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# MATHS

"manishkumarphysics.in"
1
+na (Functions)
sfiiii (Definition) :
+n- l+=i ~l+- =n -- A = ~l+- =n -- B n (+ lzii +i +i l-n (i =n--i) t l=+ ~--n-
A + + ~ +i. B + ~l,-i ~ = =-z ti -i t -i+in+ n f: A B lni- t := tn ''f,
=n -- A = =n -- B n (+ +n- t'' c - t
-<iti- ni-il+ A {1, 0, 1} ( B {0, 1, 2}. - A B{(1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2),
(1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2)} ~, " f : A B, f(x) = x
2
,ii liili- (+ +n- t -i
f {(1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1)}
+n- f +i ~i ii n l--- l-zi ,ii ii <ziii i =+-i t
A B
ai a : + +n- y = f(x) : A B ti x -- zi - t l=+i ni- =n-- A +i +i: ~ l+ y +i ni- =n--
B +i +i : ~ t t =--i +n- ti ni l< ~i + n l< (i) x =n -- A +i + ni- n =+-i ti
-ii (ii) x + (+ ni- + ln( =n -- B n y +i +n (+ ni- ti
Graphically : l< +i: -ii ii ~ini +i (+ = ~li+ l-<~i l--z< +-i ti. -i t ~ini +n-
+i <lzi - -ti +-i t
a<iri # 1 : (i) l---lnli- n = +i-+i - =--i. +n- t
(A) f(x) = x
3
; {1, 0, 1} {0, 1, 2, 3}
(B) f(x) = x ; {0, 1, 4} {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
(C) f(x) =
x
; {0, 1, 4} {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
(D) f(x) = x ; {0, 1, 4} {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
(ii) l---lnli- n = +i -= ~i li- n iil-zi +n- +i <lzi - +- t
(A) (B)
(C) (D)
rn :
(i) (C) ( (D) n +n- +i liiii =-- t l+ (A) +i l-il- n l<i ni =--i +n- -ti t. =
f(1) e =t i-- ~- +n- +i liiii =-- -ti ti-i t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
2
l+ (B) +i l-il- n l<i ni =--i +n- -ti t. - l+ f(1) = 1 ( f(4) = 2 ~ii - i-- n
1 ( 4 =t i-- + <i ~i = =-li- t ~- +n- +i liiii =-- -ti t
(ii) (B ~i D) (A) n i-- + (+ ~ +i l-l- =ti-- n -ti t l+ (C) n i-- + (+ ~ +
<i l-l- =ti-- n t
4iu +i4 :
(1) ni-i [1, 1] liili- +n- g(x) t l< =nit lzii l=+ <i ziii (0,0) ( (x,g(x)) t. +i
-izi+n
3 4 /
n :+i: t . -i +n- g(x) ti =+-i t
(A) g(x)= ( ) 1
2
x (B) g(x) =
( ) 1
2
x
(C) g(x) =
( ) 1
2
x
(D) g(x) =
( ) 1
2
+ x
(2) {o, |} = {1, 2} n liili- =ii =i +n- <lzi - +il(
(2) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
+na +i s i-a, urs i-a y sfu (Domain, Co-domain & Range of a Function) :
l< f: A B ,ii liili- +i : (+ +n- ti -i =n-- A +n- f +i i-- -ii =n-- B +n- f +i =ti--
+tni-i t
l< x
1
+i l-l-zii y
1
ti. -i y
1
+i f + ~--n - x
1
+i l-l- ( x
1
+i y
1
+i l-l- +t- t
l< +n +n- f (x) l<i ni ti (i-- ( =ti-- -ti <zii( n( ti) -i i--. ' x' + -- ni-i +i =n-- t
l-+ ln( +n- f (x) i--l+ t l+ =t i-- ( , ) lni i-i t (ITFs + ~nii)
l= y + ni-i +i i =n -- ti -i t --i l= =t i-- +i -=n -- ti -i t
(=i +n- l=+ i-- l= <i -i i--l+ =i~i + -=n-- ti . -i t i--l+ +n- +tni-i t
a<iri # 2 : l---lnli- +n-i +i i-- ai- +il(
(i) f(x) =
5 x
2

(ii) sin
1
(2x 1)
rn : (i) f(x) =
5 x
2

## i--l+ t l< ~i +n l< x

2
5 > 0
|x| >
5
x s
5
i x >
5
f +i i-- (,
5
] [
5
, ) t
(ii) sin
1
(2x 1) i--l+ t l< ~i + n l< 1 s 2x 1 s + 1
i-- x e [0, 1] t
+nai s tt4 u f+4iy (Algebraic Operations on Functions) :
l< x + i--l+ ni- +n- f ~i g + i-- =n -- +nzi A ( B t. -i <i -i f ~i g, A B.n liili-
t ~ tn f + g, f g, (f
.
g) ( (f /g) +i := +i liili- +- t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
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(iii) |
|
.
|

\
|
g
f
(x) =
) x ( g
) x ( f
+i i-- {x | x e AA B -il+ g(x) = 0} t
ai a : |(x) = {f(x)}
g(x)
+ i-- + ln( =ini-- l--i f(x) > 0 ( g(x) i--l+ ti-i -ilt(
|(x) =
f(x)
C
g(x)
i |(x) =
f(x)
P
g(x)
+ i-- + ln( i-- +i zi- f(x) > g(x) -ii f(x) e N g(x) e W t
a<iri # 3 : l---lnli- +n-i +i i-- ai- +il(
(i) f(x) =
2
sinx 16 x (ii) f(x) =
2
3
4 x
log(x
3
x)
(iii) f(x) =
x cos
1
x

rn :
(i)
sinx
i--l+ t l< ~i +n l< sin x > 0 xe[2nt, 2nt + t], neI.
2
16 x
i--l+ t l< ~i + n l< 16 x
2
> 0 4 s x s 4.
:= +i l<( n( +n- +i i--
{x : xe[2nt, 2nt + t], neI }[4, 4] = [4, t] [0, t] t
(ii)
2
4 x
+i i-- [2, 2] t nl+- x = 2 + ln(
2
4 x
= 0 x e (2, 2)
x
3
x > 0 + ln( log(x
3
x) liili- t ~ii - x(x 1)(x + 1) > 0.
log(x
3
x) +i i-- (1, 0 ) (1, ) t
~- l<( n( +n- +i i-- {(1, 0 ) (1, )} (2, 2) (1, 0 ) (1, 2) t
(iii) x > 0 ( 1 s x s 1
i-- (0, 1] t
4iu +i4 :
(3) l---lnli- +n-i +i i-- ai- +il(
(i) f(x) =
) x 2 log(
1

+
1 x +
(ii) f(x) =
x 1
sin
1
3
1 x 2
Answers : (i) [1, 1) (1, 2) (ii) [1, 1]
sfu aia +a +t ffri4i (Methods of determining range) :
(i) x +i y + s<i s<fzia ++
l< y = f(x) x = g(y) ti . -i g(y) +i i-- y + = n- ni-i (~ii - f(x) i--) +i <lzi- +-i
t
a<iri # 4 : f(x) =
1 x x
1 x x
2
2
+
+ +
+i l= ai- +il(
rn : f(x) =
1 x x
1 x x
2
2
+
+ +
{x
2
+ x + 1 ( x
2
+ x 1 +i -il- n i-i -ti t }
y =
1 x x
1 x x
2
2
+
+ +
yx
2
+ yx y = x
2
+ x + 1
(y 1) x
2
+ (y 1) x y 1 = 0
l< y = 1 ti -i -i +- =ni+i 2 = 0 ti i-i t . i = -ti t
:= +i l< y = 1 ti -i (y 1) x
2
+ (y 1) x y 1 = 0 l,ii- =ni+i t ( n n i--l+ t
l< (y 1)
2
4 (y 1) (y 1) > 0
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
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~ii - l= y s 3/5 ~i y > 1 n l+- y = 1
~- l= (, 3/5] (1, ) t
(ii) ni+t4 ffri :
+n- + n i+ + y-l-< zii +i +i =n -- +n- +i l= ti -i t
a<iri # 5 : f(x) =
2 x
4 x
2

+i l= ai- +il(
rn : f(x) =
2 x
4 x
2

= x + 2; x = 2
f(x) +i niil-zi tini
~- f(x) +i l= R {4} t
l< y = f(x) :=+ i-- n =-- t -i +n- f(x) +i l=
[min f(x), max. f(x)] tini -ii . liini n =-- +n- +i
l-il- n l= [min f(x), max. f(x)] -- =ii ~--ini +i
= l- t ti f(x) =-- t l= l--- -<iti ,ii <zii i
ni t
a<iri # 6 : l< +n- y = f(x) +i n i+
- -i +- liini =-- +n- +i l= [y
2
, y
3
] (y
4
, y
5
] (y
6
, y
7
] t
(iii) (+l<-i ,ii : t - =i +n- (+l< , ni- i (+ l< ri=ni- ti- t (+l< +n-i +i l-il- n l----n
( ----n ni- ~--in + ~l--n l-<~i ti- t +z =ini- +n-i + ~--in ti =-- t. n ,ni-
i ri=ni- ti l-- l<( n t
[a, b] n (+l< , ni- +n- + ln(
(i) f'(x) > 0
(ii) l= [f(a), f(b)]
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
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[a, b] n (+l< ri=ni- +n- + ln(
(i) f'(x) s 0
(ii) l= [f(b), f(a)]
a<iri # 7 : l---lnli- +n-i +i l= ai- +il(
(i) y = n (2x x
2
) (ii) y = sec
1
(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
rn : (i) s< 1
2x x
2
e (, 1]
s< 2
ni-il+ t = 2x x
2
ni ni+ liili- ti- + ln( -i+ - ni- (0, 1] t
~ n t +i (+l<-i + -i n =
n (2x x
2
) e (, 0]
l= ( , 0] t
(ii) y = sec
1
(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
ni-i x e R + ln( t = x
2
+ 3x + 1 ti . -i t e
|
.
|

,
4
5
n l+- y = sec
1
(t) t e (

1 ,
4
5
[1, )
~in i = l=
|
.
|

t
2
, 0
(

t |
.
|

\
|

,
4
5
sec
1
4iu +i4 :
(4) l---lnli- +n-i + i-- ( l= ai- +il(
(i) y = x
3
(ii) y =
5 x 2 x
5 x 2 x
2
2
+ +
+
(iii) y =
x x
1
2

(iv) y = cot
1
(2x x
2
) (v) y = n
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

4
3
x x sin
2 1
Answers : (i) i-- R; l= R (ii) i-- R ; l=
(
(

+
2
5 3
,
2
5 3
(iii) i-- R [0, 1] ; l= (0, ) (iv) i-- R ; l=
|
.
|

t
t
,
4
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
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(v) i-- x e
(
(

+
4
8 2
,
4
8 2
; l= (

t t
2
n ,
6
n
+nai + ffi-a s +i (Various Types of Functions) :
(i) rs< +na (Polynomial Function) :
l< +n- f, f (x) = a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n1
+ a
2
x
n2
+... + a
n1
x + a
n
,ii liili- t ti n ~+iin+ ii+
-ii a
0
, a
1
, a
2
,........., a
n
i--l+ =i( ( a
0
= 0 ti - +n- f, n ii- +i t < +n- +tni-i
t
ai a : + n <i t < +n- := +i t l+ =--i f(x).f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x), +i =-- +- t
f(x) = 1 x
n
t
Proof : ni-i f(x) = a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n 1
+ ......... + a
n
ti . - f
|
.
|

\
|
x
1
=
n
0
x
a
+
1 n
1
x
a

+ ......... + a
n
.
t =--i x + ~-+ ni-i + ln( =ti t
x
n
+ n ii +i +i - n-i +- a
0
a
n
= a
0
a
n
= 1
:=i +i x
n 1
+ n ii +i +i - n-i +- a
0
a
n 1
+ a
1
a
n
= a
1
a
n 1
= 0, :=i +i
a
n 2
, ......, a
1
=ii zi - t
~- < +i -n-i +-
2
n
2
1
2
0
a ....... a a + + + = 2
2
n
a a
0
= 1
(ii) tt4 +na (Algebraic Function) :
y, x +i ii +n- t l< t +n- := +i t l+ ii =ni+i
P
0
(x) y
n
+ P
1
(x) y
n1
+....... + P
n1
(x) y + P
n
(x) = 0 +i =-- +-i t ti n (+ i-in+ ii +
t -ii P
0
(x), P
1
(x)....... x n t< t e.g. y = |x| (+ ii +n- t . - l+ t =ni+i
y x = 0 +i =-- +-i t
ai a : =ii t< +n-. ii +n- t n l+- lni n = -ti t
+n- i ii -ti t ~ii +n- +tni-i t
(iii) sf 4 +na (Rational Function) :
y = f (x) =
) x ( h
) x ( g
, +i +n- ln +n- ti -i t . ti g (x) ( h (x) t < +n- t -ii
h (x) / 0 t
(iv) iiai+t4 +na (Exponential Function) :
+n- f(x) = a
x
= e
x In a
(a > 0, a = 1, x eR) -ii-i+i +n- +tni-i t. -ii-i+i +n-i + ~ini
l--- +i ti =+- t
fifa - I fifa - II
a > 1 + fny 0 < a < 1 + fny
(v) ni ni+t4 +na (Logarithmic Function) : f(x) = log
a
x ni ni+i +n- +tni-i t ti a >
0 ( a = 1 -ii x > 0 t :-+ ~in i l--- +i ti =+- t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
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fifa - I fifa - II
a > 1 + fny 0 < a < 1 + fny
(vi) fas +i ia +na/isi+ +na (Absolute Value Function / Modulus Function) :
nii + +n- +i -i+ f (x) = |x| t -ii := y = |x|=

<
>
0 x if x
0 x if x
,ii liili- +- t
.
(vii) fua +na (Signum Function) : (:= sgn(x) ii +ti i-i t )
+n- f (x) = sgn (x) l--- +i liili- l+i i-i t
f (x) = sgn (x) =

<
=
>
0 x 1
0 x 0
0 x 1
;fn
;fn
;fn
t := +i ii lnii i =+-i t sgn x =

=
=
0 x ; 0
0 x ;
x
| x |
ai a : sgn f(x) =

=
=
0 ) x ( f ; 0
0 ) x ( f ;
) x ( f
| ) x ( f |
(viii) r-i sii + +na 4i utc t +na (Greatest Integer Function or Step Function) :
+n- y = f (x) = [x] nt-in ii + +n- +tni-i t. ti [x], nt-in ii + x = zii i i ti-i t
1 s x < 0 + ln( ; [x] = 1 ; 0 s x < 1 + ln( ; [x] = 0
1 s x < 2 + ln( ; [x] = 1 ; 2 s x < 3 + ln(; [x] = 2 ~in ii
r-i sii + +na + niri (Properties of greatest integer function) :
(a) x 1 < [x] s x
(b) [x m] = [x] m l< ~i + n l< m ii + t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
8
(c) [x] + [y] s [x + y] s [x] + [y] + 1
(d) [x] + [ x] =

## ti -ti ii+ l<

ti ii+ l<
x ; 1
x ; 0
(ix) fi-ai-+ iin +na (Fractional Part Function) :
t y = {x} = x [x] ,ii liili- t (ti |.| nt-in ii + +n- +i +- +-i t
-<iti =i 2.1 +i li--in+ iin 2.1 2 = 0.1 t -ii 3.7 +i li--in+ iin 0.3 t := +n-
+i ~i-+in 1 t -ii :=+i ~in i l--- +i <ziii i =+-i t
(x) a-u+ +na (Identity function) :
+n- f : A A , f(x) = x x e A , ,ii liili- +n- A
-=n+ +n- +tni-i t -ii := I
A
= <lzi - l+i i-i t t
ai- +-i ~i=i- t l+ -=n+ +n- (+ +i ~i-zi<+ ti -i t
(xi) +na (Constant function) :
+n- f : A B (+ ~- +n- t l< A + + ~ +i l-l-
B n (+ ti ti := +i f : A B; f(x) = c, x e A, c e B (+
~- +n- t
a<iri # 8 : (i) ni-i {x} ( [x] i--l+ =i x + li--in+ ( ii + iin +i <lzi- +- t
4{x} = x + [x] +i tn +il(
(ii) f(x) = sgn (n x) +i ~in i ii l-(
rn : (i) x = [x] + {x} + ~- =i
<i n: =ni+i 4{x} = [x] + {x} + [x] {x} =
3
] x [ 2
[x] tnzii ii + ti -i t -ii {x} e [0, 1), + ~- =i = iil- ni-
[x] {x} x = [x] + {x}
0 0 0
1
3
2
3
5
ti <i n: =ni+i + <i tn x = 0 ( x =
3
5
t
(ii)
4iu +i4 :
(5) l< f : R R, f(0) = 1, f(1) = 2 ( f(x + 2) = 2f (x) + f(x + 1), +i =-- +-i t -i f (6) ai- +il(
(6) l---lnli- +n-i + ~in i ii l-( ti [.] nt-in ii + +n- +i <lzi- +-i t
(i) y = [ 2 x ] + 1 (ii) y = x
[x]
, 1 s x s 3 (iii) y = sgn (x
2
x)
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
9
6. (i) (ii) (iii)
uia 4i a 4 +na (Equal or Identical Functions) :
<i +n- f ( g - - +n- (i =ni-) +tni- t l< ~i + n l<
(i) f +i i-- g +i i--
(ii) f(x) = g(x), + x + ln(. x --+
-il- i-- +i ~ ti
-<iti- f(x) =
x
1
-ii g(x) =
2
x
x
- - +n- t
--i f(x) ( g(x) + ~in i =ni- t
n l+- f(x) = x ( g(x) =
x
x
2
- - +n- -ti t
--i f(x) ( g(x) + ~in i x = 0 li-- t
a<iri # 9 : i - +il( l+ l---lnli- +n-i + n - - t i -ti
(i) f(x) =
1 x
1 x
2

( g(x) = x + 1
(ii) f(x) = sin
2
x + cos
2
x ( g(x) = sec
2
x tan
2
x
rn : (i) -ti f(x) +i i-- R {0} t . l+ g(x) +i i-- R t
(ii) -ti . i-- =ni- -ti t f(x) +i i-- R t l+ g(x) +i i-- R ( )
)
`

e
t
+ I n ;
2
1 n 2
4iu +i4
(7) i - +il( l+ l---lnli- +n-i + n - - t i -ti
(i) f(x) = sgn (x) ( g(x) =

=
=
0 x 0
0 x
| x |
x
(ii) f(x) = sin
1
x + cos
1
x ( g(x) =
2
t
Answers : (i) ti (ii) -ti
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
10
u 4 a +na (Composite Function) :
ni-i f: XY
1
( g: Y
2
Z <i +n- t -ii =n-- D = {xe X: f(x)e Y
2
} t l< D / |, -i +n-
h, h(x) = g{f(x)} ,ii liili- D g ( f +i = +- +n- +tni-i t ( gof ,ii <lzi - +- t t +n- +i +n-
ii +tni-i t
aia : +n- gof +i i-- D t i X (f +i i-- ) +i -=n-- t +n- gof +i l= +n- g + l= +i
-=n-- ti -i t l< D = X, - f(X) cY
2
.
gof(x) +i l--- l-zi ,ii <zii i i =+-i t
i- t gof(x), x + --ti ni-i + ln( liili- t f(x) +i l= g(x) + i-- +i -=n-- ti
u 4 a +nai + n i (Properties of Composite Functions) :
(a) =ini--i gof = fog ti -i t (~ii - +nll-n -ti )
(b) =+- +n- =t- l-n +i in- +- t ~ii- l< -i- +n- f, g, h := +i t l+ fo (goh) -ii
(fog) oh liili- ti -i fo (goh) = (fog) oh.
a<iri # 10 : ti = i ti ti l---lnli- +n-i + fog ( gof ai- +il(
(i) f(x) =
x 3 +
, g(x) = 1 + x
2
(ii) f(x) =
x
, g(x) = x
2
1.
rn : (i) f +i i-- [3, ) t . l= [0, ) t
g +i i-- R t . g +i l= [1, ) t
gof(x)
- l+ f +i l=. g + i-- +i -=n -- t
gof +i l= [3, ) t {f + i-- + i t }
gof (x) = g{f(x)} = g (
x 3 +
) = 1 + (x+3) = x + 4. gof +i l= [1, ) t
fog(x)
g +i l=. f + i-- +i -=n -- t
fog +i i-- R t {g + i-- + i t}
fog (x) = f{g(x)}= f(1+ x
2
) =
2
x 4 +
fog +i l= [2, ) t
(ii) f(x) =
x
, g(x) = x
2
1.
f +i i-- [0, ) t . f +i l= [0, ) t
g +i i-- R t . g +i l= [1, ) t
gof(x)
- l+ f +i l=. g + i-- +i -=n -- t
gof +i i-- [0, ) t -ii g{f(x)}= g(\x) = x 1. gof +i l= [1, ) t
fog(x)
g +i l=. f + i-- +i -=n -- -ti t
~ii- [1, ) . [0, )
fog, g + =- i i-- liili- -ti t
fog +i i-- {xeR, g +i i-- : g(x)e [0, ), f +i i--}.
:= +i fog +i i-- D = {xeR: 0 s g(x) < } t
~ii - D = { xeR: 0 s x
2
1}= { xeR: x s 1 or x > 1 }= (, 1] [1, )
fog (x) = f{g(x)} = f(x
2
1) =
2
x 1
:=+i l= [0, ) t
a<iri # 11 : ni-i f(x) = e
x
; R
+
R -ii g(x) = sin
1
x; [1, 1] (

t t

2
,
2
. fog (x) +i i-- ( l= ai-
+il(
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
11
rn : f(x) +i i-- (0, ) g(x) +i l= (

t t

2
,
2
g(x) + l= + ni- i f(x) ,ii -i+ - t . (

\
| t
2
, 0
t
0 < g(x) s
2
t
0 < sin
1
x s
2
t
0 < x s 1
~- fog(x) i-- x e (0, 1] t
~- i-- : (0, 1]
l= : (1, e
t/2
]
a<iri # 12 : l < f(x) = | |x 3| 2 | 0 s x s 4
g(x) = 4 |2 x| 1 s x s 3
ti. - fog(x) ai- +il( ( fog(x) +i +--i ~ii iil-(
rn : f(x) = | | x 3| 2| 0 s x s 4
=

s s
< s
4 x 3 | 5 x |
3 x 0 | 1 x |
=

s s
< s
< s
4 x 3 x 5
3 x 1 1 x
1 x 0 x 1
g(x) = 4 |2 x|
3 x 1 s s
=

s s
< s
3 x 2 ) 2 x ( 4
2 x 1 ) x 2 ( 4
=

s s
< s +
3 x 2 x 6
2 x 1 x 2
fog (x) =

s s
< s
< s
4 ) x ( g 3 ) x ( g 5
3 ) x ( g 1 1 ) x ( g
1 ) x ( g 0 ) x ( g 1
=

s s s s +
s s < s
s s < s +
< s s + s +
< s < + s +
< s < + s +
3 x 2 4 x 6 3 x 6 5
3 x 2 3 x 6 1 1 x 6
3 x 2 1 x 6 0 x 6 1
2 x 1 4 x 2 3 ) x 2 ( 5
2 x 1 3 x 2 1 1 x 2
2 x 1 1 x 2 0 ) x 2 ( 1
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
=

s s s s
s s < s
s s < s
< s s s
< s < s +
< s < s
3 x 2 2 x 3 1 x
3 x 2 3 x 5 x 5
3 x 2 5 x 6 5 x
2 x 1 2 x 1 x 3
2 x 1 1 x 1 x 1
2 x 1 1 x 2 x 1
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
=

s s s s
s s s <
s s s <
< s s s
< s < s +
< s < s
3 x 2 3 x 2 1 x
3 x 2 5 x 3 x 5
3 x 2 6 x 5 5 x
2 x 1 2 x 1 x 3
2 x 1 1 x 1 x 1
2 x 1 1 x 2 x 1
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
oa ,
=

s s
< s
< s +
3 x 2 1 x
2 x 1 x 3
1 x 1 x 1
fog aia +a +t -4 ffri (Alternate method for finding fog) :
g(x) =

s s
< s +
3 x 2 x 6
2 x 1 x 2
g(x) +i ~in i t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
12
fog(x) =

s s
< s
< s
4 ) x ( g 3 ) x ( g 5
3 ) x ( g 1 1 ) x ( g
1 ) x ( g 0 ) x ( g 1
=

s s
< s

3 x 1 ) x ( g 5
1 x 1 1 ) x ( g
) x ( g 1 ugha eku dksbZ
=

s s
< s +
< s +
3 x 2 ) x 6 ( 5
2 x 1 ) x 2 ( 5
1 x 1 1 x 2
=

s s
< s
< s +
3 x 2 1 x
2 x 1 x 3
1 x 1 1 x
4iu +i4
(8) fog(x) ( gof(x) +i liili- +il( :-+ i-- ( l= ai- +il(
(i) f(x) = [x], g(x) = sin x (ii) f(x) = tan x, x e (t/2, t/2); g(x) =
2
x 1
(9) ni-i f(x) = e
x
: R
+
R ( g(x) = x
2
x : R R. fog (x) ( gof (x) i-- ( l= ai- +i
(8) (i) gof = sin [x] i-- : R l= { sin a : a e I}
fog = [ sin x] i-- : R l=: {1, 0, 1}
(ii) gof
x tan 1
2

, i-- : (

t t

4
,
4
l= : [0, 1]
fog tan
2
x 1
i-- : [1, 1] l= [0, tan 1]
(9) fog (x) gof (x)
i-- : (, 0) (1, ) i-- : (0, )
l= : (1, ) l= : (0, )
+nai +i nt +i (Classification of Functions) :
+n-i +i (++i ( t (+i +n- n ni +- l+i i =+-i t
y+ +t +na (One - One Function) :
+n- f : A B (+ +i +n- +tni-i t l< A+ li--li-- ~i + B n li--li-- l-l- ti
:= +i x
1
, x
2
e A -ii f(x
1
), f(x
2
) e B + ln( f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) x
1
= x
2
y++t sfafii +i iit4 =s ru s+i <zii4i i u+ai r+
4i
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
r y+t +na (Many - One function) :
+n- f : A B t (+i +n- +tni-i t l< A+ <i i <i = ~li+ ~i +i (+ ti l-l- B n ti
:= +i f : A B t(+i t l< ~i +n l< +n = +n <i ~ x
1
, x
2
e A := +i lni- ti. -il+
f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) n l+- x
1
= x
2
.
ry+t +na +i iit4 =s ru s+i <zii4i i u+ai r
4i
ai a : l< +n- (++i t -i t t (+i -ti ti =+-i ( lnin-
+na y++t r 4i ry+t fariifa +a +t ffri4i
(Methods of determining whether a given function is ONE-ONE or MANY-ONE) :
(a) l< x
1
, x
2
eA ( f(x
1
), f(x
2
) e B, f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) x
1
= x
2
or x
1
= x
2
f(x
1
) = f(x
2
), - +n- (++i
t ~-ii t(+i
(b) l< (+ =n ii x-~-i + =ni-- lni- t i +n- + ~i i +i +n = +n <i l-<~i +i-i
t - +n- t(+i ti-i t ~-ii (++i ti-i t
(c) l< f'(x) > 0, x e =- i i-- i f'(x) s 0 x e =- i i-- ti. ti =n-i + n lli-- l-<~i
ti =+-i t -i +n- (++i t ~-ii t(+i
ai a : l< f ( g <i -i (++i ti . -i gof ( fog ii (++i ti ni (l< lni- t ) +n-i +i ~i-zi<+ ( ~-- -ii +n-i
n ni +- l+i i =+-i t
i-i<+ +na (Onto function) :
l< +n- f : A B := +i liili- t l+ B (=ti--) + + ~ +i +n = +n (+ l-l- A
n ti -i -ilt(. - tn +t- t l+ f, A = B n ~i-zi<+ +n- t ~- f : A B ~i-zi<+ t l< ~i + n
l< b e B a e A -il+ f (a) = b.
i-i<+ sfafii +i iit4 =s faa s+i <zii4i i u+ai r
4i
-a +ist +na (Into function) :
l< +n- f : A B := +i liili- t l+ +n = +n (+ ~ =ti-- n lni- ti i i-- + l+=i
~ +i l-l- - ti. - +n- f(x) ~---ii ti-i t
iit4 =s -a+ist sfafii ru s+i s<fzia + u+a r+
i
ai a : (i) l< l= =t i-- ti. -i f(x) ~i-zi<+ t. ~-ii ~---i i
(ii) l< +n- ~i-zi<+ t -i t ~---i i -ti ti =+-i t ( lnin-
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
~- +n- :- -ii n = (+ ti =+-i t
(a) (++i ~i-zi<+ ((++i ( ~i-zi<+)
(b) (+ +i ~---ii ((+ +i -- ~i-zi<+ -ti)
(c) t (+i ~i-zi<+ (~i-zi<+ -- (+ +i -ti )
(d) t(+i ~---ii (- -i (++i - ti ~i-zi<+)
ai a : (i) l< +n- f (++i ( ~i-zi<+ <i-i t -i t (++i ~i-zi<+ l-l-zii +tni-i t (++i ~i-zi<+
+n- +i l-ni ni. +nii i (+=ni- +n- + -in = ii i-- t
(ii) l< lli-- 'n' ~i = =n-- A-ii i-i t. - A = A n liili- +n-i +i =i n
n
ti-i t
( :-n = n! (+ +i ti - t
(iii) l< f ( g <i -i ~i-zi<+ ti -i gof i fog ~i-zi<+ ti =+-i t ~i -ti ii
(iv) <i (+ +i ~i-zi<+ +n-i +i = +- +n- (+ +i ~i-zi<+ ti -i t l< ~i + n l< f ( g (+ +i ~i-zi<+
+n- := +i ti -il+ gof liili- ti . -i gof ii (+ +i ~i-zi<+ + n -ii ti ni f +i ur si-a,
g + si-a + i ri+
a<iri # 13 : (i) ai- +il( l+ f(x) = x + cos x (+ +i t
(ii) f : R R + ,ii liili- +n- f(x) = x
3
+ 3x
2
2x + 4 ~i-zi<+ t i ~-- -i i. =il-
+il(
(iii) f(x) = x
2
2x + 3; [0, 3] A f(x) (+ +i t i -ti ai- +il( l< f(x) ~i-zi<+ t -i
=n -- A ii ai- +il(
rn : (i) f(x) +i i-- R t f' (x) = 1 sin x.
f' (x) > 0 x e =- i i-- ( =n-i li--li-- l-<~i i-- ti-i t
f(x), R (+l< z ni- t ~- f(x) (+ +i t
(ii) l= =t i--, ~- t +n- ~i-zi<+ t
(iii) f'(x) = 2(x 1); 0 s x s 3
f'(x) =

< < +
< s
3 x 1 ; ve
1 x 0 ; ve
f(x) (+l< -ti t ~- t (+ +i -ti t
f(x) + ~i-zi<+ ti- + ln( A:=+ l= + i ti-i -ilt( ~ini = l= [2, 6] t
A [2, 6]
4iu +i4 :
(10) l---lnli- +n-i + ln( ai- +il( l+ t (++i i t(+i -ii ~i-zi<+ i ~---ii t
(i) f(x) = 2 tan x; (t/2, 3t/2) R (ii) f(x) =
2
x 1
1
+
; (, 0) R
(iii) f(x) = x
2
+ n x
Answers : (i) (++i ~i-zi<+ (ii) (++i ~---ii (iii) (++i ~i-zi<+
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
15
u y fi +na (Odd & Even Functions) :
(i) l< +n- f + i-- n x + =ii ni-i + ln( f(x) = f (x) ti . -i f =n +n- +tni-i t
-<iti f (x) = cos x; g (x) = x + 3.
(ii) l< +n- f + i-- n x + =ii ni-i + ln( f (x) = f (x) ti. -i f lin +n- +tni-i t
-<iti f (x) = sin x; g (x) = x
3
+ x.
ai a : (i) +i : +n- - -i lin - ti =n ti =+-i t (-<iti f(x) = e
x
, cos
1
x)
(ii) +i : x = 0 lin +n- liili- t . -i f(0) = 0
u/fi +nai + n iri (Properties of Even/Odd Function) :
(a) + =n +n- +i n i+ y~-i + =i -i =nln- ti -i t -ii + lin +n- n n l-< + =i -i
=nln- ti -i t
-<iti- y = x
2
+i ~in i y-~-i + l- =nln- l+ y = x
3
n n l-< + =i -i =nln- t
(b) =ii +n-i (l-+i i-- nn l-< + =i-i =nln- t) +i =n +n-i + in ( lin +n-i + in
n l--il- l+i i =+-i t i l--- +i t
f(x) =
(c) + n (+ +n- i =i ii liili- t -ii t =n ( lin (+ =ii t. f(x) = 0 t
(d) l< f ( g <i -i =n i lin t -i +n- f.g =n +n- tini nl+- :-n = +i: (+ lin ti -i f.g
lin +n- ti ni
(e) l< f(x) =n t -i f'(x) lin l+ lin +n- +i ~+n- =n ti -i t =ii i- +n- + =ni+n-
+ ln( -ti +ti i =+-i t
a<iri # 14 : <lzi - +il( l+ log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
lin +n- t
rn : ni-i f(x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
.
- f(x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 ) x ( x
2
= log
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+
x 1 x
x 1 x x 1 x
2
2 2
= log
x 1 x
1
2
+ +
= log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
= f(x)
i f(x) + f(x) = 0
~- f(x) lin +n- t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
16
a<iri # 15 : <lzi - +il( l+ a
x
+a
x
=n +n- t
rn : ni-i f(x) = a
x
+ a
x
- f(x) = a
x
+ a
(x)
= a
x
+a
x
= f(x).
~- f(x) =n +n- t
a<iri # 16 : <lzi - +il( l+ cos
1
x - -i =n t - ti lin
rn : tn f(x) = cos
1
x. - f(x) = cos
1
(x) = t cos
1
x i - -i f(x) + i t - ti f(x) + i
~- cos
1
x - -i =n t - ti lin
4iu +i4
(11) ai- +il( l+ l---lnli- +n- =n t i lin
(i)
x x
x x
e e
e e

+
(ii) log |
.
|

\
|
+ x 1 x
2
(iii) x log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
(iv) sin
1
2x
2
x 1
(iii) =n (iv) lin
u fai/fi fai (Even extension / Odd extension) :
ni-i f(x), [a, b] n liili- t ti ab > 0 := +n- + =n =i = -i t l+ := [b, a] n liili-
+-i t -il+ t =n ti =n l--i ai- +- + ln( <i n: liiii n x +i x ,ii l--iil- +- t
:=i +i lin l--i = -i t l+ +n- +i [b, a] n liili- +-i t -il+ t lin ti lin l--i
ai- +- + ln( =n l--i +i 1 = n ii +- t
a<iri # 17 : f(x) = x
3
6x
2
+ 5x 11 ; x > 0 +i =n ( lin l--i +i t ?
rn : f(x) +i =n l--i
f(x) = x
3
6x
2
5x 11 ; x < 0
f(x) +i lin l--i
f(x) = x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 5x + 11 ; x < 0
iat +na (Periodic Functions) :
+n- f(x), ~i-+in T +i ~i-i +n- +tni-i t l< i--l+ =i T > 0 lni- ti -il+ +n- f + i--
n + x + ln( = i( x T ( x + T ii +n- f + i-- n ti -ii +n- f + i-- n x + ln(
f(x) = f(x + T) ti ~i-i +n- +i i-- =< ~lz ti-i t T ~i-+in + ~i-+in +n- +i ~ii T +
+ ~--in + i< -i - ti -i t
-<iti +n- sin x ( cos x <i -i 2t = ~i-i ( tan x, t = ~i-i t .
-4aa riai-+ ia+in, +na f +i 4 4i iriiia nia ia+in 4i +na f +i ia+in +rniai
r+
ai a : ~i-i +n- +i l-ni n lni- -ti ti-i t
iat +na + n iri (Properties of Periodic Functions) :
(a) l< +n- f(x) +i ~i-+in T t -i
) x ( f
1
( ) x ( f +i ii ~i-+in T ti -i t
(b) l< +n- f(x) +i ~i- +in T t -i f (ax + b) +i ~i- +in
| a |
T
ti -i t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
17
(c) + ~- +n- i x + =ii i--l+ ni-i + ln( liili- ti l-i n ni - ~i- +in + =<
~i-i ti -i t
(d) l< +n- f (x) +i ~i- +in T
1
( g (x) +i ~i- +in T
2
t -i f(x) g(x) i f(x) . g(x) i
) x ( g
) x ( f
+i
~i-+in , T
1
T
2
+i L.C.M. ti-i t zi- l+ --+i L.C.M. lni- ti L.C.M. (l< lni- ti)
n ni - ~i- +in ti -i ~iz+ -ti t l< L.C.M. lni- -ti ti -i f(x) g(x) i f(x) . g(x) i
) x ( g
) x ( f
~-i-i ti - t
|
|
.
|

\
|
m
,
q
p
,
b
a
+i L.C.M. =
m) q, ( b, H.C.F.
) p, L.C.M.( a,
-<iti- |sinx| +i ~i- +in t ti -i t . | cosx | +i ii ~i- +in t ti -i t
|sinx| + |cosx| +i ii ~i-+in t ti-i t nl+- |sinx| + |cosx| +i nni- ~i-+in
2
t
ti-i t
(e) l< g (+ +n- := +i t -il+ +n- f + i-- gof liili- ti -ii f, T +i ~i-i +n- ti -i
gof ii :=+ =ni- ~i-+in T +i ~i-i +n- ti -i t
a<iri # 18 : l---lnli- +n-i + ~i- +in ai- +il(
(i) f(x) = sin
2
x
+ cos
3
x
(ii) f(x) = {x} + sin x, ti {.} li--in+ iin +n- +i +- +-i t
(iii) f(x) = cos x . cos 3x (iv) f(x) = sin
2
x 3
cos
3
x
tan
3
x 2
rn : (i) sin
2
x
+i ~i- +in 4t t l+ cos
3
x
+i 6t t ~- sin
2
x
+ cos
3
x
+i ~i- +in
12 t t
{4 ( 6 L.C.M., 12 t }
(ii) sin x +i ~i- +in 2t t
{x} +i ~i-+in 1 t
-- 2t ( 1 +i L.C.M. = i -ti t . +i l+ --+i ~- i- (+ ~ln =i t
~- t ~-i-i t
(iii) f(x) = cos x . cos 3x
f(x) +i ~i- +in
|
.
|

\
| t
t
3
2
, 2
+i L.C.M. 2t t
-- 2t n ni - ~i- +in ti =+-i t ~i -ti ii. --
n
2t
n ni - ~i- +in t . ti
n e N ~-n = 1, 2,3,.. i + i -- tn f(t + x) = ( cos x) ( cos 3x) = f(x) +i
~iiii - ~i-+in t i-- ti-i t
(iv) f(x) +i ~i- +in
2 / 3
2t
,
3 / 1
2t
,
3 / 2
t
+i L.C.M. t
=
3
4t
, 6t ,
2
3t
+i L.C.M. = 12t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
18
4iu +i4 :
(12) l---lnli- +n-i +i ~i- +in ai- +il(
(i) f(x) = sin x + | sin x | (ii) f(x) =
3
cos x sin
3
x
(iii) sin
5
x 2
cos
7
x 3
(iv) f(x) = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
Answers : (i) 2t (ii) 6t (iii) 70t (iv) t
+na +i s fani (Inverse of a Function) :
ni-i y = f(x) A B n (+ +i ~i-zi<+ +n- t . - x = g(y) : B A n (++i ~i-zi<+ +n- tn zii
:= +i lni- ti ni l< (p, q) +n- f +i ~ ti . -i (q, p) +n- g +i ~ ti -i t -ii +n-
f(x) ( g(x) +i (+ < = +i l-ni n +ti i-i t ( g(x) +i f
1
(x) ( f(x) +i g'(x) = <lzi - l+i
i-i t
Note : (i) (+ +i ~i-zi<+ +n- +i l-ni n ~l,-i ti -i t
(ii) =n +n- +i l-ni n liili- -ti t
s fani +na + n i (Properties of Inverse Function) :
(a) f ( g +i ~i i y = x ii < i l-l- ti - t -<iti f(x) = a
x
( g(x) = log
a
x (+ <= +
l-ni n ti - t ; ( --+ n i+ y = x ii (+ < = + < i l-l- ti - t i -i- <zii n( t
.
(b) =ini-- f ( f
1
+ l--z< l-< =n ii y = x l-i- ti - t l+ ii t i- t-i -ilt( l+
f(x) ( f
1
(x) l--z < + =+- t ~i -ti ii -<iti f(x) = 1/x.
(c) =ni-- fog(x) ( gof(x) i -ti ti - n l+- l< f ( g (+ <= + l-nin ti. - gof = fog.
nl+- l< f ( g (+ < = + l-nin - ti - ii fog(x) ( gof(x) i ti =+- t
-<iti f(x) = x + 1, g(x) = x + 2. -iil l< fog(x) = gof(x) = x, - g(x) = f
1
(x)
(d) l< <i (++i ~i-zi<+ +n- f ( g f : A B, g : B C ti . -i gof +i l-ni n lni- ti -i t -ii
(gof)
1
= f
1
o g
1
(e) l< f(x) ( g(x) (+ < = + l-ni n +n- t -i f'(g(x)) =
) x ( g
1
'
a<iri # 19 : (i) ai- +il( l+ f : R R + ,ii liili- +n- f(x) =
4
3 x 2 +
l-nini t i -ti` l< t
-i := ai- +il(
(ii) +i f(x) = sin
1
|
.
|

\
|

2
x 1 x 2
l-ni ni +n- t `
(iii) ni-i f(x) = x
2
+ 2x ; x > 1, f
1
(x) +i ~i i ii l-( -ii =ni+i f(x) = f
1
(x) + tni +i = i
ii ai- +il(
(iv) l< y = f(x) = x
2
3x + 1, x > 2 ti . -i g'(1) +i ni- ai- +il( ti g, f +i l-ni n
t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
19
rn : (i) l<i ni +n- (+ +i ( ~i-zi<+ t . ~- t l-ni ni t
y =
4
3 x 2 +
x =
2
3 y 4
f
1
(x) =
2
3 x 4
(ii) f +i i-- [1, 1] t
f(0) = 0 = f(1)
f (+ +i -ti t f l-ni ni -ti t
(iii)
f(x) = f
1
(x), f(x) = x + =ni- t
x
2
+ 2x = x x(x + 1) = 0 x = 0, 1
~- f(x) = f
1
(x) + ln( <i tn t
(iv) y = 1 x
2
3x + 1 = 1
x (x 3) = 0 x = 0, 3
n l+- x > 2 x = 3
~ g(f(x)) = x
<i -i -ii +i x + =i -i ~+n- +-
g'(f(x)). f'(x) = 1 g'(f(x)) =
) x ( f
1
'
g'(f(3)) =
) 3 ( f
1
'
g' (1) = =
3 6
1

=
3
1
(As f'(x) = 2x 3)
vU; fof/k
y = x
2
3x + 1
x
2
3x +1 y = 0
x =
2
) y 1 ( 4 9 3
=
2
y 4 5 3 +
x > 2
x =
2
y 4 5 3 + +
g(x) =
2
x 4 5 3 + +
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
20
g'(x) = 0 +
x 4 5 4
1
+
4
g'(1) =
4 5
1
+
=
9
1
=
3
1
4iu +i4 :
(13) f
1
(x) ai- +il(. l< l<( n( +n- l-ni ni t
(i) f : (, 1) (, 2) ,ii liili- +n- f(x) = (x + 1)
2
2
(ii) f : (

t t
6
7
,
6
[1, 1] ,ii liili- +n- f(x) = sin
|
.
|

\
| t
+
3
x
Answers : (i) 1 2 x (ii)
3
2t
+ sin
1
x
uii-4 (General tips) :
l< x, y -- zi - ti -i
(i) f (xy) = f (x) + f (y) f (x) = k ln x or f (x) = 0.
(ii) f (xy) = f (x). f (y) f (x) = x
n
, n e R
(iii) f (x + y) = f (x). f (y) f (x) = a
kx
.
(iv) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) f(x) = kx, ti k (+ ~- t
a<iri # 20 : l< f(x), f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
x e R {0} +i =-- +- ini t < +n- ti -ii
f(2) = 9 t - f (3) ai- +il(
rn : f(x) = 1 x
n
-ii f(2) = 9 f(x) = 1 + x
3
~- f(3) = 1 + 3
3
= 28
4iu +i4
(14) l< f(x), f(x) . f
|
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) + f
|
.
|

\
|
x
1
x e R {0} +i =-- +- ini t < +n- ti -ii
f(3) = 8 t - f(4) ai- +il(
(15) l< i--l+ x, y + ln( f(x + y) = f(x) . f(y) ( f(0) = 0 ti. -i l=z +il( l+ +n- g(x) =
) x ( f 1
) x ( f
2
+
=n +n- t