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FEBRUARY 2013

CITY OF COPENHAGEN
MICRO SIMULATION OF
CYCLISTS IN PEAK HOUR
TRAFFIC







FEBRUARY 2013
CITY OF COPENHAGEN
MICRO SIMULATION OF
CYCLISTS IN PEAK HOUR
TRAFFIC



ADDRESS COWI A/S
Parallele! 2
2"00 K#$%e$& L'$%('
De$)ar*

TEL +,- -. ,0 00 00
FA/ +,- -. ,0 00 00
WWW 1#2341#)
PRO5ECT NO4 A02"02"
DOCUMENT NO4 A02"02"600,
7ERSION 140
DATE OF ISSUE 21 Fe(r8ar' 2013
PREPARED KA7D
CHECKED SFR
APPRO7ED RSAL

MICRO SIMULATION OF CYCLISTS IN PEAK HOUR TRAFFIC
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CONTENTS
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In relation to the large-scale scheme "Cykelflow", The City of Copenhagen has
begun a series of initiatives and analyses, with the purpose of clarifying the
possibilities for improving capacity on the bicycle lanes. The aim is to reduce the
overall travel time on the busiest bicycle paths in Copenhagen. During the project,
full-scale field experiments will be carried out, such as green waves, improved
waiting zones and marked lanes for overtaking (fast lane/comfort lane)
In this regard, The City of Copenhagen has asked COWI to investigate the
possibility of representing the behaviour of cyclists in peak hour traffic in a micro
simulation model. This investigation is to be conducted in the micro simulation
software VISSIM, developed by PTV.
During simulations of road traffic, cyclists and pedestrians are usually included to
represent their effect on road capacity. An example of this is when cyclists and
pedestrians are in a direct conflict with right-turning vehicles. If cyclists and
pedestrians are not included, the road capacity will be over-estimated. Whether the
cyclists' behaviour is correctly represented is normally not considered, as they are
not the primary focus.
The focus of this project has been to represent the capacity and behaviour related to
cyclists as accurately as possible. The project had two main focus points, one was
been to collect, process and study data. The other was to translate the results from
the data collection into updated and validated parameters that can be used to
simulate cyclists in VISSIM.
During the project, a solid understanding of cyclist behaviour has been achieved.
Together with years of experience with micro simulation, it has been possible to
translate this understanding into settings for a micro simulation model that can be
used to analyse realistic scenarios. It should be noted that a simulation model can
never represent reality exactly. It is therefore important to assess the behaviour and
results in a local context.
The aim of this project has been to work out a user manual for micro simulation of
cyclists that ensures realistic results. A more detailed description of the method and

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calibration is in the report “Mikrosimulering af cyklister i myldretid” by COWI.
The user manual aids VISSIM users by:
› Giving specific values for relevant VISSIM parameters
› Providing techniques for building a micro simulation model for bicycle-
specific situations
› Giving a written account of the experiences made during the process of
conducting this project.
A previous study has shown that ten parameters are particular important in micro
simulation of cyclists. This project has therefore looked into the standard settings
of these parameters and made the related necessary adjustments. The ten
parameters are as follows:
› Vehicle characteristics
› Speed distributions
› Acceleration distribution
› Following parameters
› Overtaking parameters
› Behaviour at narrowing section
› Behaviour at bus stops
› Behaviour in waiting zones
› Behaviour at stop lines
› Behaviour at right turns
Inspections of typical bicycles, behaviour at intersections and behaviour on bicycle
paths have been conducted in order to find the optimal settings for each parameter.
For analysing behaviour, data has been collected by the use of video registrations
and visual observations. Data regarding speed and acceleration has been collected
by GPS measurements of bicycle trips during peak hour, complemented by traffic
counts provided by The City of Copenhagen.
During the calibration of the VISSIM parameters, it is important to validate the
results against the collected data. The results of each parameter have been validated
by comparing the results of the calibration process to the collected data. In regard
to behaviour at intersections, video registrations were made from above, ensuring
precise measurements of the parameters and precise calibration.
Basic parameters
Parameters
regarding bicycle
paths
Parameters
regarding
intersections

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In conclusion, a final appraisal of the suggested parameter settings and an appraisal
of the overall effect on bicycle micro simulation were carried out.

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2 Para)e;er &e;;3$%&
During the project, 10 parameters have been analysed. In this manual, the 10
parameters are grouped as follows:
1 Setting the basic parameters
› Vehicle characteristics
› Speed distributions
› Acceleration distributions
2 Modelling bicycle paths
› Following parameters
› Overtaking parameters
› Behaviour at narrowing sections
› Behaviour at bus stops
3 Modelling cyclists in intersections
› Behaviour in waiting zones
› Behaviour at stop lines
› Behaviour at right turns
The groupings are made in regard to what is suitable when taking how modelling in
VISSIM is made and the observations made during the analyses into account. The
figure below shows the different elements in the model, based on the analyses.

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Figure 1 Sketch of the modelled elements in VISSIM
The following parts describe how the different bicycle path types should be
modelled and what is most important to focus in during the modelling.
241 Se;;3$% ;@e (a&31 Aara)e;er&
Three of the analysed parameters are put into this group (Vehicle characteristics,
speed distributions, acceleration distributions).
24141 7e@31le 1@ara1;er3&;31&
The default bicycle in VISSIM has been supplemented in order to achieve a more
realistic composition of different bicycles in the simulation. The different types
bicycles and their measurements has been mapped based bicycle catalogues and
manual measuring. 3D models for the following types of bicycles have been
produced:
› Men's bicycle (New 3D-model)
› Women's bicycle (New 3D-model)
› Carrier bicycle (New 3D-model)
› Men's
› Women's
› Electrical bicycle (New 3D-model)
Figure 2 - Figure 6 show the abovementioned 3D models as they are visualised in
VISSIM. The 3D models include both the visual and dimensional aspects. To
achieve correct illustration, they should be assigned the category "car" instead of
"bike".
Bicycle path
Intersection
Waiting zone
Shortened bicycle path
Equalizing section
Narrowing section

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Figure 2 Men's bicycle Figure 3 Women's bicycle

Figure 4 Electrical bicycle Figure 5 Carrier bicycle - Men's


Figure 6 Carrier bicycle - Women's

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In the VISSIM file "KK_cykelsimulering_master.inp", the above 3D models are set
up as:
› "90 KK_cykel_normal"
› "100 KK_cykel_lad"
› "110 KK_cykel_el"
"90 KK_cykel_normal" and "100 KK_cykel_lad" both consist of 50 % men and
50 % women.
24142 SAee= =3&;r3(8;3#$&
The analyses in this project have shown that the spread of the speed distribution is
considerable larger than included in the default settings. This is, e.g., important in
regard to the dispersions of bicycles between two signalised intersections, and thus
the distribution with which they reach the second intersection. Six new speed
distributions have been added to the VISSIM model
"KK_cykelsimulering_master.inp".
› Normal bicycle
› Level
› Uphill
› Downhill
› Carrier bicycle
› Level/Uphill
› Electrical bicycle
› Level/Uphill
› Downhill
Speed data has been collected during a time where wind and weather did not
influence the bicycles considerably, in order to represent a generalised situation.
Furthermore, data has been collected in a section where the cyclists are in free
flow, and thus are not affected by factors such as other cyclists or signals.
Furthermore, a speed distribution for turns has also been produced. This is based
on a 90 degree turn.
A speed distribution for normal bicycles going uphill has been produced. This is
implemented in VISSIM. The speed distribution is, however, based on a stretch
with a certain slope and is thus not valid for all slopes. The particular bicycle path
in question slopes about 20 ‰.
It is recommended to put in an uphill inclination on the link in VISSIM instead, so
the speed is calculated based on the acceleration. This method can be used for all
types of bicycles.
Vehicle
characteristics

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The speed distributions are named as follows:
› 1 KK_normal_cyklist
› 2 KK_lad_cykel
› 3 KK_el_cykel
› 4 KK_nedad_bakke
› 6 KK_el_cykel_nedad_bakke
› 7 KK_reduced_speed
› 8 KK_opad_bakke
In Figure 7 - Figure 9 the speed distributions on a level bicycle path for normal,
carrier and electrical bicycles are shown. Table 1 - Table 3 show the cumulative
percentage at the end of each speed interval.

Figure 7 Speed distribution for normal bicycles on a level bicycle path
"1 KK_normal_cyklist"

Speed distributions
on a level bicycle
path

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Table 1 Speed distribution for normal bicycles on a level bicycle path
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
1, 0 E
1" 0 E
22 ,, E
2. ?? E
30 03 E
3- 100 E


Figure 8 Speed distribution for carrier bicycles on a level bicycle path
"2 KK_Lad_cykel"

Table 2 Speed distribution for carrier bicycles on a level bicycle path
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
10 . E
1, -3 E
1" 00 E
22 0. E
2. 0" E
20 100 E


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Figure 9 Speed distribution for electrical bicycles on a level bicycle path
"3 KK_el_cykel"

Table 3 Speed distribution for electrical bicycles on a level bicycle path
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
22 0 E
2. 2, E
30 100 E

Figure 10 shows the speed distribution on a bicycle path with an uphill slope for
normal bicycles. Table 4 shows the cumulative percentage at the end of each speed
interval.
Speed distribution
on an uphill slope

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Figure 10 Speed distribution for normal bicycles on an uphill slope "8 KK_opad_bakke"

Table 4 Speed distribution for normal bicycles on an uphill slope
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
- 0 E
10 12 E
1, -3 E
1" "3 E
22 0- E
2. 0" E
30 100 E
The collected data indicated that the speed distribution for an electrical bicycle
with an uphill slope is the same as for electrical bicycles on a level bicycle path.
As there is no data for carrier bicycles going uphill, the distribution above is also
used for carrier bicycles.
Speed distributions for cyclists going downhill is shown in Figure 11 and Figure
12. Table 5 belongs to Figure 11.
Speed distribution
on a downhill slope

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Figure 11 Speed distribution for normal bicycles going downhill "4 KK_nedad_bakke"

Table 5 Speed distribution for normal bicycles going downhill
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
1, 0 E
1" , E
22 1- E
2. ,3 E
30 ?0 E
3- 0. E
,0 100 E

On sections with a downhill slope, the data showed that the speeds for an electrical
bicycle are in the same interval. That results in the linear graph below.

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Figure 12 Speed distribution for electrical bicycles going downhill
"6 KK_el_cykel_nedad_bakke"
As the motor of an electrical bicycle sets out when going downhill, it is
recommended to use the speed distribution for a normal bicycle going downhill.
This is also used for carrier bicycles.
Based on visual examinations and own experiences, it has been determined that
cyclists lower their speed in turns. From video material of cyclists in free flow
having to make a 90 degree turn, the reduced speed has been determined. The
result is shown in Figure 13 and Table 6.
Speed distributions
in turns

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Figure 13 Speed distribution in turns "KK_reduced_speed_cykel

Table 6 Speed distribution in turns
SAee= CK)/@D C8)8la;3e E
- 0F00 E
" 1"F?- E
12 -0F00 E
1. ",F3" E
1? 100F00 E
All of the abovementioned speed distributions are implemented into the VISSIM
file "KK_cykelsimulering_master.inp".
24143 A11elera;3#$ =3&;r3(8;3#$
In VISSIM, the default settings for bicycles are based accelerations for cars. Not
surprisingly, this project shows that this acceleration is too high. The acceleration
for cyclists is considerably lower for cyclists than the default setting. The new
settings means that the cyclists' acceleration is reduced which, besides the direct
consequence for cyclists, has an impact on the capacity for motor vehicles. With a

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reduced acceleration, the time in which cyclists are in direct conflict with motor
vehicles, e.g. during right-turns, is prolonged.
The distributions are implemented for each type of bicycles and are named as
follows:
› "KK_normal_cykel"
› "KK_el-cykel"
› "KK_ladcykel"
The accelerations for normal and carrier bicycles have been measured/calculated
from the video material. The result is supported by literature. For the electrical
bicycle, measures of the acceleration/deceleration have been made by GPS
loggings while riding the bicycle with and without the motor turned on. The results
show rather large dispersions, which is due to difference in cyclists want for
acceleration, e.g. based on age and physical condition. Furthermore, acceleration is
difficult to measure and the computations are very sensitive. Thus, it has been
chosen to use the same acceleration and deceleration distribution for all types of
bicycles.
VISSIM operates with a desired and a maximum acceleration/deceleration. For
cars there will be a difference between maximum and desired acceleration, and it is
possible to measure these. The analyses show that for bicycles there is a large
dispersion on the acceleration/deceleration and that the measurements not
necessarily represent the maximum acceleration/deceleration. Thus, the same
acceleration/deceleration distributions have been used for all types of bicycles and
for maximum as well as desired.
In VISSIM, the acceleration decides the power of the individual vehicle. This is
especially clear on uphill slopes, where vehicles with a small acceleration loose
speed. The acceleration for "KK_normal_cykel" has been calibrated in relation to
speed in an uphill slope. The calibration has led to a minor adjustment of the
acceleration measured/calculated from the video registrations. The accelerations
are calibrated for upward slopes up to a 40 ‰ inclination.
Through the analyses, the accelerations and decelerations shown on Figure 14-
Figure 15 and Table 7-Table 8 where found.
Calibration of
acceleration
Acceleration
distribution

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Figure 14 Maximum and desired acceleration for normal bicycles, electrical bicycles and
carrier bicycles

Table 7 Acceleration distribution for normal bicycles, electrical bicycles and carrier
bicycles
SAee= C*)/@D A11elera;3#$ C)/&
2
D
0F0 0F,
2F. 1F2
3F? 1F.
-F1 1F"
.F? 1F.
"F0 1F3
13F2 0F,
1"F- 0F3
22F2 0F3
2-F0 0F3
20F? 0F2
.0F0 0F0


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Figure 15 Maximum and desired deceleration for normal bicycles, electrical bicycles and
carrier bicycles

Table 8 Acceleration distribution for normal bicycles, electrical bicycles and carrier
bicycles
SAee= C*)/@D De1elera;3#$ C)/&
2
D
0F0 63F0
-F0 6,F0
20F0 62F0
.0F0 0F0

Vehicle Type In the VISSIM-file "KK_cykelsimulering_master.inp", the following bicycle types
are set up as vehicle types:
› "700 KK_cykel_normal"
› "800 KK_cykel_Lad"
› "900 KK_cykel_el"
The width of normal and electrical bicycles is 0,6 meter, while it is 0,70 meter for
the carrier bicycles.

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Visual inspection and video material indicate that the composition of the bicycle
types is as follows in the Copenhagen area:
› Normal bicycle (94%)
› Carrier bicycle (3%)
› Electrical bicycle (3%)
It is important to assess whether the above composition can be used in the
individual areas being simulated.
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PTV has developed a new function for handling behaviour of cyclists who violate a
red signal. This function allows a certain amount of cyclists to ignore a stop line.
Thus, behaviour such as right-turns on a red signal can be simulated. This function
will be described further in paragraph 2.4.
When using PTV's new function, the abovementioned bicycle types should be
used. This function will be implemented in the next service pack of VISSIM (5.40-
05).
Alternatively, three new types of bicycles can be set up, so there will be a total of
six types of bicycles. These will be identical to the three mentioned above. The
purpose of these is to let one of the types of bicycles violate a red signal. The
vehicle types set up for this are named as follows:
› "701 KK_cykel_normal_roed"
› "801 KK_cykel_Lad_roed"
› "901 KK_cykel_el_roed"
Vehicle Composition In the VISSIM-file "KK_cykelsimulering_master.inp", the follow "Vehicle
Compositions" is set up, using the distribution mentioned above.
› "10 KK_cykel"
The abovementioned vehicle types are assigned to this vehicle class.
In the case where six vehicle types are set up, an identical "Vehicle composition" is
set:
› "11 KK_cykel_roed"
This vehicle composition is only set up in the case PTV's new function is not used
for representing cyclists violating a red signal.
There is not a large physical difference between the normal and electrical bicycles.
However, the electrical bicycles are assigned a different speed distribution which
falls inside the speed interval for normal bicycles but distributed further toward the
high speeds. A large share of electrical bicycles will have a minor effect on
accessibility, but could affect initiatives such as coordinating traffic signals for

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bicycles. It is expected that the share of electrical bicycles will increase over the
next few years. The carrier bicycles, on the other hand, affect the accessibility on
bicycles paths as they are slower and take up more space.
Vehicle Class The following vehicles class is set up, consisting of all three types of bicycles:
› "70 KK_cyklist"
› Consisting of vehicle types:
› "700 KK_cykel_normal"
› "800 KK_cykel_Lad"
› "900 KK_cykel_el"
In the case where six vehicle types have been set up one more vehicle class must be
set up:
› "80 KK_cyklist_roed"
› Consisting of vehicle types:
› "701 KK_cykel_normal_roed"
› "801 KK_cykel_Lad_roed"
› "901 KK_cykel_el_roed"
The two vehicle classes are in principal identical, but should consist of the two
different groups of Vehicle types. The reason for this is explained further in
paragraph 2.4.
In the case where six vehicle types have been set up, the two vehicle classes above
should be supplemented by three more Vehicle Classes:
› Vehicle class: "90 KK_cykel_normal"
› Consisting of Vehicle Types "700 KK_cykel_normal" and "701
KK_cykel_normal_roed"
› Vehicle class: "100 KK_cykel_lad"
› Consisting of Vehicle Types "800 KK_cykel_Lad" and "801
KK_cykel_Lad roed"
› Vehicle class: "110 KK_cykel_el".
› Consisting of Vehicle Types "900 KK_cykel_el" and "901 KK_cykel_el
_roed"
These vehicle classes are solely set up for simulating behaviour at bus stops
correctly. This is explained in depth in paragraph 2.3.3.
242 C@#31e #< BCar <#ll#23$% )#=elB
It has been analysed which of the Wiedemann models will most accurately be able
to reflect the conditions for cyclists. As Wiedemann 99 is the more complex of the
two, it has estimated that it is most appropriate for simulating cyclists.

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Each Wiedemann 99 parameter has been assessed in regard to whether it is relevant
for cyclists and, if so, whether it should be adjusted up or down from the default
settings. This has resulted in a thorough adjustment of the parameters. Subsequent,
an iterative process between setting the parameters and comparing to the
observations from visual inspections and videos was undertaken. Finally, the result
was validated against collected traffic volume data. Figure 16 illustrates the
process.


The resulting suggestions for setting the Wiedemann 99 parameters are presented
in the following paragraphs.
243 M#=ell3$% (31'1le Aa;@&
A range of analyses have been conducted in order to improve the modelling of
behaviour on bicycle path. The primary source of data has been visual inspections
and video material.
The parameters in this paragraph deal with the "following" settings for bicycle
paths. In intersections, changes are made through other parameters, see paragraph
2.4.
24341 F#ll#23$% a$= #er;a*3$%
In this paragraph, the parameter setting under "Driving behaviour" for each type of
bicycle path is shown. "Driving behaviour" controls parameters for following and
overtaking.
Cykelsti The screen dump below shows the settings for a normal bicycle path. This type of
bicycle path is defined as the link behaviour type "Cykelsti" in the VISSIM file.
The parameters under "Following" in Wiedemann 99-modellen is the result of an
iterative process. In each individual model it may be necessary to make small
adjustments to the parameter setting. Adjusting CC1 will have the largest effect on
capacity.
A$al'&3&
#< 3=e#
)a;er3al

Te&; 3$
7ISSIM

C#)Aar3$%
;# 3=e#
7al3=a;3#$
3$ re%ar=
;# ;ra<<31
#l8)e&
Figure 17 The calibration process

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2?

Figure 18 "Following" parameter settings for "Cykelsti"

It is important to change the minimum value for "Look ahead distance" and "Look
back distance" so it is larger than 0, as this affects how far back/ahead the cyclist
can observe and react. All vehicles within the minimum "Look ahead distance" are
observed. If the amount of cyclists within the "Look ahead distance" is less than
the value of "Observed vehicles", the amount of vehicles corresponding to the
difference between the value set in "Observed vehicles" and the amount of cyclists
within the "Look ahead distance", is observed outside of the "Look ahead
distance". I.e., if "Observed vehicles" is set to 10 and 5 cyclists are observed with
the "Look ahead distance", the following 5 cyclists will be observed. The
maximum possible value in "Observed vehicles" is 10 and must in this case be set
as such. These factors are important for cyclists, as there are many elements to be
aware of in congested areas.
The parameter settings for "Lane change" have no importance for the simulation of
cyclists, as a bicycle lane never consists of more than one "lane" in the simulation.
It is possible to model cyclists through the use of several lanes, but it is believed to
be more suitable to use one lane and there control the lateral movements.
The parameters in "Lateral" control the cyclists' general position on the bicycle
path. "Desired position at free flow" is set to "Right", as cyclists typically keep
right when they have reached their desired speed. This means that they overtake on
left by setting "on left" under "Overtake on same lane".
The parameter settings for "Lateral" are shown below.

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Figure 19 "Lateral" parameter setting for "Cykelsti"

The parameter "Collision time gain" is essential in regard to, when a cyclist will
overtake and thus move away from the right side of the bicycle path. If this
parameter is increased, the cyclists will be less inclined to overtake, as over takings
are only done if it involves that "Collision time" is increased to the parameter
setting.
The parameter "Minimum longitudinal speed" is set to 9,9 km/h. This value is
derived from minimum speed obtained at a level section, which is 10 km/h for
carrier bicycles (see Figure 8). The value may vary according to the speed
distributions at the specific location being analysed. Furthermore, "Minimum
longitudinal speed" must be set to 4,9 km/h if the cyclists are travelling uphill, as
the minimum speed in this case is 5 km/h (see Figure 10). It would be advisable to
create an additional driving behaviour parameter set for the links of the uphill
slope, so as to not affect the parameter setting of the level sections. At this setting it
is not possible for a cyclist to change lane until the speed is less than 9,9 km/h and
unnecessary lane changes are therefore avoided. If "Minimum longitudinal speed"
is set to a lower value, the cyclists are more sensitive to the speed of the
surrounding cyclists, and are thus prone to making lane changes even if it does not
result in an overtaking. Furthermore, the setting ensures that a cyclist with a larger
speed than 10 km/h is not caught behind a cyclist with a lower desired speed. It is
important this parameter is not set to a value larger than the lowest possible speed
in the model.
The parameter "Time between direction changes" decides the time between each
lateral movement. The parameter should primarily be used to make the simulation
more realistic. If a reduced amount of over takings is desired, "Collision time gain"
should be used.

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The parameters under "Min. lateral distance" decide how close the cyclists can
overtake, which can affect the amount of over takings on the bicycle path,
depending on the paths' width.

Figure 20 "Signal Control" parameter settings for "Cykelsti"
The parameter for "Signal Control" are changed little compared to the default
settings, as they primarily relates to how a cyclist reacts to yellow or yellow/red in
a signalised intersection. There parameters are not estimated to be different than
that of cars, except for "Reduced safety distance close to a stop line", where
"Reduction factor" is set to 0,8. This is because the speed distributions for cyclists
are smaller than for cars, and thus the safety distance will be smaller.
The bicycle path type "Cykelsti" is built to represent a general bicycle path. The
bicycle path types described in the following paragraphs are used for specific
conditions. When none of these conditions are present, "Cykelsti" should be used.
24342 Be@a3#8r a; $arr#23$% &e1;3#$&
Flettestrækning In order to represent the behaviour around a section where the bicycle path
narrows, a new link behaviour type called "Flettestrækning" is made. This is to be
used in situations, where the cyclists have to perform weaving manoeuvres as the
bicycle path narrows so there is less lateral room. The starting point, from which
the calibration was made, was the parameter settings for "Cykelsti". Figur 21 and
Figure 22 below show the parameter settings.

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Figur 21 "Following" parameter settings for "Flettestrækning"
The parameter settings for "Following" are the same as for "Cykelsti".

Figure 22 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Flettestrækning"

The parameters for "Lateral" are almost identical to the settings for "Cykelsti", but
the setting for "Collision time gain" is changed as less over takings will be made
around a narrowing section. Only a few cyclists with a high desired speed will
perform an overtaking on this type of section.
The parameter settings for "Signal Control" are identical to that of "Cykelsti".
"Collision time gain" is
different than for
"Cykelsti".

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Visual inspections and the video material show that the cyclists generally prepare
for a narrowing in advance. It is therefore recommended to use "Flettestrækning" at
least 50 m. before the narrowing of the bicycle path. Furthermore, the connector
between the wide and the narrow link must also be set to "Flettestrækning".
24343 Be@a3#8r a; (8& &;#A&
Bus stops The effects of bus stops on cyclists have been analysed at places where the bus
passengers get on/off directly from/onto the bicycle path. The observations have
been made at small and large bus stops (in terms of the number of passengers).
Overall, there was detected a difference in behaviour between small and large bus
stops. At small bus stops, most cyclists slow down and attempt a weaving
manoeuvre through the passengers getting on and off, while a small amount of the
cyclists make a full stop. At larger bus stops, the cyclists are in more occasions
forced to make a full stops.
In this project, two methods for modelling bus stops have been worked out:
1 The cyclists are assigned a new, lower speed distribution at bus stops, in case
the bus stop is occupied.
2 The abovementioned lower speed distribution is supplemented with a priority
rule which forces a part of the cyclists to make a full stop.
By solely using the first method, the delay on cyclists caused by a bus stop is
represented, but the visualisation is not realistic as none of the cyclists make a full
stop. A combination of 1 and 2 will result in a more realistic simulation.

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Figure 23 Building up the use of method 1 and 2 at a bus stop in VISSIM

A detector at the bus stop activates the speed reduction on the bicycle path. The
speed reduction is activated once the detector has been occupied for more than 2
seconds and is deactivated once the bus leaves the detector. The cyclists assigned a
lower speed due to the bus stop, are reassigned their normal speed once they've
passed the bus stop. Figure 23 shows how bicycle no. 1295 has a vDesired of 10,4
km/h, while bicycle no. 1291, which has been reassigned it's normal speed, has a
vDesired of 18,5 km/h. In order to control the speed reduction, a simple VAP
programme has been prepared. The VAP programme used in this example can be
seen in Figure 24.
In this case, the speed distribution used around the bus stop is the same as used for
sharp turns, i.e. "6 KK_Reduced_speed_cykel". As this speed distribution is based
on the speed in a 90 degree turn, it may be necessary to make adjustments
according to the conditions at the bus stop to be simulated.
Reduced speed
Normal speed

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Figure 24 VAP programming for handling behaviour at bus stops

A priority rule has been added to the bus stop, placed at where the back-end of the
bus will be while allowing passengers to get on and off. By adjusting which
"Vehicle Class" is affected by the priority rule, the proportion of cyclists making a
full stop can be controlled. Figure 25 below shows an example of how to build up
the priority rule.

Figure 25 Building up the priority rule at a bus stop

It is important to have three extra vehicle classes in order to replicate the behaviour
at a bus stop:
› Vehicle class which in the example is named "90 KK_cykel_normal"
› Composed by the vehicle types "700 KK_cykel_normal" and possibly
"701 KK_cykel_normal_roed"
› Vehicle class which in the example is named "100 KK_cykel_lad"

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› Composed of vehicle types "800 KK_cykel_Lad" and possibly "801
KK_cykel_Lad_roed"
› Vehicle class which in the example is named "110 KK_cykel_el"
› Composed of vehicle types "900 KK_cykel_el" and possibly "901
KK_cykel_el_roed"
These are necessary when reassigning the desired speed to the cyclists having been
assigned a reduced speed distribution, as "Desired Speed Decision" refers to
"Vehicle Classes".
24, M#=ell3$% 1'1l3&;& 3$ 3$;er&e1;3#$&
In order to improve the method of simulation cyclists in and around intersections, a
number of analyses have been made. The primary source of data has been visual
inspections and video material.
24,41 Be@a3#8r 3$ 2a3;3$% G#$e&
The waiting zone is defined as the area used by left-turning cyclists, when having
to cross an intersection in two steps. It is also used by cyclists going straight
through the crossing, who awaits a green signal in the waiting zone instead of
behind the stop line. This area is typically in front of the zebra crossing used by
pedestrians. Figure 26 shows examples of waiting zones.

Figure 26 Examples of waiting zones in a signalised intersection is highlighted by red
markings


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Based on the visual inspections and the video material, the following observations
have been made:
› Access to the waiting zone often goes through an area of the pedestrian
crossing, this is in particular true for smaller waiting zones (i.e. the distance
between the bicycle path and the pedestrian crossing is small)
› At smaller waiting zones and in areas with a large number of left-turning
cyclists, the pedestrian crossing is used as waiting zone.
› There is a tendency for straight-through cyclists to slowly "seep" across the
stop line and into the waiting zone.
› Cyclists in the waiting zone have a tendency to start earlier at green or
red/yellow, as they keep their eyes on the signal in the opposite direction.
› In places with mane cyclists in the waiting zone, it is not possible to have a
pre-green signal for right-turns.
Examples of the two waiting zones of different sizes can be seen in the VISSIM
file. An example of a small waiting zone can be seen in Figure 27 below.

Figure 27 Example of simulation of a small waiting zone in VISSIM in 3D and in 2D.

In this example, the cyclists use the pedestrian crossing as waiting zone. A fictive
signal has been put in the front end of the waiting to keep the cyclists from passing
the crossing at a red light. The signal belongs to the same signal group as the one at
the stop line, but turns green 2 seconds earlier, to represent the earlier start-up
observed from the waiting zones. Furthermore, 2 seconds have been added at the
end of green, to ensure no cyclists are caught in the waiting zone after having
passed to stop line at green.
The principle is the same for larger waiting zones, but in this case the fictive stop
line is placed further away from the pedestrian crossing so the cyclists do not
occupy this to as large an extent.

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Ventezone Figure 28 and Figure 29 show the parameter setting in "Driving Behaviour" to be
used for the link behaviour type made for waiting zones which is named
"Ventezone".

Figure 28 "Following" parameter settings for "Ventezone"

The parameter settings are somewhat changed from that of "Cykelsti". "Smooth
closeup behaviour" is activated to ensure a smooth braking up to the fictive signal.
"Standstill distance for static obstacles" is active and set to 0, so the cyclists come
as close to the fictive stop line as possible.
The parameter settings for "Lateral" are most important for this link behaviour
type. The "Desired position at free flow" and "Diamond shaped queuing" and
"Consider next turning direction" is activated. "Diamond shaped queuing is to
ensure to most realistic shape of the queue, while "Consider next turning direction"
is for the straight-through cyclists seeping into the waiting zone.

"Smooth closeup behavior"
and "Standstill distance for
static obstacles" are active.

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Figure 29 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Ventezone"

"Consider next turning direction" is to connected to "Desired Direction" on the
subsequent connector. If a connector is to be used by, e.g., right-turning cyclists,
"Desired Direction" is to be set to "Right" on that connector. "Consider next
turning direction" combined with a correct setting of "Desired Direction" on the
subsequent connector, will mean the cyclists are aware of where they are going
next and don't begin inappropriate over takings.
The data shows that the cyclists pack close together in the waiting zone and seek to
be of least possible nuisance to the other modes of traffic. In intersections with a
large number of cyclists it is particularly important to try and replicate this
behaviour, in order to not overestimate the strain on capacity.
The "Lateral" parameters are optimised so that the cyclists take advantage of every
possible opportunity to pack together in the waiting zone. It is possible to overtake
on both right and left, and the cyclist will use every advantage to advance further in
the queue, even if the cyclist has already made a full stop. The minimum lateral
distances are minimised to make the queue as realistic as possible. The minimal
distances can be increased in cases with fewer cyclists using the waiting, as they in
that case will keep a larger distance to each other.
The parameter settings for "Signal Control" are identical to that of "Cykelsti".
The link behaviour type "Ventezone" should be used as soon as the cyclist moves
away from the normal link. "Ventezone" must also be used on the small section
between the fictive and the actual stop line.
24,42 Be@a3#8r a; &;#A l3$e&
The stop line is defined as the point at which cyclists must stop in case of a red
signal. The behaviour at stop lines has been analysed in regard to two subgroups:

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1 The behaviour up to and after the stop line.
2 The behaviour based on whether the cyclist uses a bicycle path, a bicycle lane
or a shortened bicycle path (Figure 30 shows what is meant by "Bicycle path"
and "Shortened bicycle path". Bicycle lanes are drawn onto the road while
bicycle path are out of level with the road).

Figure 30 Bicycle path and shortened bicycle path

The following observations have been made in regard to the first point:
› Up to and through the signalised intersection, an increased number of lateral
movements are made in order to find the optimal path through the intersection.
› In smaller intersections there may be a large proportion of cyclists violating a
red light. This is also true for straight-through traffic, in particular in case
there is no traffic from secondary roads. The proportion can constitute up to
30 %.
› In larger intersections hardly any red light violations are observed, and if so
only right-turns.
› Left-turning cyclists arriving at the intersection at a red light use the
pedestrian crossing which has a green light, thus saving a stop in the waiting
zone.
Shortened
bicycle
path
Bicycle
path

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30
The following points have been made in regard to the second point:
› At shortened bicycle paths there is a larger tendency for cyclists to seep across
the stop line into the waiting zone. This especially happens if there are many
cyclists on the shortened bicycle path.
› There has not been detected a difference in behaviour between bicycle path
and bicycle lane.
› In case of long queues some cyclists use the footpath to make a right-turn and
some "cheat" their way to the front of the queue.
Krydsstrækning In order to replicate the behaviour around an intersection (typically signalised) a
new link behaviour type called "Krydsstrækning" has been made which is to be
used up to and through the intersection. If possible, "Krydsstrækning" should be
used from about 75 m. before the intersection. The principle is illustrated in Figure
31.

Figure 31 Sketch of the modelled elements in VISSIM

The "Following" parameters are the same as those for "Ventezone", where
"Smooth closeup behavior" and "Standstill distance for static obstacles" are
activated and the distance (in this case to the signal) is set to 0. This is shown in
Figure 32.
Bicycle path
Intersection
Waiting zone
Shortened bicycle path
Equalizing section
Narrowing section

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Figure 32 "Following" parameter settings for "Krydsstrækning"

The "Lateral" parameters have the largest impact on how the cyclists behave up to
and through an intersection. They are particularly important when the cyclists stop
for a red light and there is a possibility for queues.
As is the case with "Ventezone", "Diamond shaped queuing" and "Consider next
turning direction" are activated so the queue is shaped realistically and cyclists'
behaviour takes future turns into consideration. In order for the queue and capacity
around the intersection is as realistic as possible, it is possible for the cyclists to
overtake on both left and right.
On this link behaviour type, the cyclists need more possibilities when it comes to
overtaking than what is the case for behaviour on "Cykelsti". "Collision time gain"
is therefore reduced to 2 seconds..
The "Lateral" parameter settings are shown in Figure 33.
"Smooth closeup behavior"
and "Standstill distance for
static obstacles" are activated.

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Figure 33 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Krydsstrækning"

The "Signal Control" parameters are identical to those of "Cykelsti".
Based on the analyses it is not been possible to set out guide lines for how large a
proportion of cyclists violate red lights, as they show a high volatility in violations
between different locations. Conditions such as they amount of traffic from
secondary roads, coordinated traffic signals, geometry, etc. affect the cyclists'
behaviour. It is important to visually inspect or to have knowledge of the area that
is to be simulated.
Two methods for simulation violation of red light violations have been worked out:
1 For this project, PTV has developed a new function where it is possible to let a
proportion of the road users ignore a red signal.
In case this method is the used, it is not necessary to set up extra vehicle types
or classes.
Figure 34 shows an example where 30 % are allowed to violate a red light.
Violation of
red light

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Figure 34 PTV's new function for violating red lights

If this method is used at shortened bicycle paths, it is necessary to have a
separate signal heads for cars and bicycles. Otherwise "rate of compliance"
will also affect cars.
2 A Vehicle Class is assigned to each signal head. By assigning a signal head to
"KK_cykel_normal", "KK_cykel_normal_roed" will not stop at the stop line.
Afkortet cykelsti (Cyk) A link behaviour type called "Afkortet cykelsti (Cyk)" has been set up which can
handle the interaction between cars and bicycles. Figure 35 and Figure 36 show the
parameter settings for this link behaviour type.
The "Following" parameters are identical to that of "Ventezone" and
"Krydsstrækning", where "Smooth closeup behavior" and "Standstill distance for
static obstacles" are active.

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Figure 35 "Following" parameter settings for "Afkortet cykelsti (Cyk)"

"Lateral" parameter settings are important for the cyclists' behaviour on a shortened
bicycle path which is similar to that on "Ventezone". Desired position at free flow"
will be set to "Right" but they will seek any chance to get further ahead by
overtaking. "Consider next turning direction" is still active which means that right-
turning cyclists are less inclined to overtake on the shortened bicycle path.

Figure 36 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Afkortet cykelsti (Cyk)"

The parameter settings for "Signal Control" is identical to that of "Cykelsti".
Afkortet cykelsti (Kt) There has also been produced a link behaviour type called " Afkortet cykelsti (Kt)"
for cars sharing space with cyclists on a shortened bicycle path. This is almost a
"Smooth closeup behavior"
and "Standstill distance for
static obstacles" are active.

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copy of the standard link behaviour type "Urban (motorized)" where there is only a
few changes to the parameter. See Figure 37 and Figure 38.

Figure 37 "Following" parameter settings for "Afkortet cykelsti (Kt)"

The "Lateral" parameters have the largest effect on the drivers' behaviour but is
only changed little from the default settings. Visual inspection and video material
has shown that drivers tend to keep right on a right-turn lane so as to block the way
for the cyclists. "Desired position at free flow" is therefore set to "Right" and it is
in some cases possible for cyclists to overtake in left. The minimum lateral distance
at 0 km/h is slightly reduced so the condition concerning capacity is slightly
increased.
Changed from the
default settings

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Figure 38 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Afkortet cykelsti (Kt)"

No changes have been made to the parameters fore "Lane Change" and "Signal
Control".
The link behaviour types "Afkortet cykelsti (Cyk)" and "Afkortet cykelsti (Kt)" are
used as soon as the bicycle path or lane ends. It is necessary to implement a priority
rule for cyclists so they give way to drivers. The priority should, however, be
"aggressive", especially if there are many cyclists from the bicycle path or lane. An
example is shown in Figure 39.

Figure 39 Example of priority rule when changing from separate links for drivers and
cyclists to a shared link
Udligningsstrækning It has been deemed necessary to implement an extra link behaviour type called
"Udligningsstrækning" which is used in the transition from "Krydsstrækning" to
"Cykelsti". This is important to ensure a smooth flow in the transition.
Bicycle
path

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On "Krydsstrækning" there are many possibilities for overtaking and it is possible
to overtake on both left and right while there are many restrictions for overtaking
on "Cykelsti". In case of a direct transition between the two problems in the
simulation flow arise as many cyclists will attempt to keep right due to the
sharpened restrictions for overtaking. If there are many cyclists this will cause
unrealistic problems in capacity and behaviour.
The "Udligningsstrækning" behaviour type generally cause the cyclists with the
lowest desired speed to place themselves at the right side of the bicycle path.
The "Following" parameters are identical to that of "Cykelsti".
The "Lateral" parameter settings are a mix of those for "Krydsstrækning" and
"Cykelsti". "Collision time gain" is set to 10 seconds. As the cyclists generally
have reached their desired speed after the intersection, "Minimum longitudinal
speed" is set to maximum. It is still possible to overtake on both left and right as
the cyclists probably still haven't spread out much. The parameter settings can be
seen in Figure 40.

Figure 40 "Lateral" parameter settings for "Udligningsstrækning"

The parameter settings for ”Signal Control” are identical to that of "Cykelsti".
The link behaviour type "Udligningsstrækning" should be used between
"Krydsstrækning" and "Cykelsti" on a section of about 50 meter after the
intersection. The length can vary depending on how fast the cyclists spread out.
Congestion In case of large amounts of cyclists the lengths of "Krydsstrækning" and
"Udligningsstrækning" should be increased to avoid the previously mentioned
problems. Large amounts of cyclists typically occur in cities where intersections
also appear close together. Under such conditions it should be evaluated whether
the link behaviour type "Krydsstrækning", perhaps combined with

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"Udlingningsstrækning", all the way between two succeeding intersections. This
will result in a more realistic behaviour on the bicycle path and, most importantly,
the capacity.
24,43 Be@a3#8r a; r3%@; ;8r$&
Based on visual inspections and own experiences, an analysis of behaviour at right
turns has been made. This has resulted in the following conclusions:
› In minor intersections there may be a large proportion of cyclists who violate
a red light. This is also true for straight-through traffic especially if there is
little traffic from the secondary roads. The proportion can constitute up to 30
%.
› In larger intersections there are hardly any cyclists that violate a red light and
the ones who do turn right.
It has not been possible to find a general proportion of right-turning cyclists who
violate red lights as these depend on the conditions of the intersection. This factor
must be assessed in the individual project.
The right-turning cyclists violating a red light are simulated as described in
paragraph 2.4.2 under "violation of red light", but instead of staying in the waiting
zone they continue the right-turning movement though they give way for cyclists
from left who have a green light.
The video material show that in case of queues that are so long that the cyclists
can't get to the stop line, a large proportion choose to use the foot path to turn right.
It is not possible to use the methods described in paragraph 2.4.2 around
intersections where queues make it impossible to get to the stop line. If this
behaviour affects the capacity it is necessary to make a fictive bicycle path, starting
at the beginning of the queue so the right-turning cyclists can access this. The route
for the right-turning cyclists should be split into those using the correct route and
those using the fictive route. The proportion should be assessed in the individual
project. 30 % can be a starting point for the proportion using the fictive bicycle
path.
Behaviour at
right turns