You are on page 1of 16

Name of the ecosystem Food chain

Grass land ecosystem


Pond ecosystem
Forest ecosystem
plantsRatSnakeEagle
phytoplanktonzooplanktonfishman
plantsdeerlion




GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&ENGINEERING


QUESTION BANK

SUB. NAME: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & ENG

SUB. CODE: GE2021

YEAR/SEM : III ECE C /V



UNIT-I
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND
BIODIVERSITY
PART-A
1. Define environment.
Environment is defined as the sum of all the living and non-living thing
around us influencing one another.
2. What are the important components of environment?
Abiotic or non-living component.
Biotic or living component.
Energy component.
3. Mention the various types of public participation.
Pressure group
Watch dog
Advisory council
Enforcing the environment laws
4. Define environmental science.
Environmental science is the study of the environment its biotic and abiotic
components and their inter relationship.
5. Explain biosphere.
The part of lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere in which living
organisms and interact with one another is called biosphere.
6. What are the functions of lithosphere?
It is a home for human beings and wild-life.
It is a store house of minerals and organic matter.
7. What is food chain?
Chain is formed by the transfer of food energy from plants to all consumers is
known as food chain.
Example:























8. Define primary production and secondary production.
PRI MARY PRODUCTION: (primary function)
Manufacture of starch by plants is called as primary production.
Photosynthesis:-
Carbondioxide+waterstarch+oxygen
SECONDARY PRODUCTI ON: (secondary function)
Distribution of energy from plants to all consumers.
(or)
Store energy by consumers.


9. India is a mega-diversity nation-account.
I NDI A I S A MEGA-DIVERSI TY NATI ON:-
Twelve countries selected as a mega biodiversity in the world.
India is one among the 12 countries in the world
(Rich in flora and fauna).
Number of animal species in India = 89,450.
Number of plants species in India = 47,000.
% of animal species around in the world = 7.31%.
% of plant species around in the world = 10.8%.
Loss of biodiversity = 33%
10. What is ecosystem?
ECOSYSTEM:-
The study of a biotic and biotic components and their interrelationship
is called as ecosystem.
ECO+SYSTEM=ECOSYSTEM
STUDY OF HOME


11. What are autotrophs and heterotrophs? Give example.
AUTOTROPHS (producers)
autoself
trophsfeeder
Species which produce their own food is known is autotrophs.
Example:-
All green plants
HETEROTROPHS=(consumers)
Species cannot plants directly or indirectly for their food.
Rat, Snake, Eagles



12. Define ecological succession and mention its types.
ECOLOGI CAL SUCCESSI ON:-



The progressive replacement of one community by another till the
development of stable community in a particular area is called ecological succession.
TYPES:-
*primary succession.
* Secondary succession.
13. What are the important bio-diversity hot spots in India?
Two important biodiversity hot spot in India:-
Eastern Himalayas-Indo-Burma region
Western Ghats-Srilanka region.
14. What is meant by genetic diversity?
Genetic diversity:-
Gene: Transfer of heredity character from one generation to next generation.
Diversity with in the species is called as genetic diversity.



16. Name various ecosystems.
Various Ecosystem:-


Desert ecosystem
Forest ecosystem
Grassland ecosystem
Lake Ecosystem
17. Suggest three important features of desert ecosystem.
Features of desert ecosystem:
Area is dry and the climate is hot
Annual rain fall is less than 25cm
The soil is very poor in nutrients
Vegetarian is poor.


18. Define Ecosystem pyramids?

Ecological pyramids:-
Structure and function of an ecosystem is represented by graph is known as
ecological pyramid.
Types:-
Pyramid of numbers
Pyramid of energy
Pyramid of biomars.
19. What is a hot spot of biodiversity?
Hot spot of biodiversity:-
Area which have high endemic species are called as hot spot of
biodiversity.
Name of the hot spots found in India.
Western Ghat.
Eastern Himalayas.
20. What is biomagnifications?
Biomagnifications:-
Increase the concentration of biodegradable matter at each successive
level.
By pass the non-biodegradable matter from one tropic level to another is called as
biomagnifications.
21. Define endangered and endemic species endangered species.
E
n
d
a
n
g
e
r
e
d

s
p
e
c
i
e
s
:
-
P
Plant animal or microorganism that is in immediate danger of biological
extinction is called endangered or threaten species.
Example:-
Peack, Indian wolf
Endemic species:-
The species found only in a particular region is called as endemic species.
Example:-
Teak, oak, python.
22. Define bio diversity.
Biodiversity:-
Study about the variety and variability of species is called as biodiversity.
23. Why rich biodiversity in the tropics?
It rich more stable climate.
Warm temperature and high humidity.
No domination.
Opportunity for many species to co-exist.


24. What do you understand the term flora and fauna?
FLORA:
Plants present in a particular region.
FAUNA:-
Animals present in a particular region.


8)



































Sl.no Name of the pollution sources
1 carbon monoxide * Cigarette smoking.
* Incomplete burning of fossil
fuels.
2 Nitrogen dioxide * Burning of fossil fuels.
3 Sulphur dioxide * Coal burning
4 lead * Paint, smelters leaded petrol


UNIT-II
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PART-A
1. Suggest four important sources of air pollution.












2. Define hazardous wastes.
Hazardous waste:
Waste like toxic chemicals, radioactive biological substances which contribute to an
increase in mortality (death rate) is called as hazardous wastes.


3. Define photochemical smog.
Photochemical smog:
The brownish smoke like appearance that frequently forms on clear, sunny days over
large cities with significant amounts of automobile traffic.
It is mainly due to chemical reactions among nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon by
sunlight.
4. Why ratio active wastes disposed off in salt water?
Radio active wastes disposed off in salt water:-
Because salt water would slowly carry Tue nuclear wastes downward in to the earths
mantle and also radio active rays would not reach the earth surface easily.


6. What are the harmful effects of landslides?
*
*
*
Landslides block the roads and divert the passage.
Erosion of soil increase.
Sudden landslides damage the houses, crop yield, live stock etc.
7. What is meant by thermal pollution?
Thermal pollution:-
Addition of excess of undesirable heat to water that makes it harmful to all living
organisms is called as thermal pollution.
8. Sate the role and responsibility of an individual in the prevention of pollution.
The role and responsibility of an individual in the prevention of pollution:-
* Use of public transport system for travelling can save petrol.
* Ban on CFC.
* Use of Biogas.
* Encourage afforest ration.
* Reduce deforestation.
* Use bio fertilize instead of chemical fertilizer.
9. Mention the sources of solid waste.
Sources of solid waste:












10. Define soil pollution.
(Or)
What do you understand by soil pollution?
Understand by soil pollution:-
The contamination of soil by human and natural activities which causes damage our
life is known as soil pollution.
11. What are land slides?
Land slides:-
Earthy materials like rock, mud soil moves from higher region to lower region due to
gravitational pull is called as land slides.


12. What is a primary and secondary pollutant?
Primary pollutants:-
Pollutants directly enter into the environment is called as primary pollutants.
Example:-
*
*
*
*
Carbon dioxide
Sulphur dioxide
Oxides of nitrogen
Hydrocarbons.
Secondary pollutants:-
New substance is formed by the combination of two primary pollutants or one primary
pollutant and chemical substance. This new substance is called as secondary pollutant.
Example:-
*

*
NOX
10 pollutant
So3
10 Pollu tant
hydrocarbon
10 pollutant
moist(H 2O)
chem icalsubstance
PAN O3
20 pollutant
H 2 SO4
20 pollutant

13. What is a biodegradable and non biodegradable pollutant?
Biodegradable pollutants:-
Pollutants are quickly destroyed by microorganism is called as biodegradable
pollutants.
Example:-
Garbage, dead leaves, peels of fruits animal wastes.
Non biodegradable pollutants:-
Pollutants are not degraded or degrade very slowly by microorganism is called as
Non-biodegradable.
Example:
Plastic, polythene, D.D.T
14. What are cod and its significance?
Amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using
oxidizing agent like k2cr2o7 and KMno4 is known as COD.
COD chemical oxygen demand
Significance:-
To determine the pollution strength of river water.
Rapid process and takes only 3 hours.


15. What is BOD? And its significance.
BOD Biochemical oxygen demand
Amount of oxygen required for the biological decomposition of organic matter
present in the water is called as BOD.
Significance:-
To indicate the amount of organic matter present in the river water.
The rate of oxidation and demand depends on the amount and type of organic
matter presents in the river water.


16. Write about Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
In amid 26, 1986 the melt down of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, in Russia has
leaked out the radioactive rays and radioactive rays and radioactive materials.
Effect:-
Nearly 2000 persons have been killed by the accident.
It causes degeneration of the calls severe bleeding anemia and skin cancer.
It affects animals and plants.



17. Write about Bhopal gas tragedy.
The world worst industrial accident occurred in Bhopal city, M.P on the night of 3rd
December 1984. It happened at union carbide Indian Ltd. Who manufacture some carbonate
pesticides using matt rye isocyanate.
The reactor got exploded due failure of its cooling system and 40 tons of Mic leaked
into the atmosphere
Effect:-
It affects longs and eyes.
Skin irritation
Finally it leads to death.
18. What is a green house effect?
The progressive increase in earths temperature due to increase the Co 2 level in the
atmosphere is called as green house effect.
19. What is meant by land degradation?
Land degradation is the loss of fertility of soil.








UNIT III

NATURAL RESOURCES
PART-A
1. What are renewable and non-renewable energy resources? Give examples.
Renewable resources:-
The resources which are capable of being regenerated by natural process with
in a reasonable time period. (e.g) soil, water, air.
Non-renewable resources:-
These resources which are not capable of being regenerated by natural
process.
(e.g) minerals, coal, oil, etc.


2. How are forest classified?
Evergreen forest
Deciduous forest
Coniferous forest


3. Mention some important causes of over exploitation of forest.
Over-exploitation of forest occurs in the following ways:
Increasing agricultural production
Increasing industrial activities
Increasing in demand of wood resources.
4. What are the preventive measures of deforestation?
New plants of more or less same variety should be plante.
Forest fire must be controlled by morden techniques.
Over-grazing by cattle must be controlled.
Education and awareness programmes must be conducted.
5. State the problems caused by construction of dam.
Displacement of tribal people
Loss of non-forest land
Loss of forest flora and fauna.
6. Define floods.
A flood is a overflow of water whenever the magnitude of flow of water
exceeds the carrying capacity of channel with in its bank.
7. What are minerals?
Minerals are naturally occurring substances having definite chemical
composition and physical properties.
8. What is over grazing?
Overgrazing is a process of eating way the forest vegetation without giving it a
chance to regenerate.
9. State the environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources.
a. Devegetation and defacing of lands cape
b. Ground water contamination
c. Surface water pollution
d. Air pollution



GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&ENGINEERING


e. Subsidence of land
10. What are the effects of dam on tribal?
Displacement and cultural change affects the tribal people both physically
and mentally.
They do not accommodate with modern food habit and life-style.
Generally the body condition of the tribal people will not suit with the new
area hence they will be affected by many diseases.
Many displaced people were not recognized and resettled.
11. What is hydrological cycle?
The process of major evaporation condensation and transpiration is called
hydrological cycle.
12. What are the types of agriculture?
The two major types of agricultural systems are
Traditional agriculture
modern agriculture
13. Write any two adverse effect caused by overgrazing.
Land degradation
Soil erosion
Loss of useful species
14. Write any two functions of forest.
Forest performs very important functions both to humans and to nature.
They are homes to millions of plants animals and wildlife.
They recycle rain water.
They control water quality and quantity.
15. Compare the merits and problems of dams.
MERI TS:-
Dams are built to control flood and store food water.
They increase the value of tourism.
They encourage fishing.
Dams are used mainly for agricultural process.
PROBLEMS:-
Displacement of tribal people to remote areas.
Loss of forest flora and fauna.
Evaporation losses are very high due to direct explosive of sum.
They spread water borne-diseases to tribal people.
16. What are the consequences of timber extraction?
Timber extraction leads to soil erosion, loss of fertility loss of biodiversity.
Timber extraction reduces thickness of the forest.
Large scale timber-extraction causes deforestation.
17. What are the types of agriculture?
There are two types of agricultural systems.
a. Traditional agriculture
b. Morden agriculture




GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&ENGINEERING


18. What are the objectives of alternate energy sources?
To provide more energy to meet the requirements of increasing population.
To reduce environment pollution.
To reduce safety and security risk associated with the use of nuclear
energy.
19. What is desertification? Give two reasons for it.
It is a progressive destruction or degradation of arid or semi-arid lands or
desert.
REASON:
*
*
*
Deforestation
Overgrazing
Mining
20. What is water logging?
Water logging is the land where water stand for most of the year.
21. What do you mean by environmental impact?
Environmental impact its nothing but the effect on the natural environment
caused by various human actions.
I T I NCLUDES TWO TYPES:-
Indirect effect (e.g) pollution
Direct effect (e.g)cutting down trees
22. Differentiate between deforestation and forest degradation










23. What are the advantages of conjuctive use of water?
Control of water logging.
Use of saline water especially for cooling.
Control of salt intrusion.
24. Differentiate between renewable non-renewable sources of energy.






25. What is meant by soil erosion?
Soil erosion is the process of removal of superficial layer of the soil form one
place to another. It also removes soil component.
26. Enumerate the desired quantity of ideal pesticide.
An ideal pesticide must kill only a forest species.
It should not produce new pest.
It must be biodegradable.


UNIT-IV
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
PART-A
1. What is meant by sustainable development?
Sustainable development is defined as meeting the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
2.



3.





4.



5.


6.
Define the therm. Environmental ethics.
Environmental ethics refers to the issues principles and guidelines relating to
human interactions with their environment.
What are the important causes of climate change?
Presence of green house gases in the atmosphere increases the global
temperature.
Depletion of ozone layer also increases the global temperature.
What is green house effect?
The green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the
earth surface due to blanketing effect of man made CO2 in the atmosphere.
Give some examples of green house gases.
CO2, CH4, N2O and chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs)
What are the causes and effects of ozone layer depletion?
Causes presence of 1.chlorofluoro carbon 2. Bromo fluoro carbons(BFC) 3.
Hydro chloro fluro carbon (HFC)
EFFECTS: I.UV rays destroys the melamine pigment in human skin




GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&ENGINEERING


II. It also affects the aquatic forms.
III. It degrades paints plastics and other polymeric materials.
IV. Increases the average temperature of the earth.
7. What is acid rain?
The presence of excessive acids in rain water is known as acid rain.
8. How CFCs are term accumulated in atmosphere?
CFCs are accumulated in atmosphere through
I. Aerosol propellant II. Refrigerants (Freon) III. Cleaning solvents
IV. Foam plastic blowing agent
9. Explain the term global warming.
The increased inputs of CO2 and other green house gases into the atmosphere
from human activities will enhance the earths natural green house effect of rising
the average global temperature of the atmosphere near the earths surface. This
enhanced green house effect is called global warming.
10. What is a Dobson unit?
The amount of atmospheric ozone is measured by Dobson spectrometer and is
expressed in Dobson units (DU). 1 DU is equivalent to a 0.01 mm thickness of
pure ozone at the density it posses if it is brought to the ground level (1 atm)
pressure.
In temperate latitude its concentration is 350DU, in tropics its concentration is
250DU, in sub polar region its concentration is 450DU.
11. What are the advantages of rain water harvesting?
Reduction in the use of current for pumping water.
Mitigating the effects of drought and achieving drought proofing.
Increasing the availability of water from well.
Rise in ground water levels.
Minimizing the soil erosion and flood hazards.
Upgrading the social and environmental status.
Future generation is assured of water.
12. Water in meant by house gases?
Green house gases are gases (CO2,CH4, N2O AND CFCs) present in atmopher
which absorb heat and do not radiate cause increase in atmospheric and global
temperature. It is similar to the warming effect observed in the green house madde
of green glass.
13. What is meant by CDM?
CDM (clean development mechanism) is an arrangement under the Kyoto
protocol allowing industrialized countries with a green house gas reduction
commitment to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries. It
aims to develop sustainable development in all countries by reducing CO2 and
HFC (hydro fluro carbon) emissions.
14. What is meant by environmental audit?
Environmental audits are intended to quantity environmental performance and
environmental position. In this way they perform analogous function to financial



A.R. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, VILLUPURAM



Page 13



GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&ENGINEERING


audits. It also aims to define what needs to be done to improve on indictors of
such performance and position.
15. What is meant by ISO 1400?
ISO 1400 is the environmental management standards which exist to help
organizations minimize how their operations negatively effect the environment
and comply with applicable laws and regulations.
16. State a few drawbacks of pollutions related acts.
The penalty in the act is very small when compared to the damage caused
by the big industries due to pollution.
A person cannot directly file a petition in the court.
Litigation related to environment is expensive, since it involves technical
knowledge.
17. How does ozone layer depletion take place? Write its consequences.
Depletion of ozone occurs due to the presence of CO2 CFC in the atmosphere.
Cl+O3ClO+O2,
ClO+OCl+O2
CONSEQUENCES:
1. Damage genetic materials in the skin calls which cause skin cancer.
2. Affect the aquatic forms (fish)
3. Global warming.
4. Degradation of paints plastics etc.,


UNIT-V
HUMAN POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT
PART-A
1. Define immigration and emigration?
Immigration: Movement of people within the local area is called immigration.
Emigration: Movement of people from original population to new areas is called
emigration.
2. What is population explosion?
The enormous increase in population, due to low death rate and high birth rate
is termed as population explosion.
3. What are the causes of population explosion?
Increase in modern medical facilities decreases the death rate and increases the
birth rate, which leads to population explosion.
Increase in life expectancy is another important reason for population
explosion.
4. What are the objectives of family welfare programme?
Slowing down the population explosion by reducing the birth rate.
Pressure on the environment due to over exploitation of natural resources is
reduced.
5. Mention some ill effects of HIV/AIDS on the environment?
Large number of death occur which affect environment and natural resources.
The people affected by HIV, cannot perform work well due to lack of energy
and frequent fever and sweating.
Due to large number of deaths, there is loss of labour and level of production
decreases.
6. State the role of information technology in environment?
Information technology plays a vital role in the field of environmental
education.
Information technology means collection, processing, storage and
dissemination of information.
A number of software has been developed to study about the environment.
7. Define. Population equilibrium.
A state of balance between birth rate and death rate in a population is known
as population equilibrium.
8. Differentiate between HIV and AIDS?






9. What are the major precautions to avoid AIDS?
AIDS awareness program should be encouraged.
Prevention of blood borne HIV transmission.
Counseling services should be provided.
Avoid indiscriminate sex and encourage the use of condoms and use of
sharing needles and syringes
10. Write the expansion for HIV and AIDS?
HIV: Human immune deficiency virus.
AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
11. What is mean by NIMBY syndrome?
NIMBY means Not in Back Yard. This describes the opposition of residents to
the nearby locations of something they consider undesirable, even if it is clearly
a benefits of many.
12. Define doubling time with reference to population growth.






It is a time required for a population to double its size at a constant
annual
rate. It is calculated as follows.
T
d
(
d
o
ubling time)=70/r
Where r= annual growth rate. If a nation has 2% annual growth, its population
will
double in next 35 years.
13. What are the reasons behind increased population growth in the less
developed
nations compared with developed nations?
The rapid population growth is due to decrease in death rate and
increase in
birth rate.
The availability of antibiotics, immunization, increased food
production, clean
water and air decreases the famine-related deaths and infant mortality.
In agricultural based countries childrens are required to help parents in
the
field that is why population increases in the developing countries.