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N8TRUMENTATON for

TUNNEL8
Angus Maxwell
Maxwell Geosystems Ltd
AC8 JAN 200
With assistance from
Tim Barwell R8T {HK}
Tunnel Deformations
Heterogenous Ground 1
Policing the ]ob:
Heterogenous Ground 2
Ground Movement Modes
Loosening of
Granular 8oils
Ravelling/
Crown Holing
Consolidation
due to
Groundwater
Drawdown
Compacted
fill above the
water table:
Utilities Zone
Well
compacted
8ub-base
Less well
compacted
fill below the
water table`
Wearing
course
What to Measure? Why?
Within the tunnel. Within the tunnel.
Excavation parameters Excavation parameters
Rock and soil stress and deformation Rock and soil stress and deformation
Lining stress/load Lining stress/load
Convergence {ground lost at source} Convergence {ground lost at source}
Water inflow {water lost at source} Water inflow {water lost at source}
Outside the tunnel. Outside the tunnel.
Changes in Changes in piezometric piezometric pressure pressure
Rock and soil strains Rock and soil strains
8ettlement of the ground 8ettlement of the ground
Distortion of structures Distortion of structures
Vibration Vibration
Excavation Parameters?
8oft Ground TBM Tunnels {assume expanded segmental 8oft Ground TBM Tunnels {assume expanded segmental
linings}. linings}.
Face pressure {EPBM} Face pressure {EPBM}
8lurry pressure {slurry machine} 8lurry pressure {slurry machine}
Revs/torque Revs/torque
Attitude Attitude
Progress Progress
8crew volume 8crew volume
Cut diameter Cut diameter vs vs ring diameter ring diameter
Water inflow {water lost at source} Water inflow {water lost at source}
Rock Rock TBMs TBMs. .
Face pressure/revs Face pressure/revs
Attitude Attitude
Progress Progress
Disk wear Disk wear
Probe parameters Probe parameters
AtIas Copco: 1838: Granite
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
M
e
t
r
e
s

p
e
r

M
i
n
Rock and 8oil 8tress
Within the tunnel. Within the tunnel.
Pressuremeter Pressuremeter {soils and weak rocks} {soils and weak rocks}
Load cells on bolts {passive} Load cells on bolts {passive}
Jack tests on bolts {active} Jack tests on bolts {active}
Rod Extensometers Rod Extensometers
Door stopper tests Door stopper tests
Flat ]ack tests Flat ]ack tests
Overcoring Overcoring
Convergence {ground lost at source} Convergence {ground lost at source}
Range of groutable anchors
Rock and 8oil 8tress
Door stopper
Universal Measurement Guage
Lining 8tresses and Load
Within the tunnel. Within the tunnel.
Concrete load pressure Concrete load pressure
cells cells
8train gauges 8train gauges
Water pressure Water pressure
transducers transducers
Convergence Convergence
Compensation
tube
Pressure
transducer
Pressure cell
Vibrating wire attachment type strain gauge
Load pressure cell
Convergence
TBM Tunnels TBM Tunnels
ndirect methods {comparison of ndirect methods {comparison of
cut cut vs vs lining dimension} lining dimension}
Problem for soft ground. Over Problem for soft ground. Over- -
excavation at the face? excavation at the face?
NATM and Drill and Blast Tunnels NATM and Drill and Blast Tunnels
Tape extensometer/survey Tape extensometer/survey
n situ convergence arrays n situ convergence arrays
{Bassett} {Bassett}
Movement of lining or ad]acent Movement of lining or ad]acent
tunnels tunnels
As for NATM As for NATM
Water nflow
Within the tunnel. Within the tunnel.
V V- -notch weir notch weir
mpeller flow mpeller flow- -meter meter
Magflow Magflow
Pump counters Pump counters
Difficulties? Difficulties?
Piezometric Pressure
Outside the tunnel. Outside the tunnel.
8tandpipes {water level} 8tandpipes {water level}
Casagrande Casagrande
Pinger Pinger
Diver Diver
Pneumatic Pneumatic
Vibrating wire Vibrating wire
Pressure transducer Pressure transducer
Difficulties? Difficulties?
Multi level vibrating wire
Pneumatic (rare)
Pressure transducer
Rock and 8oil 8trains
From the surface From the surface
Magnetic Extensometers Magnetic Extensometers
Referencing issues Referencing issues
Rod Extensometers Rod Extensometers
nclinometers nclinometers
Difficulties? Difficulties?
Rod Extensometer Head Assemble
Rod Extensometers in Borehole
nclinometer probe
Extensometer magnets and plates.
Ground 8ettlement
At the surface At the surface
8urvey 8urvey
8ettlement 8ettlement
arrays arrays
Benchmarks Benchmarks
Accuracy Accuracy
Frequency Frequency
Revision Revision
Utility monitoring Utility monitoring
Pipes Pipes
Cables Cables
Example: 8ettlement Monitoring Mong Kok
8tructure Monitoring
8urvey points 8urvey points
Crack meters Crack meters
Grid type Grid type tell tale tell tale" "
Demec Demec
VW type VW type
Tiltmeters Tiltmeters
servo accelerometer type servo accelerometer type
{portable/fixed} {portable/fixed}
VW type VW type
Electrolytic Electrolytic
ADM8 systems ADM8 systems
Liquid level systems Liquid level systems
Bassett Bassett Convegence Convegence 8ystems 8ystems
Laser systems Laser systems
Distortion
Derived Parameters Derived Parameters
Differential 8ettlement Differential 8ettlement
Hog 8ag Hog 8ag
Angular deviation/bending moment Angular deviation/bending moment
Out of tolerance {linings} Out of tolerance {linings}
8hear 8hear



45m radius
of curvature?
Vibration/acceleration
Tolerance { Tolerance {ppv ppv and m/s and m/s
2 2
} }
Laser Lithography/MR scanners Laser Lithography/MR scanners
8ingle event { 8ingle event {eg eg blasting} blasting}
Continuous Continuous eg eg. TBM . TBM
Types Types
8eismograph { 8eismograph {nstantel nstantel Blastmate Blastmate} }
Piezoelectric Piezoelectric
Trigger Levels
Accuracy 8ensitivity Accuracy 8ensitivity
From Lab From Lab
8ensitivity in the field 8ensitivity in the field
Function of background Function of background
fluctuation fluctuation
Trend Trend
On going change in reading On going change in reading
Magnitude Magnitude
Alert: Check design Alert: Check design
Action/Alarm: Protect Action/Alarm: Protect
safety/third party interests safety/third party interests
Must relate to design Must relate to design - -
example example piezos piezos. .
Lab
Field
Trend
Example
Thankyou
Function of Depth
0.5d
Alert = 7 mm
Action=15mm
Alarm=25mm
0.75d
Alert = 15 mm
Action=25mm
Alarm=40mm
0.5 d
0.75 d
d = Final Depth of Excavation
0.5d
Alert = 15mm
Action=25mm
Alarm=40mm
0.75d
Alert = 7mm
Action=15mm
Alarm=25mm
0.5 d
0.75 d
d = Final Depth of Excavation
Function of Distance
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
14-Jan-04 12-Jul-04 8-Jan-05 7-Jul-05 3-Jan-06 2-Jul-06
Water Level
Linear Alert
Linear Action
Linear Alarm