in. FOX 3F-EO will make
sure to perform this task allowing the release during
working conditions. During operation, an air pocket
is accumulated in the upper part of the valve, little
by little it is compressed and its pressure arrives to
water pressure, its volume increases pushing water
downwards. Following Archimede's principle the float,
no longer sustained by water thrust, will drop freeing
the nozzle hole helping the release of the air pocket,
while the upper disk closes the main orifice due to
internal pressure. FOX 3F-EO will avoid the air
entrance thanks to a special system, composed of
a spring, flat and o-ring, whose high sensitivity and
accuracy allows the air discharge with a DP across
the valve between 0,03 and 0,05 bar.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F-EO please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
Exit only water combination air valve
Mod. FOX 3F - EO
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
42
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
On request minimum pressure of 0,15 bar with the high sensitivity low
pressure version
Technical features
Body and flanges in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated using fluidized
bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel.
Spring in stainless steel.
Flat in stainless steel / brass.
Air flow performance charts.
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scfm)
35
40
bar
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
psi
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O3 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200 11,1 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R 51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 34,5 300
C
A
B
D
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200R 200/250R
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
250/300R 125/150R
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 m3/h 20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
43
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the release of the air pockets
during working conditions, the evacuation and the entrance of large volumes of air during filling and draining
operations.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
NP 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and an upper disk in
polypropylene.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending) wear
resistant thanks to gasket compression
control.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flows in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the main orifice due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F-M please refer
to the chart depicted on the next page.
Water combination air valve
Mod. FOX 3F - M*
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
44
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
Technical features
Body and flanges in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel.
Air flow performance charts.
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scfm)
35
40
bar
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
psi
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O3 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
* M.F. = mobile flanges version * F.F. = fixed flanges version
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200 11,1 =
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R 51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 34,5 300
C
A
B
D
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200R 200/250R
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000
250/300R 125/150R
1 2/50/65 80 100 150/200R 200/250R 250/300R 125/150R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
45
The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline network allowing the air release during working
conditions, the entrance of large amounts of air in case of draining or pipeline burst, and the discharge with
controlled speed.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for consistent and accurate assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drilled
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and an upper disk in
polypropylene.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending)
wear resistant thanks to gasket compression
control.
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic
disk with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and
a counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Mesh and cap in stainless steel
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
The FOX 3F- M- AS is provided with a mechanism
called AS. This is composed of a metallic flat with
holes and a counteracting spring which, during
vacuum conditions, is pulled down opening the
passage through the main orifice allowing the entrance
of large volumes of air.
2) Controlled air discharge
Once the negative pressure ends the flat comes up
thanks to the spring, with the purpose of reducing
the section during the discharge phase therefore
slowing down the velocity of the approaching water
column.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing the water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the main orifice due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F- M- AS please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Anti- slam water combination air valve
Mod. FOX 3F- M*- AS
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
46
Working conditions
Potable water 60C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi
Technical features
Body and flange in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Seat in stainless steel
AS stem and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel.
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scfm)
35
40
bar
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
psi
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O3 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
EXECUTION A C (M.F.)* D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65
118
142 322
290 185
200
11,5
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,5
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,3
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
99,0
=
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 20,0
B
51,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,3
Flanged 250R 333 574 =
130,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R
53,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375
=
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
124,0
105,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
Flanged 150R 218 = 435 285 36,0 300
8,8
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed
by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
C
A
B
D
0
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R 200/250R
m3/h
BAR
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000
250/300R
BAR
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0
50 100 150
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R 200/250R
300 350 250 200
m3/h
Air flow performance charts.
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
m3/h
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0 50 100 150 200 250
1 2/50/65 80 100 150 R 150/200 R
200/250R
BAR
300
250/300R
350 400 450 500
250/300R
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
47
The air valve will ensure the proper operation and protection of the pipeline network allowing the entrance of
large amounts of air in case of draining or pipeline burst, the release of air pockets during working conditions
and maintaining the discharge velocity within a safety level by means of a rapid filling preventer mechanism.
Combination air valve with rapid filling preventer
mechanism Mod. FOX 3F- M*- RFP
Operating principle
1) Controlled air discharge
The RFP mechanism is obtained by means of a
special upper flat which will reduce the discharged
air flow when the differential pressure across the air
valve rises above a prefixed level. This will slowdown
the air velocity and the approaching water column,
reducing the consequent upsurge created by the air
valve closure.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases the air
valve will allow the entrance of as much air as the
quantity of out-flowing water to avoid vacuum
conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of air pocket, while RFP flat will maintain
the main orifice closed due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of FOX 3F- M- RFP please
refer to the chart depicted on the next page.
Construction and advantages
- Body in ductile cast iron provided with internal
ribs for cosistent and accurate float assembly guiding,
NP 40.
- Supplied with fixed or mobile flanges drillied
according to ISO standard ( other drillings on request)
PN 10/16/25/40.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Mobile block group formed by a full polypropylene
cylindrical float (**) and upper disk, assembled by
nozzle and gasket holder, and by a RFP flat also
in polypropylene to avoid water hammer caused by
rapid filling.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending) wear
resistant thanks to controlled gasket compression.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- *Mesh and cap in stainless steel.
(**) Full polypropylene cylindrical floats to avoid deforming phenomena
at high pressure and lathe shaped to guarantee:
a) a greater sliding precision inside the body processed ribs;
b) a perfectly vertical thrust;
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 48
C
A
B
D
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max; Maximum pressure 40 bar/580
psi; Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
Technical features
Body and flange in GJS 500-7 epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Seat in stainless steel
Float in polypropylene
Upper flat in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
RFP flat in polypropylene
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Gaskets NBR
Drainage valve in stainless steel.
Air flow performance charts.
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
28
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scf/min)
35
40
P(bar)
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
P(psi)
60
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O2,2 /
O1 /
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
* M.F. = mobile flanges version
* F.F. = fixed flanges version
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
20 10 50 40 30 100 300 200 500 400 2000 1000 5000 10000
2"/50 80 100 150/200R 200/250R
BAR
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
20 10 300 50 40 30 200 100 500 400
100 80 2"/50
Q(m3/h)
BAR
2000 1000 5000
150/200R 200/250R
Q(m3/h)
20000
250/300R
250/300R 1"
1"
10000
EXECUTION A
C (M.F.)*
D
Flanged 80
Flanged 65 118
142 322
290 185
200 11,1
=
=
Threaded 1 CH45 93 217 = 3,3
= Flanged 50
118 290 165 8,1
Flanged 200
Flanged 150 261
333 574
500 285
340
94,0 =
=
Flanged 100 = 180 364 220 18,5
B
8,6
49,0
Threaded 2
CH75 118 277
=
6,1
Flanged 250R
333 574 =
127,0
Weight Kg. C (F.F.)*
=
=
Flanged 300R
Flanged 200R 51,0
Flanged 250
165
185
205
235
300
375 =
=
=
340 375
400
450
455
=
=
=
121,0
102,0
500
735
735
261
414
414
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
49
Thanks to its construction Saturno doesnt need constructionor any sectioning devicesto be installed on the
pipeand it turns out to be the perfect choice whether for cost savingsor or simply for practical resons when
digging and pits are not possible. The air valve will ensure the proper operation of the pipeline networks allowing
the release of air pockets during working conditions, the evacuation and the entrance of large volumes of air
during filling and draining operations.
Construction and advantages
A new and reliable solution compared to the conventional
way of installing air valves, requiring deep excavation
to house concrete structures and whatever necessary
to create the proper pit like TE piece, sectioning devices,
the air valves itself and more.., Saturno innovative
concept is based on the possibility of installing it directly
on the TE piece before filling up the trench without any
sectioning device, therefore dramatically reducing the
overall cost. A simple manhole on the ground ( DN 300
mm is recommended) is sufficient to carry out proper
maintenance.
CSA tech support is at your disposal for any further
The assemble is composed of:
- a standpipe in stainless steel firmly secured to the
basement to protect the air valves inside of it, and to
hold the upper guide connected to the manoeuvring
system.
- a flanged basement to hold the check valve and the
exhaust pipe 3/8" to avoid the accumulation of water
into the standpipe.
- the combination air valve FOX 3F - M housed into the
flanged basement where its movement is controlled by
a manoeuvring shaft connected to its cover and whose
wat er t i ght ness i s ensured by t wo o-ri ngs.
- a cover in painted aluminium / HDPE.
The system described above allows for proper
maintenance simply by sectioning the flow rotating the
air valve and extracting the body from above.
CSA tech support is at your complete disposal for any
further information you may need.
Water combination air valve underground version
Mod. Saturno
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flows in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket accumulates in the
upper part of the valve, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives to water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimedes's principle, the float, no longer sustained
by water thrust, drops freeing the nozzle hole helping
to release the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the mai n ori fi ce due to i nternal pressure.
For air flow performances of Saturno please refer to
the chart depicted on the next page.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
50
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
Working conditions
Potable water 70C/158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 40 bar/580 psi;
Minimum pressure 0.3 bar/4.35 psi.
m3/h
m3/h
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
DN C
100
80
21,5
50
25,7
24,2
28,6
29,6
Weight
Kg.
23,0
31,1
28,4
26,5
A B
160
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
50/80/100
1000
50/80/100
640 320 960 480 1120 160 800
Q (nl/s)
10
5
12 0 4 8 16 20 24
20
25
30
15
150
100
28
50
350
300
450
400
200
250
Q (scf/min)
35
40
P(bar)
10 20 40 30 50
500
600
550
P(psi)
60
O1,2 /
O1,5 /
O 1,9 /
O1 /
Tech features container
Cover in painted aluminium / HDPE
Standpipe in stainless steel
Maneuvering pipe in stainless steel
Support in stainless steel / steel painted using
FBT
Elastic pins, nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Basement in stainless steel / steel painted
using FBT
Check valve's shaft in stainless steel
Flange in stainless steel / painted carbon steel
Check valve in delrin
Fitting 3/8" threaded
Tech features air valve
Body and flange
GJS 500-7 entirely epoxy powder coated
using fluidized bed technology
Cap and mesh in stainless steel
Upper flat in polypropylene
Float in polypropylene
Nozzle in stainless steel
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel
Gaskets in NBR
Seat in stainless steel
Drainage valve in stainless steel
Air flow performance charts.
Warning
it is recommended before filling up
the trench to connect the 3/8 " fitting
to a conveyance system to allow
proper drainage in case of water
accumulation into the standpipe. It is
also necessary to make sure that the
upper part between the cover and the
manhole on the ground is not buried,
so as to ensure maintenance and
inspection. Please contact CSA tech
750 165 20,5
160
160
160
1000
1250
1500
165
165
165
23,2
25,3
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
750
1000
1250
1500
750
1000
1250
1500
200
200
200
200
235
235
235
235
C
B
A
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
inspection.
51
The SCA guarantees the proper operation of pressurized sewage systems allowing the entrance of large
quantities of air in case of pipe bursting or draining phases and a controlled air outflow speed.
Anti hammer automatic air valve for sewage
Mod. SCA
Construction and advantages
- Large lower body designed with strongly sloped
high walls to avoid grease and/or other material
deposit, and it contains four fusion obtained nerves
to guide the stainless steel float.
- Upper body containing the AS device protection
cup against water hammer effect during rapid filling
phases.
- Mobile block including a large AISI 316 stainless
steel float, placed on the lower body and connected
through a stainless steel rod to the obturator.
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic
disk with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and a
counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
2) Controlled air discharge
The SCA air valve is provided with a mechanism
called AS. During vacuum conditions the mobile block
is laid over the diffuser, the antishock disk comes
down pulling the stainless steel spring and allows
the entrance of large volumes of air through the
main orifice to compensate for the vacuum effect.
For air flow performances of SCA please refer to the
chart depicted on the next page.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
52
D
B
A
E
Air flow performance chart.
Working conditions
Waste water 70C/ 158 F Max; Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi; Minimum pressure 0,3 bar/ 4.35 psi.
Technical features
Lower body, upper body and cover entirely made in ductile cast iron
GJS 500-7, internal and external painted with epoxy powder applied
using fluidized bed technology.
Obturator in polypropylene
AS guide bar and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel / bronze
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel
150 285
200 340
185 50/65
DN
A
(mm)
243
243
202
850
850
550
B
(mm)
488
488
300
D
(mm)
E
(mm)
78
82
29
Weight
(kg)
80/100 220 600 350 190 40
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0 20 40 60 80 100
50/65 80/100 150/200
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
0 20 40 60 80
50/65 80/100 150/200
m3/h m3/h
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
BAR
50/65 80/100 150/200
m3/h
4000 4500
m3/h
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 53
The air valve guarantees the proper operation of sewage lines allowing the entrance of large quantities of air
in case of pipe burst or draining phases, the release of air pockets during working conditions and the controlled
air outflow speed.
Anti hammer three function air valve for sewage
Mod. SCA 2" - PN 16
Construction and advantages
- Lower body designed with strongly sloped high
walls to avoid grease and/or other material deposit,
and it contains four ribs to guide the stainless steel
float.
- Upper body containing the AS and the air release
mechanism which is protected against water hammer
effect , during rapid filling phases, by a s.s. diffuser.
- Mobile block including a large AISI 316 stainless
steel float, placed on the lower body and connected
through a stainless steel rod to the air release
mechanism.
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic disk
with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and a
counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Evacuation bend suitable for flooded environments with
1" threaded outlet.
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
2) Controlled air discharge
The SCA air valve is provided with a mechanism
called AS. During vacuum conditions the mobile block
is laid over the diffuser, the antishock disk comes
down pulling the stainless steel spring and allows
the entrance of large volumes of air through the
main orifice to compensate the vacuum effect.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket is accumulated in the
upper part of the valves body, little by little it is
compressed and its pressure arrives to water pressure,
its volume increases pushing the water downwards.
Following Archimedes principle the float, no longer
sustained by water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle
hole helping the release of the air pocket, while the
upper disk closes the main orifice due to internal
pressure.
For air flow performance of SCA 2" please refer to
the chart depicted on the next page.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
54
Q (scf/min)
15
0 4
10
5
p(bar) 20
10
Q (nl/s)
8 12
250
16
150
100
50
200
20 30
300
01,7
Working conditions
Waste water 70/158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi;
Minimum pressure 0,35 bar/ 5.1 psi.
Technical features
Lower body, upper body and cover entirely made in ductile cast
iron GJS 500-7, internal and external painted with epoxy powder
applied using fluidized bed technology.
Obturator in polypropylene
Nozzle and gasket holder in stainless steel AISI 316
AS guide bar and spring in stainless steel
AS disk in brass
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel AISI 304
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
RELATIVE TO THE NOZZLE DN
1 2
DN/C A
1,7 389 137
D B
Main
orifice
mm
2
10,8
Weight
Kg
Nozzle
mm
2
490
p(psi)
Air flow performance chart.
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,2
0,25
0,3
bar bar psi
3
4
psi
3
4
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0 2 4 6 8
m3/h m3/h
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
0
1
2
0
1
2
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
cfm
1 2 3 0
4 5
cfm
1 2 3 0
4 5 6 7
BAR
20 60 80 0 100 120
0 40 80 120 160 200
-0,3
-0,25
-0,2
-0,15
-0,1
-0,05
0
BAR
m3/h
psi
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
40
0
psi
cfm
D
C
B
A
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
55
SCF air valve guarantees the proper operation of sewage lines allowing the entrance and the discharge of
large volumes of air, both during pipe draining and filling operations, and the release of air pockets during
working conditions.
Three function automatic air valve for sewage
Mod. SCF
Construction and advantages
- Large lower body designed with strongly sloped
high walls to avoid deposit of grease and/or other
material, and contains four fusion obtained nerves
to guide the stainless steel float.
- Upper body containing an air release device
protection cup against projections during rapid filling
phases.
- Mobile block including a large AISI 316 stainless
steel float, placed on the lower body and connected
through a stainless steel rod to the air release system.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Nozzle and gasket holder (pat. pending) wear resistant
thanks to gasket compression control.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Evacuation bend in polypropylene standard for DN
50/65 and on request for the other DN.
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as the water flowing in.
2) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket accumulates in the
upper part of the valve's lower body, little by little it is
compressed and its pressure arrives to water pressure,
its volume increases pushing the water downwards.
Following Archimedes's principle the float, no longer
sustained by water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle
hole helping the release of the air pocket, while the
upper disk closes the main orifice due to internal
pressure.
For air flow performances of SCF please refer to the
chart depicted on the next page.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
56
15
0 4
10
5
DN 50-65
p(bar) 20
10
Q (nl/s)
8 12
250
16
150
100
50
200
Q (scf/min)
20 30
300
03
DN 150-200
DN 80/100
02,4
02 Technical features
Lower body, upper body and cover entirely made in ductile
cast iron GJS 500-7 internal and external painting with epoxy
powder appl i ed usi ng fl ui di zed bed technol ogy.
Obturator in polypropylene
Nozzle and gasket holder in stainless steel AISI 316
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Nuts and bolts in stainless steel A2
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel / bronze
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel D
B
A
C
E
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
AIR INTAKE DURING PIPE DRAINING AND BURST
Air flow performance chart
Working conditions
Waste water 70C/158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi;
Minimum pressure 0,2 bar/ 4.35 psi.
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
RELATIVE TO THE NOZZLE DN
150 285
200 340
80/100 220
DN
A
(mm)
190
243
243
850
-
850
-
-
600
C
(mm)
B
(mm)
488
488
350
D
(mm)
E
(mm)
78
82
40
Weight
(kg)
185 50/65 202 550 90 300 29
p(psi)
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
1,2
1,25
1,3
m3/h
BAR
BAR
1,35
1,4
1,45
1,5
0,5
0,55
0,6
0,65
150/200
2000 4000 6000 8000
50/65 80/100
50/65 80/100 150/200
1000 3000 5000 7000
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
57
Three function automatic air valve for sewage
Mod. SCF 2" - PN 16
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flowing in.
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket accumulates in the
upper part of the valve body, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives at water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimede's principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the main orifice due to internal pressure.
For air flow performances of SCF 2" please refer to
the chart depicted on the next page.
The air valve guarantees the proper operation of sewage lines allowing the entrance of a large quantity of air
in case pipe burst or draining phases, the release of air pockets during working conditions and the discharge
during pipe filling phases
Construction and advantages
- Lower body designed with strongly sloped high
walls to avoid deposit of grease and/or other material,
and it contains four ribs to guide the stainless steel
float.
- Upper body containing the air release device which
is protected against projections, during rapid filling
phases by a s.s. diffuser.
- Mobile block including a large AISI 316 stainless
steel float, placed on the lower body and connected
through a stainless steel rod to the air release
mechanism.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
wihtout removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Evacuation bend suitable for flooded environments with
1" threaded outlet.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
58
Air flow performance chart.
Working conditions
Waste water 70 C/ 158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi;
Minimum pressure 0,35 bar/ 5.2 psi.
Technical features
Lower body and upper body entirely made in ductile cast iron
GJS 500-7, internal and external painted with epoxy powder
applied using fluidized bed technology.
Obturator in polypropylene
Nozzle and gasket holder in stainless steel AISI 316
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel AISI 304
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
RELATIVE TO THE NOZZLE DN
1 2
DN/C A
1,7 380 137
D B
Main
orifice
mm
2
10,5
Weight
Kg
Nozzle
mm
2
490
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
0
1
2
3
4
Q (scf/min)
15
0 4
10
5
p(bar) 20
10
Q (nl/s)
8 12
250
16
150
100
50
200
20 30
300
01,7
BAR
20 60 80 0 100 120
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
0 40 80 120 160 200
-0,3
-0,25
-0,2
-0,15
-0,1
-0,05
0
BAR
m3/h
psi
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
40
0
psi
cfm
D
C
B
A
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
59
Three function automatic air valve for sewage in
stainless steel AISI 316 Mod. SCS 2" - PN 16
Operating principle
1) Discharge of large volumes of air
During pipe filling it is necessary to discharge as
much air as water flowing in.
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
3) Air release during working conditions
During operation, an air pocket accumulates in the
upper part of the valve body, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives at water pressure, its volume
increases pushing water downwards. Following
Archimedes's principle the float, no longer sustained
by water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the mai n ori fi ce due to i nternal pressure.
For air flow performances of SCS 2" please refer to
the chart depicted on the next page.
The air valve guarantees the proper operation of sewage lines allowing the entrance of a large quantity of air
quantity in case of pipe bursting or draining phases, the release of air pockets during working conditions and
the discharge during pipe filling phases.
Construction and advantages
- Lower body designed with strongly sloped walls to
avoid grease and/or other material deposit.
- Upper body containing the air release device in
stainless steel AISI 316 which is protected against
projections, during rapid filling phases by an s.s.
diffuser.
- Mobile block including a shaft and a large float,
both in stainless steel AISI 316, placed on the lower
body and connected to the air release mechanism
and to the main orifice obturator.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can be easily performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Evacuation bend suitable for flooded environments with
1" threaded outlet.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
60
Air flow performance chart.
Working conditions
Waste water 70 C/ 158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi;
Minimum pressure 0,35 bar/ 5.2 psi.
Technical features
Lower body and upper body entirely made in stainless
steel AISI 316 passivated
Obturator in polypropylene
Nozzle and gasket holder in stainless steel AISI 316
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel AISI 304 / AISI 316
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel
AISI 316
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
RELATIVE TO THE NOZZLE DN
1 2
DN/C A
1,7 380 137
D B
Main
orifice
mm
2
4
Weight
Kg
Nozzle
mm
2
490
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
AIR DISCHARGE DURING PIPE FILLING
0
1
2
3
4
Q (scf/min)
15
0 4
10
5
p(bar) 20
10
Q (nl/s)
8 12
250
16
150
100
50
200
20 30
300
01,7
D
B
C
A
BAR
20 60 80 0 100 120
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
0 40 80 120 160 200
-0,3
-0,25
-0,2
-0,15
-0,1
-0,05
0
BAR
m3/h
psi
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
40
0
psi
cfm
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk 61
Anti hammer three function air valve for sewage in
stainless steel AISI 316 Mod. SCS-AS 2" - PN 16
Operating principle
1) Entrance of large volumes of air
During pipeline draining or bursting phases it is
necessary to bring in as much air as the quantity of
out-flowing water to avoid vacuum conditions.
2) Controlled air discharge
The SCS-AS air valve is provided with a mechanism
called AS. During vacuum conditions the mobile block
is laid over the diffuser, the antishock disk comes
down pulling the stainless steel spring and allows
the entrance of a large volume of air through the
main orifice to compensate the vacuum effect.
3) Air release during working conditions.
During operation, an air pocket accumulates in the
upper part of the valve body, little by little it is compressed
and its pressure arrives at water pressure, its volume
increases pushing the water downwards. Following
Archimedes principle the float, no longer sustained by
water thrust, will drop freeing the nozzle hole helping
the release of the air pocket, while the upper disk closes
the mai n ori fi ce due to i nternal pressure.
For air flow performances of SCS-AS 2" please refer
t o t he chart depi ct ed on t he next page.
The air valve guarantees the proper operation of sewage lines allowing the entrance of large air quantity in
case of pipe bursting or draining phases, the release of air pockets during working conditions and the controlled
air outflow speed.
Construction and advantages
- Lower body designed with strongly sloped walls to
avoid grease and/or other material deposit.
- Upper body containing the air release device in
stainless steel AISI 316 which is protected against
projections, during rapid filling phases by an s.s.
diffuser.
- Mobile block including a shaft and a large float,
both in stainless steel AISI 316, placed on the lower
body and connected to the air release mechanism
and to the main orifice obturator.
- Anti Shock automatism composed of a metallic disk
with 2 or more small orifices, a guide bar and a
counteracting spring in stainless steel.
- Drainage valve for chamber control and draining.
- Maintenance can easily be performed from the top
without removing the air valve from the pipe.
- Evacuation bend suitable for flooded environments with
1" threaded outlet.
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
62
Working conditions
Waste water 70 C/ 158 F Max;
Maximum pressure 16 bar/ 232 psi;
Minimum pressure 0,35 bar/ 5.2 psi.
Technical features
Lower body and upper body entirely made in stainless
steel AISI 316 passivated
Obturator in polypropylene
Nozzle and gasket holder in stainless steel AISI 316
AS guide bar and spring i n stai nl ess steel
AS disk in brass/stainless steel
Float and rod in stainless steel AISI 316
Gaskets in NBR
Sealing seat in stainless steel AISI 304 / AISI 316
Drainage valve in galvanized brass or stainless steel
AISI 316
AIR RELEASE DURING WORKING CONDITIONS
RELATIVE TO THE NOZZLE DN
1 2
DN/C A
1,7 380 137
D B
Main
orifice
mm
2
4
Weight
Kg
Nozzle
mm
2
490
Q (scf/min)
15
0 4
10
5
p(bar) 20
10
Q (nl/s)
8 12
250
16
150
100
50
200
20 30
300
01,7
D
B
C
A
Air flow performance chart.
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,2
0,25
0,3
bar bar psi
3
4
psi
3
4
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0 2 4 6 8
m3/h m3/h
Minimum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally closed by ss plugs ( standard execution).
Maximum air discharge through AS mechanism.
Calibrated nozzles open, threaded nozzles totally open.
0
1
2
0
1
2
AIR ENTRANCE DURING PIPE DRAINING
cfm
1 2 3 0
4 5
cfm
1 2 3 0
4 5 6 7
BAR
20 60 80 0 100 120
0 40 80 120 160 200
-0,3
-0,25
-0,2
-0,15
-0,1
-0,05
0
BAR
m3/h
psi
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
40
0
psi
cfm
IVL Flow Control Ltd, Unit 1 Washington Street, Netherton, West MidlandsDY2 9PH
Tel: 01384 458411 Fax: 01384 264952
www.ivlflowcontrol.co.uk
63
Craig Stanners (Director)
craigstanners@ivlfowcontrol.co.uk
Direct Contact No. +44 (0) 7772 699313
IVL Flow Control
Unit 1 Washington Street Netherton Dudley West Midlands DY2 9PH
Martyn Redman (Technical Director)
martynredman@ivlfowcontrol.co.uk
Direct Contact No. +44 (0)7972194965