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AbstractAccuracy of short circuit analysis depends on the


fault modelling. This paper addresses the implementation of a
new fault model consisted of a serial connection of the tower
footing resistance and arc resistance. In existing approaches
the value of the arc resistance at the fault location must be
known in advance, or it is totally neglected from the
consideration. The fault current and arc resistance are
mutually dependent, so the short circuit analysis cannot be
performed directly. A new solution for this problem is the use
of an iterative procedure, calculating fault current and arc
resistance iteratively. The new method presented in this paper
calculates short circuit currents and arc resistance
simultaneously. Results of fault analysis and arc resistance
calculation in two test network are presented and discussed in
the paper.

Index TermsTransmission networks, short circuit analysis,
fault modelling, arc resistance, iterative procedures.

I. INTRODUCTION

HORT circuit studies in transmission and distribution
networks is a standard step in planning of modern power
grids. Based on such studies, switchgear components are
constructed, manufactured and installed, protective device
co-ordination is being carried out etc. Fault current
calculation is provided in such a way, that the fault is
modelled either as a pure metallic fault, or as a lumped
resistance, modelling fault resistance. At the fault point on
the line, both the tower footing and the arc resistance must
be included into the calculation. Statistically, arcing faults
occur in over 80 % of all faults, so consideration of the arc
resistance in short circuit studies is essential. In Fig. 1, a
photograph of a real arcing fault on an overhead line is
presented.
Since the fault current depends on arc resistance, which is
itself, a non-linear function of the fault current, the
fundamental question here is how to calculate the unknown
arc resistance and fault current at the fault location
simultaneously and accurately.
By assuming a constant value for arc resistance, selected
from the experience, or handbooks (e.g. 1.5 ), or simply by
neglecting it, the problem is directly solvable. The currents
obtained in this case are larger than those obtained when the
arc resistance is included in the calculation procedure. It is

V. Terzija is with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
The University of Manchester, UK (e-mail: terzija@ieee.org).
Dj.Dobrijevic is with the Electricity Coordinating Center (EKC),
Belgrade, Serbia (e-mail: djolence@ieee.org)

obvious that the value of arc resistance determines the fault
current value. Thus, the selection of arc resistance is critical
from the accuracy of short circuit analysis point of view.
A solution for the above mentioned problem, which uses
an iterative procedure, is presented and thoroughly tested in
this paper. By this, a new iterative procedure for short
circuit current calculation in transmission networks, based
on an existing short circuit method and a new formula for
arc resistance, is developed and implemented. The iterative
procedure is the key point of the methodology proposed and
an efficient approach for solving the problem of the non-
linear relationship between the arc resistance and the fault
current. Compared to the existing methods in which the
phenomenon of arc resistance has been totally neglected, or
solved by assuming an arbitrary constant arc resistance
value, the new method offers a more accurate short circuit
analysis in transmission networks.


Fig. 1: Three-phase arcing fault on an overhead line.

Results of fault analysis and arc resistance calculation in
two test networks are presented and discussed in the paper.
The calculation errors, as a consequence of neglecting the
arc from the consideration are analyzed and discussed, too.

II. SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD

The short circuit analysis is performed in this paper by using
the existing software package developed according to the
well known methodology described in [1]. This method can
be applied for solving short circuit faults of any conceivable
complexity. The method assumed the use of lumped
parameters of power system elements. By this, classical
approaches for fault modelling are used:

Short Circuit Studies in Transmission Networks
Using Improved Fault Model
Vladimir V. Terzija, Senior Member, IEEE, Djordje M. Dobrijevic, Senior Member, IEEE
S

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a) Metallic fault modelling (fault resistance equal to
zero).

b) Fault modelled as a pure resistance, in advance
arbitrary selected.

Obviously, real faults are neither pure metallic faults, nor
faults over in advance known resistance. Real faults can be
represented as a series connection of two resistances: the
tower footing resistance and the arc resistance. As it is
known, the arc resistance depends on arc current, so it is not
possible to set this value in advance. The solution is to use
realistic arc resistance models depending on arc/fault
current. By combining the fault current calculation and by
simultaneously determining the arc resistance, a much more
accurate method for short circuit analysis can be designed.
Based on the above discussion, the following fault model
can be assumed:




Fig. 2: Fault model including tower footing resistance RF and arc resistance
Ra.

Obviously, the arc resistance depends on arc current, so an
iterative algorithm for short circuit analysis can be the
solution for achieving the better calculation accuracy.
In the next Section the arc resistance formula used in the
short circuit method developed in this paper will be
presented.


III. ARC RESISTANCE FORMULA


Based on experimental testing in a high power test
laboratory and exhaustive analysis and processing of
digitized arc voltage and current signals, the following new
formula for arc resistance calculation is derived [2]:

I
L E
R
a

2 2
= (1)

where R is the arc resistance in [], L is the arc length in
[m], I is the arc current in [A], and E
a
is the arc voltage
gradient in [V/m]. The open literature [3, 4] offers the
following expressions for E
a
calculation:

( ) 1500 1200 =
a
E (V/m) (2)

I E
a
/ 5000 950+ = (V/m) (3)

Equations (2) and (3) can be included in (1), so the
following two equations for arc resistance can be obtained:

( )
I
L
R 5 . 1350 4 . 1080
1
= (4)

L
I I
R

+ =
2
2
6 . 4501 3 . 855
(5)

In this paper the equation (4) for arc resistance calculation is
used. It can be noticed that the arc resistance is a nonlinear
function of arc/fault current. In addition it depends on arc
length and suitable parameters originated from expressions
for arc voltage gradient.


IV. ITERATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
AND ARC RESISTANCE CALCULATION


From equations (4) and (5) it follows that fault currents
depend on arc resistance, which is a non-linear function of
fault current. The problem to be solved is how to calculate
the arc resistance and the fault current simultaneously and
accurately.
In this paper a new method for calculating short circuit
currents in transmission networks, based on an existing
short circuit method and a new formula for arc resistance, is
presented. An iterative procedure is the key point of the
methodology proposed and an efficient approach for solving
the problem of the non-linear relationship between the arc
resistance and the fault current. Through the iterative
procedure the new method calculates short circuit currents
and arc resistance simultaneously.
The proposed iterative procedure for fault currents and
arc resistance calculation can be presented through the
following iteration steps (here k is an iteration index):

1. Set the start value of arc resistance, R
a
(k =1)=0;
2. Calculate the fault current, I
f
(k =1), by using the
existing short circuit method and the arc resistance at
the fault location assumed in the k-th step;
3. Increment the iteration index: k =k +1;
4. Calculate the arc resistance R
a
(k) using equation (4)
and the fault current at the fault location calculated in
the previous step;
5. Calculate the new fault current, I
f
(k), using the updated
impedance matrix, Z
t
, which includes the arc resistance
R
a
(k) at the fault location;
6. Test the accuracy criterion, if |R
a
(k) - R
a
(k-1)| >
(=0.0001), then go to step 3, else stop the procedure
and print results.


In Fig. 3 the flowchart with steps 1-6 is presented.
R
F

fault point
R
a
=f(I)

3


Yes |R
a
(k) - R
a
(k-1)| >
(=0.0001) ?
Initialization
1.Set starting iteration index:
k =1
2. Set the start value of arc
resistance: R
a
(k =1)=0
Calculate the fault current
I
f
(k =1)
Increment the iteration index
k =k +1
Calculate the arc resistance
R
a
(k)
Calculate the new fault current
I
f
(k)
Stop calculation
Print results
No


Fig. 3: Flowchart of the new iterative algorithmfor short circuit analysis.




V. ALGORITHM TESTING


The algorithm presented is tested using two test networks.
The first network is a simple two node test network. Using
this network, the key idea and approach of providing short
circuit studies using iterative algorithm presented in this
paper are demonstrated.
In the second case, the new method is applied on a
realistic mashed network including three generators.



A. Two Nodes Network Demonstration Example

The proposed methodology for simultaneous calculation
of short circuit currents and arc resistance is firstly applied
on a very simple two node test network presented in Fig. 4.
In this network it is assumed that the faulty line is
connecting two active networks (networks including
generators).
Using iterative procedure described in Section IV,
currents I
1
and I
2
, as well as the unknown arc resistance R
a
,
are determined. Since the tower footing resistance R
F
is a
fault parameter which does not depend on fault current, it

4
was not included in the analysis. In all simulations it is
assumed that in equation (4) the arc length is L =1 m and
that it has a constant value.



Fig. 4: Single line diagramof the simple test network.

Firstly, a fault at the middle of the line is analysed. In
Figs. 5 and 6 the calculated fault currents I
1
and I
2
and arc
resistance, are respectively presented. Obviously, at the very
beginning, when the arc resistance is zero, fault currents are
larger than those obtained after several iterations, when arc
resistance becomes larger values. From Fig. 4 it can be also
concluded that for the case of a metallic fault (arc resistance
equal to zero) the calculated fault currents are essentially
larger than those obtained when arc resistance has been
taken into account. On the other hand, if assuming a certain
arc resistance, e.g. from handbooks, it is arguable which
results will be obtained. The approach presented has the
advantage that the arc resistance directly depends on the
corresponding arc current. This correlates to the physical
processes existing in the reality.

iteration step
0 4 8 12 16 20
I

(
A
)
8000
12000
16000
20000
24000
28000
I
a
=I
1
+I
2
I
1
I
2


Fig. 5: Short circuit currents (fault at the middle of the line).

iteration step
0 4 8 12 16 20
R
a


(

)
0.420
0.440
0.460
0.480
0.500
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600


Fig. 6: Arc resistance (fault at the middle of the line).
In the next test example, a fault at 10% line distance
observed from the left line terminal A is considered. Results
for this case are presented in Figs. 7 and 8. As expected,
larger fault currents and smaller values for arc resistance are
obtained.

iteration step
0 4 8 12 16 20
I

(
A
)
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
I
a
=I
1
+I
2
I
1
I
2


Fig. 7: Short circuit currents (at 10% line distance observed fromthe left
line terminal A).

iteration step
0 4 8 12 16 20
R
a


(

)
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200


Fig. 8: Arc resistance (at 10% line distance observed fromthe left line
terminal A).

B. Mashed Network Demonstration Example

The above simple test example demonstrated the essence
of the new short circuit method. In this test example, a
realistic network, presented in Fig. 9, is analyzed. The
configuration, in which at node 3 a generator was
connected, was considered. In Fig. 9 all network parameters
are given, as well.

Based on a large number of simulations and results
obtained, in Table I the results of fault current calculation
for the fault at node 1 are presented. Results for 3-phase and
single phase-to-ground faults are presented. It is obvious
that the subtransient, I
k
", transient, I
k
', and steady state, I
k
,
fault currents differ if arc resistance is taken into account, or
not. The corresponding arc resistance was in the range 0.16
to 0.6. For example, for the single line-to-ground fault
(steady state case), it has the value R
a
=0.55 .

Authors are currently running simulations of larger
networks, taking into account realistic scenarios and
investigating the opportunities of using the new method for
improving approaches for protection coordination. By this,
the setting of distance protection is in particular focus of the
current research.
A
B

I
1
I
2
R
a

5

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper a new iterative method for short circuit
analysis of transmission networks, taking into account the
nonlinear arc resistance included in the fault model, is
presented. The proposed iterative method for simultaneous
calculation of arc resistance and fault currents is based on an
existing short circuit method and new expression for arc
resistance. The proposed method is successfully tested using
two test networks. In the first network, consisted of simple
two nodes, the fundamental advantages of the new iterative
algorithm are demonstrated. It is proved, that a higher
accuracy can be achieved if arc resistance is modelled
realistically. In the second test network, a more realistic case
was analysed. It is also proved that the new approach of arc
consideration in short circuit studies delivers much more
accurate results. Compared to the existing short circuit
methods, in which the phenomenon of arc resistance has
been totally neglected, or solved by assuming a suitable
constant arc resistance value, the new method considers
much more realistically the fault and gives a more accurate
solution

VII. REFERENCES

[1] Y. Brandwajn, W.F. Tinney, "Generalized Method of Fault Analysis",
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Volume PAS-
104,Issue 6, J une 1985. Page(s): 1301-1306.
[2] V.V. Terzija, H.-J . Koglin, "On the modeling of long arc in still air
and arc resistance calculation," IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, vol.
19, no. 3, J uly 2004.
[3] A.S. Maikapar, "Extinction of an open electric arc," Elektrichestvo,
Vol. 4, pp. 64-69, April 1960.
[4] Y. Goda at all, "Arc Voltage Characteristics of High Current Fault
Arcs in Long Gaps", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume
15,Issue 2, April 2000 Page(s):791-795.

Table I: Fault at Node 1

Mashed Network 3-phase fault Single phase-to-ground fault
Fault at Node 1 Ik"(kA) Ik'(kA) Ik(kA) Ik"(kA) Ik'(kA) Ik(kA)
Ra =0 6.814 6.464 1.952 6.912 6.788 3.754
Ra =equation (4) 6.261 5.963 1.802 6.243 6.133 3.409


NODE 3 NODE 3
~ ~
~
GEN 1 GEN 2
GEN 3
NODE 1
NODE 2
NODE 3
LOAD 3
TERC 3
BT 1 BT 2
BT 3:
T3
a) b)
LINE 1
LINE 2 LINE 3
X"= 23%
X'= 30%
X = 100%
Vn= 15.75 kV
Sn= 115 MVA
X = 254%
Sn= 1455 MVA
Vn= 21 kV
X'= 28%
X"= 24%
X = 110%
Sn= 1140 MVA
Vn= 15.75 kV
X'= 28%
X"= 27%
400 kV, 98.7 km
Z = (2.9+j33.7)
Z0 = (27.5+j89.6)
Uk12 = (0.2+j12.2)%
Uk13 = (0.2+j14)%
Uk23 = (0.2+j9.3)%
m = 400/115/31.5 kV
Sn1 = Sn2 = 600 MVA
Sn3 = 200 MVA
m = 420/15.75 kV
Sn = 115 MVA
Uk = (0+j12.5)%
400 kV, 42.7 km
Z = (1.26+j14.56)
Z0 = (10.67+j43.68)
400 kV, 82.9 km
Z = (2.44+j28.27)
Z0 = (23.51+j77.43)
m = 410/21 kV
Sn = 1450 MVA
Uk = (0+j12.6)%
m = 420/15.75 kV
Sn = 1190 MVA
Uk = (0+j12)%


Fig. 9: Three generators test network.


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VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
Vladimir Terzija (M95, SM00) is the EPSRC Chair
Professor in Power SystemEngineering in the School of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of
Manchester, where he has been since 2006. From1997 to
1999, he was an Assistant Professor at the University of
Belgrade. In 1999, he was Humboldt Research Fellow at
Saarland University. From2000 to 2006, he was with
ABB AG, Germany, as an expert for switchgears and
distribution automation. His main research interests are
application of intelligent methods to power systemmonitoring, control, and
protection, as well as switchgears, and DSP applications in power systems.





Djordje Dobrijevic (M'99, SM'02) graduated fromthe
University of Belgrade in 1992. After the graduation he
joined in The Institute of Electrical Engineering "Nikola
Tesla" Belgrade. Since 2004 he is with the Electricity
Coordinating Center (EKC), Belgrade. His major
research interests include power system analysis,
stability, control, dynamics and security, hydroelectric
power plants modelling, short circuit analysis, digital
and adaptive control and software development. At present time he is
postgraduate student at Belgrade University.