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MOVING COIL INSTRUMENTS

There are two types of moving coil instruments:

(1) permanent magnet moving coil type, which can only be used for direct current, voltage

measurements (2) Dynamometer type, which can be used on either direct or alternating current, voltage measurements.

PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL (PMMC) INSTRUMENT Principle of operation

According to the fundamental law of electromagnetic force, a current carrying coil placed in a magnetic field experiences a force. When the current to be measured is passed through the coil, a deflecting torque is setup due to the force experienced on both sides of the coil. This causes the coil

to rotate. Therefore, a pointer which is attached to the movable coil will also deflect according to the amount of current to be measured. This deflecting torque produced is counter balanced by the mechanical torque of control springs attached to the movable coil. When the torques are balanced, the moving coil will stopped and the pointer will indicate the measured current on a calibrated scale. NOTE:

If the permanent magnet field is uniform and the spring is linear, then the scale is also linear. (uniform scale)

PMMC instruments can be used only for DC measurements. T d =K d i. So if the current is reversed, the deflection is also reversed. When an alternating current is passed through the instrument, the deflection alternates at the frequency of current. At normal power frequencies (50 Hz) and above, the moving system cannot follow the variations of the torque and remains at the zero position. Due to moment of inertia of moving system, the pointer will not follow rapidly changing alternating torque and will fail to show any reading. Hence PMMC instruments cannot be used for AC measurements, unless the current is rectified before applying it to the moving coil.

Construction

The main components of PMMC instruments are described below:

• 1 Magnet system: Permanent magnets are generally used to provide magnetic field.

• 2 Moving system: The moving element consists of a light rectangular former, on which a multi-turn

rectangular coil of insulated copper or aluminium wire is wound. The coil is free to rotate in air gaps between the poles of a permanent magnet and a fixed cylindrical soft iron core. Purpose of the core: (a) it makes the magnetic field in the air gap radial and uniform (b) it increases the magnetic field by reducing the length of the air gap.

3

Control system: The controlling torque is provided by two phosphor bronze hair springs coiled in

opposite directions (spring control). The control springs also conduct the operating current into and out of the moving coil.

• 4 Damping system: Eddy current damping is usually used.

• 5 Pointer & Scale: The pointer is carried by the spindle and moves over a graduated scale and it indicates the angular deflection of the coil. Thus it indicates the magnitude of current of flowing through the coil. Since the deflecting torque is proportional to the current flowing through the moving coil, the PMMC instruments have uniformly spaced scale markings.

Torque Expression

If a current i is passing through the coil, the magnitude of the force experienced by each side of the

coil is given by, F=Bil where B: flux density, T l: length of the coil, m For N no: of turns, F= NBil Therefore, deflecting torque, ie, where d:Half of width of the coil, m A=ld For a permanent magnet B is a constant. Also, for a given coil, l,d and N are constants. Thus the product NBA is also a constant, say G.

where G=NBA, a constant At final steady deflection,

 where for spring control therefore or deflection is proportional to current Advantages

(1) Uniform scale (2) Low power consumption (3) No hysteresis loss (4) Very effective and efficient eddy current damping (5) No effect of stray magnetic field

(1) Useful for DC measurements alone (2) Costlier than moving iron instruments (3) Delicate moving system and hence it can be damaged by rough handling

DYNAMOMETER TYPE (electrodynamic) INSTRUMENT

The electrodynamometer type instrument is a transfer instrument. A transfer instrument is one which is calibrated with a DC source and used without any modifications for AC measurements. Such a transfer instrument has same accuracy for AC and DC measurements. The electrodynamometer type instruments are often used in accurate AC voltmeters and ammeters, not only at the power line frequency but also in the lower frequency range.

Operating Principle

The PMMC instrument cannot be used on AC currents or voltages. If AC supply is given to these instruments, an alternating torque will be developed. Due to moment of inertia of moving system, the pointer will not follow rapidly changing alternating torque and will fail to show any reading. In order to measure AC quantities using moving coil instruments, the magnetic flux in the air gap must reverse along with the reversal of current through the moving coil. Thus a unidirectional torque is produced. This principle is used in the electrodynamometer type instrument. Thus electrodynamometer type instrument can be used for measuring both AC and DC quantities. Instead of a permanent magnet, the electrodynamometer type instrument uses the current under measurement to produce the necessary field flux. Let I 1 and I 2 be the currents through fixed and moving coils respectively. The deflecting torque is produced due to the interaction of the magnetic field produced by the currents in the fixed and moving coils. So the deflecting torque is given by,

If I 1 =I 2 =I,

Constuction

1 Field system: The operating field is produced by the fixed coils. The coil is wound using thin wire

for measuring low currents or voltages and with thick wire for measuring high currents or voltages. 2 Moving system: The moving coil is pivoted in between two fixed coils. The moving coil is supported by an Aluminium spindle and carries a pointer moving over a graduated scale.

Control System: The controlling torque is provided by two hair springs. These springs act as leads to the moving coil.

3

• 4 Damping system: The damping torque is provided by air friction. As operating field would be distorted by eddy current damping, it is not employed.

• 5 Shielding: The field produced by these instruments is very weak. Even earth's magnetic field

considerably affects the reading. So magnetic shielding is done to protect it from stray magnetic fields. It is done by enclosing in a casing high permeability alloy.

Torque equation in terms of mutual inductance between fixed and moving coils

The electrodynamometer instrument can be represented by an equivalent circuit as

Let

i 1

= Instantaneous value of current in fixed coil i 2 = Instantaneous value of current in moving coil L 1 = Self inductance of fixed coil L 2 = self inductance of moving coil

• M = Mutual inductance between fixed and moving coils

Now,

and

Electrical energy supplied= =

=

(

)

(

The energy stored in the magnetic field due to L 1 , L 2 and M is given by, Energy stored=

Change in stored energy=

(

)

)

(1)

(2)

If T d is the instantaneous deflecting torque and dθ is the change in the deflection then Mechanical energy = Mechanical workdone

= T d

(3)

From the principle of conversation of energy, Energy input = Energy stored + Mechanical energy

. . .

Mechanical energy = Energy input - Energy stored

Substituting equations (1), (2) and(3)

The self inductance L 1 and L 2 are constant and hence dL 1 and dL 2 are zero.

Advantages (1) Equally accurate on AC and DC measurements (2) Free from hysteresis and eddy current losses (3) Gives accurate rms values irrespective of voltage/ current waveforms

(1) More frictional errors (2) More expensive than PMMC/MI instruments (3) Power consumption more than PMMC, but less than MI instrument

For these reasons, dynamometer ammeters and voltmeters are not in common use especially in dc circuits. The most important application of the dynamometer type instruments is its use as dynamometer wattmeter.

COMPARISON

ELECTROSTATIC INSTRUMENTS

Working principle: The underlying principle of operation of electrostatic instruments is the force of attraction or repulsion between electric charges on neighboring plates between which potential difference is maintained. This force gives rise to a deflecting torque. The force will be small, if the potential difference is less. Hence such instruments are used for the measurement of high voltages.

Force Equation of linear Electrostatic Type Instrument

consider two plates as shown in the diagram given below. Plate A is positively charged and plate B is negatively charged.

Let V be the voltage applied between the parallel plates A and B and C be the capacitance between the plates.

Energy stored=

If the voltage is increased by dv, the force of attraction between the plates F increases and the movable plate will move by a distance dx. The work done against the spring force due to displacement of the plate B = F dx

Capacitor current Electrical energy supplied = Vi dt=

(

)

(

Change in stored energy in electric field=[ (

)

)(

=

[(

)(

=

[

=

[

]

)

]

)

]

]

(by neglecting second and higher order terms) From the principle of conversation of energy, Energy input = change in stored energy + Mechanical work done Substituting equations (1), (2) and(3)

Torque Equation of rotary Electrostatic Type Instrument

In order to find out the expression for deflecting torque in case of rotary type electrostatic instruments, just replace F in the equation (1) by T d and dx by d . Now rewriting the modified equation we have deflecting torque

when the instrument is spring controlled, controlling torque T c =

constant and

is the deflection angle.

, where K is the spring

From this expression we conclude that the deflection of the pointer is directly proportional to the square of the voltage to be measured hence

  the scale will be non uniform electrostatic type instrument can be used to measure both AC and DC quantities There are two types of electrostatic instruments: 

(1) Quadrant type-used upto 20kV (2) Attracted disc type-used upto 500 kV

THERMAL INSTRUMENTS

Operating Principle: In thermal instruments the action depends upon the heating effect of the current under measurement. These instruments are used for the measurement of current at high frequencies, ie above the range of MI and dynamometer type instruments. Thermal instruments are mainly of two types namely (i) hot-wire instruments and (ii) thermo-couple instruments. The hot-wire instrument operates on the fact that when a current is passed through a wire, it gets heated and it expands. The thermo-couple instrument is based on the fact that when the junction of two dissimilar metals is heated by passing current through it, an emf is developed.

HOT WIRE INSTRUMENT

Working principle:

The working of hot-wire instrument is based on the increase in length of the wire due to heating effect when current is passed through it. This increase in length is converted into the motion of a pointer on a circular scale.

Suitable for AC and DC measurements

Construction:

it consists of a hot wire W made of platinum-irridium alloy stretched between a fixed point A and tension adjustment point B. One end of a phosphor bronze wire W 1 is attached to W at the point C and the other end is fixed at point D. A fine silk thread is attached to wire W 1 at point F. Silk wire passes through a pulley and is fixed to a spring used for exerting control torque. The pulley is mounted on a spindle carrying a pointer and an aluminium disc used for eddy current damping. M is the damping magnet.

Working:

When the current to be measured is passed through the wire AB, it expands due to the heating effect of current and a sag is produced in W. The sag in W causes a sag in wire W 1 which is taken up by the spring through the silk thread. Thus the moving system is rotated due to the motion of pulley. And thus the pointer moves over a calibrated scale. The deflection of the pointer is proportional to the extension of wire AB, which is again proportional to I 2 . Hence deflection is proportional to I 2 . Advantages:

(1) Simple and cheap (2) Fairly accurate (3) Since pointer deflection is proportional to I 2 , it can be used for both AC and DC measurements. (4) Indicates rms values of current directly (5) No effect of stray magnetic fields (6) Used for current measurements at high frequencies

(1) Relatively High power consumption (2) Non-uniform scale (3) Very slow response as wire takes time to heat up (4) Changes in room temperature may cause some error

THERMO-COUPLE INSTRUMENT Refer Electrical Measurements and Measuring Instruments By R. K. Rajput Page:261-262

INDUCTION POLE TYPE INSTRUMENT Refer Electrical Measurements and Measuring Instruments By J.B.Gupta Page:206-207 There are several possible arrangments. Two of them are

• 2. Two poles method

Refer J.B.Gupta page:207-208

TWO POLES METHOD

Refer J.B.Gupta page:208-209

(1) Damping is easier and effective (2) Not much affected by stray magnetic field (3) Long open scale

(1) Costlier (2) High power consumption (3) Variation in supply frequency and temperature cause errors

RECTIFIER TYPE INSTRUMENTS

SHUNTS AND MULTIPLIERS

So the multiplying factor is given by,

Requirement of shunt:

(1) The temperature coefficient shunt and instrument should be low and possibly the same (2) Shunt resistance should not vary with time

(3) They should carry current without excessive temperature rise Manganin is usually used as shunt for DC instruments. Constantan is usually used as shunt for AC instruments.

Effect of Temperature changes in ammeter Refer j b gupta page 299 Voltmeter multipliers: Refer j b gupta page 301