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A society, or a human society, is a group of people related to each other through

persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory,
subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between
individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions a given society may be described as
the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. !n the social sciences, a larger
society often evinces stratification and"or dominance patterns in subgroups.
!nsofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that
would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis both individual and social (common)
benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap.
#ulture, on the other hand, is an important part of our lives. !t tells us how to cooperate
among groups of people and how to survive as a species. #ulture is defined as a body of learned
behaviors shared by individuals within a society. !t is made up of shared
values, norms, and beliefs as well as material objects such as tools, automobiles, televisions,
shoes, and anything else that is made by humans. $he %atin root of the word cultura means &to
cultivate.' (e humans shape or cultivate the world around us to suit our needs. #ulture is
something that we cannot live without.
$his module intends to introduce concepts, theories, and perspectives vital in the
understanding of society and culture. An in depth discussion of basic social institutions forming
the social structure will be emphasized in order to increase the awareness regarding the current
issues confronting the present social structure. !n so doing individual and collective functions in
confronting such issues will be realized.
)urthermore, a special discussion will be devoted on family planning, ta*ing into account
family planning and reproductive health concepts and issues that are significant agendum of the
society+s project on social order.
#HA-$./ !. !0$/123#$!10 4
0ature and 5eginnings of 6ociology and Anthropology 4
-erspective6 in 3nderstanding the 6ociety 7
#HA-$./ !!. 61#!.$8 ,4
6ocio9cultural .volution: $ransformation of 6ocieties ,4
6ocial ;roups and 1rganizations ,7
3nderstanding 6ocialization 4<
#HA-$./ !!!. #3%$3/. =>
(hat is #ulture? =>
#omponents of #ulture =@
#haracteristics of #ulture A,
!ssues in 3nderstanding #ulture AB
#HA-$./ !C. 5A6!# 61#!A% !06$!$3$!106 AA
/eligion and 6ociety A>
;overnment and %aw ><
.conomy >,
.ducation >4
Darriage and )amily >=
#HA-$./ C. DA//!A;., )AD!%8 -%A00!0; >>
A02 /.6-106!5%. -A/.0$H112
Darriage >>
/eproductive Health @>
)amily -lanning @7
/esponsible -arenthood 7A
%earn about the nature and beginnings of 6ociology and Anthropology and develop better
perspective in understanding the 6ociety such as the #onflict -erspective, 6ymbolic9
!nteractionist -erspective and 6tructural9)unctional Analysis.
A. Nature a! "e#ii#s $% S$ci$&$#' a! At(r$)$&$#'
$he central concern of 6ociety and #ulture is the interaction of persons, societies,
cultures, environments and time. 6ociety and #ulture draws on cross9disciplinary concepts and
social research methodologies from anthropology, communication, cultural studies, media
studies, philosophy, psychology, social ecology and sociology.
6ociety and #ulture has direct relevance to the immediate needs of students and to their
future lives by enabling students to develop understanding of:
their own society and culture
the societies and cultures of others.
Anthropology is the study of human*ind, in all times and places. !n other words, it is the
science of man which denotes the natural history of man*ind. !n the general classification of
*nowledge it stands as the highest section of zoology or the science of animals, itself the highest
section of biology or the science of living beings. $o anthropology contribute various sciences,
which hold their own independent places in the field of *nowledge. $hus anatomy and
physiology display the structure and functions of the human body, while psychology investigates
the operations of the human mind. -hilology deals with the general principles of language, as
well as with the relations between the languages of particular races and nations. .thics or moral
science treats manEs duty or rules or conduct toward his fellow men. %astly, under the names of
sociology and the science of culture, are considered the origin and development of arts and
sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs, laws, institutions generally among man*ind, their course in
time being partly mar*ed out by the direct record of history, while beyond the historical limit our
information is continued by inferences from relics of early ages and remote districts, to interpret
which is the tas* of pre9historic archaeology and geology. 0ot only are these various sciences
concerned largely with man, but several among them have in fact suffered by the almost entire
exclusion of other animals from their scheme. !t is undoubted that comparative anatomy and
physiology, by treating the human species as one member of a long series of related organism,
have gained a higher and more perfect understanding of man himself and his place in the
universe than could have been gained by the narrower investigation of his species by and for
itself. !t is to be regretted that hitherto certain other sciences 99 psychology, ethics, and even
philology and sociology9have so little followed so profitable an example. 0o doubt the
phenomena of intellect appear in vastly higher and more complete organization in man than in
beings below him in the scale of nature, that beasts and birds only attain to language in its lower
rudiments, and that only the germs of moral tendency and social law are discernible among the
lower animals. 8et though the mental and moral interval between man and the nearest animals
may be vast, the brea* is not absolute, and the investigation of the laws of reason and instinct
throughout the zoological system, which is already casting some scattered rays of light on the
study of manEs highest organization, may be destined henceforth to throw brighter illumination
into its very recesses. 0ow this condition of things, as well as the accepted order in which the
sciences have arranged themselves by their mode of growth, ma*e it desirable that anthropology
should not too ambitiously strive to include within itself the sciences which provide so much of
its wealth, but that each science should pursue its own subject through the whole range of living
beings, rendering to anthropology an account of so much of its results as concerns man. 6uch
results it is the office of anthropology to collect and co9ordinance, so as to elaborate as
completely as may be the synopsis of manEs bodily and mental nature, and the theory of his
whole course of life and action from his first appearance on earth. As will be seen from the
following brief summary, the information to be thus brought together form contributing sciences
is widely different both in accuracy and in soundness. (hile much of the descriptive detail is
already clear and well filled in, the general principles of its order are still but vaguely to be
discerned, and as our view Guits the comparatively distinct region near ourselves the prospect
fades more and more into the dimness of conjecture.
6ociology, on the other hand, is defined as the scientific study of human society and
human interaction. 6ociologists are interested in many different aspects of society such
as culture, socialization, criminology, social inequality, social groups, organizations, social
change, and social institutions (and the list could go on and on). !n order for you to understand
more about human society, you should first become acGuainted with the discipline of sociology.
6ociology is the study of the populace in various groupings and settings. !t involves the
systematic examination of human social activity, from everyday face9to9face encounters to the
movements of civilizations throughout history. 3nli*e disciplines that focus on a single aspect of
society, sociology stresses the complex relationships governing all dimensions of social life,
including the economy, state, family, religion, science, social ineGuality, culture and
consciousness. !ts inGuiry is guided by several theoretical traditions and grounded in the
empirical observation of social reality.
(hile the experiences of modern, (estern societies gave rise to formal sociological
inGuiry, the insights to be gained from the discipline are not limited to this realm. )or example,
sociology has particular relevance for understanding global change, as much of the world
engages in its own process of modernization. Doreover, sociologists maintain that their
perspective, as well as many of their insights, is generalizable beyond the specific historical
context in which they were first conceived.
6ociology is characterized as a discipline by several distinct modes of inGuiry. )irst and
foremost, sociology emphasizes human sociality as central to its pursuit. !n this view, human
action is to be understood within a web of social relationships and broader structures. -articular
studies may focus on intimate, face9to9face interaction or on the movement of entire civilizations
through history, but all sociology views human action in context. !n this way, sociology
distinguishes itself from psychology and some forms of political philosophy that considers the
autonomous individual to be a meaningful unit of analysis. 6ociology sees humans as
fundamentally social.
6ociological inGuiry is holistic in maintaining that human action can be understood only
by lin*ing it organically to the whole of social life. 6ocial theories are central to sociological
investigation, in part, because they provide comprehensive statements regarding the connections
among the various facets of social life. (hile particular theories may emphasize certain forces
(e.g., economic, cultural) as having greater significance in shaping society, as a discipline
sociology see*s to understand the relationship among these forces within social life as a whole.
!n this way sociology may be distinguished from disciplines li*e economics and political science
that focus on a particular dimension of social life as the center of their inGuiry.
6ociological inGuiry is analytical and structural. 6ociology does not accept at face value
common sense understandings or publicly stated positions about society rather, it see*s to probe
beneath the surface for the actual dynamics. $he political implications that particular sociologists
draw from such a critical understanding may vary from conservative to radical, but critiGue is
common to all sociological analysis.
6ociology demands empirical evidence that lin*s sociological ideas to lived experience.
6ociologists employ a wide variety of techniGues to collect and analyze the data of human
experience, but all sociological *nowledge must be grounded in some form of empirical or
historical reality. !n its demand for empirical foundations, sociology is appropriately regarded as
a HscienceH99whether it is as an interpretive science concerned with meaning of social events and
cultural values, as a historical science concerned with social institutions and structures, or as a
positivistic science concerned with discovering explanatory laws of human behavior.
)inally, sociology is a morally engaged discipline. $he substance of sociological inGuiry
has direct relevance for ethical issues regarding the human condition. 6ociologists differ in
whether or not they maintain that sociological inGuiry can or should serve as a basis for
establishing moral truths. 0evertheless, the systematic investigation of what is in our society,
particularly those aspects of society that we identify as social problems, naturally raises ethical
Guestions about how society should be. A distinctive aspect of sociology is the study of the
conflicts and contradictions between social values and ideals, on the one hand, and social
structures and reality on the other. !n this way, sociology provides an important bridge between
the objective inGuiry of the natural sciences and the morally engaged approach common to the
As a discipline practiced by trained professionals, sociology brea*s down into several
subfields, reflecting the special interests of its practitioners. $he American 6ociological
Association identifies several sections, many with their own publications and sessions at national
professional meetings99religion, family, medical sociology, theory, and so on. $ypically, upper9
level courses in sociology programs are organized to reflect these interests.
$he history of anthropology goes bac* to the days of discoveries and explorations from
the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries and to the accounts of early (estern explorers,
missionaries, and colonial officials of the strange behavior and beliefs of people they had come
in contact with. 2iscoveries of flint tools and other artifacts in )rance and other parts of .urope
in the early nineteenth century gave evidence of the existence of man a million years ago. $hese
discoveries happened at a time when advances in chemistry and physics were made, arousing an
interest in scientific inGuiry (Haviland, ,7>@). Dodern anthropology in both its physical and
cultural aspects started only around the twentieth century.
1n the other hand, sociology, considered one of the youngest of the social sciences, was
developed by Auguste #omte around the middle of the nineteenth century. #omte believed that
the methods and techniGues of the natural sciences could also be applied to the study of society.
He coined the term &sociology' to designate the new science, a term derived from the %atin word
socius, meaning &society in interaction,' and the ;ree* word logos, meaning &study.' 1ther
pioneers were Herbert 6pencer, Iarl Darx, and )erdinand $oellies, who were also armchair
philosophers. 0ot until the time of .mile 2ur*heim, ;eorge 6immel, and Dax (eber in .urope,
and eventually #harles H. #ooley, /obert .. -ar*, and (.!. $homas in the 3nited 6tates was
empirical investigation used in the study of social phenomena. 2ur*heim laid the foundation for
modern sociology by using empirical investigation in the study of suicide in )rance, the division
of labor in society, and the elementary forms of religious life.
6ociological and anthropological theories were developed to explain various social
phenomena. 6ome were divergent, but the theories eventually converged on some common
grounds. $hese ideas were diffused in .urope, in the Americas, and Asia. .ventually, the
disciplines of sociology and anthropology were introduced in the -hilippine colleges and
Deve&$)*et i t(e P(i&i))ies
Anthropology started as a practical activity of colonizers in the service of #hristianity
and the 6panish ;overnment. .thnographic data were provided by the early chroniclers li*e
Pi#a%etta, L$arca, P&acecia, and Fr. C(iri$ who wrote the early culture and society in the
rediscovered archipelago which was named &)ilipinas' in honor of Iing -hilip !! of 6pain.
)renchman Alfred Darche led archeological explorations in ,7
century. !t was followed
by the American government which became interested in the various ethnic groups in the
country. .thnological surveys in the -hilippines replaced the 5ureau of 0on9#hristian $ribes.
Ot&e' H. "e'er (,7,F) elevated anthropology as an academic discipline at the
Uiversit' $% t(e P(i&i))ies. !t was offered as one of the courses in the department of history,
and later on, merged with sociology.
Anthropology prospered as a distinct course in -hilippines schools. 6chools who have
doctorate degree in the early years were Uiversit' $% Sa Car&$s (#ebu), Atee$ De +ai&a
Uiversit', and ,avier Uiversit' (#agayan 2e 1ro #ity).
Fr. -a&eti +ari introduced sociology in the -hilippines in ,@7A as a course on
criminology at the Uiversit' $% Sat$ T$*as. !n ,7,7, 6ociology was introduced at Si&i*a
Uiversit' and the T(e$&$#ica& Se*iar'.
Sera%i +acarai# was the first )ilipino to receive a doctorate degree in sociology in
,747. &!ntroduction to 6ociology' was the first text in the 3niversity of the -hilippines written
by 6erafin Dacaraig.
6ociologists after Dacaraig were:
.ua Rui/ J offered courses in social wor* in the 3niversity of the -hilippines
Pr$%. +arce&$ Ta#c$ J succeeded 2r. Dacaraig
F&$ra Dia/ Cat)usa J invited to teach sociology at the #entro .scolar 3niversity in
,7FA, and
Dr. "eici$ Cata)usa J invited to serve as a professional lecturer in sociology at the
3niversity of the -hilippines in ,7F@.
P(i&i))ie S$ci$&$#ica& S$ciet' was organized by a group of )ilipino educators and
visiting professors in the different regions. !ts objectives are:
$o increase *nowledge about social behavior
$o gather data on social problems for their possible solutions
$o train teachers and researchers in the field of sociology, and
$o develop cooperation and unity among social scientists in the -hilippines
#onsiderable efforts have been made to define and to determine the fields of sociology.
$here are considerable specializations in subject matter and in approach. 6ociological principles
are being employed in the analysis of an increasing number of social situations. $he study of
various problems led to discovering, refining, and perfecting new methods of sociological
investigations. !n ,7A<s and ,7><s researches were underta*en along different aspects of social
and cultural life.
5. Pers)ectives i U!ersta!i# t(e S$ciet'
0. C$%&ict Pers)ective
$he conflict perspective, which originated primarily out of Iarl DarxEs writings on class
struggles, presents society in a different light than do the functionalist and symbolic interactionist
perspectives. (hile these latter perspectives focus on the positive aspects of society that
contribute to its stability, the conflict perspective focuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever9
changing nature of society. 3nli*e functionalists who defend the status Guo, avoid social change,
and believe people cooperate to effect social order, conflict theorists challenge the status Guo,
encourage social change (even when this means social revolution), and believe rich and powerful
people force social order on the poor and the wea*. #onflict theorists, for example, may interpret
an &elite' board of regents raising tuition to pay for esoteric new programs that raise the prestige
of a local college as self9serving rather than as beneficial for students.
American sociologists expanded DarxEs idea that the *ey conflict in society was strictly
economic. $oday, conflict theorists find social conflict between any groups in which the potential
for ineGuality exists: racial, gender, religious, political, economic, and so on. #onflict theorists
note that uneGual groups usually have conflicting values and agendas, causing them to compete
against one another. $his constant competition between groups forms the basis for the ever9
changing nature of society.
#ritics of the conflict perspective point to its overly negative view of society. $he theory
ultimately attributes humanitarian efforts, altruism, democracy, civil rights, and other positive
aspects of society to capitalistic designs to control the masses, not to inherent interests in
preserving society and social order.
1. S'*b$&ic2Iteracti$ist Pers)ective
$he symbolic interactionist perspective, also *nown as symbolic interactionism, directs
sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and
how people interact with each other. Although symbolic interactionism traces its origins to Dax
(eberEs assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their
world, the American philosopher ;eorge H. Dead (,@A4J,74,) introduced this perspective to
American sociology in the ,7B<s.
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people attach meanings to symbols,
and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols. Cerbal
conversations, in which spo*en words serve as the predominant symbols, ma*e this subjective
interpretation especially evident. $he words have a certain meaning for the &sender,' and, during
effective communication, they hopefully have the same meaning for the &receiver.' !n other
terms, words are not static &things' they reGuire intention and interpretation. #onversation is an
interaction of symbols between individuals who constantly interpret the world around them. 1f
course, anything can serve as a symbol as long as it refers to something beyond itself. (ritten
music serves as an example. $he blac* dots and lines become more than mere mar*s on the page
they refer to notes organized in such a way as to ma*e musical sense. $hus, symbolic
interactionists give serious thought to how people act, and then see* to determine what meanings
individuals assign to their own actions and symbols, as well as to those of others.
#ritics claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social
interpretationKthe &big picture.' !n other words, symbolic interactionists may miss the larger
issues of society by focusing too closely on the &trees' (for example, the size of the diamond in
the wedding ring) rather than the &forest' (for example, the Guality of the marriage). $he
perspective also receives criticism for slighting the influence of social forces and institutions on
individual interactions.
3. Fucti$a&ist Pers)ective
According to the functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, each aspect of
society is interdependent and contributes to societyEs functioning as a whole. $he government, or
state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the
state depends to *eep itself running. $hat is, the family is dependent upon the school to help
children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. !n the
process, the children become law9abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. !f all
goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. !f all does not go well,
the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. )or
example, during a financial recession with its high rates of unemployment and inflation, social
programs are trimmed or cut. 6chools offer fewer programs. )amilies tighten their budgets. And
a new social order, stability, and productivity occur.
)unctionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in
which members of the society agree upon, and wor* together to achieve, what is best for society
as a whole. .mile 2ur*heim suggested that social consensus ta*es one of two forms:
+ec(aica& s$&i!arit' is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society
maintain similar values and beliefs and engages in similar types of wor*. Dechanical solidarity
most commonly occurs in traditional, simple societies such as those in which everyone herds
cattle or farms. Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity.
!n contrast, $r#aic s$&i!arit' is a form of social cohesion that arises when the people in
a society are interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types
of wor*. 1rganic solidarity most commonly occurs in industrialized, complex societies such
those in large American cities li*e 0ew 8or* in the B<<<s.
A. S$ci$2cu&tura& Ev$&uti$
0. Tras%$r*ati$ a! C(a#e $% S$cieties
!ncluded in socio9cultural transformation is the evolution and transformation of society as
a whole. $his comes about through the influence of the totality of individuals and communities,
groups and movements within that society as a whole.
6uch transformation is difficult to achieve, because the center of gravity of such societies
is almost always at a very low, exoteric, non9gnostic, level. !n the (est it is based on religion and
secular modernity. !n non9(estern countries it is almost always religious, generally
fundamentalist, interwoven with fol* superstitions, and occaisonal esoteric insights from
authentic indigenous mystics.
6ocial and cultural transformation will always lag behind individual transformation,
because of the even greater inertia and lesser consciousness in the larger collectivity.
0evertheless there does seem to be something of a revolution of consciousness occurring,
especially in the (estern world, which can for the sa*e of convenience be called -ostmaterialism
$he following then represents a simplistic mapping of 6ocio9#ultural transformation,
from negative to positive.
De&usi$a&. .xtremist religion, paranoid or genocidal regimes, gospels of hate at war
with or in league with the selfish and dualistic above who have totally lost all contact
with larger reality. -uppets of adverse forces.
E#$cetric5Se&%is(. !mperial #onsciousness (Iorten 9 62 eGuivalent is Dultiplistic9
achievist in part), 6ocial 2arwinism (based on the As above, the untransformed lower
emotional body, necessary for survival in the wild environment, but only one half of the
natural eGuation), unregulated capitalism, imperialism, jingoism, totalitarianism,
authoritarianism (may be religious or secular), dominated by lac* of empathy. Day be
selfish"narcissistic (if secular) or .go9shadow (if religious) psychological dynamics.
6ecular and conservative religious factions fight with /eformist ideologies for the heart
and soul of the H.thnocentricH"2ualistic"5aseline mainstream. )or example
.gocentric"6elfish corporations support polluting the .arth and exploiting $hird (orld
people in order to maximise profits, deny climate change for short term gain, and so on.
-oliticians and political parties will tend to support either .gocentric"6elfish,
.thnocentric, or -luralistic"/eform"(orldcentric pressure groups. !n non9western
countries, ta*es the form of authoritarian regimes, terrorist organisations, and so on. !n all
cases, under the influence of adverse forces. 1f course, even the adverse and anti9divine
ultimately further the 2ivine, so things should never be considered in too simplistically
dualistic a manner.
6Et($cetric65Dua&istic5"ase&ie. 1rdinary society, the moral baseline that needs to
be transformed. Day be $raditional"/eligious, /ational"Dodern and similar religio9
"ethno9 " anthropo9 and other 9centric society and culture, status Guo, most social
interactions, 6ocialized #onsciousness, H;ood citizensH, #onservatism, limited
consciousness rather than bad or exploitative. #urrent world situation attempts reform of
selfish and delusional by selecting some as global pariahs, while maintaining business as
usual with others often actively support them. !n natural ecologies and ecosystems ta*es
the form of predation, parasitism, inter9species competition, intra9species
competitiveness, old paradigm view of Hsurvival of the fittestH and Hnature red in tooth
and clawH, a subset of the larger synergetic whole. Dix of selfish and altruistic: 6ome
higher influences, but also under the sway of adverse forces, can go either way.
P&ura&istic5W$r&!cetric57R8 Ev$&uti$ar'. !n natural ecologies and ecosystems ta*es
the form of .mergent evolution, ecosystems, ecology. !n human societies the movement
to pluralistic, postmodernist, multicultural, ecologically sustainable, society, which is
resisted by traditionalism. $his stage represents a (orldcentric, HAGuarianH, emerging
/ising #ulture"-ostmaterialism, which is finally rising to the level of synegetic nature. !n
the human social realm this reform movement is resisted by traditionalism (and
interestingly even by elements of integral movement: egotistic rivalry"jelousy?).
/epresentatives of this stage of development fight with .gocentric"6elfish ideologies for
the heart and soul of the H.thnocentricH"2ualistic mainstream. !nspired by ideational
plane pure ideas, but mixed with lower influences. /epresents consciuousness under the
influence of higher impulses, with the adverse receding.
H$&istic5S'ste*s5Ne9 Para!i#*5Ite#ra&. $his is the /ising #ulture"-ostmaterialism,
0ew Age as subculture, movement to pluralistic, postmodernist, multicultural,
ecologically sustainable, societies, which is resisted by traditionalism. $he Alternative
and 0ew Age and 0ew -aradigm society, including #ommercial and pop 0ew Age
(wherein some cases the influences are mixed with baser selfish9imperialistic
consciousness), and social and spiritual ideology and #ultural #reatives. 3nderstanding
;aia, nature as synegetic biological and spiritual interactions, Guantum mysticism and
other ideas. $here is the ideal of establishing new global #ivilization and !ntegral world
government, not yet achieved. !nspiration is from the ideational and higher emotional
plane, pure ideas and empathy.
+es$teric5)re2#$sis $he !deal of 0ew global #ivilization is not yet realised. !nspired
by spiritual hierarchies, subtle physical in interaction with gross physical. Dixed energy,
some pure ideas, some subtle"astral"spiritual experiences, some lower influences, surface
Es$teric5:$stic. !t may be that a few societies e.g. .gypt, !ndia, $ibet, etc attained this
in the past (collective esoteric worldview), but this was alwaus mixed up with religious
literalism. $here is also the 0ew Age"mythic"messianic H;olden AgeH, as well as
traditionalist ideas of a past ;olden Age, subtle physical spiritual hierarchies behind
events and behind the the natural world spiritual and esoteric traditions and teachings,
celestial hierarchies, adepts, realisers, active in the world, but not yet actualised
collectively or globally. !nspiration here from subtle physical"astral"spiritual realms
(include positive, mixed, and sometimes negative).
Partia& a! C$*)&ete Rea&isati$ a! ab$ve. 6o far individual only, reGuires
2ivinisation to be collectively attained.
B. S$ci$2Cu&tura& C(a#e
A change is a means, a process or an end. !t can be an ideology or a doctrine. !t may be an
adoption of new objects and materials to attain certain goals.
a. C(aracteristics $% S$cia& C(a#e
Pervasive. #hange cannot be avoided and is happening in every culture, society and
even personality. $he process by which a person or group of persons wor* together to
prevent, resist or accept change due its possible conseGuences is reffered to as a social
C$tiu$us tras%$r*ati$. !t is continuous since man is continuously interacting
with people and has to survive in the community where he lives.
+a' be c$structive $r !estructive. Any change has an effect and impact on the
concerned society. !t is constructive if it has positive results and destructive if in the
course of time, social problems have accelerated and positive values have vanished
b. S$urces $% S$cia& C(a#e
P('sica& evir$*et. -hysical environment includes the climate and the natural
and physical resources of the land. Any change among these will result in the change
of people+s life pattern for people will find ways to cope with such change in order to
2rastic changes in physical environment will ma*e people change their lifestyles and
adopt mechanisms in their social organization.
P$)u&ati$. Any change in a country+s population size is most li*ely to have an
effect in the lives of its people. A country with zero population growth rate or decline
in number is in danger of being extinct while a country with excessively large
population may not be able to provide for all the people+s needs.
Tec($&$#'. $echnology is considered as a major source of change today. !t is
observed that in a country, as the pace of technological development becomes
rapid,so does the pattern of behavior of its people.
Cu&tura& i$vati$. !ntroduction of cultural innovation among groups possessing
similar cultures is faster than among the groups with varied cultures.
C$%&ict a! c(a#e. #onflict which arises from the struggle between capitalists and
wor*ers, or between the exploiting and the exploited class, changes society.
I!e$&$#'. !deology of charismatic personalities in religion and in politics led to the
formation of social movements.
I!ivi!ua& acti$. Actions of individuals (political and religious leaders) may also
influence the course of social change.
C$&&ective be(avi$r. #ollective behavior is a relatively spontaneous action which
occurs when people try to wor* out common responses to situation. $he behavior
includes rumors, riots, demonstrations and rallies. $hese represent an attempt by the
people to change aspects f their social government. !n some cases, the effects may be
lasting, bringing about major social vLchanges.
c. Causes $% S$cia& C(a#e
+a;s P('sica&< Ps'c($&$#ica& a! S$ci$&$#ica& Nee!s. Aside from man+s basic
needs such as food, water and air, he also has other needs to satisfy in order to cope
with the changing environment and the demands of society in which the changing
environment and the demands of society in which he is part of. !n order to satisfy
these needs, man used his mind and ability, resulting to inventions, discoveries and
innovations that brought anout social change.
:r$u) C$%&ict a! S$cia& Ie=ua&it'. $he long time social conflict oof the peasant
and the bourgeoisie and the capitalist and the laborers resulted in class struggle and
imposed a forced change in every society.
T($u#(ts a! I!eas. Dan is a thin*er. He has the capacity to thin* and influence
others J whether by spea*ing up or writing J resulting to social change.
!. T(e$ries $% S$cia& C(a#e
Ev$&uti$ar' t(e$r' views society as moving in a definite direction, characterized by
constant development or change.
Ui&iear ev$&uti$ar' t(e$r' views society as progressing from a simple to a complex
form of organization.
+u&ti&iear ev$&uti$ar' t(e$r', in contrast, views the occurrence of change in several
lines that do not lead to a single direction.
C$%&ict t(e$r'< exponented by Iarl Darx, the conflict theory views society+s structure
and elements as constantly changing resulting in conflict. #onflict is accepted as a normal
and desirable aspect of social change and cannot be avoided.
>Rise a! %a&&? or c'c&ica& t(e$r' sees society, culture and civilization moving in cycles.
6ome civilizations which experienced progress and glory before slowly regress while
socities which have been wea* before intechnology and in political power have now
Structura& %ucti$a&is* t(e$r' or %ucti$a&ist t(e$r' believed in a balanced system
of institution. $his theory, forerunnered by $alcott -arsons, emphasized that society is
composed of different parts, each of which has complementary functions. !dentified here
are the four processes of social change:
Di%%eretiati$ refers to the increasing complexity of social organization.
A!a)tive u)#ra!i# happens when social institutions become more specialized in their
Ic&usi$ refers to the assimilation of groups into society which were previously
excluded due to gender, social class and other factors.
-a&ue #eera&i/ati$ means the development of new values lead to legitimizing and
tolerating activities.
". S$cia& :r$u)s a! Or#ai/ati$s
0. Nature $% #r$u)s a! its c&assi%icati$s
!n the social sciences a s$cia& #r$u) can be defined as two or more humans who interact
with one another, share similar characteristics and collectively have a sense of unity. 5y this
definition, a society can be viewed as a large group, though most social groups are considerably
Dan is by nature a social being. He does not live in isolation but has to relate with other
people. His relation with others results in the formation of a group that will help him in the
development of his personality. $he impact of influence will bear either a positive or a negative
effect on him depending on the *ind of people he is interacting with and how these people will
react to him and to his environment.
A true social group exhibits some degree of social cohesion and is more than a simple
collection or aggregate of individuals, such as people waiting at a bus stop, or people waiting in a
line. #haracteristics shared by members of a group may include interests, values, representations,
ethnic or social bac*ground, and *inship ties. -aul Hare regards the defining characteristic of a
group as social interaction. $he members of the groups contact each other which Ac*eema
Mohnson calls a Hregular interaction.H $his group also should have, a common identity, rules,
structure, etc.
Dan+s need to associate with other people, to belong as a social being and depend on
other people as others depend on him in some aspects gradually turns him into a member of a
group which exerts influence in shaping his personality.
a. C$ce)t $% S$ciet' a! its C(aracteristics
6ociety is a group of different personalities from identified and classified groups with
distinct characteristics.
Lar#est a*$# t(e #r$u)s because it has various types. A number of small groupings
may comprise a particular society.
6ociety (as a !istict cu&ture s(are! b' *$st $r a&*$st a&& $% its *e*bers. A pattern
of behavior, values and language exist among the members.
+e*bers(i) c$*es %r$* a re)r$!uctive s$urce. !ndividuals almost automatically
become members of society when they are born while the old ones who passed away are
replaced by young individuals who are socialized according to the adopted culture.
S$ciet' &asts &$#er t(a its &i%eti*e i!ivi!ua& #r$u) *e*bers. !f a member with a
lifetime membership passes away, the society remains as a human race and still exists on
this earth.
b. Nature a! C$ce)ts $% :r$u)s
6ocial groups may have varied forms and may be classified into several categories
depending on one+s perception. 6ome sociologists have identified groups depending on their
shown behavior and practices in the society, others have perceived social gropings into two level
concepts: *acr$ and *icr$2s$cia& systems. $hese are very important for sociology because they
are the *eys to the whats, whys, and hows of behavior.
D'a!< the simplest social relationship, is a pair of people with attached roles. !t is
characterized by a high exchange of information and intimacy because it allows the
greatest opportunity for total involvement between two persons.
Tria! is composed of three or more people interacting as a group.
Sub#r$u) is simply a group that is a part of a larger group.
;roups may be contrasted to s$cia& cate#$ries which is a set of people with one or more
social statuses in common. 5eing of similar status, members of social categories often become
oriented with similar cultural ideas, but do not usually identify themselves as units nor interact
with one another in a regular patterned way as members of a group do.
1. S$cia& :r$u)s
A group is a unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles and statuses
existing between the members. !ti is a collective effort of behavior in a particular organization in
society. Dembers usually share same beliefs, behavior, attitudes and actions based on adopted
norms and standards. A group also refers to one or more people who identify and interact with
one another.
D. 4
D. B
D. ,
6ome sociologists refer to s$cia& #r$u) as any system of social relationship in which
members have a culture that defines the roles and statuses from whom members are
differentiated from nonmembers. 6ocial groups vary in form each member has his own role
expected of him to perform in the social grouping to which he belongs.
;roups or social groups are organizations of people where individual members are aware
that they belong to it. ;roup is visible and real because they exist in time and space. !t vary in
size, Guality of group interaction, purpose, structure or combinations.
)urthermore, groups are basic units of sociological analysis. (e perform most of our
roles with time. /oles are important sources of both social control and conflict. $he cultural and
structural characteristics of many social groups affect not only the lives of individuals, but the
fate of the entire society as well.
a. C(aracteristics $% :r$u)s
A #r$u) c$sists $% )e$)&e 9($ iteract a! %$r* s$cia& )atters. A group is at least
one person larger than a dyad. !t has three or more people. ;roups are different from
dyads in that they depend less on the individual actor for continuity.
Icrease i si/e e=ua&s &$ss $% %ree!$*. As the group grows in numbers, the individual
freedom of any particular member is de9emphasized. )urthermore, as the group grows in
size, more emphasis is put on the well9being of the group.
Iteracti$ rea%%ir*s s$cia& )atters. ;roups depend on interaction to affirm and
reaffirm social patterns. $he strength of patterns in the group depends on the history of
the interaction. 3sually, the longer the group exists, the stronger the bonds become.
:r$u)s c$tribute t$ &ar#er $r#ai/ati$. 6ocial organization at the Hformal levelH is
sufficiently large that continuous interaction among all actors is impossible. .ven in large
organizations interaction between individuals still occurs in small groups. $he interaction
of small groups within the frame wor* of larger organizations reaffirms the social
patterns of the larger social organizations.
:r$u)s !e%ie rea&it' %$r t(e i!ivi!ua&. $he groupEs definition of reality is a pattern
that the individual assumes. $he individual forms expectations about the world through
group involvement. 1ne learns within the group what the important issues are and the
guide lines (the rules) that the group expects you to live by.
:r$u) *e*bers iteract 9it( $e a$t(er $ver a )eri$! $% ti*e. $he process of
interaction may be done through words, actions, symbols or through music where one+s
action is influenced. !f well9organized, a group will exist longer for a period of time
especially if the channel of communication is always open.
Eac( *e*ber i!eti%ies 9it( t(e #r$u) a! is rec$#i/e! as )art $% t(e #r$u) b'
$t(er *e*bers. .ach member are ac*nowledged and the belief that their group is
distinct from other groups. A well9organized and managed group can motivate each
member to love the group, always identify with it and display loyalty too the group.
.ach member is expected to accept responsibilities and duties abide by certain norms.
Dembers may enjoy some benefits and privelges the group would extend.
Dembers follow specialization in carrying out performances of their respective roles. !n a
cooperative organization, a group is assigned a particular role to perform.
b. I*)$rtace $% :r$u)s
6ome basic needs cannot be provided by an individual alone. .veryone needs the help of
group members to procure these needs.
:r$u) is a tras*itter $% cu&ture. $he process of socialization carries a strng influence
in the dissemination of information within a group. .ach member of the group is
considered as an agent of culture.
:r$u) is a *eas $% s$cia& c$tr$&. $he process which induces a person to comply with
the collective standards of action and belief is called social control. !t includes the
imposition by the leaders of the group in order for the members to conform to acceptable
standards of the group to be considered as a member. $hus, a group helps shape one+s
personality it imposes restrictions and disciplines on its members to some extent which
the members must conform to get the group+s approval and acceptance.
:r$u) s$cia&i/es t(e i!ivi!ua&. $he full development of a person starts from where he
belongs J the group. $his can be shown clearly in the family, being the basic social unit.
:r$u) is t(e %u!a*eta& s$urce $% i!eas. $he daily interactions of the group+s
members influence their thin*ing, feelings and even their behavior and actions. !t has
been noted that a member of a group has his own personal biases and prejudices because
he is a uniGue individual. However, his actions can be modified or adjusted either
favorably or unfavorably, depending on how he reacts to his social and physical
environment, based on the influence of his groupmates.
:r$u) trais t(e i!ivi!ua& i c$**uicati$s. $hrough communication of the
members, the group is a source of information. $he more active members of a group
share available information with their other passive members. $hus, the group is
considered as the &communication networ*.'
c. C&assi%icati$ $% :r$u)s
c.0 Acc$r!i# t$ S$cia& "$u!aries a! A!(erece t$ a S)ecia& Set $% N$r*s
Cate#$rica& #r$u) refers is where members tend to share certain characteristics and
interests and are aware of their similarities with other members in their own social
category. $he idea of categorical groupings has a practical application to life situations
wherein the focus is on the support of the members.
A##re#ate #r$u) is where members stay in one place, but do not necessarily interact
with each other. Dembers of this group are concerned only with their own feelings and
C$&&ective #r$u) refers to a crowed whose members are not governed with laws or
norms, but share the same beliefs that motivate them to action.
Ass$ciati$a& #r$u) is composed of a group of people who organize themselves to
pursue a common interest with a formal organizational structure. !n an associational
group, there is a set of officers elected by its members which is responsible for running
the association.
c.1 Acc$r!i# t$ Iteracti$ a! Re&ati$s(i)
Pri*ar' #r$u) refers to a small, informal group of people who interact in a more
personal, intimate manner and who always have direct and face9toface communication
with each other. !t is characterized as the nursery of human nature because it is the group
where the child is socialized, acGuires and experiences love, affection, sympathy,
*indness, tolerance, fairness, loyalty and justice. $he individual learns the meaning of
personal worth and dignity of a person.
Sec$!ar' #r$u) involves indirect, impersonal interaction where members are forced to
interact because of business transactions and the li*es. Dembers can function effectively
because of the absence of the touch of familiarity where subjectivity comes in.
c.3 Acc$r!i# t$ *e*bers(i)
I2#r$u) refers to a group of people with strong sense of belongingness. !t is a group to
which we do belong and a group that an individual identifies in positive direction. !ts
members have a strong &we feeling,' share common orientation, come from the same
bac*ground, roots and origin and adhere to the ideology. An in9group is further
characterized by a feeling of companionship and a great sense of loyalty.
Out2#r$u) is exactly the opposite of in9group. !t is a group to which we do not belong
and a group that an individual identifies in negative direction. $his group is made up of
people whose feelings are antagonistic to the group itself. $here is physical membership
but in mind and heart, the members disli*e the group because of the concept that another
group is superior to their group. !t is a stereotype where members of the group have
specialized tra!e*ar@s.
Re%erece #r$u) is a group where people identify themselves physically and
psychologically to which other people refer in evaluating their behavior and actions. $he
group becomes the individual+s %ra*e $% re%erece for his motivations, aspirations,
experiences, attitudes and social affiliations. A reference group often tends to give an
impression to a articular person as to his social, economic and even political status in the
community. 6ometimes, individuals try to identify themselves with groups whose
standing is well9*nown regionally, nationally or even internationally to demand high
respect and special treatment from others.
Peer #r$u) is a group with members of approximately the same age, social status, and
interests. !t is a small *ind of grouping whose members have the same level, interests and
economic standing in the community. #onsciously and unconsciously, the members
group themselves because they share the same interests and talents. $here is also a sense
of belongingness, sympathy and loyalty among themselves. ;enerally, people are
relatively eGual in terms of power when they interact with peers.
-$&utar' ass$ciati$ is an organization where membership is free and voluntary.
$hough voluntary in nature, members follow some seta of rules or policies. Coluntary
associations are found usually in some relatively simple societies composed of members
with varied and competing interests.
+i&itar' ass$ciati$s are noncommercial societies whose goals are to unite members
through their common experiences. Demberships in these associations are voluntary and
based on a member+s achieved criterion.
Secret s$cieties are principally characterized by limited membership and by secret rituals
(taboos) generally believed to increase the supernatural powers of its members.
Re#i$a& ass$ciati$s are clubs that bring together migrants from common geographical
bac*grounds. !t actually gives
rise to out9groups, particularly when in a foreign milieu. $he tendency towards &crab
mentality' is heightened in certain cases.
c.A Acc$r!i# t$ T(eir Nature< F$r*< Objectives a! Iteracti$s
I%$r*a& #r$u) is the most common type of grouping based on nature, form, objectives
and interaction. !t occurs when two or more people interact with each other on issues
affecting their welfare. An informal group could be a product of an impulsive act but later
on grows into a partnership endeavor with the constant sharing of emotions and
sentiments of members. $he group ensures cooperation from each member because of
their sense of belongingness and self9confidence.
F$r*a& #r$u) is an organization where the specific organizational structure is
constructed to achieve specific goals and objectives. $his group has to fulfill a variety of
specialized social and personal needs that influence one+s personality. /egardless of its
nature, a formal organization has an established philosophy, mission, vision and goals as
its guiding premises in the discharge of its functions. !t is in this concern that formal
organizations meet their fundamental needs and continue their collaborative efforts to
attain these aspirations in a highly complex, industrial and business society.formal
organization plays an important role in social interaction.
!t enables people to wor* harmoniously to achieve a common goal. $here is a focus
among its members because members wor* not as individuals but as a team with a
common goal following one direction.
!t defines the specific functions of each personnel in the organization. $here are clear9cut
policies that guide the members so members are aware of their statuses and roles.
6pecialization of tas*s is observed which results in better productivity in the organization.
!t creates a level of authority as to the channeling of communication. $he flow of
communication should be open to all channels so that members can readily present their
ideas or feedbac* to the right person in authority.
c.B :e*eisc((a%t c$**uities a! :esse&sc(a%t S$cieties
:e*eisc((a%t is a community characterized by informal associations due to close
geography or line of ancestry wherein relationships are personal or traditional. )ilipino
;emeinschhaft community may be seen in rural barrio characterized by a monotonous
life where members exhibit sympathy and sentimentalism. #ommunity+s activities and
interests revolve around family groups and neighbors. Calues, customs, traditions,
languages and moral beliefs account for close relationship.
:esse&sc(a%t s$cieties, the contrast of ;emeinschhaft community, are distinguished as
having formal businessli*e, impersonal, independent, specialized, limited, realistic and
fragmented relationships. ;esselschaft societies, described as a &society in contrast,' are
dynamic and industrialized.
c.C Ot(er t')es $% #r$u)s ic&u!e t(e %$&&$9i#:
C&i=ue 2 A group of people that have many of the same interests N commonly found in a
High 6chool"#ollege setting most of the time they have a name N rules for themselves.
C&ub 2 A club is a group, which usually reGuires one to apply to become a member. 6uch
clubs may be dedicated to particular activities: sporting clubs, for example.
H$use($&! 2 All individuals who live in the same home. Anglophone culture may include
various models of household, including the family, blended families, share housing, and
group homes.
C$**uit' 2 A community is a group of people with a commonality or sometimes a
complex net of overlapping commonalities, oftenJbut not alwaysJin proximity with one
another with some degree of continuity over time.
Frac(ise 2 An organization which runs several instances of a business in many
:a# 2 A gang is usually an urban group that gathers in a particular area. !t is a group of
people that often hang around each other. $hey can be li*e some clubs, but much less
formal. $hey are usually *nown in many countries to cause social unrest and also have
negative influence on the members and may be a target for the law enforcers in case of
any social vices
+$b 2A mob is usually a group of people that has ta*en the law into their own hands.
Dobs are usually groups which gather temporarily for a particular reason.
P$sse 2 A posse was originally found in .nglish common law. !t is generally obsolete,
and survives only in America, where it is the law enforcement eGuivalent of summoning
the militia for military purposes. However, it can also refer to a street group.
S=ua! 2 $his is usually a small group, of around 4 to ,= people, who wor* as a team to
accomplish their goals.
Tea* 2 6imilar to a sGuad, though a team may contain many more members. A team
wor*s in a similar way to a sGuad.
;roups can also be categorized according to the number of people present within the
group. $his ma*es sense if the size of the group has conseGuences for the way group members
relate with each other. !n a small group, for example, Heach member receives some impression ...
of each other member distinct enough so that he or she ... can give some reaction to each of the
others as an individual person.H $his personal interaction is not possible in larger groups.
d. T(e I*)$rtace $% :r$u) Status a! R$&e i S$cia& Iteracti$
Status< considered as one of the building bloc*s of social structure, is a position that an
individual occupies in a particular group or society. 6ocial identities help one define his
relationship in an organization. .ach has a specific function to perform and has corresponding
targets to achieve.
Status set is the varied atatuses a person holds. !t incorporates all the occupied statuses of
an individual. (ith these status sets, one has varied roles to perform.
!.0 C&assi%icati$ $% Status
Ascribe! status refers to a social position a person receives at birth or assumes
involuntarily later in life. !t is hereditary and without regard to a person+s ability or
performance. .ach of us possesses an ascribed status.
Ac(ieve! status refers to a position a person ssumes voluntarily and reflects personal
ability and efforts.
+aster status is the most important status occupied by an individual which affects
almost every aspect of his day9to9day existence.
R$&e, another component of social interaction refers to the behavior expected of someone
who holds a particular status. -eople hold a status to perform a role. Actual performance varies
according to an individual+s uniGue personality.
!.1 Di!s $% R$&es
R$&e c$%&icts are difficulties that occur when incompatible expectations arise from two
or more social positions held by the same individual. !t occurs when one+s responsibility
in one of his social positions interfers with the other.
R$&e strai refers to tensions among roles connected to a single status. /ole strain
presents a serious problem in performing roles inherent even to one+s status.
R$&e eEit is a process where the person starts to disengage from his particular role or
social role. $his is exemplified by the so9called &exes.'
C. S$cia&i/ati$
6ocialization is a complex lifetime social experience by which individuals develop their
human potentials and learn culture. !ndividuals need social experiences to learn their culture and
survive. 6ocialization shapes individual+s self9image and is the foundation of personality.
6ociety has basic agents to socialize and mold one+s personality from womb to tomb. As
such, individuals are always in contact with one another, thus establishing person9to9person
relations or &social relations.'
0. U!ersta!i# S$cia&i/ati$
As individuals assume new social and occupational positions, it is necessary to discard
their previous behavior patterns and accept the new behavior patterns of his"her new status. $his
process is *nown as socialization.
a. C$ce)t $% S$cia& Iteracti$
According to sociologists, group interaction is the process of defining and responding to
various actions and relations of individuals in social situations. !t provides aframewor* for a
dynamic social relationship. 6ocial interaction is the way persons or groups act or communicate
with one another. !t ta*es place in social, political and economic institutions and social structures
which give impetus to social relationship. !t is the process of defining and responding to various
actions and reactions of individuals in social situations.
b. C&assi%icati$ $% S$cia& Iteracti$
Structura& iteracti$ is where a communication networ* is established based on
structure. !nteraction is more formal based on the role function of each member.
Cu&tura& iteracti$ emphasizes cultural aspects of social relationships.
Re&i#i$us iteracti$ refers to innovation and changes which can be affected through
interaction among religious organizations.
:e$#ra)(ica& iteracti$ is based on geographical domains and its varying effects on
social interaction.
c. S$cia& Pr$cesses
6ocial process refers to any mutual interaction experienced by an individual or a group on
each other in an attempt to solve problems and achieve desired goals.this process may be in
varied froms depending on the degree of its complexity. 6ocial process consists of repetitive
forms of behavior commonly found in social life and refers to a consistent pattern of social
interaction which can be identified in the society.
c.0 C&assi%icati$ $% S$cia& Pr$cesses
C$juctive s$cia& )r$cess is where members maintain and practice consensus,
cooperation and unification.
C$$)erati$ is sharing the responsibility or act of wor*ing together in order to achieve a
common goal or vision. !t is a social process where people wor* together to achieve a
group+s common objectives and share some benefits derived from it. 5asic cooperation is
experienced in the family and other social group where members share their talents, time,
resources and expertise along their fields of specialization.
0. T')es $% C$$)erati$
I%$r*a& is a spontaneous give9and9ta*e relationship. !t is commonly shown in
primary groups or in ;emeinschaft societies.
F$r*a& sets formal goals and objectives in social interaction. !t is contractual in
nature with reciprocal rights and obligartions of members.
S'*bi$tic cooperation is where one or two members of society live together
harmoniously and support one another for mutual interest.
1. Fucti$ $% C$$)erati$
!t crerates s$cia& c$(esi$ and ite#rati$ among the members of the group
!t contributes to s$cia& stabi&it' and $r!er.
!t fosters c$sesus and c$*)r$*ise in various social, economic and political issues.
Acc$**$!ati$, defined by sociologists as the adjustment of hostile individuals or
groups, is an adjustment to conflict, past, present and incipient. %i*ewise, another
authority described it as either permanent or temporary termination of conflict which
permits the rival parties too function together without open hostility. Accommodation is a
process of establishing temporary agreements, compromises or negotiations among group
members to be able to wor* for a particular period of time without friction.
Accommodation refers to the actual act of wor*ing together among individuals or groups
in spite of differences or latent hostility. 2ifferent forms of accommodation are )&ae!
and formally negotiated or u)&ae!, the product of group interaction or brainstorming.
U)&ae! !is)&ace*et occurs when the source of frustration is vague and intangible
or when the person responsible for the frustration is so powerful than an attac* would be
dangerous, aggression may be displaced and the aggressive reactions may be directed to
an innocent person or object rather than toward the actual cause of frustration. Hence, it
is a process of ending a conflict by using a scapegoat wherein the failure of one person or
group for poor performanceor noncompliance to certain norms and standards.
A c$%&ict occurs between persons or groups with uneGual status and ends by the
acceptance of defeat by the wea*er group over the powerful group.
Su)er$r!iati$2sub$r!iati$ wor*s only when it is impossible for one group to
continue the aggression against the more powerful group. $here is a realization of the
wea*er group that their effort of struggle to prevail is futile.
C$*)r$*ise is where extreme demands are given up to achieve limited goals and could
be described as a &loss9loss' or &win9win' situation.
Re&ease %r$* ($sti&it' is where most individuals who are in trouble experience problems
but still find ways to release their worries through relaxation.
T$&erati$ occurs when both parties realize that a settlement of conflict is impossible. !f
an agreement is not necessary to solve the problem, then the group will just let go or
accept each other+s rights to different actions to the problem+s resolution.
Assi*i&ati$ refers to the process of interpretation and fusion in which persons and
groups acGuire the memories, sentiments and attitudes of other persons and by sharing
their experiences and history, which are incorporated with them in a cultural life.
As proces it reduces social conflict because the person assimilated in a group tends to
combine or integrate their own culture with the group+s culture. 1n the negative note,
hoever, there were some cases that a member loses his own social identity as a result of
adapting to changes to conform to the group standards and norms in order to be accepted
and gain the group+s approval. Assimilation process is easier when there is direct contact,
intimate and personal interaction.
A*a&#a*ati$ is a biological interbreeding of two peoples of distinct physical
appearance until they became one stoc*.
Accu&turati$ is a processand effect of significant change through mutual barrowings
and adoptions by people of different cultures in contact with some continuity. !t is also a
process of acGuiring the culture of another ethnic group. !n other words, one may adopt
the culture and practices of the society where he wor*s but still retain his own social
identity or nationality.
c.1 Disjuctive S$cia& Pr$cesses
C$%&ict occurs when two goals of eGual importance are scarce. $here is a need to
prioritize social needs. #onflict occurs when a particular goal is opposing one+s own
principle in attaining the desired or targeted purpose. !t is a struggle in which the claims
of the conflicting parties are not only to give the desired values but also to neutralize,
injure or eliminate rivals (#oser, ,7A@). !n conflict, there is pgysicl or psychological
sacrifices on the part of the persons involved.
War is a destructive and violent way to settle conflicts and disputes which are resorted to
by men when they have tensions and economic, demographic, religious, cultural and
technological differences.
Feu! is rampant among clans, fraternities, and politics it is triggered by feelings of
bitterness between parties or groups because of some injustice done ot their members.
Liti#ati$ $r Le#a& "att&e occurs when conflict between individuals or groups can no
longer be resolved amicably so it is ta*en to the courts where a judge presides on the
merits of the case.
C$%&icts $% I*)ers$a&I!ea&s is carried on by individuals or groups for a principle or an
ideal, not for personal benefit but for the group or society+s wellbeing.
Arbitrati$, a less formal process, is resorted to when decision of courts tends to be slow
and litigation is expensive for both conflicting parties. $he two conflicting parties agree
to accept the decision of a third party.
C$*)r$*ise occurs when the conflicting parties agree to settle for less than their
demand objectives. !t is difficult because both parties have to surrender their principles to
reach an agreement.
C$*)etiti$ may have merit and demerit in human behavior. !t is a from of opposition,
struggle or competition between two or more parties who vie for superiority or to secure
any predefined endeavor.
Pers$a& c$*)etiti$ involves direct and face9to9face contact where individuals or
groups may employ varied strategies to excel in their fields of specialization to be
superior to others. !nnovations and creative wor*s may be employed by individuals or
groups just to outdo their opponents in securing promotions in positions.
I*)ers$a& c$*)etiti$ refers to individuals or groups or business entities struggling,
not directly aware of each other+s presence. !t may be person9to9person or by groups,
referred to as teams.
Di%%eretiati$ is a social process of iliminating competition. !t is thecreation of interest
in individuals or groups needing or wanting different things or services rather than the
same thing. 2ifferentiation of status, lifestyle and prestige leads to the creation of
subcultures as as well as in the development of social stratifications.
c.3 Itera&ati$s(i)s $% S$cia& Pr$cesses
#onjunctive and disjunction social processes are interrelated. $hey are intertwined and
occur simultaneously. #ompetition occurs when resources are scarce, leading to variation or
differentiation. 6pecialization leads to delineation of functions, but it can also lead to cooperation
and integration of groups.
#ooperation exists side by side with competition. #onflict, on the other hand, as a
condition and as a process. As a process, accommodation refers to the conscious efforts of man
to develop wor*ing arrangements arrangements among themselves in order to suspend conflict.
%i*ewise, as a condition, accommodation refers to the fact of eGuilibrium between individuals
and groups and the rules of the game which have to be followed.
c.A S$cia&i/ati$ a! Pers$a&it'
Pers$a&it' is the sum total of a person+s character traits. !t is the person+s fairly
consistent pattern of acting, thin*ing and feeling (Daciones, B<<B). -ersonality may also be the
product of hereditary and emvironment (6antos, ,77=).
.tymologically, personality, originated from the %atin word persona which means a
theatrical mas* worn by /oman actors in ;ree* drams to -roject a role or false appearance.
-sychologists, however, see personality as something more than the roles people play. !t is a
pattern of relatively permanent traits, dispositions or characteristics that give some measure of
consistency to a person+s behavior and these may be uniGue, common to some group or sharedby
c.B Fact$rs $% Pers$a&it' Deve&$)*et
-ersonality development is the development of all aspects of personality, the total
development of personality. $his leads to the full development of a person+s potentials
(5iological"physical, sociological, geographical, cultural, mental, intellectual, emotional and
0.0 S$cia&i/ati$ a! Se&%
:e$r#e Herbert +ea!: T(e S$cia& Se&%
;eorge Herbert Dead developed the Theory of Behaviorism to explain how social
experience creates individual personality which recognized the evir$*et as a powerful
influencing factor in shaping a person+s personality dwelling on i9ar! be(avi$r.
Se&%< that part of an individual+s personality composed of self9awareness and self9image
and is not part of the body and does not exist at birth, is his central concept.
S$cia& eE)eriece is the exchange of symbols. 1nly human beings communicate by
words or signals to create meaning, find meanings in action and respond according to
their purpose or intention, animals do not.
-eople e*)(ati/e using symbols. $his way, they can anticipate how others will react to a
given situation. 6ocial interaction then is ta*ing the r$&e $% t(e $t(er which involves
seing the self as others see it.
T9$ Parts $% Se&%
I F the active side
+e F the object
Deve&$)*et $% t(e Se&%
Si#i%icat Ot(ers. !nfant ta*e the role of other initiation without understanding
the underlying intentions, so they have no self. As they learn to use language and other
symbls, the self emerges through play. -laying the role of adults helps young children
imagine the world from the adult+s points of view.
:eera&i/e! Ot(ers. ;radually, children move from initiation, simple plays to
games, to complex games involving others in team sports. $his refers to widespread
cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves.
C(ar&es H$rt$ C$$&e': T(e L$$@i#2:&ass Se&%
$he &$$@i#2#&ass se&% refers to the self9imagae based on how people thin* others see
them. $his means that people can see themselves according to how others see them. !t is a
development of the self through the use of language and provides that an individual
acGuires a social self when he has already developed the Ability to ta*e hold of the
attitudes and roles of others and see how others see him.
T(ree )(ases $% !eve&$)i# a se&&%2c$ce)t $r se&%2i!etit': (,) our imagination of how
we present ourselves to others, (B) our imagination of how we are evaluated by others,
and (4) our own feeling about ourselves as we are seen by others.
0.1 T(e$ries $% S$cia&i/ati$ a! Pers$a&it'
,.Ba Ps'c($aa&'tic T(e$ries
-sychoanalytic theories focus on the mental amnd emotional processes that shape the
human personality.
Si#*u! Freu!:
A person builds or develops his"her personality by interacting with others in society.
6igmund )reud was the proponent of psychoanalytic theory and a foremost psychoanalyst who
formulated the first comprehensive theory on personality and left a deep impact on subseGuent
-ersonality is the sum total of a person+s character traits, a form of biological
determination and that socialization was a process characterized by an internal struggle
between the biological component and the social9cultural environment.
E&e*ets $% Pers$a&it': t(e T(ree +aj$r S'ste*s
I!< the psychological component the original system of personality and the matrix
within which the ego and tAhe superego become differentiated. !t is a structure of the
mind which represents the human being+s basic unconsciousness, drives and
demanding immediate gratification. !t consists of everything psychological, including
the instincts which are inherited.
E#$ is the executive of personality and is the mediator between the needs of the
organism and the objective world of reality. !t represents the person+s conscious effort
to balance innate pleasure9see*ing drives with the demands of society. !ts
psychological component has control over all the cognitive and intellectual processes
and tries to control the gateways to action
Su)ere#$ is the social component the internal representative of the traditional values
and ideals of society as interpreted to the child by its parents. !t represents the
person+s conscience the operation of culture within the individual which tells the
person why he"she cannot have everything that he"she wants. !t is the moral arm of
personality and consists of the conscience and ego ideal
Five +aj$r Sta#es $% Deve&$)*et
2uring each of )reud+s five major stages of development, the id+s pleasure impulses
focus on a particular area of the body and on the activities in that area.
0. 2uing $ra& sta#e (infants) infants derive pleasure from nursing, suc*ing and putting
any in their mouths.
1. !n the aa& sta#e< children find pleasure both in withholding and expelling feces.
$here is conflict with parents who impose early toilet training.
3. 2uring the )(a&&ic sta#e (49A years old) children of three to six years old derive their
in fondling their genitals, observing sex differences and directing their awa*ening
sexual impulses toward the opposite sex.
At five to six years old, boy+s sexual impulses are directed toward their mother. $hey
perceive their fathers as rivals to their mother+s affection. $his is termed Oe!i)us
c$*)&eE by )reud derived from ;ree* Dythology where 1edipus *ills his father and
marries his mother. 5oys fear castration from their fathers as retaliation against their
sexual impulses.
E&e@tra c$*)&eE< the female version of 1edipus complex, wherein the female child
develops sexual feelings toward her father.
A. Latec' )eri$! (>9,B) is characterized by children becoming less concerned with
their bodies and developing s*ills for coping with their environment. !t is when
1edipus and .le*tra complex are resolved.
B. :eita& )eri$! (adolescence and puberty)is the age of maturity, adult sexuality and
A&%re! A!&er:
Adler is *nown for his wor* on individual psychology.
-eople begin life with both innate striving and physical deficiencies which combine to
produce feelings of inferiority. $hese feelings stimulate style to set a goal of overcoming their
inferiority. S$cia& iterest or a deep concern for the welfare of other people is the sole criterion
by which human actions should be judged.
$he three major problems of life are ei#(b$r&' &$ve< 9$r@ and seEua&. $hese can only
be solved through social interest. All behaviors are consistent with a person+s final goal.
Human behavior is shaped by people+s subjective perception of situations.
Here!it' and evir$*et provide the building materials of personality but people+s
creative power is responsible for their lifestyle.
EEcuses< a##ressi$ and 9it(!ra9a& are some of people+s various safeguarding
tendencies as conscious or unconscious attempts to protect inflated feelings of superiority
against public disgrace.
"irt( $r!er, ear&' rec$&&ecti$s and !rea*s are used to foster courage, self9esteem and
social interest.
Dare H$re':
Horney espoused the psychoanalytic social theory and insisted that cultural influences
wre more important than biological influences in shaping an individual+s personality.
AEiet' was triggered by the feelings of isolation and helplessness in a potentially hostile
world form the lac* of warmth and affection and failing to meet their needs for safety and
satisfaction during their younger years.
$he t(ree eur$tic tre!s< the tendency to *$ve t$9ar!, a#aist or a9a' from people,
were generated by the inability of people to use different tactics in their relationship with
Healthy people solve their basic conflict by using all three neurotic trends while neurotics
compulsively adopt only one of these trends. 5oth healthy and neurotic people
experience itra)s'c(ic c$%&icts that have become part of their belief system and this
has two major *inds.
I!ea&i/e! se&%2i*a#e results in the neurotics+ attempts to build a godli*e picture of
Se&%2(atre! is the tendency of neurotics to hate and despise their real slef.
Any psychological differences between men and women are due to cultural and social
expectations and not to biology.
Horney+s psychotheraphy goal is to bring about growth toward actualization of the rea&
Eric Fr$**:
He called his approach on psychoanalysis the humanistic psychoanalysis.
6elf9awareness contributes to feelings of loneliness. $o escape these feelings, people
strive to become united with others and with nature.
1nly the uniGue human needs of relatedness, transcendence and rootedness, sense of
identity and frame of orientation can move people toward reunification.
Sese $% re&ate!ess drives people to unite with another person through (,) )$sitive
%ree!$* or the spontaneous activity of a whole, integrated personality and (B) bi$)(i&ia
or submission, power of love.
Trasce!ece is the need for people to rise above their passive existence and create or
destroy life.
R$$te!ess is the need for a consistent structure in people+s lives.
Sese $% i!etit' gives a person a feeling of I or me.
Fra*e $% $rietati$ is a consistent way of loo*ing at the world.
"asic aEiet'< a sense of being alone in the world, was acGuired as a conseGuence of
gaining economic and political freedom. $o relieve this, various mechanisms were used,
particularly authoritarianism, destructiveness and conformity.
$hough some people succeed in becoming one with the world, live productively and
acGuire the syndrome of growth (i.e. including a passionate love for life and love of
fellowmen), other people live unproductively and acGuire things by passively receiving
and hoarding objects, exploiting others, and mar*eting or exchanging things including
themselves. !n rare situations, people are motivated by the syndrome of decay.
Necr$)(i&ia is the love of death.
+a&i#at arcissis* is the infatuation with one+s own self.
Icestu$us s'*bi$sis is the tendency to remain bound to a mothering person or her
)romm+s psychotherapy goal is too establish union with problematic+ people so that they
can reunite with the rest of the world.
Harr' Stac@ Su&&iva:
6ullivan+s interpersonal theory, believed that people develop their personality through
their interpersonal relationships.
EE)eriece ta*es place on three levels: (,) )r$t$taEic or primitive"pre9symbolic, (B)
)arataEic or not accurately in communication with others, and (4) s'taEic or accurate
$he two aspects of experience are tesi$s (potential for action) and eer#'
tras%$r*ati$s (actions or behaviors).
$ensions are of two *inds: (,) ee!s which is conjunctive and facilitates interpersonal
development, and (B) aEiet' which is disjunctive in that it interferes with the
satisfaction of needs and is the primary obstacle to establishing healthy interpersonal
D'a*is*s are typical traits or behavior patterns resulting from energy transformations
that had become organized.
T')ica& !'a*is*s include *a&ev$&ece (a feeling of living in enemy country),
iti*ac' (a close interpersonal relationship with a peer or eGual status) and &ust
(impersonal sexual desires).
-ari$us !eve&$)*et sta#es:
I%ac' (from birth to the development of syntacxic language) is a time when an
infant+s primary interpersonal relationship is with the one him+her mothering.
C(i&!($$! sta#e (from syntaxic language to the need for playmates of eGual
status) is where the relationship with the mother continues to be the most important
interpersonal relationship, although children of this age often have an imaginary
.uvei&e sta#e (the phase where the child needs playmates of eGual status
necessary for the development of intimacy) is a time when children should learn
competition, compromise and cooperative s*ills that will enable them to move
successfully through succeeding stages of development.
Prea!$&escece (starts with intimacy with a best friend to the beginning of
puberty) is the stage wherein mista*es made are exceedingly difficult to overcome
Ear&' a!$&escece is when young people are motivated by both intimacy (usually
for someone of the same gender) and lust (ordinarily for a person of the opposite sex).
Late a!$&escece is reached when people are able to direct their intimacy and lust
toward another person.
6uccessful completion of late adolescence culminates a!u&t($$!, a stage mar*ed
by a stable love relationship.
-sychotherapists of 6ullivan+s psychotherapy serve as a participant observer and attempts
to improve people+s interpersonalrelations.
+e&aie D&ei:
Ilein+s object relations theory assumes that the mother9child relationship during the first
four or five months is the most critical time for personality development.
Itera& )s'c(ic re)resetati$s $% ear&' si#i%icat $bjects, such as the mother+s
breast or the father+s penis, is an important part of any relationship. !nfants absorb these
psychic representations into their own psychic structure and then project them into an
external object J the other person.
$he e#$ which exists at birth ca sese b$t( !estructive a! &$vi# %$rces, i.e., both a
nurturing and a frustrating breast.
A !ua& i*a#e $% se&% results from infants+ splitting the destructive forces and the loving
forces into good and bad while also splitting the ego.
Su)ere#$ comes into existence much earlier than )reud had expeculated and that it
grows along with the 1edipal process rather than being a product of it.
$he child+s relationship with the mother plays a central role in the Oe!i)us c$*)&eE.
2uring the ear&' Oe!i)a& 'ears< the male child adopts a feminine position and has no
fear of being castrated as punishment for his sexual feelings for his mother. %ater, he
projects his destructive drive unt his father, who fears will bite or castrate him. 1edipus
complex is resolved when the boy establishes good relationswith both parents and fees
comfortable about his parents having sexual intercourse with one another.
)emale child also adopts a feminine position in the E&e@tra sta#e. 6he ahs a positive
feeling both for her mother+s breast and for her father+s ppenis, which she believes will
feed her with babies. (ith most girls, however, the female .*e*tra complex is resolved
without any antagonism or jealousy toward the mother.
Eric@ Eri@s$:
.ric* Homberger .ri*son is a post9)reudian theorist who proposed the eight
psychosexual stages of development, explaining the challenges that are met throughout life.
E)i#eetic Prici)&e. .ach component proceeds in a step fashion, with subseGuent
growth building on earlier development. 2uring every stage, people experience an
interaction of opposing syntonic and dystoniic attitudes which leads to a conflict or a
psychosocial crisis. /esolution of this crisis produces an appropriate basic strength or ego
Guality and enables a person to move to the next stage.
H Sta#es $% Deve&$)*et
6tage , (birth9,@ months) J !nfancy: Trust vs. +istrust. !nfants face the first
challenge of life, which is to establish a sense of trust that their world is a safe place.
)amily members play *ey roles in how the child meets this challenge.
6tage B (,7 months94 years) J #hildhood: Aut$$*' vs. D$ubt a! S(a*e. $he
next challenge is to learn the s*ills to confidently cope with the world. )ailure to gain
self9control leads children to doubt their abilities.
6tage 4 (F9= years) J -reschool: Iititive vs. :ui&t. 2uring the play age, children
experience genital9lpcomotor psychosexual development and undergo a psychosocial
crisis of initiative versus guilt with either the basic strength of purpose or the core
pathology of inhibition.
6tage F (A9,4 years) J -readolescence: I!ustri$usess vs. I%eri$rit'. #hildren
enter school, ma*e friends and stri*e out on their own more. $hey feel proud of their
accomplishments, or fear that they do not measure up. 6choolage children are in a period
of sexual latency but face the psychosocial core pathology of inertia.
6tage = (teenage years) J Adolescence: I!etit' vs. C$%usi$. 2uring teen
years, young people struggle to stablish their own identity with others, but they also want
to be uniGue. Almost all teens experience some confusion as they struggle to stablish an
identity because one+s clear and consistent sense of identity is expected to emerge during
adolescence period. !dentity confusion may dominate the psychosocial crisis thereby
postponing identity. )idelity is the basic strength of adolescence and role repudiation is
its core pathology.
6tage A (,@94< years) J 8oung Adulthood: Iti*ac' vs. Is$&ati$. $he challenge
is for young adults to form and maintain intimate relationships with others. )alling in
love involves balancing the need to have a separate identity. $his stage is characterized
by the psychosexual mode of genitality, the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus
isolation, the basic strength of love and the core pathology of exclusivity.
6tage > (4,9A<) J Diddle Adulthood: Di%%erece vs. Se&%2Abs$r)ti$. $he
challenge is in contributing to the lives of others in the family, at wor* and in the larger
world. )ailing at this, people become stagnant and caught up in their own limited
$his stage is the time when people experience the psychosexual moode of procreativity,
the psychosocial crisis of generativity versus stagnation, the basic strength of care and the
core pathology of rejectivity.
6tage @ (A<9death) J %ate Adulthood"1ld Age: Ite#rit' vs. Des)air. 0ear the
end of their lives, people hope to loo* bac* on what they have accomplished with a sense
oof integrity and satisfaction. )or those who have been self9absorbed, old age brings only
a sense of despair over missed opportunities.
-sychosexual mode of generalized sensuality, crisis of integrity versus despair and the
basic strength of wisdom or the core pathology of disdain mar* this final stage.
,.Bb "e(avi$ra& T(e$ries
5ehavioral theories of personality emphasize the importance of evir$*et or
situational determinants of behavior. 5ehavior is shaped by environmental conditions through
learning and, in turn, a person+s behavior shapes the environment. #ontemporary behavioral
theories are called s$cia& &eari# or s$cia&2c$#itive te$ries which basic tenets is that people
behave in ways that are li*ely to produce reinforcement and that individual differences in
behavior result primarily from differences in the *inds of learning experiences a person
encounters growing up.
Leari# may be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a
result of practice and it has two basic types.
C&assica& C$!iti$i# as a learning process was underta*en by Iva Pav&$v. !ts
learning process involves association of a neutral stimulus with another stimulus through
repeated pairings.
O)erat C$!iti$i# is where certain responses are learned because they operate on,
or affect, the environment.
E.L. T($r!i@e:
$horndi*e+s series of experiments at the turn of century mar*ed tah start of the study on
$)erat c$!iti$i#. He was greatly influenced by 2arwin+s theory of evolution.
.xperimented with a cat who appered to engage in a tria&2a! Ferr$r be(avi$r.
(hen a re9ar! immediately follows one of those behaviors, learning is strengthened and
reffered to this as the &a9 $% e%%ect.
"urr(us Fre!eric S@ier:
5.). 6*inner is a behaviorist. He based his wor*, The Behavior of Organisms (,74@), on
the principles of operant (observable) conditioning.
(ith operant conditioning, the organism+s behavioral responses in a situation are
reinforced or discouraged according to a system of rewards and punishments. !t can be
used to control one+s own behavior as well as others+.
An u!esirab&e be(avi$r exists because it is reinforced.
.u&ia R$tter:
/otter proposed the concept of behavior potential into the behaviorist approach.
5ehavior potential pertains to the li*elihood of occurrence of a specific behavior in a
particular situation being determined by rei%$rce*et va&ue and eE)ectati$.
5ehavior of an individual in a situation would depend on the result of what developed
last time he was in a similar situation.
A&bert "a!ura:
5andura+s socialcognitive theory emphasizes reci)r$ca& !eter*iis* in which external
determinants (e.g. rewards and punishments) and itera& !eter*iats (e.g. beliefs, thoughts
and expectations) are parts of a system of interacting influences that affect both behavior and
other parts of the system.
Reci)r$cit'< wherein the environment affects behavior and behavior affects the
environment determines re&ati$s(i)s.
(hen people act, they use symbols.
$hrough the observation of the behavior of others, which were either rewarded or
punished, people learn how to behave when caught in varied situations.
0.1c Hu*aistic T(e$ries
Humanistic theories of personality adopt the holistic approach wherein the condition of a
human being is viewed in its totality, ta*ing into account their physical, social and psychological
components. Human potentials for self9direction and freedom of choice are maximized.
Abra(a* H. +as&$9:
.mphasized in his wor*, !otivation and "ersonality, is human freedom and man+s
capacity for self9actualization.
Hierarchy of needs is one of the *ey concepts advanced by Daslow. $hese needs
are unchanging and genetic in origin.
need to
fulfill one+s
.steem needs: to
achieve, be competent
gain approval and
-hysiological needs: to satisfy hunger, thirst and
sex drives
6afety needs: to feel secure, safe
and out of danger
5elongingness and love
needs: to affiliate with others to
be accepted and to belong
Actualization 0eeds
ogical 0eeds
ental 0eeds
)igure ,. Daslow+s hierarchy of
!n his study of se&%2actua&i/ers; (men and women who have employed their
products to the fullest) se&%2actua&i/ati$, he hoped to help people achieve hope,
freedom, self9fulfillment and strong self9identities.
He termed transient memories of self9actualization as )ea@ eE)erieces<
characterized by happiness and fulfillment (a temporary nonstriving, nonself9
centered state of goal attainment). .xperiences nay occur in various contexts.
/esponses may be termed as alive, perfect, uniGue, self9sufficient, and so forth.
Car& Ras$* R$#ers:
Actua&i/i# te!ec' is the basic force motivating an individual as J a tendency toward
the fulfillment or the actualization of all the capacities of an individual to move towards
maturity, growth and positive change.
Rea& Se&% vs. I!ea& Se&%
Se&% or se&%2c$ce)t is the central concept in /oger+s theory of personality. Rea& se&%
contains ideas, perception and values characterized by &!' or &me', including an
awareness of &what ! am' and &what ! can do' while i!ea& se&% is one+s conception of the
*ind of person he"she would li*e to be.
0.1! C$#itive T(e$ries
#ognitive theory focuses on &i%$r*ati$ )r$cessi#' and views each person as an
&i%$r*ati$ )r$cess$r' (Cander Oanden, ,77>). $his theory deals with the cognitive structures
and processes that allow a person to mentally represent events that transpire in the environment.
.ea Pia#et:
Mean -iaget, a 6wiss psychologist recognized as a giant of B<
century psychology, was
most interested in the study of growing children and how they adjust to the world they live in.
De' C$ce)ts $% C$#itive T(e$r'
F$ur Sta#es $% C$#itive Deve&$)*et
Ses$r'2+$t$r Sta#e (,9B years old). An individual experiences the word only
through his senses: touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing.
Pre$)erati$a& Sta#e (B9A years old). $he individual first uses language and other
symbols. $here is a lac* of understanding of abstract concepts the child cannot judge
an object+s size, weight or volume.
C$crete2O)erati$a& Sta#e (>9,, years old). An individual first perceives causal
connections in his"her environment. A child focuses on how and why things happen
and attaches more than one symbol to a particular event or object.
F$r*a&2O)erati$a& Sta#e (,B years old and above). An individual thin*s abstractly
and critically. A youngster begins to reason abstractly rather than thin*ing only of
concrete situations, can understand events or situations more than their literal
meaning and can understand the contextual or implied associations of situations and
La9rece D$(&ber#:
%awrence Iohlberg relates moral reasoning to -iaget+s model J how individuals judge
situations as right or wrong. 2evelopment is again seen in stages.
+$ra& Deve&$)*et
Pre2c$veti$a& Leve&. $he childhood stage of value formation wherein children
comply with the values of those who assert power over them, preconventional level is
when young children experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure. &/ightness'
amounts to &what feels good' to them.
C$veti$a& Leve&. $he youth stage in value formation when the adolescents
identify with their peers, idols and teachers due to interpersonal communication.
8oung people lose some of their selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong in
terms of what pleases their parents and what are consistent with broader cultural
norms. $hey try to assess intentions or ends in reaching moral judgments instead of
simply observing what others do right.
P$st2c$veti$a& Leve&. $he adulthood stage when individuals internalize the
values they have imbibed in the first two stages without fear.
+a&e reas$i# J rule9based have a justice perspective relying on formal rules or
regulations to define right and wrong.
Fe*a&e reas$i# J person9based have a care and responsibility perspective judging a
situation with focus towards personal relationships and loyalties.
Car& .u#:
Mung+s wor* on analytic psychology is an echo of )reud+s own wor*.
$he )ers$a& uc$sci$us is formed by the repressed experiences of a particular
individual and is the reservoir of the complexes. Humans inherit a c$&&ective
uc$sci$us that helps shape many of their attitudes, behaviors and dreams.
Arc(et')es are contents of the collective unconscious.
H basic t')es $% arc(et')es
0. Pers$a represents the part of personality that people show to the rest of the world.
-sychologically healthy people recognize their persona but do not mista*e it for the
whole personality.
1. S(a!$9
3. Ai*a is the feminine side of men responsible for many of their irrational moods and
A. Ai*us is the masculine side of women responsible for their irrational thin*ing and
illogical opinions.
B. :reat *$t(er is the archetype of fertility and destruction.
C. Wise $&! *a is the the intelligent but deceptive voice of accumulated experience.
G. Her$ is the unconscious image of a person who conGuers an evil foe but who also has
a tragic flaw.
H. Se&% is the archetype of completeness, wholeness and perfection.
$he two attitudes of itr$versi$ and eEtr$versi$ can combine with any one or more of
the four functions (,) t(i@i#, (B) %ee&i#, (4) sesati$ and (F) ituiti$ to produce
the eight basic archetypes.
Drea* aa&'sis and active i*a#iati$ are used to discover the content of a patient+s
collective unconscious.
Car$& :i&&i#a:
#arol ;illigan compared the moral development of boys and girls and concluded that the
two se#es use different standards of -iaget+s sensory motor stage of moral development
"ri#i# :e!er
;illigan notes that impersonal rules have long governed men+s lives in the wor*place,
whereas personal relationships are more relevant to women+s lives as they ta*e the roles
of wives, mothers and caregivers.
:e$r#e De&&':
!ndividuals are characaterized on !i*esi$s (judgement, categorizing, labelling and
interpreting) they themselves built to interpret themselves and their social worlds also
*nown as the personal construct theory. 2ifferences in personality are results of
differences in behavior.
Sc(e*a is a cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process and utilize
information (At*inson, B<<<). !t is stable, differs in each individual and can be used to
explain differences in personality
Se&%2sc(e*a, the most important schema, consists of cognitive generalizations about the
self derived from past experiences.
0.1e Ev$&uti$ar' Pers$a&it' T(e$r'
$he evolutionary personality theory ppresicts that men and women loo* for different
features when selecting a potential mate (5urger, B<<,). Advocates of this theory thin* of
romantic relationships in terms of male and female members of a species getting together to
eventually reproduce. -arental investment is the concern when choosing a p9artner. 5ecause both
sexes have different ideas about parental investment, the theory predicts that they loo* for
various characteristics in their mates.
$his theory proposes intersexual selection, which is the competition among members of
the same gender for mating acces to the best members of the opposite gender (5urger, B<<,).
$his theory shows that men are more li*ely to consider physical attractiveness when
selecting a dating partner or spouse. $hey also prefer a younger partner. 1n the other hand,
women have preference for a man who possess resources to raise a family.
0.1% Ev$&uti$ar' A!a)tati$ T(e$r'
$he behaviors of individuals are studied in the evolutionary adaptation theory from a
biological point of view. $he theory relies heavily on #harles 2arwin+s evolutionary theory.
-roponents of this theory stressed that evolution applies not only to anatomy and
physiology, but also to predispositions for certain types of behavior. !ndividuals are said to be
genetically prepared for some responses in particular situations.
1. A#ets $% S$cia&i/ati$
.very social experience, which may come from social institutions li*e the family, school,
church"religion and government"politics peer group, mass media and health services available to
individuals, affects the individual in one way or another.
0.a A#ecies a! t')es $% s$cia&i/ati$
Fa*i&'. $he basic social unit the first school of life and love the seedbed of values and
&nurturer of human nature' the family has the greatestvimpact on the individual. !t is the
most influential agent of socializatyion and plays a pivotal role in shaping the personality
of children. $hus, the family is the main lin* between the individual and society. Here is
where the child is oriented into the culture of a group J its norms, goals, types of
concensus, and sanctions. -arents do the delicate tas* of personality formation by
inculcating values and role modeling and guiding them to personnal integrity, civic
consciousness and social responsibility.performamc eof socially accepted behavior is
rewarded, while the socially undesirable ones are punished. Hence, the family is an ever9
pervasive influence on the individual+s behavior, even up to adulthood.
Sc($$&. $he second home of children where teachers, by principle of loco parentis, are
their second parents, the school is the primary agent for weaning children from home and
introducing them to the society. 6chooling broadens children+s social milieu and expands
their interactions with people of different personality traits while learning the *nowledge,
s*ills, values and attitudes expected of them which would prepare them for life ahead.
$he school reinforces what the family misses.
Peer :r$u). A social group whose members have common interests, social position and
age, and have the same economic standing in the community, peer group has a uniGue
understanding of how to behave and trying to escape direct supervision from adults. As
an influencing factor in socialization, the peer group arises from the individual+s need to
belong and be recognized. Cigor is built into man+s nature s a social being. -eer pressure
exists such that a child or a teenager conform his or her behavior to the behavior of his or
her peers in order to belong and be accepted in the peer group. 5ecause of the powerful
influence the group may have, to avoid negative influences on its members peer group
needs adult guidance to serve as a chec* and balance and to direct its members+ potentials
and activities toward wholesome endeavors.
+ass +e!ia. An impersonal communication aimed at a vast audience, either print or
broadcast mass media plays an important role in the socialization process. $he term
&media' comes from the %atin word middle, suggesting that media serves to lin* or
connect people of different races and religious affiliations. $he wide array of
informations brought about by technology in the !nformation Age either positively or
negatively influence the way people thin* and act.
C(urc(5Re&i#i$. An agent of socialization *nown as &conscience formators' of people,
church is a social institution entrusted with the tas* of teaching morality to individuals
and groups who reach out to others and learn obligations toward self, family, church,
society and ;od.
/eligion refers to a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature and purpose of the
universe. Ecu*eis*< i.e., different religions strongly encouraged to be friendly and
tolerant with one another, is encouraged in a democratic society.
:$ver*et5P$&itics. !ndividuals belonging to the other societal agencies continue to
expand their social interaction and learn to obey laws and perform social functions in the
community with civic consciousness and commitment. /espect for authority, or officials
in the government, is fostered and bureaucracy which started in school is more
;overnment and politics exist in all human organizations, groups, or societies, but in
form both have different dimentions. -olitics refer to the processes in society the way
people manage thaie affairs and activities in society. ;overnment, on the other hand, is
the organization through which the state expresses and enforces its will. A government
exists for the good of its constituents. !t is there to protect its people from harm, ensure
safety and security, as well as promote their economic, cultural, moral, and social
Hea&t( Sect$r. Health affects the way a person behaves and interacts with others. $hat is
why the health sector providing health services also affects the socialization process of
the individual. A person suffering from illness limits his"her social functions and social
activities. A healthy person, on the other hand, has the vigor to join social functions and
civic activities.
6tudy ;uide:
#HA-$./ !!!
;ain an understanding of some of the positive and negative aspects of the concepts of
culture and society and a sense of the wide range of topics that can be described as aspects of a
particular culture or society.
A. W(at is Cu&tureI
As illustrated in the excerpt above, culture is an important part of our lives. !t tells us how
to cooperate among groups of people and how to survive as a species. #ulture is defined as a
body of learned behaviors shared by individuals within a society. !t is made up of shared
values< norms< and beliefs as well as material objects such as tools, automobiles, televisions,
shoes, and anything else that is made by humans. $he %atin root of the wordcultura means &to
cultivate.' (e humans shape or cultivate the world around us to suit our needs. #ulture is
something that we cannot live without.
#ulture is also about species survival. (hat ma*es us different from other animals is that
rather than living on instincts, we must rely on culture for survival. 5irds instinctively *now to
fly south for the winter, and bears *now that they need to hibernate to survive harsh climates.
Humans, however, cannot survive harsh climates unless we learn from one another how to
change our environment to suit our needs. !f you were to be dropped off in the desert with no
*nowledge of how to survive, would you be able to? $he 5ushmen of the Ialahari 2esert have
survived the climate of the desert for many years. $heir culture is an important tool for survival.
$hey have extensive *nowledge of their environment and can locate water sources and identify
animal trac*s in the sand. $hey are a Hunter";atherer society which is one of the oldest and
smallest societies in the world. $hey are a sharing culture and live as nomads, traveling in small
bands or tribes. .very element found in their culture is a tool for survival.
". C$*)$ets $% Cu&ture
$he various constituent elements of the culture are norms, values and material culture.
.ach element contributes to cultural life.
0. N$r*s. !n our common everyday activities li*e eating, dressing, coo*ing, sleeping,
schooling, and wor*ing, and in some special occasions li*e #hristmas, fiestas, weddings, or
burials, there are rules or standards of behavior expected of us to be followed. $hese are
called norms.
Homans (,7=<) defines norms as &an idea in the minds of the members of a group, an idea
that can be put in the form of a statement specifying what the other members or men should
do, ought to do, or are expected to do under the certain circumstances.' (hat is important in
a norm is that any departure from it is followed by some punishment or sanction.
0orms prescribes proper ways of behaving for a number of situations. !n some situations,
whether the norms are followed or not is unimportant as in the fol*ways. !n other cases, it is
important that they are followed, as in the mores. $hey are the group+s or society+s standards
of morality, propriety, ethics, and legality. $hey are important for the formation and existence
of groups they define the tas*s and group expections to ma*e group activity and cooperation
possible. $hey are followed automatically, although their existence may be Guestioned by
some from time to time. $hey also influence the emotions and perceptions of individuals.
%i*e any aspectst of the culture, norms may vary from society to society or from one group to
another in societies. 0orms differ according to the age, sex, religion, or race of the group.
(hat may be appropriate behavior in one culture may be disrespectful or inappropriate in
another culture.
Prescri)tive $r*s are those which are right, legal, ethical, good, proper, moral and
Pr$scri)tive $r*s are those which are unethical, wrong, bad, immoral, illegal,
iappropriate and improper.
1. F$&@9a's are customary ways of behaving which usually have no particular moral
significance. !t is the general rules and customary and habitual ways followed without much
thought given to the matter.
)ol*ways are accumulated and repetitive patterns of expected behavior and tend to be self9
perpetuating. 6ome evolve into the present form out of a slow but continuous process of trial
and experimentation. 6ome are rational, some are irrational. !t include such innumerable
group expectations as rules of eating, sleeping, dressing, coo*ing, studying, wor*ing, modes
of greetings and farewell, rituals and ceremonies in institutional setting.
)ol*ways, however, tend to have strong controlling power over the behavior and social
activities of the individual which become regulative for the succeeding geeeenerations and
ta*e on the character of social force. $hey may change slowly or fast. $hey may be modified
or discarded, and new ones may emerge.
3. +$res are strongly9held or specials norms which are essential to the welfare of the people
and their cherished values. $hey have moral or ethical value. Dores consists in large part of
taboos. .nforcement of the mores ta*es the form of negative sanctions. Ciolation of the
mores is considered immoral, unethical or sinful and may be ostracized, exiled, orexecuted.
Tab$$s are acts which are forbidden or prohited.
A. La9s are formalized norms formulated by a governing body. 6ome of the mores are enacted
into laws and enforced by political and legalauthorities. 6ome laws which are not based on
the mores are difficult to enforce. $he violators of the law are punished by fine,
imprisonment, or death.
Re9ar!s are positive sanctions for those who behave properly
Puis(*ets are are negative sanctions for those who behave improperly.
Sacti$s are rewards for conformity. !n order for the members of society to conform or
behave in ways prescribed for them, there are ways and means to ma*e them do so.
#onformity is attained through the use of sanctions or a system of rewards and
I%$r*a& sacti$s F are gossip, unfavorable or favorable public opinion, giving or
withdrawal of affective love or friendship.
F$r*a& sacti$s F are used for violation s of norms in organizations or associations.
)ormal positive sanction may be a promotion, salary increase, medals of honor, or other
merit awards and citations. )ormal negative sanction may be demotion, removal from
office, fine or jail sentence.
B. +ateria& cu&ture refers to the the physical, tangible, and concrete objects produced by man.
$hey are the product of some cultural activity. 5ehind the artifact or material object is the
pattern of culture that gave form to the idea or the artifact, its use or function, and the
techniGues for using or applying it.
La#ua#e is the central feature of all human cultures. !t is a purely human and
noninstinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and drives by means of
voluntarily produced symbols.
%anguage, considered as the most important channel for communication, is a medium for
determining society+s values. !t holds people together and is vital for cross9cultural
understanding. !t promotes and perpetuates one+s cultural heritage and expresses national
identity and history.
Tec($&$#' refers to the techniGues and *nowledge in utilizing raw materials to produce
food, tools, clothing, shelter, means of transportation and weapon.
-a&ues are those standards by which a group society judges the desirability and
importance of persons. $hey are concepts which we use as points of reference or criteria
for recognizing, expressing and evaluating social realities in the environment in terms of
their desirability, importance, significance, worth, Guality, merit, price, and usefulness to
Calues are generalized conceptions of the desirable and describe what members of society
consider to be desirable, good, right, and important. $hey are so general that they do not
specify appropriate ways of thin*ing, feeling, or behaving and they constitute the
foundations of social conscience or a whole way of life of a society. $hey underlie the
norms of the society and give the culture its unity, form and identity. Calues influence the
modes of behavior, thin*ing, and feeling.
C. C(aracteristics $% Cu&ture
0. Cu&ture is s$cia&. #ulture does not exist in isolation. !t is a product of society. !t develops
through social interaction. 0o man can acGuire culture without association with others. Dan
becomes a man only among men.
1. Cu&ture is s(are!. #ulture is not something that an individual alone can possess. #ulture in
sociological sense is shared. )or example, customs, traditions, beliefs, ideas, values, morale
etc. are all shared by people of a group or society.
3. Cu&ture is a #r$u) )r$!uct. #ulture is the result of a group+s habits and experiences, passed
on to succeeding generations for posterity.
A. Cu&ture is &eart. #ulture is not inborn. !t is learnt. #ulture is often called Hlearned ways of
behaviourH. 3nlearned behaviour is not culture. Dan acGuires culture through learning via
language and writing, enabling them to pass this to succeeding generations.
B. Cu&ture is tras*issive. #ulture is transmissive as it is transmitted from one generation to
another. %anguage is the main vehicle of culture. %anguage in different form ma*es it
possible for the present generation to understand the achievement of earlier generations.
$ransmission of culture may ta*e place by imitation as well as by instruction.
Cu&ture is c$tiu$us a! cu*u&ative. #ulture exists as a continuous process. !n its
historical growth it tends to become cumulative. 6ociologist %inton called culture Ethe social
heritageE of man. !t becomes difficult for us to imagine what society would be li*e without
Cu&ture varies %r$* s$ciet' t$ s$ciet'. .very society has a culture of its own. !t differs from
society to society. #ulture of every society is uniGue to itself. #ultures are not uniform.
#ultural elements li*e customs, traditions, morale, values, beliefs are not uniform
everywhere. #ulture varies from time to time also. #ulture is diverse that each culture is
different, hence, individuals must be cautious to avoid assuming that their way of doing
things is the only right or practical way.
Cu&ture is !'a*ic. 0o culture ever remains constant or changeless. !t is subject to slow but
constant change. #ulture is responsive to the changing conditions of the physical world.
Hence culture is dynamic.
Cu&ture is #rati%'i#. #ulture provides proper opportunities for the satisfaction of our needs
and desires. 1ur needs both biological and social are fulfilled in the cultural ways. #ulture
determines and guides various activities of man. $hus, culture is defined as the process
through which human beings satisfy their wants.
Cu&ture is )attere! a! ite#rate!. A unified or integrated culture is one where there is
conformity between ideal norms and actual behavior. $he members+ biological,
psychological and social needs are met.
Cu&ture is a!a)tive a! *a&a!a)tive. #ulture is adaptive when used by man to ma*e the
environment viable for a stable economy. !n contrast, culture is maladaptive when scarce
resources are destroyed or depleted.
Cu&ture is c$*)u&s$r'. #ulture restrains man from violating existing rules and regulations
of society. Dembers of a group have to follow the group+s culture if they wish to be in
harmony with one onother.
D. Issues i U!ersta!i# Cu&ture
0. Subcu&tures are small groups within the society that act and behave differently from the rest.
1. C$utercu&tures, also reffered to as &contra9culture,' results from the opposition and
conflict between the larger society and the group.
3. I!i$cu&tures, a culture created by every group, is a system of customs, behavior, beliefs and
*nowledge created through group interactions. !t is formed from the moment of interaction
among group members and may be said to consist largely of idiosyncracies that are the said
group members+ common denominators. !ts members, after being together for an extended
period, would have developed their own program and set of practices that would seem alien
to outsiders.
A. Cu&ture s($c@ is the term used for the feeling of unpleasantness or disorientation
experienced when one goes to an unfamiliar setting. !nitial reactions of being culture shoc*ed
are anxiety, stress, frustration and dismay. Accompanying symptoms of culture shoc* are fear
of being alone, loneliness, being contaminated by viruses, and feeling of being laughed at or
An individual may experience culture shoc* even in his own country.
#ulture shoc* is also experienced by sociologists and anthropologists who do field wor* in a
different country, as well as by tourists, exchange students, missionaries, migrants, and most
commonly, by overseas wor*ers.
B. Cu&tura& !iversit'. Carious factors account for the diversity of culture. (hile men all over
the world have similar biological drives and needs, the ways of meeting, the ways of meeting
them differ. .ach culture adapts to its environment in its distinctive way.
2ifference in geographical characteristics accounts for social and cultural differences. -eople
coming from varying climates and topography are sometimes said to exhibit differences in
character traits. $he presence or absence of certain natural resources is also considered as a
crucial factor in determining the socio9economic development of a community. However,
while geography may influence a nation+s development, its influence is minimal it is unable
to determine the form of society or influence its culture because man can alter it to some
#ulture plays an important role in molding and shaping one+s way of life. Habits, attitudes,
and the li*es are culturally defined. 2efinitions of appropriate behavior are culturally
prescribed. -eople+s view or perspective of circumstances or problems differs from one
society to another. -eople+s behavior can therefore be understood in terms of their culture.
All cultures have developed out of shared human activities centering on common needs or
problems. However, we can only understand culture by loo*ing at their totality as represented
in the symbolic system that provides reality for the people who share the culture and not by
loo*ing only at its part.
C. Cu&tura& re&ativit' states that culture is relative J it is neither good nor bad. )rom the facts
about cultural diversity emerged the principle of cultural variation. Anthropologists, from
their extensive studies, hold that there is no single universal standard to be used to judge any
culture+s way of life.
$he exact opposite of ethnocentrism, cultural relativism views that a cultural practice is
neither good nor bad in itself and that its desirability depends upon their meaning, value and
function in the culture which they are part of. All cultures have customs, practices and traits
which may be viewed as offewnsive and eccentric by other cultures.
$his notion views each culture as being a uniGue adjustment to a particular set of
circumstances. !ts principle is that every culture must be judged by its own standards, and a
culture pattern or trait must be viewed in terms of its meaning, function or significance in the
culture of which it is a part. 6o, before considering certain culture traits or patterns as
ridiculous, improper or wrong, we have to consider its meaning in the culture to which it
belongs. !n such a way, we develop understanding and tolerance for people in another
G. Et($cetris* is the tendency to believe that oneEs ethnic or cultural group is centrally
important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to oneEs own. $he ethnocentric
individual will judge other groups relative to his or her own particular ethnic group or
culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion. $hese ethnic
distinctions and sub9divisions serve to define each ethnicityEs uniGue cultural identity.
(hy then is ethnocentrism bad? .thnocentrism leads us to ma*e false assumptions about
cultural differences. (e are ethnocentric when we use our cultural norms to ma*e
generalizations about other peoplesE cultures and customs. 6uch generalizations J often made
without a conscious awareness that weEve used our culture as a universal yardstic* J can be
way off base and cause us to misjudge other peoples. !t also leads us to ma*e premature
judgments such as &They may not be very good at what we are best at.' 5y evaluating them
by what we are best at, we miss the many other aspects of life that they often handle more
competently than we do. Hence, ethnocentrism can lead to cultural misinterpretation and it
often distorts communication between human beings.
H. ,e$cetris* is the opposite of ethnocentrism which means preferring ideas and things
from other cultures over ideas and things from your own culture. !t is the belief that one+s
own lifestyle, ideas or products are inferior. At the heart of xenocentrism is an assumption
that other cultures are superior to your own.
J. Te*)$r$cetris*< the belief that one+s own time is more important than the past or future, is
prevalent among people who lac* historical perspective.
0K. Cu&ture uiversa&s< practices found in every culture, are similarities in the broad areas of
culture. !ts existence can be accounted for by:
"i$&$#ica& si*i&arities. $he occurrence of similar culture patterns may be azttributed to
similarities in biological structures and drives.
Necessar' )rere=uisites %$r s$cia& &ivi#. !n order to function, each society must fulfill
certain reGuirements. .very culture has some *ind of world view or explanation of the
world, as perceived by the members of society, and some *ind of religion trherefore.
Ps'c(ic uit' $% *a@i!. All human beings are ali*e in having similar ranges of
emotions, in the need for security and response, in being subject to conditioning, and in
having a symbolic language. $his psychic unity is a source of cultural similarities but
does not determine specific adaptations or identical cultural patterns.
:e$#ra)(ica& evir$*et. ;eographical environment is characterized by certain
limitations and possibilities. As a result, there are similarities in meeting man+s needs and
solving common problems.
A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the
preservation of a basic societal value. 1bviously, the sociologist does not define institutions in
the same way as does the person on the street. %ay persons are li*ely to use the term HinstitutionH
very loosely, for churches, hospitals, jails, and many other things as institutions.
6ociologists often reserve the term HinstitutionH to describe normative systems that
operate in five basic areas of life, which may be designated as the primary institutions. (,) !n
determining Iinship (B) in providing for the legitimate use of power (4) in regulating the
distribution of goods and services (F) in transmitting *nowledge from one generation to the
next and (=) in regulating our relation to the supernatural. !n shorthand form, or as concepts,
these five basic institutions are called the family, government, economy, education and religion.
$he five primary institutions are found among all human groups. $hey are not always as
highly elaborated or as distinct from one another, but, in rudimentary form at last, they exist
everywhere. $heir universality indicates that they are deeply rooted in human nature and that
they are essential in the development and maintenance of orders. 6ociologists operating in terms
of the functionalist model society have provided the clearest explanation of the functions served
by social institutions. Apparently there are certain minimum tas*s that must be performed in all
human groups. 3nless these tas*s are performed adeGuately, the group will cease to exist. An
analogy may help to ma*e the point. (e might hypothesize that cost accounting department is
essential to the operation of a large corporation. A company might procure a superior product and
distribute it then at the price which is assigned to it, the company will soon go out of business.
-erhaps the only way to avoid this is to have a careful accounting of the cost of each step in the
production and distribution process.
:eera& Fucti$s $% S$cia& Istituti$
0. !nstitution 6atisfy the 5asic needs of 6ociety
1. !nstituttion define dominant social values. &5ills of /ights'
3. !nstitutions establish permanent patterns of 6ocial 5ehavior monogamy
A. !nstitutions support other institutions. &Adultery'
B. !nstitutions provide roles for individuals. Husband and wife.
A. Re&i#i$ a! S$ciet'
/eligions, whatever their form, can have major social impact in some societies 9 for good
or for evil. 1f course in some religions any social impact they have may be secondary or
incidental to their main declared aim of relating people to ;od. $his site is not here concerned
with considering the religious aspect of religions, but only with considering their impact on
society. And the social impact of religions is normally less to do with the religion itself than its
institutional form or church.
$he social impact of any one religion in any society is strongly affected by whether it is
supported by the majority of the population or by a minority. A majority religion not only
directly impacts more people, but is also li*ely to have substantial impact on government and on
society values. ;enerally it is the poorest societies that have the greatest proportion of the
population supporting religion, though that may mean several religions rather than one religion.
5ut for religionEs social impact, the major difference will often be between poorer societies and
less9poor societies.
Poorer Societies. /eligions generally have greater social impact in poorer societies,
where they tend to be supported more strongly by the majority. 1ften one religion will
predominate and will have substantial effect on the government 9 either the religion
controlling the government, or the government using the religion in a majority9poverty
!t is this type of situation that Iarl Darx referred to when he stated that H/eligion is the
opium of the massesH. Any religion that has a Ebetter afterlifeE will tend to help the poor to
live with their poverty and perhaps with exploitation and government oppression. 6o the
poor will tend to more strongly support religion, and governments in poor societies can
tend to encourage or use religion to help maintain social control. #hurches as institutions
tend to support governments and the wealthy who can finance churches better than poor
believers can. !n these societies religions will help maintain a social order that can
include exploitation and oppression.
(hile a religion can be an ally of government or a tool of government, there are of course
cases of a religion gaining control over government and effectively being government,
and this often means church policies dominating a society 9 especially Espread our
religionE. $his can mean other religions being oppressed and wars being encouraged or
started against other religions. #hristian .urope saw anti9heretic and anti9witch
oppression and crusade wars against E!nfidelsE, moving to missionary9led worldwide
oppressive colonisations 9 and societies motivated by other religions have done similar.
And where a poor society had substantial support for two or more religions then fierce
civil wars have often resulted. An additional issue when a religion controls government is
that they are often lac*ing in the *inds of s*ills needed for efficient government, lac*ing
s*ills in business, in dealings, in compromising and in handling opponents. 6o with the
best intentions, religious government often achieves little actual good.
$ews. $he world economic crisis that hit in B<<7 sees poorer countries being hit by
dramatic declines in trade and in foreign investment, and their poor facing more hardship
now. $his economic downturn seems to have increased the abandonment of children and
of elderly women in poorer countries, and to have increased the murder of children and of
elderly women in poorer countries. 1ften with EjustificationsE that they are witches or
devil9possessed, with total annual numbers estimated to be some millions.
Less-poor Societies. !n less9poor societies, religions generally are not supported as
widely or as strongly as in poor societies, and many people will generally have less social
problems also. $here is somewhat less of a social need for religion, and generally religion
has a somewhat wea*er social impact.
(here the poor have become a minority, support for a formerly majority religion tends to
coming predominantly from the non9poor and shrin*s among the poor who see the church
as having deserted them. Dany of the minority poor will tend to switch to other minority
religions, while the mainstream religion continues to give wea*ened support for a social
order that can include social exclusion of the poor and other minorities.
Minority Religion. However, religions can often be socially at their best where they are a
minority religion 9 especially if the minority concerned is oppressed or socially excluded.
$hen the church may have a useful role in socially supporting that minority. $he church
will be seen as independent of government and of the wealthy, and be seen as Eour
churchE. !n this case the minority religion may also be able to somewhat press
government to moderate the social exclusion of that minority. !n the modern richer
countries which have seen a general shrin*age in support for religion, there has also
tended to be an increase in the diversity of religions with particular religions associated
with particular social classes or with particular minorities.
Charities. !n many societies there are charities that have been set up often by churches or
religious individuals, and by others. $hese charities generally aim to somehow help some
people with some problems. 6ometimes their good intentions do actually achieve a lot of
real good, sometimes a little good and sometime more harm than good.
1ne main problem with charities is that they are often run by people who do not really
understand the needs of those they are meant to help. #harities for the poor are generally
run by the rich. 6ome do try to find out what help is really needed but many charities
only do what they thin* is needed and get it very wrong. !nstead of giving training a
charity may give food, and instead of helping a family a charity may split9up the family.
1f course government EhelpE will often have similar problems and often also do little real
The social significance of different religions. $he relative social significance of different
religions in the world today is perhaps somewhat difficult to estimate.
6tatistics indicate #hristianity as currently having the worldEs largest number of
supporters, around 44P, and as being concentrated more in richer countries. 5ut at
present !slam seems a close second on number of supporters, about BBP, with Hinduism
in third place at around ,=P. #urrently 5uddhist supporters seem to follow on about AP,
with #hinese $raditionalism at around FP and Mudaism at only about <.BP.
However, these numbers do not fully ta*e account of the fact that most religions are
divided between often many different competing churches. And these numbers do not
ta*e account of strength of support 9 for some religions including many more nominal or
marginal supporters than for other religions. Also some religions may help or encourage
business or political action more by its members, than other religions do.
;enerally it seems that the social impact of religions is tending to fall as countries get richer, but
much of the world does still remain in poverty with religions having much influence.
01$.. 6ome religions have a E;od made the universe and man*indE creation story and, despite
the fact that such religious stories are about ;od and do not claim to be science, some see a
claimed conflict with evolution science. !nterestingly the Mewish9#hristian creation story
involves man*ind (many of whom are very ungodly) being created Ein the image of the
ma*erE and then immediately the ma*er Eends his wor* and restsE. $his loo*s Guite li*e the
development of an intelligent species progressing to ma*ing robots in their own image to
do their wor* 9 li*e the development of man*ind, or of another intelligent alien species ?
5. :$ver*et a! La9
At one point, the study of politics was considered to be merely a part of the study of
social organization, owing perhaps to the holistic nature of the discipline. %ater, however,
anthropologists interested in political studies wor*ed hard towards the recognition of political
anthropology as a subdivision of social anthropology. !ts reclassification emanates from the
contention that )$&itics be#i 9(ere @is(i) e!s. Here the interplay of other factors into the
political organization was is the maintenance or establishment of social order with
territorial framewor*, by the organized exercise of coercive authority through the use or the
possibility of use of physical force.
P$&itica& $r#ai/ati$ is a part of the total organization concerned with the preservation
of social order within a specified territory by a duly recognized authority. !n many
instances, the said authorities are recognized through formal election, while in some tribal
societies, the basis or criteria for their designations are informal and loose.
Criteria $% &ea!ers i a triba& s$ciet'. Hunting and gathering societies throughout the
world are classified as ba!s composed mostly of *insmen. Dembers ranged from 4<9
,<< and hardly had any concept of property (except for personal possessions li*e clothes,
weapons, and tools used for economic activities). 6ince survival reGuired them to move
from palce to place at certains seasons of the year, made it imposible for these nomadic
band to establish a formal government. $hus, informally, among themselves, they
recognized as &ea!ers the best (uters, the e&!est (because of their *nowledge of
tradition), or the str$#est who did not only serve to provide the group with subsistence
and economic training but those who had a complete grasp of the tradition also served as
adjucators in case of conflicts within the groups and perhaps with outsiders.
6ince the bands were composed of *insmen, cases brought to the attention of leaders
were those which basically concern their day9to9day activities. Doreover, since the laws
of these groupswere unwritten, and since one criterion used in the recognition of a leader
was his *nowledge of tradition and recollection of cases in the past, solutions were then
arrived by using past cases as the bases for deciding cases.
C&arri%'i# re&ati$s(i)s bet9ee ec$$*ic a! activities a! *$!es $% #$ver*et.
6ince there is a correlation between economic activities and political organization,
primary problems among band socities are also centered around territories, the
distribution of resources and relations between bands. .ach band has its customary range
or sovereign area, to which it is lin*ed by practical economic considerations, by history
and sentiment, and usually by mythological and religious associations. Ciolations of the
well9defined rules governing the use of territory and its accompanying resources as well
as the relations of the group to neighboring units become the basic concern of the leader.
C. Ec$$*'
$he ec$$*' is the institution that provides for the production and distribution of goods
and services, which people in every society need. 6ometimes they can provide these things for
themselves, and sometimes they rely on others to provide them. (hen people rely on others for
goods or services, they must have something to exchange, such as currency (in industrialized
societies) or other goods or services (in nonindustrialized societies). $he customs surrounding
exchange and distribution of good and services shape societies in fundamental ways.
+acr$s$ci$&$#' vs. *icr$s$ci$&$#'. 6ociologists use two approaches when studying
society. !n *acr$s$ci$&$#', sociologists analyze large9scale social forces, such as
institutions. $hey identify and analyze the structure of societies. $he second approach
sociologists use is *icr$s$ci$&$#', the study of social interaction. $hese sociologists
focus on face9to9face interaction, how people act around others. $his method is focused
more on individuals than groups.
Ec$$*ic S'ste*s. $he two dominant economic systems in the world are capitalism and
socialism. Dost societies have varying blends of the two systems. #ommon hybrids of
capitalism and socialism are welfare capitalism and state capitalism.
Capitalism. !t is a system under which resources and means of production are privately
owned, citizens are encouraged to see* profit for themselves, and success or failure of an
enterprise is determined by free9mar*et competition.
We&%are ca)ita&is* is a system that features a market-based economy coupled with an
etensi!e social welfare system that includes free health care and education for all
State ca)ita&is* is a system under which resources and means of production are
pri!ately owned but closely monitored and regulated by the go!ernment.
S$cia&is* vs. Ca)ita&is*. 0o one economic system has succeeded in satisfying all the
needs of its citizens. 6everal economic studies over the past few generations have shown
that, in general, citizens in societies with capitalist economies enjoy a higher standard of
living than those in socialist societies.
+arE;s Ec$$*ic T(e$r'. -hilosopher and historian Iarl Darx believed that the
economy was the basic institution of society and that all other institutions, such as family
and education, served to fuel the economy. As societies became more industrialized, he
theorized, they also became more capitalistic. Darx disli*ed the fact that capitalism
created a two9tiered system consisting of factory owners and factory wor*ers, in which
the groups were constantly in conflict with each other. )actory owners wanted to pay
their wor*ers as little as possible to maximize profits. )actory wor*ers, on the other hand,
wanted to ma*e as much money as possible. $he advantage was always with the owners,
who could choose to fire wor*ers who wanted too much and hire wor*ers who would
wor* for less.
Darx was a c$%&ict t(e$rist, believing that in any capitalist society there was always
conflict between the owners of the means of production and the wor*ers. He believed that
the only way to resolve the conflict was for wor*ers to unite, mount a revolution, and
overthrow their oppressors. Darx believed that once the dust settled after the revolution,
all societies would bec$**uist, meaning that all the means of production would be
owned by everyone and all profits would be shared eGually by everyone. His ideas
inspired the /ussian /evolution of ,7,>.
Ec$$*ic Tre!s. $he ways the world and the 3.6. economies wor* are changing
rapidly. $here are several important trends:
a. :&$ba&i/ati$: $he expansion of economic activity across many borders characterizes
the global economy. -oorer, developing nations now produce the raw materials for the
world+s multinational corporations. $hese multinational companies control most of the
world+s economy.
b. De*a! %$r e!ucate! )r$%essi$a&s: $he postindustrial economy is driven by trained
professionals such as lawyers, communications professionals, doctors, and teachers.
c. Se&%2e*)&$'*et: 0ew, affordable communications technology has allowed more people
to go into business for themselves.
d. Diversit' i t(e 9$r@)&ace: 1nce the bastion of white males, professional offices are
heavily populated by women and minorities in today+s society.
2. E!ucati$
.ducation plays a large part in the socialization of children into a society. Dost of the
child+s day through these years is devoted to activities involving school such as attending classes,
doing homewor*, and participating in extracurricular activities. $he school format is designed to
teach children to be productive members of society. 6chools bear most of the responsibility of
preparing young people for the wor*ing environment. #hildren learn from punctuality, time
management, and to respect the authority of their teacher whish prepares them to respect their
boss. $he curriculum also plays an mportant role. A class in civics teaches a child to be a good
citizen, and a class in home economics teaches a child how to operate a household. Dost
socialization, however, occurs beyond the curriculum. .xtra curricular activities such as student
government, being a part of a school news paper, or being in a business club provide anticipatory
socialization for adult jobs.
.ducation and deviance have a close relation ship. $he education system serves different
purposes in regard to deviance. )oremost, education is a detterent for deviance. #hild learns very
early about crime and punishment. $hey learn in the curriculum but they also learn it in a
particular way. $hey are punished from cheating, fighting, and other deviant behaviors.
$herefore, eduction system plays a vital role in social control by producing compliant citizens
that understand what deviance is and how to avoid it. Although education is used as a tool to
deter deviance, it can un*nowingly perpetuate it as well. !f a child is labeled as stupid, a teacher
expects less out of that child. $he mainstream peer population avoids any peer that is deviant.
$hus, these students feel that their only identity is their so9called deviant behavior. !t seems to
the child that they will never be able to escape this label, so they continue with the behavior that
is considered deviant.
6ocial stratification and education are tightly lin*ed. 6chools may promote social
ineGuality by limiting the opportunities of women, minorities, and those in the lower classes.
$his can be caused by purposeful discrimination, but more often it is because the social
institution of education has sexism and racism built into it.
6tudy after study has shown that students from upper classes consistently do better in
school and continue their education, whereas lower classes students do not have the same
6chools perpetuate gender and race stratification as well. 5oys tend to receive more
encouragement to ta*e more math and science as well as more advanced courses that girls do. in
the professional world, women are shut out of occupations involving higher math and science
s*ills. Dinorities also have less opportunity to do well in school. Dinorities are more li*ely to
grow up in poverty and live in unhealthy environments. Dinorities are concentrated in the inner
city where the worst, most impoverished schools are located. $herefore, even they wish to attend
school, they still have less access to good teachers and a good learning environment. And
perhaps the most detrimental issue that minorities face is that they are often stigmatized as
inferior. $his causes them to be treated differently and it causes them to have low expectations
fpr themselves, which leads to poor performance.
.ducation is a vital part of society. !t serves the beneficial purpose of educating the
children and getting them ready to be productive adults in today+s society. 5ut the social
institution of education is not without its problems. #ontinual efforts to modify and improve the
system need to be made to reap the highest benefits that education has to offer to children and the
society as a whole.
E. +arria#e a! Fa*i&'
$o provide a safe lifestyle and environment for the perpetuation of the human race, the
institution of marriage was created by various societies based upon an agreement by a man and a
woman to become husband and wife.
(ithin this sytem of dealing with responsibilities and safeguards of property rights and
family lines, the family unit of husband, wife and children born to them, establish, preserve and
maintain morals. $hey also cultivate, improve and perpetuate our civilization, legal, social and
ethical codes and maintain the concept that marriage is a powerful commitment between a man
and a woman to become husband and wife. $hat commitment has peripheral legal and personal
responsibility factors.
(hile the actual dynamics of marriage fnctions have changed throughout the centuries,
as have perceived public needs, opinions and practices, the concept of a man and a woman as
husband and wife bonding together in love, forming a family unit, with the potential of having
children born of the marriage, has not changed.
A. +arria#e
#umans emerge from the comple process of cells deciding to $oin and become
Darriage is the process by which two people who love each other ma*e their relationship
public, official, and permanent. !t is the joining of two people in a bond that putatively lasts until
death, but in practice is increasingly cut short by divorce. 1f coures, over the course of a
relationship that can last as many as seven or eight decades, a lot happens. -ersonalities change,
bodies age, and romantic love waxes and wanes. And no marriage is free of conflict. (hat
enables a couple to endure is how they handle that conflict. 6o how do you manage the problems
that inevitably arise? And how can you *eep the spar* alive?
0.a Nature $% +arria#e
0.b "ib&ica& -ie9 $ +arria#e
Darriage was designedand created by ;od
Darriage is solemnagreement between twopeople made in the presence of ;od
Darriage is the only suitable relationship in which sex can happen
Darriage is the ideal relationshipin which to bring up *iddies
Darriage is intended to be permanent relationship
#ouples are meant to be faithful within marriage
0.c Reas$s $% :etti# +arrie!
0ot everybody wants to get married. Dost liberal women prefer to saty single because
they have the belief that having a permanent partner and children to rear is an en
cumbrance. 1n the contrary, most people wat to get married due to any of the following
I% '$u &$ve s$*e$e< '$u s($u&! *arr' t(e* 2 $he thin*ing behind this statement is
that when you declare your love for someone, your saying it is going to stay forever, so
marriage should naturally follow since it cannot hinder this thin*ing but only solidify it.
Marriage shows the other person how much you love them - $his is saying that in order
to prove to your loved one that you indeed love them you need to ma*e a commitment to
them and get married.
It ensures that you will stay with each other for as long as you live - 6ince marriage is a
promise to stay with someone for the rest of your life, whenever the thought of you being
with someone else comes to your mind, you will remember that you are married, and
only love one person with whom you shall share your entire life with.
If you truly love someone, why would you not want to marry them? - (hen you say you
love someone, nothing else should matter. (hy does this commitment scare you if you
say you love them? Daybe you are afraid that this marriage will mean you will have to
force yourself to be with this person even in the future when your feelings might change.
5ut if you say you love this person, how can your feelings in the future possibly change,
therefore why are you afraid to get married?
If the marriage doesn't work out, there is always divorce! - Assuming that later in life,
you find out that your love was not true and it needs to end, you always have the divorce
to fall bac* on.
0.! Ot(er reas$s %$r *arria#e
$o beget children and have a happy family
)or economic and social upliftment or insurance.
0.e F$r*s $% +arria#e
As marriages cut off across different races and different cultures, marriage patterns
emanate in accordance with established norms as well as laws.
$he most commonly accepted forms of marriage are Donogamy and -olygamy.
+$$#a*'. Donogamy is a &one9union' marriage wherein a man marries one woman.
$his is the most accepted legal form of marriage among )ilipinos. As provided by
-hilippine law, when a man marries more than one woman at a given time, he commits
bi#a*' which is considered a crime. !n other countries where there are high rates of
divorce and remarriage, monogamy as a form of marriage has been described by
sociologists as serial monogamy.
P$&'#a*'. !s a &many9union' marriage. A person marries two or more persons of the
opposite sex at the same time. $his form of marriage is practiced among Duslims,
especially those from the upper class, as they are permitted by their religion to have more
than one wife at the same time as long as each one is financially supported.
T')es $% P$&'#a*':
P$&'#'' F is marriage uniting one man to two or several women. $his is practiced
among !slamic nations. However, the number of polygynic marriages is declining
because only a few can afford to simultaneously sustain several families. $hey usually
belong to extremely wealthy families.
P$&'a!r' F is marriage uniting one woman to many man. $his form of marriage is very
rare. -olyandry has been practiced in $ibet where agriculture is difficult. -olyandry
discourages the division of land into small parcels so people are unable to support a
0.% Se&ecti$ $% +arria#e Parters
+ate se&ecti$ is the practice wherein a prospective groom or bride chooses future
husband or wife. $his is a crucial stage in the selection process. $he *ind of person one
chooses to marry determines the *ind and Guality of life the family one will have.
6election of future mates is often limited on the basis of group mores and patterns. )or
instance, the presence of icest tab$$s is dominant among )ilipinos. $he systems of
marriage such as endogamy and exogamy li*ewise limit the selection of mates.
E!$#a*' reGuires a person to marry someone from his own locality, from his own race,
social class and religion.
EE$#a*' mandates marriage between people of different social categories.
0.%0 Prici)&es $% +ate Se&ecti$
Oaide (,77@) states that in the process of selecting mates, people are usually guided by
certain principles, although they may not aware that they are using one.
Prici)&es $% Ass$rtative +ati# refers to an individual who consciously or
unconsciously selects a partner exhibiting characteristics more or less similar to his"her
Prici)&e $% Pre%erecia& +ati# refers to the individual who selects a mate exhibiting
certain characteristics which he"she considers desirable.
Prici)&e $% Aut$*atic Fact$rs is subdivided into:
Consciousness of kind refers to a person who marries somebody belonging to the same
Residential propin&uity refers to an individual who marries somebody living nearby.
'ccupational propin&uity refers to a person who marries somebody wor*ing in the same
place or who is engaged in the same or allied profession.
Short time eposure refers to a person who marries somebody whom he"she has *nown
for a short time and in a company he"she has been thrown constantly.
Darriage partner selection should be done thoroughly and unhurriedly and several factors
on mate selection be considered. $oo often, after a &romantic' marriage, when reality
finally sets in, couples fall out of love and statrt Guarelling until it leads to their
0.%1 C$urts(i)
#ourtship paves the way for a man and a woman to *now each other better from the
moral, social, spiritual and emotional points of view. !t should be analyzed not only on
the basis of love and affection but also on r$&e eE)ectati$s< c$**it*et and
F$ur Sta#es $% C$urts(i)
Dati# usually refers to an arrangement or appointment between a aman and a woman
to meet socially. !t is a social engagement, usually with the opposite sex. !t fulfills a
number of important functions in the lives of the youth.
Premarital Se is sex outside marriage which diminishes the symbolic meaning of
couple+s+ c$**it*et for life.
$he following are the reasons why premarital sex is strongly discouraged:
A "i!i# F$rce. 6ex befor marriage can become a binding force leading to marriage
based on sex and not on friendship and love.
+e*$ries. )lashbac*s of previous sexual encounters can haunt a marriage and may
inflict conflict in couples.
+a@es it Di%%icu&t t$ Disti#uis( bet9ee Rea& L$ve a! I%atuati$. 5ecause
sexual intercourse is designed to bring people together as one. (hen sex is
experienced outside of marriage, it can confuse a person+s feelings and decision9
ma*ing ability. -remarital sex ma*es couple believe that it is enhancing oneness and
is safe to go ahead and not get married. 5ut the fact is, premarital sex only promotes
body unity and mind and soul unity that is necessary for a lifetime commitment
(emotional pleasure).
:ui&t. ;uilt of having sex with a persons not your husband"wife can be carried over
to sex in marriage.
Pre*arita& Pre#ac'. -remarital pregnancy most often leads to abortion and singl
parenthood for unwed mothers and fathers.
AIDS a! $t(er !iseases. 6exually transmitted disease (6$2s) such as gonorrhea,
syphilis, herpes and AcGuired !mmunodeficiency 6yndrome (A!26) can add
emotional grief to persons inflicted with these diseases.
Wea@ess +arria#e. Dost often, marriage with couples who have engaged in
premarital sex end in divorce or separation.
:$i# Stea!' happens when a person decides to date another person exclusively and
seems to be a prelude to a private understanding between two people. 2uring this period,
a young couple tries to explore and test the personality of another, identify his"her main
characteristics, discover his"her temperaments and find out each other+s common ideas
and values. #ompatibility is a factor in a lasting relationship.
+utua& U!ersta!i#. Among )ilipinos, mutual understanding is thye stage when
a man, after years of courtship and has *nown a woman very well, now proposes
marriage to the woman. His intentions may be seen in his open declaration of love and
affection to the woman and his obvious determination to have her as his wife.
E#a#e*et practice is still predominant among many )ilipinos. .nagagement has
been associated with either giving an enagaement ring or giving a !$9r', assumed as a
bride price. "ri!e )rice may roughly be defined as a marriage payment made by a
prospective husband or by his family to the family of the bride.
According to 5eals, bride price and dowry are synonymous. He stated many functions of
!t symbolizes the socioeconomic statuses of the families to be united.
!t establishes an economic tie between the families of the bride and the groom to
further ensure the stability of the marriage.
!t provides the family of the bride with a means of replacing her with a daughter9in9
0.# Re=uisites %$r +arria#e
Essetia& re=uire*ets as provided in Article B of the )amily #ode of the -hilippines
states that no marriage shall be valid unless the following essential reGuisites are present:
0. %egal capacity of the contracting parties who must be a male and a female and
1. #onsent freely given in ythe presence of the the solemnizing officer.
F$r*a& re=uisites of marriage as stated in Article 4 are as follows:
0. Authority of the solemnizing officer
1. Calid marriage license
3. Darriage ceremonywhich ta*es place with the appearance of the contracting parties
before the solemnizing officer and their personal declaration that they ta*e each other
as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age.
Ot(er re=uisites %$r +arria#e:
0. Age must be eighteen years or onwards for any male or female not under any
1. -ersonal appearance of the contracting parties and their declaration witnessed by not
less than two witnesses of legal age. 2eclaration shall be contained in the marriage
certificate which shall be signed by the by the contracting parties and their witnesses
and ettested by the solemnizing officer
3. (here marriage license is reGuired, each of the contracting parties file separately
sworn applications for such license with the proper local civil registrar which specify:
a. full name of the contracting party
b. place of birth
c. age and date of birth
!. civil status
e. if previously married, when and where previous marriage was dissolved or annulled
%. present residence and citizenship
#. degree of relationship of the contracting parties
(. full name, residence and citizenship of the father
i. full name, residence and citizenship of the mother and
j. full name, residence and citizenship of the guardian or person having charge, in case
the contracting party has neither father nor mother and is a minor or under the age of
twenty9one years.
0.( S$&e*i/i# +arria#e
)rom the same code under Article >:
0. Any incumbent member of the judiciary within the court+s jurisdiction
1. Any priest, rabbi, imam or minister of any church or religious sect duly authorized by
his church or religious sect and registered with the civil registrar general, acting
within the limits of the written authority granted him by his church or religious sect
and provided that at least one of the contracting parties belongs to the solemnizing
officer+s church or religious sect
3. Any ship captain or airplane pilot only in the cases of articulo mortisb between
passenge4ers and crew members not only while the ship is at sea or the plane in
flight, but also during stop overs at ports of call
A. Any military commander of a unit to which a chaplain is assigned, in the absence of
the latter, during a military operation, li*ewise only in cases where a military
commander of a unit who is a commissioned officer, shall li*ewise have authority to
solemnize marriage in articulo mortis between persons within the zone of military
operation, whether members of the armed forces or civilians and
B. Any consul9general, consul or vice9consul in tha case provided in Article ,<
(marriages between )ilipino citizens abroad).
0.(0 -$i! a! -$i!ab&e +arria#es
-$i! *arria#e is an invalid marriage.
-$i!ab&e *arria#e is a marriage which can be made invalid or annulled.
Darriages which shall be void from the beginning (article 4= of the )amily #ode of the
0. $hose contracted by any party below eighteen years of age even with parents+ or
guardians+ consent
1. $hose solemnized by any person not legally authorized to perform marriages unless
such marriages were contracted with either or both parties believing in good faith that
the solemnizing officer had the legal authority to do so
3. $hose solemnized without a license, except those covered by exmptions
A. $hose bigamous or polygamous marriages under Article F, of this code
B. $hose contracted through mista*e of onecontracting party as to the identity of the
other and
C. $hose subseGuent marriages that are void under Article =4 of this code.
Also considered void marriages:
0. Darriges contracted by any party who, at the time of the celebration, was
psychologically incapacitated to comply with the essential obligations of marriage,
even if such incapacity manifests only after its solemnization and
1. Darriages between ascendants and descendants of any degree and between brothers
and sisters, whether full or half9blood.
2ue to reasons of public policy, the following marriages shall be void from the beginning
s stated in Article 4@:
0. 5etween collateral blood relations, whether legitimate or illegitimate, up to the fourth
civil degree
1. 5etween stepparents and stepchildren
3. 5etween parents9in9law and children9in9law
A. 5etween the adopting parent and the adopted child
B. 5etween the surviving spouse of the adopting parent and the adopted child
C. 5etween the surviving spouse of the adopted child and the adopter
G. 5etween an adopted child and a legitimate child of the adopter
H. 5etween adopted children of the same adopter and
J. 5etween parties where one, with the intention to marry the other, *illed that other
person+s spouse or his"her own spouse.
$he same section under Article F= of the same code states that a marriage may be
au&&e! for any of the following causes existing at the time of the marriage:
0. $hat the party in whose behalf it is sought to have tha marriage annulled was eighteen
years of age or over but below twenty9one, and the marriage was solemnized without
the consent of the parents, guardians or persons having substitute parental authority
over the party, in that order, unless after attaining the age of twenty9one, such party
freely cohabited with the other and both lived together as husband and wife
1. $hat either party wa of unsound mind, unless such party, after coming to reason,
freely cohabited with the other as husband and wife
3. $hat the consent of either party was obtained by fraud, unless such party afterwards,
with full *nowledge of facts constituting the fraud, freely cohabited with the other as
husband and wife
A. $hat the consent of either party was obtained by force, or intimidation or undue
influence unless the same havig disappeared or ceased, such party thereafter freely
cohabited with the other as husband and wife
B. $hat either party was physically incapable of consummating the marriage with the
other, and such incapacity continues and appears to be incurable or
C. $hat either party was afflicted with a sexually transmittable disease found to be
serious and appears to be incurable.
)raud referd to in 0o. 4 refers to any of the following circumstances as stated in Article
a. 0ondisclosure of a previous conviction by final judgment of the other party to a crime
involving moral turpitude
b. #oncealment by the wife of the fact that at the time of the marriage, she was pregnant
by a man other than her husband.
c. #oncealment of a sexually9transmittable disease, regardless of its nature, existing at
the time of the marriage or
!. #oncealment of drug addiction, habitual alcoholism, homosexuality or lesbianism,
existing at the time pof the marriage.
". Re)r$!uctive Hea&t(
(ithin the framewor* of the (orld Health 1rganizationEs ((H1) definition of health as
a state of complete physical, mental and social well9being, and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity, re)r$!uctive (ea&t(, or seEua& (ea&t("('#iee, addresses the reproductive
processes, functions and system at all stages of life. /eproductive health, therefore, implies that
people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the
capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. !mplicit in
this are the right of men and women to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective,
affordable and acceptable methods of birth control of their choice and the right of access to
appropriate health care services of sexual andreproductive medicine that will enable women to
go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a
healthy infant.
According to the (H1, Hreproductive and sexual ill9health accounts for B<P of the
global burden of ill9health for women and ,FP for men.H
An unofficial wor*ing definition for sexual health is that H6exual health is a state of
physical, emotional, mental and social well9being in relation to sexuality it is not merely the
absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. 6exual health reGuires a positive and respectful
approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable
and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. )or sexual health to
be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and
fulfilled.H However, this is not an official (H1 position, and should not be used or Guoted as a
(H1 definition.
Ear&' c(i&!beari# and other behaviours can have health ris*s for women and their
infants. (aiting until a woman is at least ,@ years old before trying to have children improves
maternal and child health. !f an additional child is desired, it is considered healthier for mother,
as well as for the succeeding child, to wait at least B years after previous birth before attempting
to conceive. After a miscarriage or abortion, it is healthier to wait at least A months.
$he (H1 estimates that each year, 4=@ <<< women die due to complications related to
pregnancy and childbirth 77P of these deaths occur within the most disadvantaged population
groups living in the poorest countries of the world. Dost of these deaths can be avoided with
improving womenEs access to Guality care from a s*illed birth attendant before, during and after
pregnancy and childbirth.
C. Fa*i&' P&ai#
0. T(e Fa*i&'
!t is generally accepted that the family is the %irst a! $&!est s$cia& istituti$ i
s$ciet'. !t consists of parents and children who interact with one another. $hrough this
socialization process, parents are able to hand down socially acceptable cultural practices that
serve as initial training for the young to become future responsible citizens in the future.
According to Oaide (,77@), the family refers to a group of people united by ties of
marriage, blood or adoption.
)amily is a universal institution that has common characteristics.
0. )amily members associate with one another in their respective roles as husband and
wife, mother and father, son and daughter or brother and sister.
1. As the members of the family enjoy life together playing their different roles, they
tend to create a common subculture where a member is made to feel aware of his role
through a long period of socialization during childhood.
0.a Fa*i&' Structures
$he nature of each family structure and the interactions therein has been observed to
influence the personality development of its members.
)amily structures are based on internal organization, descent, residence and authority.
"ase! $ Itera& Or#ai/ati$
0. C$ju#a& %a*i&' is composed of only the husband and the wife as in a newly9wed
1. Nuc&ear %a*i&' is often reffered to as either a primary or an elementary family. !t is
composed of the married couple and their children.
3. EEte!e! %a*i&' is composed of two or more nuclear families or several generations
of families together under one roof.
"ase! $ Descet
)amilies tend to trace their ancestry from either the paternal or maternal side.
0. Patri&iea& %a*i&' traces the family members+ relationships and affiliates with
relatives on the father+s side.
1. +atri&iea& %a*i&' traces the family members+ relationships and affiliates with
relatives on the mother+s side.
3. "i&atera& %a*i&' traces the family members+ relationships and affiliates with relatives
on both parents.
"ase! $ Resi!ece
0. Patri&$ca& resi!ece wherein the newly9married couple lives with or near the
domicile of the bridegroom+s parents.
1. +atri&$ca& resi!ece wherein the newly9married couple lives with or near the
domicile of the bride+s parents.
3. "i&$ca& resi!ece wherein the couple chooses to stay with either the groom+s or the
bride+s parents, depending on factors li*e the relative wealth of the families or their
status, the wishes of the parents or certain personal preferences of the bride and the
A. Ne$&$ca& resi!ece wherein the couple resides independently from the parents of
either groom or bride.
B. Avucu&$ca& resi!ece wherein newly9married couple is prescribed to reside with or
near the maternal uncle of the groom.
"ase! $ Aut($rit'
0. Patriarc(a& %a*i&' is a type of family where authority is vested in the oldest male in
the family, often the father. $he sons, especially the eldest, also enjoy special prestige
and priveleges. $he males spea* for the familial group with regard to property
relations, legal obligations and criminal offenses. $his type is characterized by family
solidarity and ancestor worship.
1. +atriarc(a& %a*i&' is a type where the authority is vested in the mother or the
mother+s *in. $his type is very rare and can be found in societies where the mother
dominates the household.
3. E#a&itaria %a*i&' is a type where the husband and the wife exercise a more or less
eGual amount of authority.
A. +tricetric %a*i&' which is a recently emerged type found in the suburbs of the
3nited 6tates where the prolonged absence of the father gives the mother a dominant
position in the family, although the father may also share with the mother in decision9
0.b Fucti$s $% t(e Fa*i&'
(ith the passage of time family+s vital tas*s as a basic social institution were either
wea*end or strengthened due to social and cultural changes.
S$cia&i/ati$ $% c(i&!re. -arents act as a basic socialization agents for their children.
$hey transmit to their children standards of behavior, value systems, basic s*ills,
motivations and wor* attitudes. $hese are integrated in their personalities, which they use
to further socialize as they go beyond their family, peer group, school and wor* group.
Re#u&at$r $% seEua& be(avi$r a! activit'. 3niversally, incest taboo is a regulation. !t
forbids marriage between closest *ins. $his norm minimizes sexual competition within
families by restricting legitimate sexuality to spouses. !t also forces people to marry
outside of their immediate families. /eproduction between close relatives can mentally
and physically impair offsprings. $he close reproduction among close relatives would
also confuse *inship ties and threaten social order.
S$cia& )&ace*et. /eproduction of children maintains social organization. 5irth is
preferred to married parents where they can confer their own social identity in terms of
race, religion or social class.
+ateria& a! e*$ti$a& securit'. $o a greater extent, most families loo* to *in for
physical protection, emotional support and financial assistance. !t is no surprise that
people living in families tend to be healthier than those living alone.
0.c Hea&t(' Fa*i&'
Healthy home is a place where every member is ta*en seriously as a person and where
he"she *nows he"she is values, respected and loved. Happiness always resides in a
healthy family.
Hea&t(' %a*i&' *aitais a s)iritua& %$u!ati$. A shared religious core supported by
a church affiliation gives stability to the individual and his family.
Hea&t(' %a*i&' *a@es t(e %a*i&' a t$) )ri$rit'. Dother $heresa observed that &the
world today is upside down, and is suffering so much because there is very little love in
the homes and in the family. (e have no time for our children, we have no time for each
other, there is no time to enjoy each other.' do not allow wor* or other activities infringe
family life. Da*e time to be together.
Hea&t(' %a*i&ies as@ a! #ive res)ects. /espect is a two9way street. !n order to receive
respect, you must first give it.
Hea&t(' %a*i&ies c$**uicate a! &iste. Here are five Gualities common to active
listeners from Dary 2ur*in:
a. ;iving the other person opportunity to express ideas and feelings without
b. Da*ing an honest attempt to understand those ideas and feelings,
c. 6etting aside preconceived opinions about the other person,
!. 6howing respect for the other person+s right to hold a view different from yours, and
e. 2emonstrating your appreciation of the effort the other person is ma*ing.
Hea&t(' %a*i&ies va&ue service t$ $t(ers. )ocus on raising children who care about
others and who wor* to improve conditions for the less fortunate.
Hea&t(' %a*i&ies eE)ect a! $%%er acce)tace. ;ood family provides a psychological
safety net that ma*es members feel accepted.
1. Fa*i&' P&ai# +et($!s
)amily planning, which is understood as the regulation of fertility so as to have limited
number of children, is one important component of population education. $o attain this, one must
understand the advantages and disadvantages of each method of family planning and choose
which suits them best.
1.a C&assi%icati$ $% Fa*i&' P&ai# +et($!s
F$&@ +et($!s
a. P$stc$ita& !$uc(i# is done by flushing the vagina with medicated solution
immediately after intercourse to remove or *ill the sperm. $his, however, is relatively
ineffective as the sperm cells may have entered the cervical canal and are unaffected.
)reGuent douching may also damage the vaginal lining.
b. Pr$&$#e! &actati$, an ancient practice of preventing preganacy, is prolonged
breastfeeding which delays ovulation. $his practice is safe and free but it may not be
effective to those whose ovulation period returns from two to four months after a
baby+s delivery.
"e(avi$ra& +et($!s
a. Natura& *et($! $r r('t(* *et($! does not reGuire the use of any drug, chemical
or plastic sheaths. !t is called the rhythm method because its success depends upon
the woman+s monthly menstrual cycle. $he husband simply refrains from having
sexual intercourse with his wife during the latter+s fertile period.
b. Ovu&ati$ *et($! is done by determining the woman+s period through the use of the
calendar, thermometer or appearance of cervical mucus or vaginal discharge in the
vaginal canal. (omen with normal regular cycles+s body temperature usually drops
sharply a day or two before ovulation and rises sharply after ovulation has occurred.
$he presence of mucus or vaginal discharge in the vaginal canal which usually occurs
three days after menstruation is a sure indication that ovulation is soon to occur.
2uring the &pea* symptom,' when women+s discharge turns clearer and more
slippery, sexual union should be avoided.
c. Wit(!ra9a& *et($! is *nown as coitus interruptus because the act of sexual
intercourse is interrupted by the withdrawal of the male organ prior to its ejaculation.
$his calls for maximum self9control and precise timing on the part of the male.
However, this method could be unreliable due to the emission of pre9ejaculatory
fluid, which may contain enough sperm cells that may cause pregnancy, over which
the husband has no control. 2eprivation of considerable physical satisfaction for both
husband and wife may also occur which may later have psychological effects.
+ec(aica& C$trace)tives
a. T(e c$!$* is a thin sheath of elastic rubber worn by the male over the penis during
sexual intercourse. $he sheath prevents the male sperm from entering the female
uterus, thus preventing the possibility of conception. $his method is cheap because
condoms are sold cheaply and are readily available. 1ne of the advantages of using
condoms is that the ris* of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as A!26,
syphilis, gonorrhea and the li*es is minimized.
b. T(e !ia)(ra#* is a shallow rubber cap with a flexible spring that is compressed and
inserted into the vagina so that it fits snugly over the cervix. !t is usually covered with
spermicidal jelly or cream to prevent the entry of sperms into the uterus. A doctor has
to chec* it annually to see that it stays in place. 6ometimes, diaphragms are dislodged
during sexual union.
c. T(e cervica& ca) is made of rubber with a tapering dome appearance designed to fit
snuggly over the cervix. (hen fitted by a doctor, it stays in place during sexual
intercourse and over longer periods.
C(e*ica& C$trace)tives
a. -a#ia& su))$sit$r' is a samall bullet9shaped substance containing chemical capable
of *illing sperms. !t is inserted in the vagina ,<9,= minutes prior to intercourse.
%i*ewise, the va#ia& %$a*i# tab&et is moistened with water or saliva then inserted
into the vagina ,<9,= minutes before intercourse. !t melts inside the vagina and forms
a coat of foam to prevent the sperms from entering the uterus.
b. .e&&ies a! crea*s a! va#ia& %$a*s are often pac*aged in bottles and sold with
plastic applicators. $hey are inserted into the vagina just before sexual intercourse.
$he purpose is to immobilize or *ill the sperms. $he spermicides, however, only last
for at least an hour. $here should be no douching or washing of the vagina for six
hours after intercourse for effective usage.
Itrauterie Device 7IUD8 resembles a coil made of plastic or metal and is inserted
properly into the uterus through the cervical canal by a doctor. However, many women
refrain from using !32 as it usually causes bleeding. 6ometimes, it is expelled through
minimum pushing during sexual intercourse. !ts latest form is the #opper $4@<A which
prevents fertilization primarily by creating an intrauterine environment that is
spermicidal. A foreign body reaction of the endometrium J a sterile inflammation J
prevents viable sperm from reaching the fallopian tube. #opper is said to exert its action
locally on the endometrium, heightening the inflammatory response it increases the local
protogland in production and inhibits endometrial enzymes.
Ora& c$trace)tive5)i&& is ta*en through the mouth. !t is made up of synthetic hormones
that prevent conception by inhibiting the ovaries from releasing egg cells. !t has to be
ta*en regularly for B, dys based on the woman+s menstrual cycle. $he first pill is ta*en
on the fifth day of menstruation and continued for B<9B, days each month. (hen it is
stopped, menstruation occurs. $he pill, however, is *nown to have caused some side
effects, the most serious of which is blood clotting especially among women over forty
years of age.
T(e ijectib&es is one of the latest methods of family planning which uses injectible
contraceptive drug *nown as De)Pr$vera 7D+PA8. $he woman is injected with this
drug at the hip muscle instead of ta*ing pills. $he effectivity of one injection lasts for
three months. 6ome side effects, however, derived from using it were reported to include
headaches, bloating of the abdomen or breasts and mood changes.
Sur#ica& *et($!s $% steri&i/ati$
a. Tuba& &i#ati$ %$r 9$*e refers to the act of tying or cutting the fallopian tubes to
ma*e a woman sterile. (hen the fallopian tubes are severed or tied, no egg cell could
pass from the ovary to the uterus. $hus, when the egg is prevented from meeting the
sperm, no pregnancy occurs. !t is ,<<P effective. 6o, before the mother subjects
herself for ligation, she must be very sure that she does not want to conceive
b. -asect$*' %$r *e is a minor and cheap operation done wihtin ,=9B< minute
wherein the male vas deferens, a tube9li*e passage that stems from each testis that
produces the sperms is cut or tied. $he sperms pass through the vas deferens to the
seminal vesicle where they mix with the semen before they are discharged from the
male organ into the female genital tract during sexual intercourse. 1nce the vas
deferens is cut or tied, the sperm cells cannot mix with the semen thus preventing
pregnancy on a woman. $he male body will still continue to produce sperm cells but
these are absorbed by the body. $his is medically *nown as )(a#$c't$sis.
Ab$rti$ is the interruption of pregnancy before the fetus is mature enough to survive
outside the womb. !t deprives the unborn child of its right to life and places the women+s
life in danger.
D. Res)$sib&e Paret($$!
,. Ri#(ts a! Ob&i#ati$s $% Husba! a! Wi%e
Inowledge of their rights andobligations as husband and wife can be a start of a healthy
and vigorous married life and a happy family.
0. $he husband and wife are obliged to live together, observe mutual love, respect and
fidelity, and render mutual help and support.
1. $hey shall fix the family domicile. !n case of disagreement, the court shall decide.
3. 6pouses are jointly responsible for the support of the family.
A. Danagement of the household shall be the right and duty of both spouses.
B. $he aggrieved party may apply to the court for relief if the other spouse neglects
his"her duties or commit acts, which tend to bring danger, dishonor or injury to the
other member of the family.
C. .ither spouse may exercise any legitimate profession, occupation, business or
-arenting has its rewards and pleasures, hardships and inconveniences. $he parent+s life
as a couple changes with the presence of children. Hence, couples should give considerable
thought to the duties and responsibilities involved in parenthood and learn to accept, love the
experience as parents and strive to be the best possible parents by fulfilling their parental roles of
meeting the needs of the children and sharing of responsibilities.
1. +eeti# C(i&!re;s Nee!s
Deeting the children+s needs is the simple role of parents. #hldren+s primary needs are
physical, emotional, social and intellectual which parents+ responsibility to share with.
P('sica& ee!s. $he tendency to grow is natural hence, the parental tas* is to discover
the physical needs of their children and to provide for these needs in order to hasten their
E*$ti$a& ee!s. #hildren need love, affection, understanding, approval and security.
(hen parents give these emotional needs, children develop positive feelings and become
emotionally secure and stable. (hen these emotional needs are denied or thwarted,
children become hostile, fearful, anxious, secure, and develop a feeling of resentment
toward toward their parents.
S$cia& ee!s. ;regariousness is an inborn tendency. As children grow, they want to be
with others. $hey want to be accepted by the group but do not *now how to relate. $he
tas* of parents is to provide their children with the opportunities necessary for
socialization. 5eing a part of society means that one should learn and belong to the group
by *nowing their customs, mores, habits and manners.
Ite&&ectua& ee!s. !ntelligence is biological eGuipment. #hidren+s potential for
intellectual growth is inherent. $hey are naturally curious and desire to delve in several
new experiences. $he parental role in fulfilling this need is for them to provide the
necessary stimulation and variety of learning experiences necessary for cognitive,
affective and psychomotor development.
+$ra& ee!s. #hildren have the capacity for moral growth. $hey rely on people they
trust. -arents should ta*e this opportunity to teach their children values so they could
distinguish right from wrong. $heir abilities have to be developed through moral
reasoning and imitating the good examples set by elders.
3. S(ari# res)$sibi&ities.
#hildren+s physical, intellectual, emotional, social and moral needs cannot be met by only
one parent. 5oth father and mother should ta*e care and rear their children properly. $he mother
should not be expected to ta*e care and rear the children all by herself because this would be
unfair to her and her children. .very parent has strengths and wea*nesses. Dost fathers can
contribute something positive to a child+s life. $he best fathers are almost indispensable.
Andalthough most fathers thin* that it is the mothers+ job to ta*e care for the babies, fathers also
benefit from caring for their children for this could develop a father9child closeness that enriches
family ties.
A marriage without some basic structural underta*ings about each person+s expected
contributions and involvement in the joint venture is analogous to trying to build a house without
any plans involving both the owners and the builders. Attempting to build a home based on male9
centered parental and marital roles is a certain blueprint for disaster. An unstructured home is
unsatisfactory especially in a stormy weather.
$he ideal is authenticity and fulfillment, which comes from submerging each family
member into a large group releasing one+s natural impulses li*e honest emotions, cultivating
subjectivity and developing a radical openness to existence by refusing to impose order on
5eing a parent is more than playing a role. !t is more than a lifestyle J it is an ethical
vocation. $he undeniable burdens of family responsibility must be more openheartedly borne.
!f a )ilipino home is a locus of private life, it is alos critical to public life, to the life of
the community and to civic associations.