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INTERFERENCE FITS

CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION
ISO TOLERANCES
STANDARDISED FITS
GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING
EXAMPLES OF FITS
LAM PROBLEM
MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION
ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
APPENDIX
INTRODUCTION
Interference fits are based on the standardised
tolerance system of shafts and holes.
This system is to be introduced, giving an overview of
the ISO tolerance grades and, additionally, shape and
position tolerances of typical machine components.
The roughness grades will be also given.
The preferred fits using the basic-hole system will be
further discussed and some examples will be shown.
Then, the Lam equations for thick walled cylinders a
model for interference fits will be shown.
Finally, the load-carrying capacity and stresses in
components of the interference joint will be presented.
ISO TOLERANCES
Tolerance is the difference between the maximum and
minimum size limits of a component.
International Tolerance Grade Numbers
(IT = International Tolerance) are used to specify the
size of the tolerance area (zone).
Note that the tolerance is the same for the internal
dimension (hole) and external one (shaft) that have the
same tolerance grade number.
ISO TOLERANCES
The ISO standard (ISO 286) implements 20 IT tolerances
(grades of accuracy) as shown in table below:
ISO grade number Application
IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2,
IT3, IT4, IT5,IT6
Precision
instruments
IT5, IT6, IT7, IT8,
IT9, IT10, IT11, IT12
General industry
IT11, IT12, IT13,
IT14, IT15, IT16
Semi-finished
products
IT16, IT17, IT18 Structural
engineering
ISO TOLERANCES
Tolerance area depends on both nominal size
and IT grade (ACCURACY COSTS)
Nominal Sizes [mm]
over 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180
incl. 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250
IT
Grade
Tolerance area [m]
5 6 8 9 11 13 15 18 20
6 9 11 13 16 19 22 25 29
7 15 18 21 25 30 35 40 46
8 22 27 33 39 46 54 63 72
9 36 43 52 62 74 87 100 115
10 58 70 84 100 120 140 160 185
11 90 110 130 160 190 220 250 290
12 150 180 210 250 300 350 400 460
ISO TOLERANCES
MACHINING PROCESS ASSOCIATED WITH TOL ERANCE GRADES
IT Grade 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Lapping

Honing

Superfinishing

Cylinderical grinding

Diamond turning

P lan grinding

Broaching

Reaming

Boring, Turning

Sawing

Milling

P laning, Shaping

Extruding

Cold Rolling, Drawing

Drilling

Die Casting

Forging

Sand Casting

Hot rolling, Flame cutting



ISO TOLERANCES
MACHINING PROCESS ASOCIATED WITH THE ROUGHNESS AVERAGE Ra
ISO TOLERANCES
TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR SHAFTS

Nominal sizes in mm
Over 6 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225
Incl. 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250
GRADE
Upper tolerance limits in m
a -280 -290 -300 -310 -320 -340 -360 -380 -410 -460 -520 -580 -660 -740 -820
c -80 -95 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 -170 -180 -200 -210 -230 -240 -260 -280
d -40 -50 -65 -80 -100 -120 -145 -170
f -13 -16 -20 -25 -30 -36 -43 -50
g -5 -6 -7 -9 -10 -12 -14 -15
GRADE
Lower tolerance limits in m
j5, j6 -2 -3 -4 -5 -7 -9 -11 -13
k5-k7 1 2 3 4
n 10 12 15 17 20 23 27 31
p 15 18 22 26 32 37 43 50
s 23 28 35 43 53 59 71 79 92 100 108 122 130 140
u 28 33 41 48 60 70 87 102 124 144 170 190 210 236 258 284
z 42 50 60 73 88 112 136 172 210 258 310 365 415 465 520 575 640

Notes:
1. Only chosen diameters and grades have been shown
2. The h grade shafts have 0 upper limit of tolerance
3. The js grade shafts have lower/upper limit of tolerance equal to 0.5 T

ISO TOLERANCES
TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR HOLES

Nominal sizes in mm
Over 6 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225
Incl. 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250
GRADE
Lower tolerance limits in m
A 280 290 300 310 320 340 360 380 410 460 520 580 660 740 820
C 80 95 110 120 130 140 150 170 180 200 210 230 240 260 280
D 40 50 65 80 100 120 145 170
F 13 16 20 25 30 36 43 50
G 5 6 7 9 10 12 14 15
GRADE
Upper tolerance limits in m
J7 8 10 12 14 18 22 26 30
K7 5 6 6 7 9 10 12 13
N7 -4 -5 -7 -8 -9 -10 -12 -14
P7 -9 -11 -14 -17 -21 -24 -28 -33
R7 -13 -16 -20 -25 -30 -32 -38 -41 -48 -50 -53 -60 -63 -67

Notes:
1. Only chosen diameters and grades have been shown
2. The H grade holes have 0 lower limit of tolerance
3. The Js grade holes have lower/upper limit of tolerance equal to 0.5 T
STANDARDISED FITS
There are two standardised fit systems:
basic-hole fit e.g. H7/k6 (hole symbol Hn, where n is
the ISO tolerance grade for hole; shaft symbol is xm, with
m denoting the ISO tolerance grade for shaft)
basic-shaft fit e.g. K7/h6 (shaft symbol hn, where n
is the ISO tolerance grade for shaft; hole symbols are Am
till ZCm, with m denoting the ISO tolerance grade for hole)
Because of the more expensive fabrication of holes
preferred are:
basic-hole fits
wider tolerance zones of hole than those for the
shaft
Both systems are shown in following figures.
STANDARDISED FITS
BASIC-HOLE FITS
STANDARDISED FITS
BASIC-SHAFT FITS
STANDARDISED FITS
PREFERRED FITS (BASIC-HOLE SYSTEM)
Description Hole Shaft
Loose Running H11 c11
Free Running H9 d9
Easy Running - Good quality easy to do- H8 f8
Sliding H7 g6
Close Clearance - Spigots and locations H8 f7
Location/Clearance H7 h6
Location- slight interference H7 k6
Location/Transition H7 n6
Location/Interference- Press fit which can be separated H7 p6
Medium Drive H7 s6
Force H7 u6
GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING
Shape and position frame with symbol identifications:
GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING
Typical shape tolerances for chosen fabrication processes:
Geometric tolerance feature in m/mm of length or diameter
Manufacturing
process
Flatness of
surface
Parallelism
of cylinders
or cones on
diameter
(cylindricity,
conicity)
Straightness
of cylinders
or cones
Parallelism
of flat
surfaces
Parallelism
of
cylinders
Roundness
Turn
Bore


50

100

100

100

100

40
Fine turn
Fine bore


30

40

40

50

50

30
Cylindrical
grind


30

50

50

50

50

20
Fine
cylindrical
grind

20

20

20

30

20

10

EXAMPLES OF FITS
Scheme of clearance fit (basic hole system)
zero line
shaft
basic
hole
EXAMPLES OF FITS
Clearance fit calculations
Specification: 40H9/d9
Hole Shaft
Tolerance grade: 0.062 mm 0.062 mm
Upper deviation: 0.062 mm - 0.080 mm
Lower deviation: 0.000 mm - 0.142 mm
Max diameter: 40.062 mm 39.920 mm
Min diameter: 40.000 mm 38.858 mm
Max clearance: 0.202 mm
Min clearance: 0.080 mm
EXAMPLES OF FITS
Scheme of transition fit (basic-hole system)
zero line
shaft
basic
hole
EXAMPLES OF FITS
Transition fit calculations
Specification: 40H7/j6
Hole Shaft
Tolerance grade: 0.025 mm 0.016 mm
Upper deviation: 0.025 mm 0.009 mm
Lower deviation: 0.000 mm -0.004 mm
Max diameter: 40.025 mm 40.009 mm
Min diameter: 40.000 mm 39.996 mm
Max clearance: 0.029 mm
Max interference: 0.009 mm
EXAMPLES OF FITS
Scheme of interference fit (basic-hole system)
zero line
shaft
basic
hole
EXAMPLES OF FITS
Interference fit calculations
Specification: 40H7/p6
Hole Shaft
Tolerance grade: 0.025 mm 0.016 mm
Upper deviation: 0.025 mm 0.042 mm
Lower deviation: 0.000 mm 0.026 mm
Max diameter: 40.025 mm 40.042 mm
Min diameter: 40.000 mm 40.026 mm
Max interference: 0.042 mm
Min interference: 0.001 mm
LAM PROBLEM
Lam problem concerns the solution for stress and strain in thick-
walled cylinders under internal or external pressure. Note that the
thick-walled cylinder as opposed to the thin walled ones, in which
the constant figures for stress can be assumed have the wall
thickness greater than 0.1 times the nominal radius of cylinder.
Scheme of interference fit
Bushing
Sleeve Mating surface
where
interference
pressure acts
LAM PROBLEM
Dimensions of components of the interference fit:
a) before assembling; b) after assembling
d diameter d
x
d
Si
d
Be
B bushing
S sleeve
e external
i internal
LAM PROBLEM
Normal forces applied to an element of sleeve or bushing
LAM PROBLEM
The equilibrium condition in radial direction produces the
following equation
with
one obtains
and
2 2
sin
d d
=
( ) 0
2
sin 2 =


d
dr dl dr dl d r
dr
d
t r
r
dr
d
r
r t
+ =


r
dr
d
dr
d
dr
d
r r t
+ =
2
2
2

LAM PROBLEM
The elastic deformation of an element in
circumferential (tangential) direction is
For the radial direction we have
where
( )
r
u
d r
d r d u r
t
=

+
=

t
t t
r
r
dr
d
dr
r d
dr
du


+ =

= =
) (
( )
t r r
E
=
1
( )
rt t t
E
=
1

=
dr
d
dr
d
E dr
d
r t t

1
LAM PROBLEM
From previous equations follows
and finally we have an linear homogenous differential equation
The solution of the above equation is
with
and
( ) ( ) 0 1 = + +


t r
t r
dr
d
dr
d
r

0 3
2
2
2
= +
dr
d
r
dr
d
r
r r

2
2
1
r
C
C
r
+ =
3
2
2
r
C
dr
d
r
=

2
2
1
r
C
C
t
=
LAM PROBLEM
The boundary conditions for the sleeve are
The integration constants are therefore
Finally we have for the sleeve
2 /
x x r
d r r for p = = =
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
;
x Se
Se x
x Se
x
r r
r r
p C
r r
r
p C

=
2 / 0
Se Se r
d r r for = = =

=
2
2
1
1
1
r
r
r
r
p
Se
x
Se
r

=
2
2
1
1
1
r
r
r
r
p
Se
x
Se
t

LAM PROBLEM
The boundary conditions for the bushing are
The integration constants are therefore
Finally we have for the bushing
2 /
x x r
d r r for p = = =
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
;
x Bi
Bi x
x Bi
x
r r
r r
p C
r r
r
p C

=
2
2
1
1
1
r
r
r
r
p
Bi
x
Bi
r

2 / 0
Bi Bi r
d r r for = = =

=
2
2
1
1
1
r
r
r
r
p
Bi
x
Bi
t

LAM PROBLEM
The distribution of the circumferential and radial stresses
for shaft with hole (note the radial direction of stresses
Br
and
Sr
)
LAM PROBLEM
The distribution of the circumferential and radial stresses
for shaft without hole (note the radial direction of stresses

Br
and
Sr
)
MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION
The maximum reduced stress according to the maximum stress
theory (Tresca theory) occurs in the mating surface of the outer and
inner member of the interference fit (sleeve and bushing):
the maximum reduced stress for sleeve
the maximum reduced stress for bushing
where
S
and
B
denote the the geometrical factor for sleeve and
bushing.
Se
x
S
S
Se
x
S
r
r p
r
r
p = >

; 0
1
2
1
2
2
max
x
Bi
B
B
x
Bi
B
r
r p
r
r
p = <

; 0
1
2
1
2
2 2
max
3
2
MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION
The total diametral interference follows from the above given solution to
the Lam problem
Where E
S
and E
B
denote the Youngs moduli and
S
and
B
are for the
Poissons ratios of sleeve and bushing, respectively.
If both members are of the same material the above formula is simplified
to the form

+
=
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1
2
Bi x
Bi x
B
B Se x
Se x
S
S
x
r r
r r
E r r
r r
E
p r


=
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
Se x
Se x
Bi x
Bi x x
r r
r r
r r
r r
E
p r

MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION


The interface pressure is, therefore, to be computed utilising the
rearranged formulae:
in the case of the different materials of sleeve and bushing
in the case of the same material of both members

+
+

+

=
B
Bi x
Bi x
B
S
x Se
x Se
S
x
r r
r r
E r r
r r
E
r
p

2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1
2
( ) ( )
( )

=
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
Bi Se x
Bi x x Se
x
r r r
r r r r
r
E
p

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
The calculations of the interference fit embrace the two following criteria:
Load carrying capacity of the joint against axial force F
a
, torsion
M
t
, or both these loads, which result in the shear stress on the
interface of mating members
This shear stress is being carried by the friction forces and,
therefore, the condition is
Strength of the coupled members, which give the condition
In above formulae l is the length of joint, denotes the friction coefficient
and
des
stands for the design stress (with proper safety factor included).
Note that the maximum pressure is to be taken in strength calculation,
and the minimum one is responsible for load carrying of the fit.
( )
l r
F r M
x
a x t

+
=

2
/
2
2
min
p <
des
p <
max
ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
The friction coefficient depends on materials of sleeve and bushing and
on their lubrication as given in following table
The ultimate stress depends also on materials used and the type of load
Surfaces
Materials
dry lubricated
Steel/steel 0.065-0.16 0.055-0.12
Steel/cast iron
Steel/bronze
0.15-0.2 0.03-0.06
Cast iron/cast iron
Cast iron/bronze
0.15-0.25 0.02-0.1


Ul ti mate stress [MPa] for type of l oad
Materi al
stati c osci l l ati ng i mpact
Steel 100-180 70-120 40-60
Cast i ron 70-80 50-60 20-30
Bronze 30-40 20-30 10-20

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
The effective diametral interference
eff
is still less than the geometrical one .
This results from the shearing of the asperities (peaks of the surface roughness)
during assembling. It has been shown that about 60% of the heights of asperities
R
p
above the mean line is sheared see figure below.
Thus, the effective interference of sleeve and bushing is
( )
pS pB eff
R R + = 6 . 0
APPENDIX
The uniform distribution of pressure (p
m
, following from
interference of components and their elastic
deformation) occurs only for torsion and axial force
loading of the joint.
If bending or radial loading act, the change of pressure
p is to be taken into consideration. The two following
figures represent the most common cases.
The bending moment for these cases equals to
2
a a
x
d F
M

=
APPENDIX
2
1
l F
M M
r
x x

=
r z
F F =
1
APPENDIX

+ =
x r z
M
l
e F
e
l
F
2
2 1

+ =
x r z
M
l
e F
e
l
F
2
1 2
1 1 1
e F M
z x
=
2 2 2
e F M
z x
=
APPENDIX
1 1
p p p
m
+ =
2
2
3
2
2
1
3
1
1
f
z
f
x
f
z
f
x
d
F
y
d
M
x
d
F
Y
d
M
X p + + + =
The pressures in the points 1, 1, 2, and 2 are
Where
The coefficients X, Y, x, y are given in the following table
1 ' 1
p p p
m
=
2 2
p p p
m
+ =
2 ' 2
p p p
m
=
2
1
3
1
2
2
3
2
2
f
z
f
x
f
z
f
x
d
F
y
d
M
x
d
F
Y
d
M
X p + + + =
APPENDIX
Correction coefficients for contact pressure
Dimensions Coefficients
d
i
/d
f
d
f
/d
a
l
f
/d
f
X Y x y
0.3 0.50
0.75
1.00
1.50
16.10
8.58
6.74
6.36
5.17
3.64
3.06
2.85
-14.80
-5.76
-2.23
0.19
-2.49
-1.52
-0.90
-0.15
0.5 0.50
0.75
1.00
1.50
16.20
8.83
7.11
6.81
5.18
3.67
3.13
2.95
-14.70
-5.62
-2.05
0.27
-2.48
-1.49
-0.86
-0.11
0
0.8 0.50
0.75
1.00
1.50
16.50
9.42
7.97
7.81
5.20
3.75
3.28
3.15
-14.60
-5.30
-1.65
0.42
-2.46
-1.44
-0.76
-0.04
0.3 1.00 7.64 3.22 -1.81 -0.80
0.5 1.00 8.26 3.32 -1.53 -0.73
0.5
0.8 1.00 9.86 3.59 -0.50 -0.57