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SOLAR

Bodhinanda Chandra
Civil Engineering
1TE12854Y
Background Why we need alternative energy?
Alternative Energy What is alternative energy?
Solar Power What is Solar Power?
Benefits of Using Solar Power What kind of advantageous that Solar Power can
give?
Technological Innovations What kind of technologies are developed to harvest
Solar Power?
Conclusion Why Solar Power is the best alternative energy?
The long-term expansion of a
sustainable energy supply should meet
all criterions of the Agenda 21 (Rio
Agenda 21, 1992).
In Kyoto Protocol 1997, many developed
countries have agreed to legally
binding limitations/reductions in their
emissions of greenhouse gases (Kyoto
Protocol, 1997).
FOSSIL FUEL
endanger human health,
push the acidification and
eutrophication processes in
ecosystems
support global warming.
800,000 YEARS
In Hawaii, CO
2
levels were
over 402 parts per million (ppm)
in April 2014
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA)
Energy fueled into ways that do not use up natural resources or harm the
environment. Oxford Dictionary
A sustainable energy supply is characterized by;
a low consumption of resources,
the compatibility with the climate,
a riskless energy production,
a fair energy distribution between industrialized and developing countries and
between generations respectively.
Renewable
Solar energy sunlight
Wind energy wind
Geothermal energy earth's internal heat
Tidal energy tides
Wave energy ocean surface waves
Biofuel bioethanol, biogas
Hydrogen H2 + 02
Not Renewable
Nuclear Uranium 235, radioactive materials
Power obtained by harnessing the energy of the
suns rays. Oxford Dictionary
Frank van Mierlo, NASA
Passive: Solar Thermal Power Plants Active: Solar Photovoltaics Cell
1
Light Energy Sunlight
concentrated
2
Heat Water boiled
3
Mechanical Energy Water move
Turbine
4
Electrical Energy Turbine
generates electricity
http://www.iflscience.com/technology/solar-plant-achieves-supercritical-steam
http://bryantgoessolar.weebly.com/
Sunlight
Electron
Excited
Electricity
Generated
Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
Solar 3,850,000 EJ
Wind 2,250 EJ
Biomass potential ~200 EJ
Primary energy use (2010) 539 EJ
Electricity (2010) ~67 EJ
1 Exajoule (EJ) is 10
18
Joules or 278 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy
World Map of Global Horizontal Irradiation, SolarGIS 2013
HOW MUCH ROOM
D Germany
500 TWh/y 45 km x 45 km
EU25 Europe
3,000 TWH/Y 110 km x 110 km
Welt World
16,076 TWh/y 254km x 254km
Eco-balance of a Solar Electricity
Transmission from North Africa to Europe, Nadine May 2005
If solar electricity yield of 250 GWhel/km
An area of 3.49 million km is
available for potential locations of
solar thermal power plants in the
North African countries Morocco,
Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt
SOLAR ROADWAY
http://solarroadways.com/numbers.shtml
There are 31,250.86 square miles of roads,
parking lots, driveways, playgrounds, bike
paths, sidewalks, etc. in US.
If we cover these roads with solar cells
that have an 18.5% efficiency with
assuming on average only 4 hours of peak
daylight hours per day (4 x 365 = 1460
hours per year).
It will generate 13,385 Billion Kilowatt-
hours per year of electricity (net).
Solar Roadways could produce over
three times the electricity that we
currently use in the United States and
able to cut greenhouse gases by 75%.
GIANT SOLAR
FARM
There is no day and night in space,
hence the space based solar
panels would be around 5-10 times
more efficient than ground-based
solar conversion systems.
Solar
Energy
Microwaves
Electricity
http://www.iflscience.com/technology/japan-wants-put-giant-solar-farm-space
We have proved the commercial profit of sun power in the tropics and have more
particularly proved that after our stores of oil and coal are exhausted the human
race can receive unlimited power from the rays of the sun. Frank Shuman, Solar
Power Inventor, New York Times, July 2, 1916
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable,
inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term
benefits. It will increase countries energy security through reliance on an
indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource,
enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate
change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are
global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be
considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely
shared.