Lecţia 2


Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete înteles într-o
propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie însotit
de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des
folosit determinant substantival este articolul.
Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
• Articolul hotarât - the
• Articolul nehotarât - a / an
• Articolul zero (forma implicita sau
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se
schimba în functie de numarul sau !enul
substantivului si se aseaza în fata substantivului
2.1. Articolul hotarât (the)
Articolul hotarât se foloseste:
• "naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost
mentionat în contextul respectiv
#x.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
The mouse loved the elephant's long
trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's
tiny nose.
• Atunci când atât vorbitorul cât si
ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de
substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat în
#x.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the
first floor.
• "n propozitii sau fraze în care definim sau
identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte:
#x.: The man we met yesterday at the
bus station. The girl in red is her
• $eferitor la obiecte pe care le consideram
#x.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the
Ann is in the garden the garden of this
• "naintea superlativului sau numeralelor
ordinale first, se"ond, thirds, etc si only:
#x.: the best day, the first week, the last
"hapter, the only way
• "naintea unor ad%ective pentru a te referi
în !eneral la un !rup de oameni care au în
comun o anumita însusire (sunt frumosi,
tineri, batrâni, %aponezi, etc:
#x.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the
best, the #apanese, the $ritish
• &ume de locuri !eo!rafice, oceane, râuri,
mari, deserturi, munti, re!iuni:
#x.: the %aribbean, the &ahara, the
• 'e foloseste înaintea unor nume proprii
(muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri, ziare,
orchestre, !rupuri muzicale, vapoare,
nume de famili la plural,etc:
#x.: the 'ational (allery, the )oyal
&hakespeare, the &avoy, the $eatles, the
&pi"e (irls, the (uardian, the Telegraph,
the *aily, the Titani", the Tower of
+ondon, the ,ouse of -arliament, the
• (ecade, secole, !rupe de ani:
#x.: .y parents went to /niversity in the
2.2. Articolul nehotarât (a / an)
'e foloseste a înaintea substantivelor care încep
cu o consoana si an înaintea substantivelor care
încep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u
#x.: a boy, an apple, a "ar, an orange, a house,
an opera
An înainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.
A înainte de u sau eu atunci când se pronunta
ca you: a 0uropean, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotarât se foloseste:
• Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima
#x.: Would you like a drink? I've finally
got a good 1ob.
• Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al
unui !rup sau clase:
o cu nume de profesii: #ohn is an
engineer. .ary is training to be a
o cu nationalitati si reli!ii: #ohn is an
0nglishman. 2ate is a %atholi".
o cu instrumente muzicale: &herlo"k
,olmes was playing a violin when
the visitor arrived.
o cu numele zilelor: I was born on a
o pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un
exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny
nose. It was a very strange "ar
o cu substantice la sin!ular, dupa
cuvinte cum ar fi what si su"h: What
a bluff3 ,e is su"h a prodigious
young man.
o atunci când te referi la un sin!ur
obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu
one: I'd like an orange and two
lemons please. The burglar took a
diamond ne"kla"e and a valuable
• $etineti ca se spune a hundred, a
thousand, a million.
2.3. a / an si one
• Atunci când numeri sau masori timpul,
distanta, !reutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie
a/an fie one pentru sin!ular:
#x.: a 4 one pound, a 4 one million pounds
5ou "an take an4 one hour for lun"h.
• (ar a4an si one nu înseamna întotdeauna
acelasi lucru:
#x.: A bo6 is no good. We need a "rate
not a bo6!.
7ne bo6 is no good, we need two bo6es.
2.4. Articolul zero
&u se foloseste articol în urmatoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de tari (la sin!ular
#x.: (ermany is an important e"onomi"
,e's 1ust returned from Argentina.
("nsa: I'm visiting the /nited &tates
ne6t week.
• Cu numele limbilor:
#x.: 8ren"h is spoken in Tahiti.
0nglish uses many words of +atin origin.
• Cu numele meselor:
#x.: +un"h is at midday.
*inner is in the evening.
$reakfast is the first meal of the day.
• Cu numele persoanelor (la sin!ular:
#x.: #ohn's "oming to the party.
(eorge 2ing is my un"le.
("nsa: We're having lun"h with the
.organs tomorrow.
• Cu titluri si nume:
#x.: -rin"e %harles is 9ueen 0li:abeth's
-resident 2ennedy was assassinated in
*r. Watson was &herlo"k ,olmes'
("nsa: the 9ueen of 0ngland, the -ope.
• (upa cazul posesiv format cu 's:
#x.: ,is sister's "ar.
+aura's basket.
• Cu numele profesiilor:
06.; 0ngineering is a useful "areer.
,e'll probably go into medi"ine.
• Cu nume de ma!azine:
#x.: I'll get the "ard at &mith's.
%an you go to $oots for me?
• Cu ani:
#x.: <=>? was a wonderful year.
*o you remember <==@?
• Cu substantive unice (uncountable
#x.: .ilk is often added to tea in 0ngland.
War is destru"tive.
• Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
#x.: .ount ."2inley is the highest
mountain in Alaska.
&he lives near +ake Windermere.
,ave you visited +ong Island?
• Cu ma%oritatea numelor de strazi , orase,
statii pentru mi%loacele de transport si
#x.: Ai"toria &tation is in the "entre of
%an you dire"t me to $ond &treet?
&he lives in 8loren"e.
They're flying from ,eathrow.
• "n unele expresii invariabile:
#x.: by "ar, at s"hool, at work, at
/niversity, in "hur"h, in prison, in bed, by
train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air in

1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde
este cazul:
$ill is BBBB author. ,e writes
BBB travel books. ,e makes
BBBB lot of money. We had
BBBB lun"h with him
yesterday. It was BBBB e6"ellent lun"h.
The meal "ost him BBBB hundred and
BBBB fifty pounds. What BBBB e6pensive
restaurant3 ,e gave the waiter BBBB
twenty pounds. That was BBBB good tip.
2. Ale!e a sau the:
7ne day we set out to "limb C! a4the
highest hill in the area. The "ampers in
C! a4the ne6t tent lent us their map.
They told us to follow one of C! a4the
routes marked on C! a4the map. $ut Tom
said that he was sure that there was C!
a4the better way. C! A4the way that we
"hose was so steep that we had to stop
for C! a4the long rest on the way up. $ut
we got to C! a4the top in C! a4the end.
3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este
We have BBBB soup for BBBBsupper. After
BBBB meal Tom and I play BBBB "hess. $ill
prefers BBBB "ards. BBBB game he likes
best is bridge. ,e says that BBBB "hess
reDuires BBBB patien"e and he is not
patient. ,e also says that BBBBlife is too
short to waste in this way.