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Chapter # 25 Calorimetry

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SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE25.1
What is the kinetic energy of a 10 kg mass moving at a speed of 36 km/h in calorie ?
Sol.
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
10 kg
2
3
s 3600
m 10 36
|
|
.
|

\
|

= 500 J =
186 . 4
500
cal ~ 120 cal.
EXAMPLE25.2
A copper block of mass 60 g is heated till its temperature is increased by 20
0
C. Find the heat
capacity of copper = 0.09 cal/g
0
C .
Sol.
The heat supplied is Q = msAu
= (60g) (0.09 cal/g
0
C) (20
0
C) = 180 cal.
The quantity ms is called the heat capacity of the body. Its unit is J/K. The mass of water having the same
heat capacity as a given body is called the water equivalent of the body.
EXAMPLE25.3
A piece of ice of mass 100 g and at a temperature 0
0
C is put in 200 g of water at 25
0
C. How much
ice will melt as the temperature of the water reaches 0
0
C? The specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg
K and the specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.4 10
5
J/kg.
Sol.
The heat released as the water cools drown from 25
0
C to 0
0
C is
Q = msAu = (0.2 kg) (4200 J/kgK)(25 K)= 21000 J.
The amount of ice melted by this much heat is given by
m =
L
Q
=
J/kg 10 3.4
J 21000
5

= 62 g.
EXAMPLE25.4
Acalorimeter of water equivalent 15 g contains 165 g of water at 25
0
C . Steam at 100
0
C is passed
through the water for some time . The temperature is increased to 30
0
Cand the mass of the calorimeter and
its contents is increased by 1.5 g. Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporization of water.Specific heat
capacity of water is 1 cal/g
0
C.
Sol.
Let Lbe the specific latent heat of vaporization of water. The mass of the steamcondensed is 1.5 g. Heat lost
in condensation of steam is
Q
1
= ( 1.5 g ) L.
The condensed water cools from 100
0
C to 30
0
C. Heat lost in this process is
Q
2
= ( 1.5 g ) ( 1 cal/g
0
C) ( 70
0
C) = 105 cal.
Heat supplied to the calorimeter and to the cold water during the rise in temperature from 25
0
C to 30
0
C is
Q
3
= ( 15 g + 165 g ) ( 1 cal/g
0
C ) ( 5
0
C) = 900 cal.
If no heat is lost to the surrounding,
( 1.5 g ) L + 105 cal = 900 cal
or, L = 530 cal/g.
QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER
Q.1 Is heat a conserved quantity?
Q.2 The calorie is defined as 1 cal = 4.186 joule. Why not as 1 cal = 4J to make the conversion easy?
Q.3 A calorimeter is kept in a wooden box to insulate it thermally from the surroundings. Why is it necessary?
Q.4 In a calorimeter, the heat given by the hot object is assumed to be equal to the heat taken by the cold object.
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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Does it means that heat of the two objects taken together remains constant?
Q.5 In regnaults apparatus for measuring specific heat capacity of a solid, there is an inlet and an outlet in the
steam chamber. The inlet is near the top and the outlet is near the bottom. Why is it better than the opposite
choice where the inlet is near the bottom and the outlet is near the top?
Q.6 When a solid melts or a liquid boils, the temperature does not increase even when heat is supplied. Where
does the energy go? [HCV_Chp.25_Short Ans._6]
Q.7 What is the specific heat capacity of (a) melting ice (b) boiling water? [HCV_Chp.25_Short Ans._7]
Q.8 A persons skin is more severely burnt when put in contact with 1 g of steam at 100C than when put in
contact with 1 g of water at 100C. Explain.
Q.9 The atmospheric temperature in the cities on sea-coast change very little. explain ?
Q.10 Should a thermometer bulb have large heat capacity or small heat capacity ? [HCV_Chp.25_Short Ans._10]
Objective - I
1. The specific heat capacity of a body depends on
(A) the heat given (B) the temperature raised
(C) the mass of the body (D*) the material of the body
l+=i -- +i llzi -ni l-i +-i t -
(A) <i ni -ni (B) -i lz
(C) -- + <ni- (D*) -- + <ii
2. Water equivalent of a body in measured in -
(A*) kg (B) calorie (C) kelvin (D) m
3
l+=i -- +i n - -i+ l--- n nii i-i t -
(A*) l+ni (B) +nii (C) + l-- (D) ni
3
3. When a hot liquid is mixed with a cold liquid, the temperature of the mixture
(A) first decreases then becomes constant (B) first increases then becomes constant
(C) continuously increases
(D*) is undefined for some time and then becomes nearly constant
(+ nn < l+=i zii-n < n lnnii i-i t . -i lni +i -i -
(A) tn +n ti -i t l+ l-- ti i-i t (B) tn c-i t l+ l-- ti i-i t
(C) l--- c-i t
(D*) +z =n + ln ~liili- t-i t -z-i- nnin l-- t-i t
4. Which of the following pairs represent units of the same physical quantity ?
(A) kelvin and joule (B) kelvin and calorie (C) newton and calorie (D*) joule and calorie
l--- n = +i-= n (+ ti ii l-+ ilzi +i :+i:i +i +- +- t -
(A) +l-- -ii n (B) + l-- -ii + ni i (C) -- -ii +nii (D*) n -ii +nii
5. Which of the following pairs of physical quantities may be represented in the same unit ?
(A) heat and temperature (B) temperature and mole
(C*) heat and work (D) specific heat and heat
ii l-+ ilzii + ni n = +i -=i (+ ti :+i: ,ii +- l+i i =+-i t -
(A) -ni -ii -i (B) -i -ii nin
(C*) -ni -ii +i (D) llzi -ni -ii -ni
6. Two bodies at different temperatures are mixed in a calorimeter. Which of the following quantities remains
conserved?
(A) sum of the temperature of the two bodies (B) total heat of the two bodies
(C*) total internal energy of the two bodies (D) internal energy of each body
li--li-- -ii ini <i -- ( (+ +nii nii = lnnii i-i t l--- ilzii n = +i-=i = l-i- t ni -
(A) <i-i --~i + -ii +i in (B) <i-i --~i +i +n -ni
(C*) <i-i --~i +i +n ~i -l+ -i (D) + -- +i ~i-l+ -i
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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7. The mechanical equivalent of heat
(A) has the same dimension of heat (B) has the same dimension as work
(C) has the same dimension as energy (D*) is dimensionless
-ni +i i lzi+- -i + -
(A) +i lni( ai+ -ni =i ti -i t (B) +i lni( ai+ +i =i ti -i t
(C) +i lni( ai+ -i =i ti-i t (D*) lniti- ti -i t
Objective - II
1. The heat capacity of a body depends on
(A) the heat given (B) the temperature raised
(C*) the mass of the body (D*) the material of the body
l+=i -- +i -niiil-i l-i +-i t -
(A) <i ni -ni (B) -ilz
(C*) -- + <ni- (D*) -- + <ii
2. The ratio of specific heat capacity to molar heat capacity of a body
(A) is a universal constant (B) depends on the mass of the body
(C*) depends on the molecular weight of the body (D) is dimensionless
l+=i -- +i llzi -ni -ii nin llzi -ni +i ~- i- -
(A) (+ =i lzi+ l--i + ti -i t (B) -- + <ni- l-i +-i t
(C*) -- + n in ~i ii l-i +-i t (D) lniti- ti -i t
3. If heat is supplied to a solid, its temperature
(A) must increase (B*) may increase (C*) may remain constant (D) may decrease
l< l+=i ai= +i -ni <i- +i i. -i :=+i -i -
(A) l-lz-- = cni (B*) c =+-i t (C*) l-- t =+-i t (D) +n ti =+-i t
4. The temperature of a solid object is observed to be constant during a period. In this period
(A*) heat may have been supplied to the body (B*) heat may have been extracted from the body
(C) no heat is supplied to the body (D) no heat is extracted from the body
l+=i l-lz-- +in n (+ ai = -- +i -i l-- t-i t := +in n -
(A*) t ti =+-i t l+ -- +i -ni <i- +i i ti ti (B*) t ti =+-i t l+ -- = -ni ni i ti ti
(C) -- +i +i : -ni -ti <i i ti ti (D) -- = +i : -ni -ti ni i ti ti
5. The temperatuer of an object is observed to rise in a period. In this period
(A) heat is certainly supplied to it (B) heat is certainly not supplied to it.
(C*) heat may have been supplied to it (D*) work may have been done on it.
l+=i +in n (+ -- + -i n lz l-i- +i i-i t := +in n -
(A) l-lz-- = :=+i -ni <i i ti t (B) l-lz-- = :=+i -ni <i i ti ti
(C*) ti =+-i t l+ :=+i -ni <i i ti ti (D*) ti =+-i t l+ := +i l+i i ti ti
6. Heat and work are equivalent. This means,
(A) when we supply heat to a body we do work on it
(B) when we do work on a body we supply heat to it
(C*) the temperature of a body can be increased by doing work on it.
(D) a body kept at reat may be set into motion along a line by supplying heat to it.
-ni -ii +i - - t :=+i -i t -
(A) tn l+=i -- +i -ni <i- +- t. tn := +i +- t
(B) tn l+=i -- +i +- t. tn -- +i -ni <i- +- t
(C*) -- +i ++ :=+i -i cii i =+-i t
(D) lini-ii n l-i- -- +i -ni <i- ++. :=+i =n ii + ~-l<zi nl-ziin l+i i =+-i t
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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WORKED OUT EXAMPLES
1. Calculate the amount of heat required to convert 1.00kg of ice at - 10C into steam at 100C at normal
pressure. Specific heat capacity of ice = 2100 J/kg-K, latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 10
5
J/kg, specific
heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg-K and latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.25 10
6
J/kg.
Sol. Heat required to take the ice from - 10C to 0C
= (1 kg) (2100 J/kg-K) (10 K) = 21000 J.
Heat required to melt the ice at 0C to water
= (1 kg) (3.36 10
5
J/kg) = 336000 J.
Heat required to take 1 kg of water from 0C to 100C
= (1 kg) (4200 J/kg)-K (100 K) = 420000 J.
Heat required to convert 1 kg of water at 100C into steam
= (1kg) (2.25 10
6
J/kg) = 2.25 10
6
J.
Total heat required = 3.03 10
6
J.
2. A5 g piece of ice at - 20C is put into 10 g of water at 30C. Assuming that heat is exchanged only between
the ice and the water, find the final temperature of the mixture. Specific heat capacity of ice = 2100 J/kg-C,
specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg-C and latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 10
5
J/kg.
Sol. The heat given by the water when it cools down form 30C to 0C is
(0.01 kg) (4200 J/kg-C) (30C) = 1260 J.
The heat required to bring the ice to 0C is
(0.005kg) (2100 J/kg-C) (20C) = 210 J.
The heat required to melt 5 g of ice is
(0.005 kg) (3.36 105 J/kg) = 1680 J.
We see that whole of the ice cannot be melted as the required amount of heat is not provided by the water.
Also, the jeat enough to bring the ice to 0C. Thus the final temperature of the mixutre is 0Cwith some of the
ice melted.
3. An aluminium container of mass 100 g contains 200g of ice at - 20C. Heat is added to the system at a rate
of 100 cal/s. What is the temperature of the system after 4 minutes? Draw a rough sketch showing the
variation in the temperature of the system as a function of the time. Specific heat capacity of ice = 0.5 cal/g-
C, specific heat capacity of aluminium = 0.2 cal/g-C, specific heat capacity of water = 1 cal/g-C and latent
heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal/g.
Sol. Total heat supplied to the system in 4 minutes is Q = 100 cal/s 240s = 2.4 10
4
cal.
The heat required to take the system from - 20C to 0C
= (100g) 0.2 cal/g-C) (20C) +
(200 g) (0.5 cal/g-C) (20C)
= 400 cal + 2000 cal = 2400 cal.
The time taken in this process =
100
2400
s = 24 s.
The heat required to melt the ice at 0C
= (200 g) (80 cal/g) = 16000 cal.
The time taken in this process =
100
16000
s = 160 s.
If the final temperature is u, the heat required to take the system to the final temperature is
= (100 g) (0.2 cal/g-C) u + (200 g) (1 cal/g-C) u.
Thus,
2.4 10
4
cal = 2400 cal + 16000 cal + (220 cal/C) u
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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or
C / cal 220
cal 5600
= u
= 25.5C.
The variation of the temperature as a function of time is sketched in figure.
4. A thermally isolated vessel contains 100 g of water at 0C. When air above the water is pumped out, some
of the water freezes and some evaporates at 0Citself. Calculate the mass of the ice formed if no water is left
in the vessel. Latent heat of vaporization of water at 0C = 2.10 106 J/kg and latent heat of fusion of ice =
3.36 10
5
J/kg.
Sol. Total mass of the water = M = 100 g.
Latent heat of vaporization of water at 0C
= L
1
= 21.0 10
5
J/kg.
Latent heat of fusion of ice = L
2
= 3.36 10
5
J/kg.
Suppose, the mass of the ice formed = m.
Then the mass of water evaporated = M- m.
Heat taken by the water to evaporate = (M - m) L
1
and heat given by the water in freezing = mL
2
Thus, mL
2
= (M-m) L
1
or,
2 1
1
L L
ML
m
+
=
kg / J 10 ) 36 . 3 0 . 21 (
) kg / J 10 0 . 21 ( ) g 100 (
5
5
+

= 86 g
5. Alead bullet penetrates into a solid object and melts. Assuming that 50% of its kinetic energy was used to
heat it, calculate the initial speed of the bullet. The initial temperature of the bullet is 27C and its melting
point is 327C. Latent heat of fusion of lead = 2.5 104 J/kg and specific heat capacity of lead = 125 J/kg-
K.
Sol. Let the mass of the bullet = m.
Heat required to take the bullet from 27C to 327C
= m (125 J/kg-K) (300 K)
= m (3.75 10
4
J/kg)
Heat required to melt the bullet
= m (2.5 10
4
J/kg).
If the initial speed be v, the kinetic energy is
2
1
mv
2
and hence the heat developed is
|
.
|

\
|
2
mv
2
1
2
1
=
2
mv
4
1
.
Thus,
2
mv
4
1
= m (3.75 + 2.5) 10
4
J/kg
or v = 500 m/s.
6. A lead ball at 30 is dropped from a height of 6.2km. The ball is heated due to the air resistance and it
completely melts just before reaching the ground. The molten substance falls slowly on the ground. Calculate
the latent heat of fusion of lead. Specific heat capacity of lead = 126 J/kgC and melting point of lead =
330C. Assume that any mechanical energy lost is used to heat the ball. Use g = 10 m/s
2
.
Sol. The initial gravitational potential energy of the ball
= mgh
= m (10 m/s
2
) 6.2 10
3
m)
= m (6.2 10
4
m
2
/s
2
) = m (6.2 10
4
J/kg).
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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All this energy is used to heat the ball as it reaches the ground with a small velocity. Energy required to take
the ball from 30C to 330C is
m (126 J/kgC) (300C)
= m 37800 J/kg
and energy required to melt the ball at 330C
= mL
where L = latent heat of fusion of lead.
Thus,
m (6.2 10
4
J/kg) = m 37800 J/kg + mL
or, L = 2.4 10
4
J/kg.
EXERCISE
1. An aluminium vessel of mass 0.5kg constants 0.2 kg of water at 20C. A block of iron of mass 0.2 kg at
100C is gently put into the water. Find the equilibrium temperature of the nuxture. Specific heat capacities
of aluminium, iron and water are 910 J/kgK, 470 J/kgK and 4200 J/kgK respectively.
0.5 l+n i < ni- in (- lnl-n + izi n 20C i-i 0.2 l+n i i-i t 0.2 l+n i < ni- ( 100C-i ini
ni t +i (+ n +i ii = i-i n zi l<i i-i t =i-i-ii n lni +i -i ai- +il (- lnl-n ni t -ii
n +i llzi -ni( +nzi 910 nl+niK, 470 nl+niK ( 4200 nl+niK t
Ans. 25C
2. A piece of iron of mass 100g is kept inside a furnace for a long time and then put in a calorimeter of water
equivalent 10 g containing 240 g of water at 20C. The mixture attains an equilibrium temperature of 60C.
Find the temperature of the furnace. Specific heat capacity of iron = 470 J/kg-C.
100 n in < ni- +i ni t +i +i n- =n -+ ii n i- + z-i-. 10 n in n - -i + in + ni i nii n
i t ( 20C-i in 240 n in n n ini i-i t =i-i-ii i-- +- lni +i -i 60Cti i-i t ii
+i -i ai- +il nit +i llzi -ni = 470 nl+ni-C
Ans. 950C
3. The temperatures of equal masses of three different liquidsA, Band Care 12C, 19Cand 28Crespectively.
The temperature whenAand B are mixed is 16C, and when B and Care mixed, it is 23C. What will be the
temperature whenAand Care mixed ?
-i- =ni- <ni- in ~nn~nn < i A, B -ii C + ln( +i -ini- +nzi 12C, 19C-ii 28C t A-ii
B +i lnl- l+i i-i t -i -ini- 16Ct -ii B (n C+i lnl- l+i i-i t -i -ini- 23Ct A-ii
C +i lnl- +- -ini- +i tini ? HCV_Ch-25_Ex_3
Ans. 20.3C
Q.4 Four 2cm 2cm 2cmcubes of ice are taken out froma refrigerator and are put in 200 ml of a drink at 10C.
(a) Find the temperature of the drink when thermal equilibriumis attained in it. (b) If the ice cubes do not melt
completely, find the amount melted. Assume that no heat is lost to the outside of the drink and that the
container has negligible heat capacity. Density of ice = 900 kg/m
3
, density of the drink = 1000 kg/m
3
, specific
heat capacity of the drink = 4200 J/kg-K, latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.4 10
5
J/kg.
2 = ni 2 =ni 2 = ni in -i ~i:= + l+ = l-+in + 10C -i in 200 lnni n in i- t
(a) -ni =i-i-ii i-- ti - + z-i- +i -i ai- +il (b) l< ~i:= + i -i lin- -ti t . -i lini
t : nizii ai- +il
ni- nil l+ = it -ni til- -ti ti -i t -ii izi +i -ni iil-i -n t + +i i- = 900 l+n i/ni
3
,
+i i- = 1000 l+ni/ni
3
, +i llzi -ni = 4200 nl+ni-K, + + nn- +i n-- -ni = 3.4 10
5
nl+ni
Ans. (a) 0C (b) 25 g
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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Q.5 Indian style of colling drinking water is to keep it in a pitcher having porous walls. Water comes to the outer
surface very slowly and evaporates. Most of the energy needed for evaporation is taken fromthe water itself
and the water is cooled down. Assume that a pitcher contains 10 kg of water and 0.2 g of water comes out
per second. Assuming no backward heat transfer from the atmosphere to the water, calculate the time in
which the temperature decreases by 5C. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kgC and latent heat of
vaporization of water = 2.27 10
6
J/kg.
i- +i i-i ai +- +i ii-i lli n . i-i +i =-i <iii in n+ n i+ ii i-i t i-i ii ii it
ini =-t ~i+ il- ti -i t-i t i-i + i- + ln ~iz+ -ni +i iin - i-i = ti lni i-i t
-ii i-i ai ti -i t-i t ni- nil l+ n+ n 10 l+n i i-i t -ii l- = + 0.2 n in i-i it ~i-i t t
ni-- t ( l+ i-ii = +i : -ni i-i +i -ti ni i: i-i t . -= =n +i ni-i +il l=+ z-i- -i n 5C
+ni ti ini n +i llzi -ni = 4200 n/l+n iC( n + i- +i n-- -ni = 2.27 10
6
n/l+ni
Ans. 7.7 min
Q.6 A cube of iron (density = 8000 kg/m
3
, specific heat capacity = 470 J/kg-K) is heated to a high temperature
and is placed on a large block of ice at 0C. The cube melts the ice below it, displaces the water and sinks.
In the final equilibriumposition, its upper surface just goes inside the ice. Calculate the initial temperature of
the cube. neglect any loss of heat outside the ice and the cube. The density of ice = 900 kg/m
3
and the latent
heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 10
5
J/kg.
nit (i- = 8000 l+n ini
3
, llzi -ni = 470 nl+n i-K) + (+ i- +i --- -i -+ nn ++ 0C-i in
+ + (+ t - ni + i l<i i-i t i- ~- -i- in + +i lini < -i t . i-i +i l-iil- ++ ti
< -i t ~ l-n =i-i-ii +i l-il- n :=+i -i =-t + + - - ~-< -ni i-i t i- + il-i+ -i +i ni-i
+il i- ( + + it l+=i ii -ni til- +i -n ni- nil + +i i- =900 l+n i/ni
3
-ii + + nn-
+i n-- -ni = 3.36 10
5
nl+ni
Ans. 80C
Q.7 1kg of ice at 0C is mixed with 1 kg of steam at 100C. What will be the composition of the system
when thermal equilibrium is reached? Latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 10
5
J/kg and latent heat of
vaporization of water = 2.26 10
6
J/kg.
0C ini 1kg + +i 100C ini 1 kg i + =ii lnl- l+i i-i t -ii =i-i-ii vi-- ti -i t -i l-+i
+i lni l+= -t +i tini + + nn- +i n-- -ni = 3.36 10
5
J/kg ~i i-i + i- +i n--
-ni = 2.26 10
6
J/kg t HCV_Ch-25_Ex_7
Ans. 665 g steam and 1.335 kg water
Q.8 Calculate the time required to heat 20kg of water from10Cto 35Cusing an immersion heater rated 1000W.
Assume that 80% of the power input is used to heat the water. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg-
K.
1000 i +i :nzi - i +i -i n ++ 20 l+n i i-i +i -i 10C= 35C-+ ci- n nn- in =n +i ni-i
+il ni- nil l+ llzi zil+- +i 80%ti i-i nn +- t - +- ti -i t
i-i +i llzi -ni = 4200 nl+ni-K
Ans. 44 min
Q.9 On a winter day the temperature of the tap water is 20C whereas the room temperature is 5C. Water is
stored in a tank of capacity 0.5 m
3
for household use. If it were possible to use the heat liberated by the water
to lift a 10 kg mass vertically, how high can it be lifted as the water comes to the room temperature?
Take g = 10 m/s
2
.
=<i n l+=i l<- -n + i-i +i -i 20Ct . l+ +n +i -i 5Ct i n -i n + ln 0.5 ni
3
-in-i ini
+i n i-i =l-- l+i i-i t l< i-i + ,ii n+- -ni +i -in. 10 l+ni <ni- +i - -ci- n l+i
i =+ -i i-i + +n + -i -+ ~i- <ni- l+--i - -aii i =+-i t g = 10 m/s
2
. i
Ans. 315 km
Q.10 Abullet of mass 20 g enters into a fixed wooden block with a speed of 40 m/s and stops in it. Find the change
in internal energy during the process.
40 ni= -in = nl- +-i t: 20 nin < ni- +i (+ ni ni. n+i + l-i n+ n l ti i-i t := l+i
n ~i-l+ -i n l-- ai- +il
Ans. 16 J
Chapter # 25 Calorimetry
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manishkumarphysics.in
Q.11 A 50kg man is running at a speed of 18km/h. If all the kinetic energy of the man can be used to increase the
temperature of water from 20C to 30C, howmuch water can be heated with this energy ?
50 l+n i < ni- ini (+ l+- 18 l+nii i +i -in = <i ti t l< l+- +i =n-- nl- -i i-i +i -i
20C = 30C-+ ci- n +- +i i =+-i ti . -i := -i = l+-- i-i +i -i cii i =+-i t
Ans. 15 g
Q.12 Abrick weighing 4.0kg is dropped into a 1.0 m deep river from a height of 2.0 m. Assuming that 80% of the
gravitational potential energy is finally converted into thermal energy, find the thermal energy in calorie.
4.0 l+n i < ni- ini (+ : 2.0 ni. - -i: = 1.0 ni. nti -<i n in <i i-i t l< t ni-i i l+ n i
l-il- -i +i 80%~- n -ni -i n ll-- ti i-i t. -ni -i +i t ni- + nii n ai- +il
Ans. 23 cal
13 Avan of mass 1500kg travelling at a speed of 54 km/h is stopped in 10s. Assuming that all the mechanical
energy lost appears as thermal energy in the brake mechanism, find the average rate of production of thermal
energy in cal/s.
54 l+nii i -in = nl-ziin 1500 l+ni <ni- +i (+ - +i 10 =+ n i+i i-i t t ni-- t( l+ -
ti- ini =n-- ilzi+ -i. + -ii n -i + n + ti-i t. -ni -i + -i<- +i ~i=- <
+nii=+ n ai- +il
Ans. 4000 cal/s
14 A block of mass 100g slides on a rough horizontal surface. If the speed of the block decreases from 10 m/s
to 5 m/s, find the thermal energy developed in the process.
100 n in <ni- ini (+ n+i i <i -il- =-t l+=n-i t l< n+ +i -in 10 ni= = i+ 5 ni=
t i-i t. -i := l+i n --- ti- ini -ni ai- +il
Ans. 3.75 J
15 Two blocks of masses 10kg and 20kg moving at speeds of 10 m/s and 20 m/s respectively in opposite
directions, approach each other and collide. If the collision is completely inelastic, find the thermal energy
developed in the process.
10 l+ni -ii 20 l+ni <ni- in <i n+ +nzi 10 ni= ( 20 ni= -in = - ll- l<zii n nl- +-
t( ~i= n +i i- t l< ++ i-i ~i-i t. -i := l+i n --- -ni ai- +il
Ans. 3000 J
16. Aball is dropped on a floor from a height of 2.0 m. After the collision it rises up to a height of 1.5 m. Assume
that 40%of themechanial energy lost goes as thermal energyintotheball. Calculatetherisein thetemperature
of the ball in the collision. Heat capacity of the ball is 800 J/K.
(+ n < +zi 2.0 m. - -i: = lni: i-i t ++ + z-i- t - 1.5 ni. - -i: -+ -a i-i t ni- nil
l+ - ti - ini i lzi+ -i +i 40%n < n -i + -ni i-i t ++ n n < + -i n lz +i ni-i +il
n< +i -ni iil-i 800 nl+ni t
Ans. 2.5 10
3
C
17. A copper cube of mass 200g slides down on a rough inclined plane of inclination 37 at a constant speed.
Assume that any loss in mechanical, energy goes into the copper block as thermal energy. Find the increase
in the temperature of the block as it slides down through 60 cm. Specific heat capacity of copper = 420 J/kg-K.
200 n in < ni- ini -i +i (+ i- 37 ~i-l- in i < -- l-- -in = l+=n ti t ni- nil l+ i lzi+
-i +i til-. -i + i- n -ni-i + n -ni i-i t 60 = ni -i- l+=n- + z-i- n + + -i n lz
ai- +il -i +i llzi -ni = 420 nl+ni-K
Ans. 8.6 10
3
C
18. A metal block of density 6000 kg/m
3
and mass 1.2 kg is suspended through a spring of spring constant 200
N/m. The spring-block system is dipped in water kept in a vessel. The water has a mass of 260g and the
block is at a height 40cm above the bottom of the vessel. If the support to the spring is broken, what will be
the rise in the temperature of the water. Specific heat capacity of the block is 250 J/kg-K and that of water is
4200 J/kg-K. Heat capacities of the vessel and the spring are negligible.
6000 l+n ic/nic
3
i- in -ii 1.2 l+n ic < ni- in ii- + n + +i 200 - -/nic in l-v n l--i + = n+ii
i-i t l-v nn + l-+i +i i-i = i izi n i i i-i t i-i +i < ni- 260 g t -ii n +i izi + < =
40 = nic - -i: t ~n l-v n l= ii t t =tii i-i t -i i-i + -ini- n l+--i lz ti ni n +
+i llzi -ni 250 J/kg-K -ii i-i +i 4200 J/kg-K t izi -ii l-v n +i llzi -ni +i -n nil-(
HCV_Ch-25_Ex_18
Ans. 0.003C