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About fits and interferences of shafts

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CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION

ISO TOLERANCES

STANDARDISED FITS

GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING

EXAMPLES OF FITS

LAM PROBLEM

MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

Interference fits are based on the standardised

tolerance system of shafts and holes.

This system is to be introduced, giving an overview of

the ISO tolerance grades and, additionally, shape and

position tolerances of typical machine components.

The roughness grades will be also given.

The preferred fits using the basic-hole system will be

further discussed and some examples will be shown.

Then, the Lam equations for thick walled cylinders a

model for interference fits will be shown.

Finally, the load-carrying capacity and stresses in

components of the interference joint will be presented.

ISO TOLERANCES

Tolerance is the difference between the maximum and

minimum size limits of a component.

International Tolerance Grade Numbers

(IT = International Tolerance) are used to specify the

size of the tolerance area (zone).

Note that the tolerance is the same for the internal

dimension (hole) and external one (shaft) that have the

same tolerance grade number.

ISO TOLERANCES

The ISO standard (ISO 286) implements 20 IT tolerances

(grades of accuracy) as shown in table below:

ISO grade number Application

IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2,

IT3, IT4, IT5,IT6

Precision

instruments

IT5, IT6, IT7, IT8,

IT9, IT10, IT11, IT12

General industry

IT11, IT12, IT13,

IT14, IT15, IT16

Semi-finished

products

IT16, IT17, IT18 Structural

engineering

ISO TOLERANCES

Tolerance area depends on both nominal size

and IT grade (ACCURACY COSTS)

Nominal Sizes [mm]

over 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180

incl. 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250

IT

Grade

Tolerance area [m]

5 6 8 9 11 13 15 18 20

6 9 11 13 16 19 22 25 29

7 15 18 21 25 30 35 40 46

8 22 27 33 39 46 54 63 72

9 36 43 52 62 74 87 100 115

10 58 70 84 100 120 140 160 185

11 90 110 130 160 190 220 250 290

12 150 180 210 250 300 350 400 460

ISO TOLERANCES

MACHINING PROCESS ASSOCIATED WITH TOL ERANCE GRADES

IT Grade 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Lapping

Honing

Superfinishing

Cylinderical grinding

Diamond turning

P lan grinding

Broaching

Reaming

Boring, Turning

Sawing

Milling

P laning, Shaping

Extruding

Cold Rolling, Drawing

Drilling

Die Casting

Forging

Sand Casting

Hot rolling, Flame cutting

ISO TOLERANCES

MACHINING PROCESS ASOCIATED WITH THE ROUGHNESS AVERAGE Ra

ISO TOLERANCES

TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR SHAFTS

Nominal sizes in mm

Over 6 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225

Incl. 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250

GRADE

Upper tolerance limits in m

a -280 -290 -300 -310 -320 -340 -360 -380 -410 -460 -520 -580 -660 -740 -820

c -80 -95 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 -170 -180 -200 -210 -230 -240 -260 -280

d -40 -50 -65 -80 -100 -120 -145 -170

f -13 -16 -20 -25 -30 -36 -43 -50

g -5 -6 -7 -9 -10 -12 -14 -15

GRADE

Lower tolerance limits in m

j5, j6 -2 -3 -4 -5 -7 -9 -11 -13

k5-k7 1 2 3 4

n 10 12 15 17 20 23 27 31

p 15 18 22 26 32 37 43 50

s 23 28 35 43 53 59 71 79 92 100 108 122 130 140

u 28 33 41 48 60 70 87 102 124 144 170 190 210 236 258 284

z 42 50 60 73 88 112 136 172 210 258 310 365 415 465 520 575 640

Notes:

1. Only chosen diameters and grades have been shown

2. The h grade shafts have 0 upper limit of tolerance

3. The js grade shafts have lower/upper limit of tolerance equal to 0.5 T

ISO TOLERANCES

TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR HOLES

Nominal sizes in mm

Over 6 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225

Incl. 10 14 18 24 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250

GRADE

Lower tolerance limits in m

A 280 290 300 310 320 340 360 380 410 460 520 580 660 740 820

C 80 95 110 120 130 140 150 170 180 200 210 230 240 260 280

D 40 50 65 80 100 120 145 170

F 13 16 20 25 30 36 43 50

G 5 6 7 9 10 12 14 15

GRADE

Upper tolerance limits in m

J7 8 10 12 14 18 22 26 30

K7 5 6 6 7 9 10 12 13

N7 -4 -5 -7 -8 -9 -10 -12 -14

P7 -9 -11 -14 -17 -21 -24 -28 -33

R7 -13 -16 -20 -25 -30 -32 -38 -41 -48 -50 -53 -60 -63 -67

Notes:

1. Only chosen diameters and grades have been shown

2. The H grade holes have 0 lower limit of tolerance

3. The Js grade holes have lower/upper limit of tolerance equal to 0.5 T

STANDARDISED FITS

There are two standardised fit systems:

basic-hole fit e.g. H7/k6 (hole symbol Hn, where n is

the ISO tolerance grade for hole; shaft symbol is xm, with

m denoting the ISO tolerance grade for shaft)

basic-shaft fit e.g. K7/h6 (shaft symbol hn, where n

is the ISO tolerance grade for shaft; hole symbols are Am

till ZCm, with m denoting the ISO tolerance grade for hole)

Because of the more expensive fabrication of holes

preferred are:

basic-hole fits

wider tolerance zones of hole than those for the

shaft

Both systems are shown in following figures.

STANDARDISED FITS

BASIC-HOLE FITS

STANDARDISED FITS

BASIC-SHAFT FITS

STANDARDISED FITS

PREFERRED FITS (BASIC-HOLE SYSTEM)

Description Hole Shaft

Loose Running H11 c11

Free Running H9 d9

Easy Running - Good quality easy to do- H8 f8

Sliding H7 g6

Close Clearance - Spigots and locations H8 f7

Location/Clearance H7 h6

Location- slight interference H7 k6

Location/Transition H7 n6

Location/Interference- Press fit which can be separated H7 p6

Medium Drive H7 s6

Force H7 u6

GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING

Shape and position frame with symbol identifications:

GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCING

Typical shape tolerances for chosen fabrication processes:

Geometric tolerance feature in m/mm of length or diameter

Manufacturing

process

Flatness of

surface

Parallelism

of cylinders

or cones on

diameter

(cylindricity,

conicity)

Straightness

of cylinders

or cones

Parallelism

of flat

surfaces

Parallelism

of

cylinders

Roundness

Turn

Bore

50

100

100

100

100

40

Fine turn

Fine bore

30

40

40

50

50

30

Cylindrical

grind

30

50

50

50

50

20

Fine

cylindrical

grind

20

20

20

30

20

10

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Scheme of clearance fit (basic hole system)

zero line

shaft

basic

hole

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Clearance fit calculations

Specification: 40H9/d9

Hole Shaft

Tolerance grade: 0.062 mm 0.062 mm

Upper deviation: 0.062 mm - 0.080 mm

Lower deviation: 0.000 mm - 0.142 mm

Max diameter: 40.062 mm 39.920 mm

Min diameter: 40.000 mm 38.858 mm

Max clearance: 0.202 mm

Min clearance: 0.080 mm

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Scheme of transition fit (basic-hole system)

zero line

shaft

basic

hole

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Transition fit calculations

Specification: 40H7/j6

Hole Shaft

Tolerance grade: 0.025 mm 0.016 mm

Upper deviation: 0.025 mm 0.009 mm

Lower deviation: 0.000 mm -0.004 mm

Max diameter: 40.025 mm 40.009 mm

Min diameter: 40.000 mm 39.996 mm

Max clearance: 0.029 mm

Max interference: 0.009 mm

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Scheme of interference fit (basic-hole system)

zero line

shaft

basic

hole

EXAMPLES OF FITS

Interference fit calculations

Specification: 40H7/p6

Hole Shaft

Tolerance grade: 0.025 mm 0.016 mm

Upper deviation: 0.025 mm 0.042 mm

Lower deviation: 0.000 mm 0.026 mm

Max diameter: 40.025 mm 40.042 mm

Min diameter: 40.000 mm 40.026 mm

Max interference: 0.042 mm

Min interference: 0.001 mm

LAM PROBLEM

Lam problem concerns the solution for stress and strain in thick-

walled cylinders under internal or external pressure. Note that the

thick-walled cylinder as opposed to the thin walled ones, in which

the constant figures for stress can be assumed have the wall

thickness greater than 0.1 times the nominal radius of cylinder.

Scheme of interference fit

Bushing

Sleeve Mating surface

where

interference

pressure acts

LAM PROBLEM

Dimensions of components of the interference fit:

a) before assembling; b) after assembling

d diameter d

x

d

Si

d

Be

B bushing

S sleeve

e external

i internal

LAM PROBLEM

Normal forces applied to an element of sleeve or bushing

LAM PROBLEM

The equilibrium condition in radial direction produces the

following equation

with

one obtains

and

2 2

sin

d d

=

( ) 0

2

sin 2 =

d

dr dl dr dl d r

dr

d

t r

r

dr

d

r

r t

+ =

r

dr

d

dr

d

dr

d

r r t

+ =

2

2

2

LAM PROBLEM

The elastic deformation of an element in

circumferential (tangential) direction is

For the radial direction we have

where

( )

r

u

d r

d r d u r

t

=

+

=

t

t t

r

r

dr

d

dr

r d

dr

du

+ =

= =

) (

( )

t r r

E

=

1

( )

rt t t

E

=

1

=

dr

d

dr

d

E dr

d

r t t

1

LAM PROBLEM

From previous equations follows

and finally we have an linear homogenous differential equation

The solution of the above equation is

with

and

( ) ( ) 0 1 = + +

t r

t r

dr

d

dr

d

r

0 3

2

2

2

= +

dr

d

r

dr

d

r

r r

2

2

1

r

C

C

r

+ =

3

2

2

r

C

dr

d

r

=

2

2

1

r

C

C

t

=

LAM PROBLEM

The boundary conditions for the sleeve are

The integration constants are therefore

Finally we have for the sleeve

2 /

x x r

d r r for p = = =

2 2

2 2

2

2 2

2

1

;

x Se

Se x

x Se

x

r r

r r

p C

r r

r

p C

=

2 / 0

Se Se r

d r r for = = =

=

2

2

1

1

1

r

r

r

r

p

Se

x

Se

r

=

2

2

1

1

1

r

r

r

r

p

Se

x

Se

t

LAM PROBLEM

The boundary conditions for the bushing are

The integration constants are therefore

Finally we have for the bushing

2 /

x x r

d r r for p = = =

2 2

2 2

2

2 2

2

1

;

x Bi

Bi x

x Bi

x

r r

r r

p C

r r

r

p C

=

2

2

1

1

1

r

r

r

r

p

Bi

x

Bi

r

2 / 0

Bi Bi r

d r r for = = =

=

2

2

1

1

1

r

r

r

r

p

Bi

x

Bi

t

LAM PROBLEM

The distribution of the circumferential and radial stresses

for shaft with hole (note the radial direction of stresses

Br

and

Sr

)

LAM PROBLEM

The distribution of the circumferential and radial stresses

for shaft without hole (note the radial direction of stresses

Br

and

Sr

)

MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION

The maximum reduced stress according to the maximum stress

theory (Tresca theory) occurs in the mating surface of the outer and

inner member of the interference fit (sleeve and bushing):

the maximum reduced stress for sleeve

the maximum reduced stress for bushing

where

S

and

B

denote the the geometrical factor for sleeve and

bushing.

Se

x

S

S

Se

x

S

r

r p

r

r

p = >

; 0

1

2

1

2

2

max

x

Bi

B

B

x

Bi

B

r

r p

r

r

p = <

; 0

1

2

1

2

2 2

max

3

2

MAXIMUM STRESS AND DEFORMATION

The total diametral interference follows from the above given solution to

the Lam problem

Where E

S

and E

B

denote the Youngs moduli and

S

and

B

are for the

Poissons ratios of sleeve and bushing, respectively.

If both members are of the same material the above formula is simplified

to the form

+

=

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

1 1

2

Bi x

Bi x

B

B Se x

Se x

S

S

x

r r

r r

E r r

r r

E

p r

=

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

2

Se x

Se x

Bi x

Bi x x

r r

r r

r r

r r

E

p r

The interface pressure is, therefore, to be computed utilising the

rearranged formulae:

in the case of the different materials of sleeve and bushing

in the case of the same material of both members

+

+

+

=

B

Bi x

Bi x

B

S

x Se

x Se

S

x

r r

r r

E r r

r r

E

r

p

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

1 1

2

( ) ( )

( )

=

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

2 2

Bi Se x

Bi x x Se

x

r r r

r r r r

r

E

p

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

The calculations of the interference fit embrace the two following criteria:

Load carrying capacity of the joint against axial force F

a

, torsion

M

t

, or both these loads, which result in the shear stress on the

interface of mating members

This shear stress is being carried by the friction forces and,

therefore, the condition is

Strength of the coupled members, which give the condition

In above formulae l is the length of joint, denotes the friction coefficient

and

des

stands for the design stress (with proper safety factor included).

Note that the maximum pressure is to be taken in strength calculation,

and the minimum one is responsible for load carrying of the fit.

( )

l r

F r M

x

a x t

+

=

2

/

2

2

min

p <

des

p <

max

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

The friction coefficient depends on materials of sleeve and bushing and

on their lubrication as given in following table

The ultimate stress depends also on materials used and the type of load

Surfaces

Materials

dry lubricated

Steel/steel 0.065-0.16 0.055-0.12

Steel/cast iron

Steel/bronze

0.15-0.2 0.03-0.06

Cast iron/cast iron

Cast iron/bronze

0.15-0.25 0.02-0.1

Ul ti mate stress [MPa] for type of l oad

Materi al

stati c osci l l ati ng i mpact

Steel 100-180 70-120 40-60

Cast i ron 70-80 50-60 20-30

Bronze 30-40 20-30 10-20

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

The effective diametral interference

eff

is still less than the geometrical one .

This results from the shearing of the asperities (peaks of the surface roughness)

during assembling. It has been shown that about 60% of the heights of asperities

R

p

above the mean line is sheared see figure below.

Thus, the effective interference of sleeve and bushing is

( )

pS pB eff

R R + = 6 . 0

APPENDIX

The uniform distribution of pressure (p

m

, following from

interference of components and their elastic

deformation) occurs only for torsion and axial force

loading of the joint.

If bending or radial loading act, the change of pressure

p is to be taken into consideration. The two following

figures represent the most common cases.

The bending moment for these cases equals to

2

a a

x

d F

M

=

APPENDIX

2

1

l F

M M

r

x x

=

r z

F F =

1

APPENDIX

+ =

x r z

M

l

e F

e

l

F

2

2 1

+ =

x r z

M

l

e F

e

l

F

2

1 2

1 1 1

e F M

z x

=

2 2 2

e F M

z x

=

APPENDIX

1 1

p p p

m

+ =

2

2

3

2

2

1

3

1

1

f

z

f

x

f

z

f

x

d

F

y

d

M

x

d

F

Y

d

M

X p + + + =

The pressures in the points 1, 1, 2, and 2 are

Where

The coefficients X, Y, x, y are given in the following table

1 ' 1

p p p

m

=

2 2

p p p

m

+ =

2 ' 2

p p p

m

=

2

1

3

1

2

2

3

2

2

f

z

f

x

f

z

f

x

d

F

y

d

M

x

d

F

Y

d

M

X p + + + =

APPENDIX

Correction coefficients for contact pressure

Dimensions Coefficients

d

i

/d

f

d

f

/d

a

l

f

/d

f

X Y x y

0.3 0.50

0.75

1.00

1.50

16.10

8.58

6.74

6.36

5.17

3.64

3.06

2.85

-14.80

-5.76

-2.23

0.19

-2.49

-1.52

-0.90

-0.15

0.5 0.50

0.75

1.00

1.50

16.20

8.83

7.11

6.81

5.18

3.67

3.13

2.95

-14.70

-5.62

-2.05

0.27

-2.48

-1.49

-0.86

-0.11

0

0.8 0.50

0.75

1.00

1.50

16.50

9.42

7.97

7.81

5.20

3.75

3.28

3.15

-14.60

-5.30

-1.65

0.42

-2.46

-1.44

-0.76

-0.04

0.3 1.00 7.64 3.22 -1.81 -0.80

0.5 1.00 8.26 3.32 -1.53 -0.73

0.5

0.8 1.00 9.86 3.59 -0.50 -0.57

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