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Sample problems

1. (Plairfair ciher) Decrypt the ciphertext

OPNBNMDFLYNBDLCDXIWENMECRYDNIONP

if the keyword is DECRYPTION.

Solution.

The 5x5 matrix has the following view:

D E C R Y

P T I/J O N

A B F G H

K L M Q S

U V W X Z

Repeatedly applying the three rules the given ciphertext

can be decrypted in the following way:

Ciphertext: OPNBNMDFLYNBDLCDXIWENMECRYDNIONP

Plaintext: inthiscasethekeywordisdecryption

2. (Hill cipher) Encrypt the plaintext PLAINTEXT with the key

K=

12 10 3

8 9 4

6 1 5

Solution.

C

1

=(5p

1

+1p

2

+ 6p

3

) mod 26

C

2

=(4p

1

+ 9p

2

+ 8p

3

) mod 26

C

3

=(3p

1

+ 10p

2

+ 12p

3

) mod 26

By substituting p

1

=15, p

2

=11, p

3

=0, p

4

=8, p

5

=13, p

6

=p

9

=19,

p

7

=4, and p

1

=23, we obtain

0

11

15

12 10 3

8 9 4

6 1 5

3

2

1

C

C

C

Thus,

C

1

= 5x15 + 1x11 + 6x0 = 75 + 11 + 0 = 86 mod 26 = 8

= I,

C

2

= 4x15 + 9x11 + 8x0 = 60 + 99 + 0 = 159 mod 26 =

3 = D,

C

3

= 3x15 + 10x11 + 12x0 = 45 + 110 + 0 = 155 mod 26

= 25 = Z.

Similarly,

19

13

8

12 10 3

8 9 4

6 1 5

6

5

4

C

C

C

or

C

4

= 5x8 + 1x13 + 6x19 = 40 + 13 + 114 = 167 mod 26

= 5 = F,

C

5

= 4x8 + 9x13 + 8x19 = 48 + 117 + 162 = 327 mod 26

= 15 = P,

C

6

= 3x8 + 10x13 + 12x19 = 24 + 130 + 228 = 382 mod

26 = 18 = S.

Finally,

19

23

4

12 10 3

8 9 4

6 1 5

9

8

7

C

C

C

or

C

7

= 5x4 + 1x23 + 6x19 = 20 + 23 + 114 = 157 mod 26

= 20 = U,

C

8

= 4x4 + 9x23 + 8x19 = 16 + 207 + 162 = 385 mod 26

= 25 = Z,

C

9

= 3x4 + 10x23 + 12x19 = 12 + 230 + 228 = 470 mod

26 = 18 = C.

The plaintext encrypted results IDZFPSUZC.

3. Suppose that we are using a Vigenere scheme with 27

characters in which the twentyseventh character is the space

character, but with a one-time key that is as long as the

given message. Given the ciphertext

YZRDTJVAROHOHOPS GXGG XQTJWSIQPJSPRZKOSNYOZX

find the key that yields the following plaintext:

MR MUSTARD WITH THE CANDLESTICK IN THE HALL

Solution.

a b c d e f g h i j K l m n o p q r s t u v w X y z

A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

B B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A

C C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B

D D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C

E E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D

F F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E

G G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F

H H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G

I I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H

J J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I

K K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J

L L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K

M M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L

N N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M

O O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N

P P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

Q Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P

R R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q

S S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R

T T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S

U U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T

V V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U

W W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V

X X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W

Y Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

Z Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

As we know the key letter and plaintext letter identify the

row, and the column, respectively. Hence, if the ciphertext

and plaintext letters are given, the key letter can found

easily. As it follows from the above table the key used to

encrypt the plaintext

MR MUSTARD WITH THE CANDLESTICK IN THE HALL

is

MISS SCARLET WITH THE KNIFE IN THE SHOWROOM

4. (Rail fence technique) Use rail fence technique to decrypt

the following message

ESENEIERNAUIESTATRMDTRAENNVRIY

Solution.

In the rail fence technique, the plaintext is written down

as a sequence of diagonals and then read off as a sequence

of rows. Implementing this technique to the given

ciphertext will result

E S E N E I E R N A U I E S T

A T R M D T R A E N N V R I Y

That is, the plaintext is EASTERNMEDITERRANEAN UNIVERSITY

5. Given ciphertext IYRMVLNSTLAEDTRSCEEIGIYSANLSII and the key

3 6 1 2 5 4, use transposition technique based on writing

the message in a rectangle, row by row, and reading the

message off, column by column, with permuting the order of

columns to decrypt it.

Solution.

We first split the given ciphertext in six blocks, then

write the blocks column-wise according to the given key,

then read the message in. As a result we obtain the

following table.

3 6 1 2 5 4

A S I N G L

E C Y L I N

D E R S Y S

T E M I S T

R I V I A L

Hence, the message is ASINGLECYLINDERSYSTEMISTRIVIAL.

6. (S-DES) Using S-DES, decrypt the string 10100010 using the

key 0111111101 by hand. Show intermediate results after

each function (IP, F

k

, SW, F

k

, IP

-1

). Then decode the first 4

bits of the plaintext string and ciphertext string to a

letters and the second 4 bits to another letters where we

encode A through P in base 2 (i.e. A=0000, B=0001 ,,

P=1111).

Solution.

S-DES Key Generation

10-bit key : 0111111101

Action Input Output

P10 0111111101 1111110011

LS-1 11111

10011

11111

00111

P8 1111100111 01011111

(K

1

)

LS-2 11111

00111

11111

11100

P8 1111111100 11111100

(K

2

)

S-DES Encryption

8-bit plaintext : 10100010 (KC)

IP 10100010 00110001

E/P 0001 10000010

Excusive-

OR

10000010,

K

1

11011101

S0 1101 11

S1 1101 00

P4 1100 1001

Excusive-

OR

1001, 0011 1010

SW 10100001 00011010

E/P 1010 01010101

Excusive-

OR

01010101,

K

2

10101001

S0 1010 10

S1 1001 10

P4 1010 0011

Excusive-

OR

0001,0011 0010

IP

-1

00101010 00111000

8-bit ciphertext : 00111000

S-DES Decryption

8-bit ciphertext : 00111000 (DH)

IP 00111000 00101010

E/P 1010 01010101

Excusive-

OR

01010101,

K

2

10101001

S0 1010 10

S1 1001 10

P4 1010 0011

Excusive-

OR

0010,0011 0001

SW 00011010 10100001

E/P 0001 10000010

Excusive-

OR

10000010,

K

1

11011101

S0 1101 11

S1 1101 00

P4 1100 1001

Excusive-

OR

1010,1001 0011

IP

-1

00110001 10100010

8-bit plaintext : 10100010

Blowfish

Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher developed by Bruce

Schiner. Blowfish was designed to have the following

characteristics:

Fast: Blowfish encrypts data on 32-bit microprocessor at

rate of 18 clock cycles per byte.

Compact: Blowfish can run in less than 5K of memory.

Simple: Blowfishs simple structure is easy to implement

and eases the task of determining the strength of the

algorithm.

Variable secure: The key length is variable and can be as

long as 448 bits. This allows a tradeoff between higher

speed and higher security.

Blowfish encrypts 64-bit blocks of plaintext into 64-bit

blocks of ciphertext. Blowfish is implemented in numerous

products and has received a fair amount of security.

Subkey and S-box generation

Blowfish makes use of a key that ranges from 32 bits to 448

bits (1 to 14 32-bit words). That key is used to generate 18

32-bit subkeys and four 8x32 S-boxes containing a total of

1024 32-bit entries. The total is 1042 32-bit values, or 4168

bytes.

The keys are stored in a K-array:

K K K

j 1 2

, , , , 1 14 j

The subkeys are stored in the P-array:

P P P

1 2 18

, , ,

There are four S-boxes each with 256 32-bit entries:

S S S

1 0 1 1 1 255 , , ,

, , ,

S S S

2 0 2 1 2 255 , , ,

, , ,

S S S

3 0 3 1 3 255 , , ,

, , ,

S S S

4 0 4 1 4 255 , , ,

, , ,

The steps in generating P-array and S-boxes are as follows:

1. Initialize first the P-array and then the four S-boxes in

order using the bits of the fractional part of the

constant . Then the leftmost 32 bits of the fractional

part of become P

1

, and so on. Note that in binary

has the following view

11.

(00100100001111110110101010001000) (10000101101000110000100011010011)

(00010011000110011000101000101110) (00000011011100000111001101000100)

(10100100000010010011100000100010) (00101001100111110011000111010000)

(00001000001011101111101010011000) (11101100010011100110110010001001)

(01000101001010000010000111100110) (00111000110100000001001101110111)

(10111110010101000110011011001111) (00110100111010010000110001101100)

(11000000101011000010100110110111) (11001001011111000101000011011101)

(00111111100001001101010110110101) (10110101010001110000100100010111)

(10010010000101101101010111011001) (10001001011110011111101100011011)

(11010001001100010000101110100110) (10011000110111111011010110101100)

(00101111111111010111001011011011) (11010000000110101101111110110111)

(10111000111000011010111111101101) (01101010001001100111111010010110)

(10111010011111001001000001000101) (11110001001011000111111110011001)

(00100100101000011001100101000111) (10110011100100010110110011110111)

(00001000000000011111001011100010) (10000101100011101111110000010110)

(01100011011010010010000011011000) (01110001010101110100111001101001)

(10100100010110001111111010100011) (11110100100100110011110101111110)

(00001101100101010111010010001111) (01110010100011101011011001011000)

(01110001100010111100110101011000) (10000010000101010100101011101110)

Thus, P

1

= 00100100001111110110101010001000

P

2

= 10000101101000110000100011010011

S

1, 0

= 11010001001100010000101110100110

S

1, 1

= 10011000110111111011010110101100

2. Perform a bitwise XOR of the P-array and the K-array,

reusing words from the K-array as needed. For example,

for the maximum length key (14 32-bit words), P P K

1 1 1

= ,

P P K

2 2 2

= ,, P P K

14 14 14

= , P P K

15 15 1

= , , P P K

18 18 4

= .

3. Encrypt the 64-bit block of all zeros using the current

P- and S-arrays; replace P

1

and P

2

with the output of the

encryption.

4. Encrypt the output of step 3 using the current P- and S-

arrays and replace P

3

and P

4

with the resulting

ciphertext.

5. Continue this procedure to update all elements of P and

then, in order, all elements of S, using at each step the

output of the continuously changing Blowfish algorithm.

LE

17

RE

17

P

18

P

17

Ciphertext (64 bits)

Plaintext (64 bits)

LE

1

RE

1

32 bits 32 bits LE

0

RE

0

P

1

Round 1

LE

16

RE

16

P

1

Round 16

Blowfish

encryption

ciphertext (64 bit)

LD

1

RD

1

32 bits 32 bits LD

0

RD

0

P

18

Round 1

LD

16

RD

16

P

3

Round 16

LD

1

RD

17

P

1

P

2

Plaintext (64 bits)

Blowfish

decryption

The update process can be summarized as follows:

P

1

, P

2

= E

P, S

[0]

P

3

, P

4

= E

P, S

[P

1

|| P

2

]

P

17

, P

18

= E

P, S

[P

15

|| P

16

]

S

1, 0

, S

1, 1

= E

P, S

[P

17

|| P

18

]

S

4, 254

, S

4,255

= E

P, S

[S

4, 252

|| S

4,253

]

where E

P, S

[Y] is the ciphertext produced by encrypting Y using

Blowfish with the arrays S and P.

A total of 521 executions of the Blowfish encryption

algorithm are required to produce the final S- and P-arrays.

Accordingly, Blowfish is not suitable for applications in

which the secret key changes frequently. Further, for rapid

execution, the S- and P-arrays can be stored rather than

rederived from the key each time the algorithm is

used. This requires over 4 KByte of memory.

8 8 8 8

32

32 32

32

32

R

i

L

i

R

i-1

L

i-1

P

i

+

Detail of a single Blowfish algorithm

F

32

Encryption and decryption

Blowfish uses two primitive operations:

Addition: Addition of words, denoted by +, is performed

modulo 2

32

.

Bitwise exclusive-OR: The operation is denoted by .

It is important that these two operations do not commute. This

makes cryptanalysis more difficult.

The following two figures are illustrating the encryption

and decryption algorithms. The plaintext is divided into two

32-bit halves LE

0

and RE

0

. We use the variables LE

i

and RE

i

to

refer to the left and right half of the data after round i has

completed. The resulting ciphertext is contained in the two

variables LE

17

and RE

17

.

Decryption is easily derived from the encryption algorithm.

In this case, the 64-bits of ciphertext ate initially assigned

to the two one-word variables LD

0

and RD

0

. We use the variables

LD

i

and RD

i

to refer to the left and right half of the data

after round i. As with most block ciphers, Blowfish decryption

involves using the subkeys in reverse order. However, unlike

most block ciphers, Blowfish decryption occurs in the same

algorithmic direction as encryption, rather than reverse.

S-box design

One of the most intense areas of research in the field of

symmetric block ciphers is that of S-box design. Here we

mention some of the general principles. In essence, we would

like any change to the input vector to an S-box to result in

random-looking changes to the output. The relationship should

be nonlinear and difficult to approximate with linear

functions.

One obvious characteristic of the S-box is its size. An

nxm S-box has n input bits and m output bits. DES has 6x4 S-

boxes. The Blowfish has 8X32 S-boxes. Larger S-boxes, by and

large, are more resistant to differential and linear

cryptanalysis. On the other hand, the larger the dimension n,

the larger the lookup table. Thus, for practical reasons, a

limit of n equal to about 8 to 10 is usually imposed.

S-boxes are typically organized different from the manner

used in DES. An nxm S-box typically consists of 2

n

rows and of

m bits each. The n bits of input select one of the rows of the

S-box, and the m bits in that row are the output. For example,

in an 8x32 S-box, if the input is 00001001, the output

consists of the 8 bits in row 9 (if the first row is labeled

row 0).

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