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ITEC 1010

Information and Organizations


SCS 214 Chapter 1
Introduction to
Information Systems
ITEC 1010
Information and Organizations
Information Concepts (1)
Data vs. Information
Data
Raw facts
Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in
a special way
Information
A collection of facts organized in such a way that
they have additional value beyond the value of the
facts themselves
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Data Discussion (1)
(1) Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special
way. All software is divided into two general categories: data and
programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating
data.

Data can exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on pieces
of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts
stored in a person's mind.

Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of
ITEC 1010
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information. In practice, however, people use data as both the
singular and plural form of the word.

(2) The term data is often used to distinguish binary
machine-readable information from textual human-readable
information. For example, some applications make a distinction
between data files (files that contain binary data) and text files
(files that contain ASCII data).

(3) In database management systems, data files are the files that
store the database information, whereas other files, such as index
files and data dictionaries, store administrative information, known
as metadata.
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Homework
Is the term datagenerally used in the
singular or plural
(a) in the textbook, and
(b) in the zdwebopedia web site?

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Terminology
Process
A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve
a defined outcome
Process
(n) An executing program. The term is used loosely
as a synonym of task.
(v) To perform some useful operations on data.
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Terminology
Knowledge
An awareness and understanding of a set of
information and how that information can be made
useful to support a specific task
Knowledge base
The collection of data, rules, procedures, and
relationships that must be followed to achieve value
or the proper outcome

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Types of Data
Data Represented by
Alphanumeric data Numbers, letters, and other characters
Image data Graphic images or pictures
Audio data Sound, noise, tones
Video data Moving images or pictures
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Data Information
Data Information Transformation
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Characteristics of
Valuable Information
Characteristics
Accurate, complete, economical, flexible,
reliable, relevant, simple, timely, verifiable,
accessible, secure
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Information and Organizations
System
System
A set of elements or components that interact
to accomplish goals
A combination of components working
together
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Information and Organizations
System Discussion
(1) Refers to a combination of components working together. For
example, a computer system includes both hardware and software.
A Windows system is a personal computer running the Windows
operating system. A desktop publishing system is a computer
running desktop publishing software.
(2) Short for computer system.
(3) Short for operating system.
(4) An organization or methodology. The binary numbering system,
for instance, is a way to count using only two digits.
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System Elements
Inputs
Processing mechanisms
Outputs
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System Example
System
Elements
Goal
Inputs
Processing
elements
Outputs
Movie
Actors, director,
staff, sets,
equipment
Filming,
editing,
special
effects,
distribution
Finished
film
delivered to
movie
studio
Entertaining
movie, film
awards,
profits
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System Components and Concepts
System boundary
Defines the system and distinguishes it from
everything else
System types
Simple vs. complex
Open vs. closed
Stable vs. dynamic
Adaptive vs. nonadaptive
Permanent vs. temporary
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System Performance and Standards
Efficiency
A measure of what is produced divided by what is
consumed
Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its
goals
System performance standard
A specific objective of the system (next 2 slides)
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Figure 1.5a
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Figure 1.5b
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System Variables and Parameters
System variable
A quantity or item that can be controlled by the
decision maker
E.g. the price a company charges for a product
System parameter
A value or quantity that cannot be controlled
by the decision maker
E.g., cost of a raw material
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Information and Organizations
Modeling a System
Model
An abstraction or an approximation that is used
to represent reality
Types of models
Narrative (aka descriptive)
Physical
Schematic
Mathematical
Next slide
ITEC 1010
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ITEC 1010
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Information System (IS)
Definition
A set of interrelated elements or components that
collect (input), manipulate (process), and disseminate
(output) data and information and provide a feedback
mechanism to meet an objective
(IS) Pronounced as separate letters, and short for
Information Systems or Information Services. For
many companies, IS is the name of the department
responsible for computers, networking and data
management. Other companies refer to the department
as IT (Information Technology) and MIS
(Management Information Services).
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What is an Information System?
Schematic model of an information system
Input Processing Output
Feedback
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Input, Processing, Output,
Input
The activity of gathering and capturing data
Whatever goes into the computer
Processing
Converting or transforming data into useful outputs
Output
Useful information, usually in the form of documents
and/or reports
Anything that comes out of a computer
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Input Discussion
(n) Whatever goes into the computer. Input
can take a variety of forms, from
commands you enter on a keyboard to data
from another computer or device. A device
that feeds data into a computer, such as a
keyboard or mouse, is called an input
device.
(v) The act of entering data into a computer
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Output Discussion
(n) Anything that comes out of a computer. Output
can be meaningful information or gibberish, and
it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary
numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed
pages. Output devices include display screens,
loudspeakers, and printers.
(v) To give out. For example, display screens output
images, printers output print, and loudspeakers
output sounds.
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Feedback
Feedback
Output that is used to make changes to input or
processing activities
Forecasting
A proactive approach to feedback
Use for estimating future sales or inventory
needs
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Manual vs. Computerized
Systems
Manual systems still widely used
E.g., some investment analysts manual draw charts and
trend lines to assist them in making investment
decisions
Computerized systems
E.g., the above trends lines can be drawn by computer
Evolution
Many computerized system began as manual systems
E.g., directory assistance (411)
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Computer-based Information
Systems
A CBIS is composed of
Hardware
Software
Databases
Telecommunications
People
Procedures
Together they are
Configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process
data into information
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Technology Infrastructure
Another term for CBIS
Consists of the shared information system
(IS) resources that form the foundation of
the information system
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Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

ITEC 1010
Information and Organizations
Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

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Hardware
Hardware
Computer equipment used to perform input,
processing, and output activities
The objects that you can actually touch, like
disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards,
printers, boards, and chips.
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Hardware Discussion
Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch,
like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers,
boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable.
Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no
substance.
Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink
are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and
the overall meaning are the software. A computer without
software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need
software to make the computer useful just as you need words
to make a book meaningful.
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Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

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Software
Software
Computer programs that
govern/determine/control the operation of the
computer
Computer instructions or data
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Software Discussion (1)
Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that
can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices
and display devices are hardware.
The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns
and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies
in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the
program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also
say: "It's a software problem.
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Software Discussion (2)
The distinction between software and hardware is
sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked.
Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying
software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk
(hardware) on which the software is recorded.
Software is often divided into two categories. Systems
software includes the operating system and all the utilities
that enable the computer to function. Applications software
includes programs that do real work for users. For example,
word processors, spreadsheets, and database management
systems fall under the category of applications software.
ITEC 1010
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Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

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Information and Organizations
Database
Database
An organized collection of facts and
information
A collection of information organized in such a
way that a computer program can quickly
select desired pieces of data
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Information and Organizations
Database Discussion (1)
A database is a collection of information organized in
such a way that a computer program can quickly select
desired pieces of data.
You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.
Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and
files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one
complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For
example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a
list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name,
address, and telephone number.
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Database Discussion (2)
An alternative concept in database design is known as
Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be
a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other
object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for
organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they
are not designed for numerical analysis.
To access information from a database, you need a
database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of
programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data
in a database.
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Database Discussion (3)
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Information and Organizations
Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

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Telecommunications
Telecommunications
The electronic transmission of signals for
communications; enables organizations to link
computer systems into effective networks
Refers to all types of data transmission, from
voice to video
ITEC 1010
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Parts of a CBIS
Five parts
Hardware
Software
Database
Telecommunications
Networks

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Networks
Network
Used to connect computers and computer
equipment in a building, around the country,
across the world, to enable electronic
communications
A group of two or more computer systems
linked together
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Network Discussion (1)
There are many types of computer networks, including:
local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are
geographically close together (that is, in the same
building).
wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther
apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
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Network Discussion (2)
In addition to these types, the following characteristics are
also used to categorize different types of networks:
topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system.
Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring.
protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and
signals that computers on the network use to
communicate. One of the most popular protocols for
LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol
for PCs is the IBM token-ring network .
architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using
either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.
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Network Discussion (3)
Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes.
Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network
are called servers.
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Network Discussion (4)
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Internet and Intranet
Internet
The worlds largest telecommunications network
A network of networks
Free exchange of information
A global network connecting millions of computers
Intranet
A network that uses Internet technology within an
organization
A network belonging to an organization
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Information and Organizations
People and Procedures
People
The most important element in most computer-
based information systems
Includes people who manage, run, program,
and maintain the system
E.g., IT professionals (you!)
Procedures
Includes the strategies, policies, methods, and
rules for using the CBIS
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Business Information Systems
Types
Transaction processing systems
E-commerce systems
Management information systems
Decision support systems
Expert systems
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Transactions Processing Systems
Transaction
Any business-related exchange
E.g., generating a weekly payroll
Transaction processing system (TPS)
An organized collection of people, procedures,
software, databases, and devices used to record
completed for for business related exchanges
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Payroll Example
Hours
worked
Pay
rate
Payroll
transaction
processing
Payroll
checks
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Business Information Systems
Types
Transaction processing systems
E-commerce systems
Management information systems
Decision support systems
Expert systems
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E-Commerce System
E-commerce
Involves any business transaction executed
electronically
Conducting business on-line
For example, between
Companies
Companies and consumers
Business and the public sector
Consumers and the public sector
Example for placing a purchase order


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Purchase Order - Traditional
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Purchase Order E-commerce
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Business Information Systems
Types
Transaction processing systems
E-commerce systems
Management information systems
Decision support systems
Expert systems
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Management Information Systems
An MIS is
An organized collection of people, procedures,
software, databases, and devices used to
provide routine information to managers and
decision makers
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Schematic of MIS
Common
databases
Marketing
management
information
system
Financial
management
Information
system
Manufacturing
management
Information
system
Order
management
information
system
TPS
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MIS Discussion
Short for management information system or management
information services, and pronounced as separate letters, MIS
refers to a class of software that provides managers with tools for
organizing and evaluating their department. Typically, MIS systems
are written in COBOL and run on mainframes or minicomputers.

Within companies and large organizations, the department
responsible for computer systems is sometimes called the MIS
department. Other names for MIS include IS (Information Services)
and IT (Information Technology).
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Information and Organizations
Business Information Systems
Types
Transaction processing systems
E-commerce systems
Management information systems
Decision support systems
Expert systems
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Decision Support Systems
A DSS is
An organized collection of people, procedures,
software, databases, and devices used to
support problem-specific decision making
A DSS helps a manger do the right thing
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Information and Organizations
Business Information Systems
Types
Transaction processing systems
E-commerce systems
Management information systems
Decision support systems
Expert systems
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Expert Systems
An expert system is
A computer application that performs a task that would
otherwise be performed by a human expert
gives the computer the ability to make suggestions and
to act like an expert in a particular field
Examples: diagnose human illnesses, make financial
forecasts, schedule routes for delivery vehicles
Expert systems typically include artificial
intelligence (next slide)
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Artificial Intelligence (1)
The branch of computer science concerned with making computers
behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence
includes
games playing: programming computers to play games such as
chess and checkers
expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life
situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose
diseases based on symptoms)
natural language : programming computers to understand natural
human languages
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Artificial Intelligence (2)
neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting
to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal
brains
robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to
other sensory stimuli

Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are
able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have
occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess
programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM
super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion
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Artificial Intelligence (3)
Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly
plants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots have
great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and
they still move and handle objects clumsily.

Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewards
because it would allow people to interact with computers without
needing any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to a
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Artificial Intelligence (4)
computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers to
understand natural languages has proved to be more difficult than
originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that
translate from one human language to another are in existence, but
they are not nearly as good as human translators. There are also
voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into
written words, but they do not understand what they are writing;
they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited --
you must speak slowly and distinctly.
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Artificial Intelligence (5)
In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent the
future of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date,
however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expert
systems help human experts in such fields as medicine and
engineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpful
only in special situations.

Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,
which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice
recognition and natural-language processing.
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Artificial Intelligence (6)
There are several programming languages that are known as AI
languages because they are used almost exclusively for AI
applications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.
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Working with Systems (1)
Systems development
The activity of creating or modifying an existing
business system
Systems investigation and analysis
Defines the problems and opportunities of an existing
system
Systems design
Determine how a new system will work to meet
business needs
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Working with Systems (2)
Systems implementation
Creating and acquiring system components
defined in the design
Systems maintenance and review
Checks and modifies the system so that it
continues to meet changing business needs
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End of Chapter 1
Chapter 2