You are on page 1of 17

GENERATOR AND AUXILIARIES

DESCRIPTION
The 200MW generator is a three phase, horizontally mounted two-pole cylindricalrotor type,
synchronous machine driven by steam turbine. The stator winding iscooled by de-mineralised water
flowing through the hollow conductor while the rotor winding is cooled by hydrogen gas maintained
inside the machine. Fans mounted onthe generator rotor facilitate circulation of hydrogen inside the
machine. Four coolersmounted inside the machine cool the hydrogen gas. The generator winding
isprovided with epoxy thermo-setting type insulation. The machine is provided withcompletely static
thyristor controlled excitation system, fed from terminals of themachine.
Hydrogen being a light gas with good heat carry away capacity is used for cooling therotor winding,
rotor and stator core. Two hydrogen driers are provided to facilitatemoisture removal. Hydrogen is
circulated through them via the fans in dry condition.Normally one drier is kept in service and other is
on regeneration.Four hydrogen coolers are provided to cool the hot gas to maintain the cold
gastemperature at 40oC. Liquid Level Detectors (LLDs) are provided to indicate liquid ingenerator
casing. This provision is to indicate leakage of oil or water inside thegenerator. It can be drained
through drain valve.
H2 gas purity is to be maintained of very high order i.e. more than 97%.

STATOR WATER-COOLING SYSTEM
The stator winding of the generator is cooled by de-mineralised water circulatingthrough hollow
conductors of stator winding bars in a closed loop. The cooling water system consists of 2x100% duty
AC motor driven pumps, 2x100% duty water coolers, 2x100% duty mechanical filters, 1x100% duty
magnetic filter, expansiontank, polishing unit and ejector
system. The stator water pump drive the water through coolers, filters and winding andfinally
discharges into the expansion tank situated at a height of about 5m above the TG floor. It is maintained
at a vacuum of about 250 mm Hg by using water ejectors. A gas trap is provided in the system to detect
any traces of hydrogen gas leaking intothe stator water system.


WATER PATH OF STATOR WINDING AND TERMINALS




SEAL OIL SYSTEM
To prevent leakage of hydrogen from generator housing, ring type shell seals areprovided at both ends
of the generator. During normal operation the AC seal oilpump draws the seal oil from the seal oil tank
and feeds it into the shaft seals via 2x100% capacity coolers and 2x100% capacity filters. The
differential pressureregulator maintains seal oil pressure differential of 1.3 Kg/cm
2
over the hydrogenpressure irrespective of the value of hydrogen pressure. The seal oil is supplied to
theshaft seals into the annular groove of seal ring via the passage in the seal ringcarrier. The clearance
between shaft and seal ring is such that frictional losses andseal oil temperature rise are minimum. Oil
film is of sufficient thickness to provideproper sealing. Higher-pressure ring relief oil is fed in the annular
groove in theairside seal ring carrier. Thus gas and oil pressure acting on the seal ring are
balanced and friction betweenseal ring and seal ring carrier is minimized. The seal ring is free to adjust
its positionaccording to shaft
position. Airside seal oil is directly returned to the seal oil tank via a float valve. The oildrained towards
the hydrogen side is first collected in pre-chamber and then passedto the intermediate oil tank in order
to separate any trace of hydrogen present in sealoil. The oil from this tank also is returned to the seal
oil tank via a float valve. Any possible traces of gases or vapour etc. are removed by vacuum pump
from top of theseal oil tank.In case of failure of DPRV-A or AC as well as DC seal oil pumps failure,
DPRV-B willcome into service and governing oil is used as seal oil.

GENERAL SEAL OIL SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE GENERATOR
Rated parameters:
Maximum continuous KVA rating 247, 000 KVA
Maximum continuous KW rating 210, 000 KW
Rated Terminal Voltage 15, 750 V
Rated Stator Current 9050 A
Rated Power Factor 0.85 Lag
Excitation voltage at MCR condition 310 V
Excitation current at MCR condition 2600 A
Excitation voltage at no load 102 V
Excitation current at no load 917 A
Rated speed 3000 RPM
Rated frequency 50 Hz.
Stator winding resistance per phase at 20oC.0.00155
Rotor winding resistance per phase at 20oC.0.0895
Efficiency at MCR condition 98.49 %
Short circuit ratio 0.49
Rise in voltage with 100% load throw off 22.40 KV (without AVR)
Negative phase sequence current capability 1
2
2t <8
Direction of rotation when viewed from slip ring Anti clockwise
Phase connection Double star
No of terminal brought out 9 (6 neutral, 3 phase)
Generator gas volume56 m
3
Nominal pressure of hydrogen3.5 kg/cm
2
Permissible variation of gas Pressure0.2 kg/cm
2
Nominal temperature of cold gas40
0
C. (Alarm)
Purity of hydrogen > 97 %
Relative humidity of H2 at nominal pressure 60 %
Max temperature of cooling water inlet 36
0
C.
Max temperature of cooling water outlet 43
0
C.
Hot gas temperature75
0
C (Alarm)
Nominal gauge pressure at winding inlet 3.09 Kg/cm
2
Max temperature of Stator Water at winding inlet 36
0
C
Max temperature of Stator Water at winding outlet 70
0
C

Stator water flow Normal27

3 m
3
/hr Alarm21 m
3
/hr Trip13 m
3
/hr Stator water
conductivity Normal < 5.0 micro mho/cmHigh 13.3 micro mho/cm Tri
p 20.0 micro mho/cmStator water expansion tank Vacuum 200-
300 mm of WCL Auto start of standby SW pump2.4 Kg/cm
2
Nominal consumption of cooling water At 35oC. 95 m
3
/hr At 37oC. 110 m
3
/hr At 40oC. 130 m
3
/hr Safety Valve release (A.C. seal oil pump)9 Kg/cm
2
Safety valve release (D.C. seal oil pump)9 Kg/cm
2
Seal oil temperature after Seal oil cooler Normal 20 - 40
0
C. Alarm 45
0
C.Seal oil outlet temperatureNormal 40
0
C. Alarm 65
0
C.Differential pressure across duplex filter Normal0.4 Kg/cm
2
Alarm0.6 Kg/cm
2
Seal oil pressure at Turbine and Slip ring end5.9 Kg/cm
2
(0.9 Kg/cm
2
static head).



KORBA SIMULATOR
183
Permissible temperature rating of Generator:High V. High
1. Generator bearing and seal Babbitt temperature 75
0
C. 85
0
C.2. Generator bearing oil outlet temperature 60
0
C. 70
0
C.3. Stator winding temperature 75
0
C. 105
0
C.4. Rotor winding temperature 110
0
C. 115
0
C.5. Stator core temperature 95
0
C.6. Hot gas temperature 75
0
C.7. Cold gas temperature 44
0
C.
OPERATION LIMITSCapability of the Generator
The generator is capable of delivering 247 MVA continuously at 15.
75 KV terminal voltage and stator current 9050 A, at a Hydrogen pre
ssure (g) of 3.5 Kg/cm
2
. Thecold gas temperature not to exceed 44
0
C and distillate temperature at inlet of stator winding not to
exceed 45
0
C. Output of the generator at various lagging and leadingpower
factors are as per the generator capability curve.
Variation of Terminal Voltage
Generator can develop rated power at rated power factor when the
terminal voltagechanges within 5% of the rated value i.e. 14.96 KV
to 16.54 KV. The stator current should accordingly be changed
within limits of 5% i.e. 8600 A to 9500 A.Permissible voltage of
operation and corresponding values of the MVA outputs of stator
currents are given in Table - 1.During continuous operation of the
generator at 110% of the rated value stator current should not
increase beyond 9500 A corresponding to 105% of the rated value.

TABLE I
Frequency Deviation
The Generator can be operated continuously at rated output with a
frequency variation of 5% of the rated value i.e. 47.5 Hz. to 53.5
Hz. However, the performanceof the generator with frequency
variation is limited by the turbine capability.
Temperature of the Coolants
Terminal Voltage (kV) 17.17 17.32 17.01 16.85 16.7 15.75 16.54 14.96
Output (MVA)
Stator Current (KA)
217 224.7 231 237 247 242 247 247
7.24 7.56 7.92 8.14 8.37 8.6 9.05 9.5
If the temperature of the cooled hydrogen or inlet water to gas
coolers increases beyond the rated value, the
unloading of the generator has to be carried out as per the given
curves. The operation of the generator with cold gas temperature
more than55
0
C is not permitted. Operation of the generator with cold gas
temperature below 20
0
C is not recommended.Similarly, if cold distillate temperature at
inlet of stator windings increases beyondthe rated value, unloading
of the generator has to be carried out as per the
curves. The operation of the generator with cold distillate temperat
ure more than 48
0
C isnot permitted. Operation of the generator with cold distillate
temperature below 35
0
C is not recommended
Overloading
Under normal conditions, the generator can be over loaded for short
duration.Permissible values of short time over loads of Stator
Current Vs Time in minutes andRotor Current Vs Time in seconds
are given in Table - II and Table - III respectively.
TABLE II
Stator Current (KA) 13.57 12.67 12.22 11.76 11.31 10.86 10.41 9.95
Time (minutes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 60

Rotor current (KA) 5.2 3.9 3.12 2.73
Time (seconds) 20 60 240 360


Operation under Unbalanced Load
The turbo-
generator is capable of operating continuously on an unbalanced sy
stemloading provided that continuous negative phase sequence
current during this periodshall not exceed 5% of the rated stator
current i.e. 452.5 A. It implies that maximumdifference between
limit current is about 10% of the rated value. At the same
timecurrent of maximum loaded phase should not exceed the
permissible value for normal conditions of operation of turbo-
generator under balanced loading. If theunbalance exceeds the
above permissible limits, measures shall be takenimmediately to
eliminate or reduce the extent of unbalance within 3 to 5 minutes.
Incase it is not possible to achieve this, the machine has to be run
down and tripped.If negative sequence current reaches a value of
20-25% of the rated value trip-relay will operate and the generator
will be automatically tripped.
Asynchronous Operation
Asynchronous Operation of the generator on field failure is allowed
depending uponthe permissible degree of the voltage dip and
acceptability of the system from thestability point of view.During
field failure, the field suppression shall be cut out from the circuit
and activeload on the generator shall be decreased to 60% of the
rated value within 30 secondsand to 40% in the following 1.5
minutes. The generator can operate at 40% ratedload
asynchronously for a total period of 15 minutes from the instant of
excitationfailure. Within this steps should be taken to establish the
reasons of field failure torestore normalcy or the set should be
switched over to reserve excitation.
Unsymmetrical Short Circuit Performance
The duration of unbalanced operation should be such
that the product of square of negative sequence component of
current I
2
2
expressed in terms of per unit value of stator current and
its duration in seconds does not exceeds 8 (I
2
2
<8)
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE CURRENT CAPABILITY CURVE
The permissible value of negative sequence current and the
corresponding durationsare given in Table - IV.
TABLE IV
Duration of short circuit in seconds 1.2 5 10.9Negative sequence Cu
rrent 2.5 1.25 0.9
Operation at Reduced Hydrogen Pressure
Continuous operation of the turbo-generator with lower hydrogen
pressure than therated value of 3.5 Kg/cm
2
is not permitted. However, during emergency, thegenerator can be
run at reduced hydrogen pressure with reduced load for a
short duration as given in Table - V.