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NFPA 13

Standard for the


Installation of Sprinkler Systems
2002 Edition
1.1* Purpose.
The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a reasonable degree of protection for life and
property from fire through standardization of design, installation, and testing requirements for sprinkler
systems, including private fire service mains, based on sound engineering principles, test data, and field
eperience!
1.2 Application!
This standard shall apply to"
#$% &haracter and adequacy of 'ater supplies
#2% Selection of sprinklers
#(% )ittings
#*% +iping
#,% -alves
#.% /ll materials and accessories, including the installation of private fire service mains
1.3 Units.
Name of Unit Unit Symbol Conversion Factor
liter L 1 gal = 3.785 L
millimeter per minute mm/min
cubic decimeter
pascal Pa 1 psi = 6894.757 Pa
bar bar 1 psi = 0.0689 bar
bar bar
1 gpm/ft = 40.746
mm/min = 40.746
!L/min"/m2
dm( 1 gal = 3.785 dm(
1 bar = 10, +a
1.4 Symbols.
1.5 Sprinkler System.
)or fire protection purposes, an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed
in accordance 'ith fire protection engineering standards! The installation includes one or more
automatic 'ater supplies! The portion of the sprinkler system aboveground is a net'ork of specially
sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a building, structure, or area, generally overhead, and
to 'hich sprinklers are attached in a systematic pattern! The valve controlling each system riser is
located in the system riser or its supply piping! Each sprinkler system riser includes a device for
actuating an alarm 'hen the system is in operation! The system is usually activated by heat from a fire
and discharges 'ater over the fire area!
Symbol or Abbreviation Item
p Pressure in psi
gpm #.$. gall%ns per minute
&
'
Pt (%tal pressure in psi at a p%int in a pipe
Pf
Pe
P) *el%cit+ pressure in psi at a p%int in a pipe
Pn ,%rmal pressure in psi at a p%int in a pipe
- 90.degree ell
-- 45.degree ell
Lt.- L%ng.turn elb%/
0r 0r%ss
( (ee.fl%/ turned 90 degrees
1* 1ate )al)e
2* 2utterfl+ !/afer" c3ec4 )al)e
5el * 5eluge )al)e
6L* 6larm )al)e
5P* 5r+ pipe )al)e
0* $/ing c3ec4 )al)e
70* 2utterfl+ !/afer" c3ec4 )al)e
$t $trainer
psi P%unds per s&uare inc3
v *el%cit+ %f /ater in pipe in feet per sec%nd
8l%/ increment in gpm t% be added at a
specific l%cati%n
$ummati%n %f fl%/ in gpm at a specific
l%cati%n
Pressure l%ss due t% fricti%n bet/een p%ints
indicated in l%cati%n c%lumn
Pressure due t% ele)ati%n difference
bet/een indicated p%ints. (3is can be a plus
)alue %r a minus )alue. 9f minus: t3e !." s3all
be used; if plus: n% sign need be indicated.
1.6 Sprinkler System ype !e"initions.
1.6.1 Anti"ree#e Sprinkler System.
/ 'et pipe sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system
that contains an antifreeze solution and that are connected to a 'ater supply! The antifreeze solution is
discharged, follo'ed by 'ater, immediately upon operation of sprinklers opened by heat from a fire!
1.6.2 $irculatin% $lose&'(oop Sprinkler System.
/ 'et pipe sprinkler system having non0fire protection connections to automatic sprinkler
systems in a closed1loop piping arrangement for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct
'ater for heating or cooling, 'here 'ater is not removed or used from the system but only circulated
through the piping system!
1.6.3 $ombine& !ry Pipe'Preaction Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air
under pressure 'ith a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers!
2peration of the detection system actuates tripping devices that open dry pipe valves simultaneously
and 'ithout loss of air pressure in the system! 2peration of the detection system also opens listed air
ehaust valves at the end of the feed main, 'hich usually precedes the opening of sprinklers! The
detection system also serves as an automatic fire alarm system!
1.6.4 !elu%e Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system employing open sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that is
connected to a 'ater supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system
installed in the same areas as the sprinklers! 3hen this valve opens, 'ater flo's into the piping system
and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto!
1.6.5 !ry Pipe Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system
containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of 'hich #as from the opening of a sprinkler%
permits the 'ater pressure to open a valve kno'n as a dry pipe valve, and the 'ater then flo's into the
piping system and out the opened sprinklers!
1.6.6* )ri&&e& Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system in 'hich parallel cross mains are connected by multiple branch lines! /n
operating sprinkler 'ill receive 'ater from both ends of its branch line 'hile other branch lines help
transfer 'ater bet'een cross mains!
1.6.** (oope& Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system in 'hich multiple cross mains are tied together so as to provide more than
one path for 'ater to flo' to an operating sprinkler and branch lines are not tied together!
1.6.+* Preaction Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that
contains air that might or might not be under pressure, 'ith a supplemental detection system installed
in the same areas as the sprinklers!
1.6., -et Pipe Sprinkler System.
/ sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing 'ater
and connected to a 'ater supply so that 'ater discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat
from a fire!
2. .y&raulically !esi%ne& System.
/ calculated sprinkler system in 'hich pipe sizes are selected on a pressure loss basis to provide
a prescribed 'ater density, in gallons per minute per square foot #mm4min%, or a prescribed minimum
discharge pressure or flo' per sprinkler, distributed 'ith a reasonable degree of uniformity over a
specified area!
3.Pipe Sc/e&ule System.
/ sprinkler system in 'hich the pipe sizing is selected from a schedule that is determined by the
occupancy classification and in 'hich a given number of sprinklers are allo'ed to be supplied from
specific sizes of pipe!
4* System $omponent !e"initions.
4.1 0ranc/ (ines. The pipes in 'hich the sprinklers are placed, either directly or through
risers!
4.2 $ross 1ains. The pipes supplying the branch lines, either directly or through risers!
4.3 Fee& 1ains. The pipes supplying cross mains, either directly or through risers!
4.4 Fle2ible (iste& Pipe $ouplin%. / listed coupling or fitting that allo's aial displacement, rotation,
and at least $ degree of angular movement of the pipe 'ithout inducing harm on the pipe! )or pipe
diameters of 5 in! #20(!2 mm% and larger, the angular movement shall be permitted to be less than $
degree but not less than 0!, degree!
4.5 3isers. The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system!
4.6 Spri%'up. / line that rises vertically and supplies a single sprinkler!
4.* Super4isory !e4ice. / device arranged to supervise the operative condition of automatic sprinkler
systems!
4.+ System 3iser. The aboveground horizontal or vertical pipe bet'een the 'ater supply and the mains
#cross or feed% that contains a control valve #either directly or 'ithin its supply pipe% and a 'aterflo'
alarm device!
5. Automatic Sprinkler.
/ fire suppression or control device that operates automatically 'hen its heat1activated element
is heated to its thermal rating or above, allo'ing 'ater to discharge over a specified area!
6.Sprinkler c/aracteristics
The follo'ing are characteristics of a sprinkler that define its ability to control or etinguish a
fire!
#a% Thermal sensitivity.
/ measure of the rapidity 'ith 'hich the thermal element operates as installed in a specific
sprinkler or sprinkler assembly! 2ne measure of thermal sensitivity is the response time inde #6TI% as
measured under standardized test conditions!
#$% Sprinklers defined as fast response have a thermal element 'ith an 6TI of ,0 #meters1
seconds%$42 or less!
#2% Sprinklers defined as standard response have a thermal element 'ith an 6TI of 50 #meters1
seconds%$42 or more!
#b% Temperature rating.
#c% Orifice size
#d% Installation orientation (see 3.6.3).
#e% Water distribution characteristics #i!e!, application rate, 'all 'etting%!
#f% pecial service conditions
*. Sprinkler ypes.
The follo'ing sprinklers are defined according to design and performance characteristics!
7!$8 !arly uppression "ast#$esponse (!"$) prin%ler. / type of fast1response sprinkler that have a
thermal element 'ith an 6TI of ,0 #meters1seconds%$42 or less and is listed for its capability to provide
fire suppression of specific high1challenge fire hazards!
7!2 !&tended 'overage prin%ler! / type of spray sprinkler 'ith maimum coverage areas as specified
in Sections 5!5 and 5!9 of this standard!
7!( (arge )rop prin%ler! / type of specific application control mode sprinkler that is capable of
producing characteristic large 'ater droplets and that is listed for its capability to provide fire control of
specific high1challenge fire hazards!
7!* *ozzles! / device for use in applications requiring special 'ater discharge patterns, directional
spray, or other unusual discharge characteristics!
7!, Old#tyle+'onventional prin%ler. / sprinkler that directs from *0 percent to .0 percent of the total
'ater initially in a do'n'ard direction and that is designed to be installed 'ith the deflector either
upright or pendent!
7!. Open prin%ler. / sprinkler that does not have actuators or heat1responsive elements!
7!78 ,uic%#$esponse !arly uppression (,$!) prin%ler. / type of quick1response sprinkler that have
a thermal element 'ith an 6TI of ,0 #meters1seconds%$42 or less and is listed for its capability to provide
fire suppression of specific fire hazards!
7!5 ,uic%#$esponse !&tended 'overage prin%ler! / type of quick1response sprinkler that have a
thermal element 'ith an 6TI of ,0 #meters1seconds%$42 or less and complies 'ith the etended
protection areas defined in &hapter 5!
7!9 ,uic%#$esponse (,$) prin%ler. / type of spray sprinkler that have a thermal element 'ith an 6TI
of ,0 #meters1seconds%$42 or less and is listed as a quick1response sprinkler for its intended use!
7!$0 $esidential prin%ler. / type of fast1response sprinkler that have a thermal element 'ith an 6TI of
,0 #meters1seconds%$42 or less that has been specifically investigated for its ability to enhance
survivability in the room of fire origin and is listed for use in the protection of d'elling units!
7!$$ pecial prin%ler! / sprinkler that has been tested and listed as prescribed in 5!*!9!
7!$28 pecific -pplication 'ontrol .ode prin%ler #for Storage :se%! / type of spray sprinkler listed at
a minimum operating pressure 'ith a specific number of operating sprinklers for a given protection
scheme!
7!$( pray prin%ler! / type of sprinkler listed for its capability to provide fire control for
a 'ide range of fire hazards!
7!$* tandard pray prin%ler! / spray sprinkler 'ith maimum coverage areas as specified in
Sections 5!. and 5!7 of this standard!
+ 5nstallation 6rientation! The follo'ing sprinklers are defined according to orientation!
5!$ 'oncealed prin%ler. / recessed sprinkler 'ith cover plates!
5!2 "lush prin%ler! / sprinkler in 'hich all or part of the body, including the shank thread, is mounted
above the lo'er plane of the ceiling!
5!( /endent prin%ler! / sprinkler designed to be installed in such a 'ay that the 'ater stream is
directed do'n'ard against the deflector!
0.1 $ecessed prin%ler. / sprinkler in 'hich all or part of the body, other than the shank
thread, is mounted 'ithin a recessed housing!
0.2 ide3all prin%ler. / sprinkler having special deflectors that are designed to discharge
most of the 'ater a'ay from the nearby 'all in a pattern resembling one1quarter of a sphere,
'ith a small portion of the discharge directed at the 'all behind the sprinkler!
0.6 4pright prin%ler. / sprinkler designed to be installed in such a 'ay that the 'ater
spray is directed up'ards against the deflector!
+. Special Ser4ice $on&itions. The follo'ing sprinklers are defined according to special
application or environment!
0.5 'orrosion#$esistant prin%ler. / sprinkler fabricated 'ith corrosion1resistant material, or 'ith
special coatings or platings, to be used in an atmosphere that 'ould normally corrode sprinklers!
0.67 )ry prin%ler. / sprinkler secured in an etension nipple that has a seal at the inlet
end to prevent 'ater from entering the nipple until the sprinkler operates!
0.3 Intermediate (evel prin%ler+$ac% torage prin%ler. / sprinkler equipped 'ith integral shields to
protect its operating elements from the discharge of sprinklers installed at higher elevations!
0.1 Ornamental+)ecorative prin%ler. / sprinkler that has been painted or plated by the manufacturer!
5.1* $lassi"ication o" 6ccupancies.
5.1.1 2ccupancy classifications for this standard shall relate to sprinkler design, installation,
and 'ater supply requirements only!
5.1.2 2ccupancy classifications shall not be intended to be a general classification of occupancy
hazards!
11.2.1.3 2ccupancies or portions of occupancies shall be classified according to the quantity and
combustibility of contents, the epected rates of heat release, the total potential for energy release, the
heights of stockpiles, and the presence of flammable and combustible liquids! &lassifications are as
follo's"
#$% ;ight hazard
#2% 2rdinary hazard #<roups $ and 2%
#(% Etra hazard #<roups $ and 2%
#*% Special occupancy hazard (see 'hapter 53)
5.2* (i%/t .a#ar& 6ccupancies.
;ight hazard occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other occupancies 'here the
quantity and4or combustibility of contents is lo' and fires 'ith relatively lo' rates of heat release are
epected!
A.5.2 ;ight hazard occupancies include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the
follo'ing"
&hurches
&lubs
Eaves and overhangs, if of combustible construction 'ith no combustibles beneath
Educational
=ospitals
Institutional
;ibraries, ecept large stack rooms
>useums
?ursing or convalescent homes
2ffices, including data processing
6esidential
6estaurant seating areas
Theaters and auditoriums, ecluding stages and prosceniums
:nused attics
5.3 6r&inary .a#ar& 6ccupancies.
5.3.1* 6r&inary .a#ar& 7)roup 18. 2rdinary hazard #<roup $% occupancies shall be defined as
occupancies or portions of other occupancies 'here combustibility is lo', quantity of combustibles is
moderate, stockpiles of combustibles do not eceed 5 ft #2!* m%, and fires 'ith moderate rates of heat
release are epected!
A.5.3.1 2rdinary hazard occupancies #<roup $% include occupancies having uses and conditions similar
to the follo'ing"
/utomobile parking and sho'rooms
@akeries
@everage manufacturing
&anneries
Aairy products manufacturing and processing
Electronic plants
<lass and glass products manufacturing
;aundries
6estaurant service areas
5.3.2* 6r&inary .a#ar& 7)roup 28. 2rdinary hazard #<roup 2% occupancies shall be defined as
occupancies or portions of other occupancies 'here the quantity and combustibility of contents are
moderate to high, stockpiles do not eceed $2 ft #(!7 m%, and fires 'ith moderate to high rates of heat
release are epected!
A.5.3.2 2rdinary hazard occupancies #<roup 2% include occupancies having uses and conditions similar
to the follo'ing"
&ereal mills
&hemical plants B ordinary
&onfectionery products
Aistilleries
Ary cleaners
)eed mills
=orse stables
;eather goods manufacturing
;ibraries B large stack room areas
>achine shops
>etal 'orking
>ercantile
+aper and pulp mills
+aper process plants
+iers and 'harves
+ost offices
+rinting and publishing
6epair garages
6esin application area
Stages
Tetile manufacturing
Tire manufacturing
Tobacco products manufacturing
3ood machining
3ood product assembly
A.13.33.1 Sprinkler systems for specific areas associated 'ith religious facilities should be
designed as follo's"
#$% /ll assembly areas, ecept state B ;ight =azard
#2% Stages B 2rdinary =azard #<roup 2%
#(% Citchens B 2rdinary =azard #<roup $%
#*% Storage rooms B 2rdinary =azard #<roup 2%
#,% :nused attics4lofts4steeples4concealed spaces B ;ight =azard
#.% Schools4day1care centers B ;ight =azard
#7% <ift shops B 2rdinary =azard #<roup $%
#5% Special ehibit area B 2rdinary =azard #<roup 2%
#9% ;ibraries B 2rdinary =azard #<roup 2%
#$0% 2ffices B ;ight =azard D,9,: /!$0!*!2E
5.4 ;2tra .a#ar& 6ccupancies.
5.4.1* ;2tra .a#ar& 7)roup 18. Etra hazard #<roup $% occupancies shall be defined as occupancies
or portions of other occupancies 'here the quantity and combustibility of contents are very high and
dust, lint, or other materials are present, introducing the probability of rapidly developing fires 'ith
high rates of heat release but 'ith little or no combustible or flammable liquids!
A.5.4.1 Etra hazard occupancies #<roup $% include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to
the follo'ing"
/ircraft hangars #ecept as governed by ?)+/ *09, tandard on -ircraft 8angars%
&ombustible hydraulic fluid use areas
Aie casting
>etal etruding
+ly'ood and particle board manufacturing
+rinting Dusing inks having flash points belo' $00F) #(5F&%E
6ubber reclaiming, compounding, drying, milling, vulcanizing
Sa' mills
Tetile picking, opening, blending, garnetting, or carding, combining of cotton, synthetics,
'ool shoddy, or burlap
:pholstering 'ith plastic foams
5.4.2* ;2tra .a#ar& 7)roup 28. Etra hazard #<roup 2% occupancies shall be defined as occupancies
or portions of other occupancies 'ith moderate to substantial amounts of flammable or combustible
liquids or occupancies 'here shielding of combustibles is etensive!
A.5.4.2 Etra hazard occupancies #<roup 2% include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to
the follo'ing"
/sphalt saturating
)lammable liquids spraying
)lo' coating
>anufactured home or modular building assemblies #'here finished enclosure is present and has
combustible interiors%
2pen oil quenching
+lastics processing
Solvent cleaning
-arnish and paint dipping
5.5* Special 6ccupancy .a#ar&s.
+. System Protection Area (imitations.
9!
+.2.1 The maimum floor area on any one floor to be protected by sprinklers supplied by any one
sprinkler system riser or combined system riser shall be as follo's"
#$% ;ight hazard B ,2,000 ft2 #*5($ m2%
#2% 2rdinary hazard B ,2,000 ft2 #*5($ m2%
#(% Etra hazard
#a% +ipe schedule B 2,,000 ft2 #2(2( m2%
#b% =ydraulically calculated B *0,000 ft2 #(7$. m2%
#*% Storage B =igh1piled storage #as defined in (!(!$2% and storage covered by other
?)+/ standards B *0,000 ft2 #(7$. m2%
+.2.2 The floor area occupied by mezzanines shall not be included in the area limits of 5!2!$!
+.2.3 3here single systems protect etra hazard, high1piled storage, or storage covered by other ?)+/
standards, and ordinary or light hazard areas, the etra hazard or storage area coverage shall not eceed
the floor area specified for that hazard and the total area coverage shall not eceed ,2,000 ft2 #*5($
m2%!
+.6.2.2 1a2imum Protection Area o" $o4era%e.
+.6.2.2.1* The maimum allo'able protection area of coverage for a sprinkler #-s% shall be in
accordance 'ith the value indicated in Table 5!.!2!2!$#a% through Table 5!.!2!2!$#d%!
+.6.2.2.2 5n any case< t/e ma2imum area o" co4era%e o" a sprinkler s/all not e2cee& 225 "t2 721m28.
+.6.3 Sprinkler Spacin% 7Stan&ar& Pen&ent an& Upri%/t Spray Sprinklers8.
+.6.3.1 1a2imum !istance 0et=een Sprinklers. The maimum distance permitted bet'een
sprinklers shall comply 'ith Table 5!.!2!2!$#a% through Table 5!.!2!2!$#d%!
+.6.3.4 1inimum !istances 0et=een Sprinklers.
+.6.3.4.1 :nless the requirements of 5!.!(!*!2, 5!.!(!*!(, or 5!.!(!*!* are met, sprinklers shall be spaced
not less than 6 "t 71.+ m8 on center!
+.6.3.2 1a2imum !istance "rom -alls.
+.6.3.2.1 The distance from sprinklers to 'alls s/all not e2cee& one'/al" o" t/e allo=able &istance
bet'een sprinklers as indicated in Table 5!.!2!2!$#a% through Table 5!.!2!2!$#d%!
+.6.3.2.2 The distance from the 'all to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the 'all!
+.6.3.2.3* The requirements of 5!.!(!2!$ shall not apply 'here 'alls are angled or irregular, and the
maimum horizontal distance bet'een a sprinkler and any point of floor area protected by that
sprinkler s/all not e2cee& 9.*5 times the allo'able distance permitted bet'een sprinklers, provided
the maimum perpendicular distance is not eceeded!
+.6.3.3 1inimum !istances "rom -alls. Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. 7192mm8
from a 'all!
,.2.3.3 $learance to .an%ers. The distance bet'een a hanger and the centerline of an upright
sprinkler shall not be less than ( in! #7. mm%!
+.6.4.1 !istance 0elo= $eilin%s.
+.6.4.1.1 Unobstructe& $onstruction.
+.6.4.1.1.1 :nder unobstructed construction, the distance bet'een the sprinkler deflector and the
ceiling shall be a minimum o" 1 in. 725.4 mm8 an& a ma2imum o" 12 in. 7395 mm8 throughout the
area of coverage of the sprinkler!
+.* Si&e=all Stan&ar& Spray Sprinklers.
+.*.2.2.2 In any case, the maimum area of coverage of a sprinkler shall not e2cee& 1,6 "t271+.2 m28.
+.*.3.2 1a2imum !istance "rom -alls. The distance from sprinklers to the end 'alls shall
not eceed one'/al" of the allo'able distance permitted bet'een sprinklers as indicated in
Table 5!7!2!2!$!
+.*.3.3 1inimum !istance "rom -alls.
+.*.3.3.1 Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of * in! #$02 mm% from an end 'all!
+.*.3.4 1inimum !istance 0et=een Sprinklers. Sprinklers shall be spaced not less than . ft
#$!5 m% on center!
+.*.4.1 !istance 0elo= $eilin%s an& "rom -alls.
+.*.4.1.1 $eilin%s.
+.*.4.1.1.1 :nless the requirements of 5!7!*!$!$!2 are met, side'all sprinkler deflectors shall be located
not more than . in! #$,2 mm% or less than * in! #$02 mm% from ceilings!
+.*.4.1.1.2 =orizontal side'all sprinklers shall be permitted to be located in a zone . in! to $2 in! #$,2
mm to (0, mm% or $2 in! to $5 in! #(0, mm to *,7 mm% belo' noncombustible and limited1
combustible ceilings 'here listed for such use!
+.*.4.1.2 -alls.
+.*.4.1.2.1 -ertical side'all sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than . in! #$,2 mm% or less
than * in! #$02 mm% from the 'all they are proGecting from!
+.*.4.1.2.2 =orizontal side'all sprinkler deflectors shall be located no more than . in! #$,2 mm% and
are permitted to be located 'ith their deflectors less than * in! #$02 mm% from the 'all on 'hich they
are mounted!
+.*.4.1.3 (intels an& So""its.
+.*.4.1.3.1 Side'all sprinklers shall only be installed along 'alls, lintels, or soffits 'here the distance
from the ceiling to the bottom of the lintel or soffit is at least 2 in! #,$ mm% greater than the distances
from the ceiling to side'all sprinkler deflectors!
+.*.4.1.3.2 3here soffits used for the installation of side'all sprinklers eceed 5 in! #20( mm% in 'idth
or proGection from the 'all, additional sprinklers shall be installed belo' the soffit!
+.14.1+ 3eturn 0en&s.
+.14.1+.1 :nless the requirements of 5!$*!$5!( or 5!$*!$5!* are met, return bends shall be
used 'here pendent sprinklers are supplied from a ra' 'ater source, a mill pond, or open1top
reservoirs!
+.14.1+.2 6eturn bends shall be connected to the top of branch lines in order to avoid
accumulation of sediment in the drop nipples in accordance 'ith )igure 5!$*!$5!2!
+.14.1+ 3eturn 0en&s.
+.14.1+.1 :nless the requirements of 5!$*!$5!( or 5!$*!$5!* are met, return bends shall be
used 'here pendent sprinklers are supplied from a ra' 'ater source, a mill pond, or open1top
reservoirs!
+.14.1+.2 6eturn bends shall be connected to the top of branch lines in order to avoid
accumulation of sediment in the drop nipples in accordance 'ith )igure 5!$*!$5!2!
11.2.3.1.5 !ensity>Area $ur4es.
The 'ater supply for sprinklers only shall be determined either from the density4area curves of )igure
$$!2!(!$!, in accordance 'ith the method of $$!2!(!2 or be based upon the room design method in
accordance 'ith $$!2!(!(, at the discretion of the designer!
11.2.2.1 Table $$!2!2!$ shall be used in determining the minimum 'ater supply requirements
for light and ordinary hazard occupancies protected by systems 'ith pipe sized according to the
pipe schedules of Section $*!,!
11.2.2.2 +ressure and flo' requirements for etra hazard occupancies shall be based on the
hydraulic calculation methods of $$!2!(!
11.2.2.3 The pipe sc/e&ule met/o& shall be permitted only for ne' installations of 5999 "t2
7465 m28 or less or for additions or modifications to eisting pipe schedule systems sized
according to the pipe schedules of Section $*!,!Table $$!2!2!$ are available at a minimum resi&ual
pressure o" 59 psi 73.4 bar8 at t/e /i%/est ele4ation o" sprinkler.
+.2 Each area requiring more sprinklers than the number specified for 3?'in. 7+,'mm8 pipe in Table
$*!,!2!2!$ and 'ithout subdividing partitions #not necessarily fire 'alls% shall be supplied by mains or
risers sized for or&inary /a#ar& occupancies.
14.5.3 Sc/e&ule "or 6r&inary .a#ar& 6ccupancies.
14.5.3.1 :nless permitted by $*!,!(!2 or $*!,!(!(, branch lines shall not eceed eight
sprinklers on either side of a cross main!
14.5.3.2 3here more than eight sprinklers on a branch line are necessary, lines shall be
permitted to be increased to nine sprinklers by making the t'o end lengths $ in! #2,!* mm% and
$H in! #(( mm%, respectively, and the sizes thereafter standard!
14.5.3.3 Ten sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed on a branch line, making the t'o end
lengths $ in! #2,!* mm% and $H in! #(( mm%, respectively, and feeding the tenth sprinkler by a
2I1in! #.*1mm% pipe!
5-2.2 Water Demand Requirements Pipe Schedule Method.
5-2.2.1 Table 5-2.2 shall be used in determining the minimum water supply
requirements for Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies protected by systems
with pipe sized according to the pipe schedules of -5. !ressure and "ow
requirements for #$tra Hazard Occupancies shall be based on the hydraulic
calculation methods of 5-2.%. The pipe schedule method shall be permitted only
for new installations of 5&''' ft2 ()5 m* or less or for additions or modi+cations
to e$isting pipe schedule systems sized according to the pipe schedules of ,ection
-5. Table 5-2.2 shall be used in determining the minimum water supply
requirements.
Exception No 1: The pipe schedule method shall be permitted for use in systems
exceeding 5,000
ft2 (!5m2" #here the $o#s re%uired in Table 5&2'2 are a(ailable at a minimum
residual
pressure of 50 psi ()' bar" at the highest ele(ation of sprin*ler'
Exception No' 2: The pipe schedule method shall be permitted for additions or
modi+cations to
existing extra ha,ard pipe schedule systems if the pressures and $o#s are
determined to be
acceptable to the authority ha(ing -urisdiction'
5-2.2.2 The lower duration -alue of Table 5-2.2 shall be acceptable only where
remote station or
central station water"ow alarm ser-ice is pro-ided.
5-2.2.3* The residual pressure requirement of Table 5-2.2 shall be met at the
ele-ation of the
highest sprin.ler. (.ee the Exceptions to 5&2'2'1.*
5-2.2. The lower "ow +gure of Table 5-2.2 shall be permitted only where the
building is of
noncombustible construction or the potential areas of +re are limited by building
size or
compartmentation such that no open areas e$ceed %''' sq ft (2/0 m2* for Light
Hazard or )'''
sq ft (%/2 m2* for Ordinary Hazard.
5-2.3 Water Demand Requirements !"draulic #alculation Methods.
5-2.3.1 $eneral.
5-2.3.1.1* The minimum water supply requirements for a hydraulically designed
occupancy
hazard +re control sprin.ler system shall be determined by adding the hose
stream demand from
Table 5-2.% to the water supply for sprin.lers determined in 5-2.%.1.2. This supply
shall be
a-ailable for the minimum duration speci+ed in Table 5-2.%.
Exception No' 1: /here other N012 standards ha(e de(eloped sprin*ler system
area3density or
other design criteria and #ater supply re%uirements appropriate for +re control or
suppression
of .pecial 4ccupancy 5a,ards, they shall ta*e precedence'
Exception No' 2: 2n allo#ance for inside and outside hose shall not be re%uired
#here tan*s
supply sprin*lers only'
Exception No' ): /here pumps ta*ing suction from a pri(ate +re ser(ice main
supply sprin*lers
only, the pump need not be si,ed to accommodate inside and outside hose' .uch
hose allo#ance
shall be considered in e(aluating the a(ailable #ater supplies'
1.Upri%/t sprinkler placin% rule i" t/e ceilin% 4oi& space is more t/an +99mm nee& to place a
upri%/t sprinkler to protection