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Section A

1(a) Describe the features of these woodlice which classify them as arthropods. (2 marks)
They are an invertebrate animal which means they have no spine.
They have an external skeletal shell

(b) (i) Suggest the main source of food for woodlice. (1 mark)
They eat decayed wood and soft wood. Also they eat rotten plant and fruit matter.
(ii) Explain why woodlice need cellulase enzymes to break down cellulose. (2 marks)
They release enzymes to break down compounds, so that they can absorb the nutrients from the
food they eat.
(iii) Explain the importance of respiration to these woodlice? (2 marks)
Respiration is the exchange of carbon dioxide for fresh air. Woodlice live under rocks, stones and
leaves where oxygen levels are low so it allows them to breath in these places with low oxygen
(c) Suggest what this observation tells you about the external surfaces of the woodlice (1)
They need moisture because woodlice belong to the class of arthropods known as crustaceans,
which is a predominantly aquatic group containing the crabs and lobsters. Although they now live on
land the woodlice have not completely shaken off their aquatic habits. Their skins are not
completely waterproof, and the animals very soon desiccate in a dry environment. This is why
almost all of them are confined to damp places and why they only come out to feed at night, when
the air is cooler and damper.
(d) Describe the similarities and differences between the two species, as shown on the graph
above. (4 marks)
The similarities between species A and B is that they the same amount of legs. Also they both
species have antennas and both have scales. However, species A is wider than species B.

(e) Describe one similarity and one difference between the patterns of rest periods shown by
species A and B. (3 marks)
One similarities is that the humidity the more they both rest. One difference is that specie s a takes
more rest than species b especially at lower humidity.

(f) Species A is thought to be much less sensitive to the effects of humidity than species B.
(i) Describe and explain two pieces of evidence which supports the hypothesis that species A is
much less sensitive to change in humidity than species B. (4 marks)
Species A has a lower humidity than species B, since species B has a higher humidity. Additionally,
when comparing species a and b the table shows us that the higher the humidity, species a increases
at a lower rate that species b. we can see from the table at the highest temperature ( humidity)
species a rested a total of a 158 times while species B rested a total of 574 times.
(ii) Suggest a possible structural difference between species A and b which could explain why
species a is less sensitive to changes humidity than species B. (1 mark)
Species a is larger than b , carries more water than b, which it is why species a is less sensitive to
changes than b.

2. (A) (i) Suggest reason why most photosynthesis takes place in the palisade mesophyll cells of
the leaf. ( 2 marks)
Since, it contains mesophyll cell which have chloroplast which contains chlorophylls and enzyme.
(ii) Explain why carbon dioxide is essential for the growth of plants .
Carbon dioxide is needed so that photosynthesis can take place. Photosynthesis is the proses of food
of being created for plants. Carbon dioxide is needed along with water, sunlight, oxygen.
B (i) Name the process which makes oxygen in the leaf. (1 mark)
It is photosynthesis.
(ii) Describe the journey of a water molecule from the soil through the plant into the air. (3 marks)
Firstly, up through root carried up the stem. Secondly, the stem carries the water molecule to the
leaf. Finally the leaves contain chlorophyll which uses the light from the sun to change the water into
(c) (I) Describe the changes in appearance of the guard cells and stoma during the day and at night.
(2 marks)
The guard cells have closed. The stomata helps it with light and its water proof in case of heavy rain
it will guard the hole in the night.
(ii) Suggest some advantages to the plant of having stoma which can open and close. (4 marks)
It saves water. Their function is to allow carbon dioxide to enter the leaf (for photosynthesis) and
oxygen (made by photosynthesis) to leave the leaf.
Usually stomata open during the day and close at night. This is to save water, since water vapour can
escape as long as the stomata are open.

(d) (I) Describe the effects of increasing concentration of ABA on the width of stomata. (3 marks)
The higher concentration of ABA the decrease in the with of the stomata .
(ii) Suggest how this behaviour is a survival mechanism for the plant. (2 marks)
It protects the hole so It can form oxygen and keep out ABA.

Section B

1 (a) State three things needed for a fire. (3 marks)
One of the main things needed for a fire is carbon dioxide, oxygen
(B) Explain what would happen to the water if a drop were put in 200c. (2 marks)
The fat will spit back out.
(c) Suggest why it would be dangerous if a lot of water were thrown onto burning fat. (2 marks)
You will get burned by the fat.
(d) Explain why covering the pan with a damp cloth successfully puts out the fire. (2 marks)

(e) Explain why the note appeared to burn when set alight. (1 mark)

(f) Explain why the fire went out before the note caught alight. (2 marks)
(g) predict what would have happened if the note had been dipped in
(i) just water
(ii) just ethanol
(h) (i) Name two elements which must be in ethanol (2 marks)
(ii) Describe the apparatus you could use to collect the water given off and test for the carbon
dioxide given off. (4 marks)
2a. Explain the difference between element and compound.(2 marks)
Elements consist of one type of atom only were as compounds are chemically bounded.
2b. What information from the data in the table is evidence that iron oxide is a compound?
( 1mark)
Iron oxide is compound because it decomposes at boiling points. It is very difficult to separate two
elements in a compound.
2c. Suggest a reason why very little iron as an element on earth.(2 marks)
Since, the earth is full of oxygen ,the iron is extracted by the removal of oxygen.
(i)Name the gas which is formed both in reaction 1 and reaction 2. (1 mark)
The gas formed is carbon monoxide.
(ii)Explain carefully why reaction 2 involves both oxidation and reduction. (2 marks)
Since the carbon monoxide reduces the iron ore to iron it also combines with oxygen in iron
oxide to form carbon dioxide. This is oxidation.
(iii)The furnace is kept at 1550 0C. Give two reasons why this temperature is chosen. (2 marks)
It Is kept at 1550 0C because, tend to stay mixed in with the iron. The limestone removes it.