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Abbreviations

A
A anode; angstrom; area of pipe;
area; acceleration (in general);
ampere.
a ampere and area.
A/D analog/digital.
A/M auto/manual switch.
AA arithmetical average; Aluminum Associ-
ation.
ABI application binary interface.
ABS acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.
AC (or ac) alternating current.
Ac actinium.
ACE Advanced Computing Environment ini-
tiative. Also known as asynchronous com-
munications elements.
ACF actual cubic feet.
ACK acknowledge.
ACPDP alternating current plasma display
panel.
ACR automatic cartridge recorder. Also
known as attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (of
signal cable).
ACSE association control service element.
ACT acoustic charge transport.
ACTFEL alternating-current thin-film elec-
troluminescent. See electroluminescent dis-
plays.
ACU automatic calling unit.
ADC analog-to-digital converter.
ADCCP Advanced Data Communications
Control Procedure.
ADLC advanced data link control.
ADO Ampex Digital Optical.
ADP ammonium dihydrogen phosphate.
ADPCM adaptive differential pulse code
modulation.
ADS address data strobe.
ADSL asymmetric digital subscriber line.
AE application entity. Also known as archi-
tectural engineer; application enabler.
A&E Architecture and Engineering.
AEB Australian Elecrrotechnical Board.
AECMA Association Europenne des
Constructeurs de Matriel Arospatial (also
known as the European Association of Aero-
space Industries).
AENOR Asociacin Espaola de Normaliza-
tin y Certification.
AFAN advanced factory automation net-
work.
AFC automatic frequency control.
AFIPS American Federation of Information
Processing Societies (Inc.).
AFM abrasive flow machinery; audio fre-
quency modulated.
AFMDC Air Force Machinability Data Cen-
ter.
AFNOR Association Franaise de Normalisa-
tion.
Ag silver.
AGA Advanced Graphics Architecture. Also
known as American Gas Association.
AGC automatic gain control.
AGP accelerated graphics port.
AGVS Automated Guided Vehicle System.
AHP Analytical Hierarchy Process.
AI See artificial intelligence.
AI/O analog input/output.
AIA Application integration architecture.
AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers.
AIFF Audio Interchange File Format.
AIM avalanche-induced migration.
AIT See autogenous ignition temperature (for-
merly referred to as "autoignition tempera-
ture"). [ANSI/ISA-12.01.01-1999]
A1 aluminum.
A1
2
O
3
aluminum oxide (alumina).
ALARP as low as reasonably practical.
ALE application link enabling.
ALGOL algorithmic-oriented language.
ALU arithmetic logic unit.
AM amplitude modulation.
Am americium.
AM/FM automated mapping/facility
management.
AM/PSK amplitude modulation/phase shift
keying.
AMLCD See active matrix liquid crystal dis-
plays.
AMR automated meter reading.
ANDF Architecture-Neutral Distributed For-
mat.
ANN artificial neural network.
ANSI American National Standards Insti-
tute.
ANSP Advanced Networking Security Proto-
col.
AOE application operating environment.
AOI and/or invert.
AOX adsorbable organic halides.
AP application process. [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-
2000] Also application platform.
APC advanced process control.
APD avalanche photodiode. See avalanche.
APHA American Public Health Association.
API / BOB
API application programming interface. Also
known as American Petroleum Institute.
APL "A Programming Language."
APM Advanced Power Management.
APP Application Portability Profile.
APPC advanced peer-to-peer communica-
tions.
AFT automatically programmed tools.
Ar argon.
ARP Address Resolution Protocol.
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ARQ automatic request for retransmission.
AS Australian Standard [ANSI/ISA-12.01.01-
1999]; air supply.
As arsenic.
ASA American Standards Association.
ASC accredited standard committee.
ASCII American Standard Code for Informa-
tion Interchange.
ASE application service element.
ASHRAE American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engi-
neers.
ASI actuator sensor interface.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engi-
neers.
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One.
ASPC algorithmic statistical process control.
ASQC American Society for Quality Control.
(Now American Society for Quality.)
ASR automatic send/receive.
ASRS, AS/RS automated storage and
retrieval system.
AST aboveground storage tank.
asterisk (*) symbol often used in calculations
to represent multiplication. Also used as a
general request in some computer search
tools to mean all references in some particu-
lar category, such as "*"file = all files.
ASTM American Society for Testing and
Materials.
At astatine.
at.wt. atomic weight.
ATC air-to-close.
ATE automatic test equipment.
ATG automatic tank gauge (or gauging).
ATM asynchronous transfer mode.
atm atmosphere. [ANSI / ISA-12.01.01-1999]
ATO air to open.
ATPG automatic test program generator
ATRAC adaptive transform acoustic coding.
ATS automatic test system.
Au gold.
AUI access unit interface; attachment unit
interface.
AUTRAN automatic utility translator.
AVD audio/video driver.
AVI audio video interleaved.
AVK audio/video kernel.
AVL audio/video library.
AVSS audio/video subsystem.
AWG American Wire Gauge.
AWS American Welding Society.
B
B boron; byte; a symbol of an ANSI
thermocouple type for Platinum 30
percent Rhodium vs. Platinum 6 per-
cent Rhodium; Also, Burner, Combus-
tion (in ISA instrument function tag).
b barn; baud rate; bit.
B-ISDN broadband integrated services digi-
tal network.
Ba barium.
BASEEFA British Approvals Service for Elec-
trical Equipment in Flammable Atmo-
spheres. (Subsumed within EECS in 1987.)
BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code.
BAT best available technology.
bb1 barrel.
BBS bulletin board system.
BCC block check character.
BCD binary-coded decimal.
BCH Bose-Chandhuri-Hocquendhem.
BCOMP buffer complete.
BCS batch control system.
BDAT best demonstrated available technol-
ogy-
BDC buffered data channel.
BDS Balgarski Darzhaven Standart (Bul-
garia).
Be beryllium.
BEDO burst extended data out.
BefNr Baume fNr (specific gravity scale).
BEI backscattered electron imaging.
BER bit error rate.
BERT/BLERT bit error rate test/block error
rate test.
bEv one billion electron volts (also Bev, BEv,
or BEV).
BFSL best fit straight line.
BHN Brinell hardness.
Bi bismuth.
BILBO built-in logic block observer.
BIPS billion instructions per second.
BIS business information system. Also
known as Bureau of Indian Standards (IEC).
BIST built-in self-test.
Bk berkelium.
BMP bit-map. Also, best management prac-
tices.
BMS burner management system.
BNC Bayonet-Neill-Concelman.
BNI Bureau d'Orientation de la Normalisa-
tion en Informatique (France).
BOB break-out box.
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BOD / CDA
BOD biochemical oxygen demand.
BOM bill of materials.
BORAM block-oriented random access
memory.
BOSFET bipolar metal oxide semiconductor
field effect transistor.
BPCS basic process control system.
Bps, B/s bytes per second.
bps, b/s bits per second.
BPSK binary phase shift keying.
BFT best practicable control technology.
Br bromine.
BS British Standard. [ANSI/ISA-12.01.01-
1999]
BSC binary synchronous communications. See
bisync.
BSI British Standards Institution.
BSL best straight line; see BFSL.
BSR business service request.
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and
xylene.
BTF bend to fit.
BTG boiler turbine generator.
BTL bridge-tied load.
Btu (or BTU) British thermal unit.
BVS Berggewerkschaftliche Versuchsstrecke
(Germany). [ANSI/ISA-12.01.01-1999]
C
C Celsius; coulomb; carbon; coeffi-
cient of discharge, dimensionless;
thermocouple type for tungsten 5
percent Rhenium versus tungsten 26
percent Rhenium.
C/J cold junction.
c/s client/server.
C.S. carbon steel.
CA constant amplitude.
Ca calcium.
CAA Clean Air Act.
CAAA Clean Air Act Amendments.
CACSD computer-aided control system
design.
CAD computer-aided design; computer-
aided drafting.
CAD/CAM computer-aided design/com-
puter-aided manufacturing.
CADD computer-aided drafting and design.
CAE computer-aided engineering.
CAI computer-assisted instruction.
CAID computer-aided industrial design.
CAL computer-assisted learning; Conversa-
tional Algebraic Language; CAN Application
Layer.
cal calorie.
cal/cm
3
calorie per cubic centimeter.
cal/in.
3
calories per cubic inch.
CALS computer-aided acquisition and logis-
tics support.
CAM computer-aided manufacturing; content
addressable memory; common access
method.
CAMAC computer-automated measurement
and control.
CAN controller area network. Also, short for
cancel.
CAPE concurrent art-to-product environ-
ment.
CAPISCE computer architecture for produc-
tion information systems in a competitive
environment.
CAPP computer-aided process planning.
CAR computer-aided repair.
Cas cascade. [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-2000]
CASA/SME Computer and Automated Sys-
tems Association of the Society of Manufac-
turing.
CASE Common Applications Session Ele-
ment. Also, computer-aided software engi-
neering; conformity assessment systems
evaluation.
CAT catalog; chemical addition tank; computer-
aided test; computer-assisted training; Cur-
rent Adjusting Type.
CATT controlled avalanche transit time.
CATV Community Antenna Television.
CB certification board. See also NCB.
CBDS connectionless broadband data ser-
vice.
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturers Association.
CBL computer-based learning.
CBT computer-based training.
CBW constant bandwidth.
CCD charge-coupled device.
CCITT Comit Consultant Internationale de
Tlgraphie et Tlphonie (France).
CCL connection control language.
CCR control complexity ratio.
CCT CNMA conformance testing. See
CNMA.
CD cut down; critical dimension; compact
disk. Also, compatible digital; constant delay.
Cd cadmium.
cd candela.
C
d
relative capacity factor (C
d
=C
v
/d
2
).
CD-E compact disk-erasable. See CD-R.
CD-I compact disk-interactive.
CD-R compact disk-recordable.
CD-ROM compact disk read-only memory.
Also, "consumer device, rendered obsolete in
months."
CD-ROM/XA compact disk read-only mem-
ory/extended architecture.
CD-RTOS compact disk real-time operating
system.
CDA Compound Document Architecture.
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CDDI / CNC
CDDI copper-distributed data interface.
CDE Common Desktop Environment.
CDF compressed data format.
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access.
CDPD cellular digital packet data. See also
SCADA.
CDR critical design review.
CDTV Commodore Dynamic Total Vision.
CE Conformit Europene.
Ce cerium.
CEA certified environmental auditor (United
States); certified category listed by National
Registry of Environmental Professionals
(NREP).
CEB, CEBus Consumer Electronic Bus. Also,
Comit Electrotechnique Beige (Belgium).
CEC Canadian Electrical Code. [ANSI/ISA-
12.01.01-1999]
CEF Comit Electrotechnique Franais
(France).
CEI Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano (Italy).
CEM(S) continuous emission monitoring
(system).
CEN Comit Europen de Normalisation.
CEN/CS Comit Europen de Normalisa-
tion/Central Secretariat.
CEN/TC Comit Europen de Normalisa-
tion/Technical Committee.
CENELEC, CLC Comit Europen de
Normalisation Electrotechnique.
CEPEL Centro de Pesquisas de Energia
Eltrica (Brazil).
CERCHAR Centre d'Etudes et Recherches des
Chourbonnage de France (France).
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation and Liability Act.
CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Ital-
iano (Italy).
CF CompactFlash.
Cf californium.
C
f
liquid pressure recovery factor. See F
L
CFA CompactFlash Association.
CFC chlorofluorocarbon.
CFH cubic feet per hour.
CFI CAD Framework Initiative.
cfm cubic foot per minute.
CG computer graphics.
CG/VDI computer graphics/virtual device
interface.
CGA color/graphics adapter.
CGI Compressed Gas Institute.
CGM(IF) Computer Graphics Metafile (Inter-
change Format)
CGMP current good manufacturing practice.
CGRM Computer Graphics Reference
Model.
CGS centimeter-gram-second.
char character.
CHI computer human interface.
CI computer integration.
Ci curie.
CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capabil-
ity.
CID computer interface device; charge injec-
tion device.
CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
CIE computer-integrated engineering.
CIEE computer-integrated extended enter-
prise.
CIM computer integrated manufacturing.
CIM-AF computer-integrated manufactur-
ing application framework.
CIME computer-integrated manufacture and
engineering.
CIMS computer-integrated manufacturing
system.
CIP clean-in-place.
CIR committed information rate.
CISC complex instruction set computer.
Cl chlorine.
CLB configuration-logic block.
clk clock.
CLNP connectionless network protocol.
CLNS connectionless network service.
CLS connectionless server.
CLUT color lookup table.
CLV constant linear velocity.
Cm curium.
cm centimeter.
cm/s centimeter per second.
cm
2
square centimeter.
cm
3
cubic centimeter.
cm
3
/min cubic centimeter per minute.
cm
3
/s cubic centimeter per second.
CMAC Cerebellar Model Articulation Con-
trol.
CMEX continuous media extensions to X
Windows.
CMIG Canadian MAP Interest Group.
CMIP Common Management Information
Protocol.
CMIS Common Management Information
Services.
CML current mode logic.
CMM color matching method.
CMMS computer maintenance management
system.
CMOS complementary metal-oxide semicon-
ductor.
CMR common mode rejection.
CMR(R) common mode rejection (ratio).
CMS cable management system.
CMV common mode voltage.
CMYK cyan, magenta, yellow, black.
CNC computer numerical control.
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CNEC/DDA
CNEC Comit Nacional Espaol de la CEI
(Spain).
CNMA Communications Network for
Manufacturing Applications.
CO carbon monoxide; compliance officer.
Co cobalt.
CO
2
carbon dioxide.
COBOL Common Business-Oriented Lan-
guage.
COD chemical oxygen demand.
CODAB configuration data block.
CODIL Control Diagram Language.
COFF Common Object File Format.
COIN COS OSI Information Network.
COM Computer Output Microfilm; Compo-
nent Object Model.
com communication. [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-
2000]
COM(M)S Customer-Oriented Manufactur-
ing (Management) System.
cond conductivity content.
CONS connection-oriented network service.
COS Corporation for Open Systems.
COSE Common Open Software Environ-
ment.
COTS commercial off-the-shelf.
c
P
specific heat.
CP/M Command Program for Microcomput-
ers.
CPAC Center for Process Analytical Chemis-
try.
CPG consumer packaged goods.
CPI chemical process industries.
cpp characters per pica.
CPS characters per second; cycles per second;
conversions per second.
CPU central processing unit.
CR carriage return.
Cr chromium.
CRC cyclic redundancy check.
CROM Control React-Only Memory.
CRT cathode ray tube.
CRTL C-language Run-Time Library.
Cs cesium.
CSA Canadian Standards Association.
CSI current source inverter. Also, Control
Systems Integrator.
CSIA Control Systems Integrators Associa-
tion.
CSIC customer-specific integrated circuit.
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Detection.
CSN (Czech Republic) Office for Standards,
Measurement, and Testing.
CSP computer set point; computer-driven set
point.
CSS client/server solutions.
CSU channel service unit.
CSV comma-separated variable.
CT computer telephony.
CTD cumulative trauma disorder.
CTE coefficient of thermal expansion.
CTI comparative tracking index.
CTS clear to send. Also, carpal tunnel syn-
drome; cubital tunnel syndrome.
Cu copper.
cu in cubic inch.
CUI character-based user interface.
CUSUM cumulative sum.
CV controlled variable.
Cy value-sizing coefficient.
CVD chemical vapor deposition.
CVT constant voltage transformer; current
value table.
CWA Clean Water Act; current word address.
CWP cold working pressure.
CWT cold water temperature.
CYS Organization for Standards and Control
of Quality (Cyprus).
D
d diameter. Also known as "deci-"
for 10
-1
(= 0.1).
D diameter; derivative (rate) action.
Also known as a thermocouple type
for tungsten 3 percent rhenium versus tung-
sten 25 percent rhenium.
D/A digital-to-analog.
D/DBP disinfectants and disinfection by-
products rule.
DAA Data Access Arrangement.
DAC digital-to-analog converter.
DAIS Database Access Integration Services.
DAL data access language.
DAQ data acquisition.
DAS data acquisition system.
DASD direct access storage device.
DAT duration adjusting type. Also, digital
audio tape.
dB decibel.
DBMS database management system.
DC (or dc) direct current; device control; data
communication.
DCC digital compact cassette. Also known as
duty cycle control.
DCD data carrier detect(ed).
DCE data communications equipment.
DCOM Distributed Component Object
Model.
DCPDP direct current plasma display panel.
DCS distributed control system.
DCT discrete cosine transform.
DCTV digital composite television.
DCX Intel file format for saving multiple
PCX graphics in electronic memory.
DD device description.
DDA digitally directed analog.
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DDAC / DTE
DDAC digitally directed analog control.
DDAS diagnostic data acquisition system.
DDC direct digital control.
DDCMP Digital Data Communications Mes-
sage Protocol.
DDCS distributed digital control systems.
DDD direct distance dialing.
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange.
DDES Digital Data Exchange Specifications.
DDL data description language [ISA-
TR50.02, Part 9-2000]; data definition lan-
guage.
DDMC Distributed Discrete Manufacturing
Control.
DDP distributed data processing.
DDR digital data repeating. Also known as
digital disk recorders.
DDS Dataphone Digital Service.
DE digitally enhanced.
DECnet Digital Equipment Corporation Net-
work.
DEDMKO Danmarks Elektriske Material
Kontrol (Denmark).
deg (or ) degree.
DEK Dansk Elektroteknisk Komite (Den-
mark).
DEMKO Danmark Elektriske Materiellkon-
troll (Denmark).
DES Data Encryption Standard. Also, distri-
bution execution system.
DFA digital fault analysis; design for assem-
bly.
DFM design for manufacturing.
Dfs distributed file system; design for ser-
vice.
DFT design for test; diagnostic function test.
DGIS Direct Graphics Interchange Standard.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Proto-
col.
DHW data highway.
DI dielectric isolation.
DI/O, DIO discrete input/output.
DI/OU data input/output unit.
dia. or diam diameter.
DIAT Direction Impulse Adjusting Type.
DIB device-independent bitmap. Also, direc-
tory information base.
DIF Data Interchange Format.
DIMM dual inline memory module.
DIN Deutsches Industrie Norms; Deutsches
Institut fr Normung e.V. (Germany).
DIP dust-ignition-proof; dual in-line package.
dir direct acting.
DIS draft international standard; DCE Inde-
pendent Sublayer.
DISOSS distributed office support system.
DL data link; drawing list.
DLC data link control. Also, distributed line
carrier.
DLE data link entity.
DLL data link layer; dynamic link library.
DLT digital linear technology.
DMA direct memory access.
DMAC direct memory access control.
DMACS Distributed Manufacturing Auto-
mation and Control System.
DMC Distributed Measurement and Control
system.
DME Distributed Management Environ-
ment.
DML data manipulation language.
DMM digital multimeter.
DMOS double-diffused metal-oxide
semiconductor.
DMS dynamic mapping system.
DMT (BvS) Deutsche Montan Technologic
DMT dead man timer.
DMUX demultiplexer.
DNA Digital Network Architecture; Digital
Equipment Corporation's layered data com-
munication protocol.
DNC distributed numeric control; also, direct
numerical control.
DNP Distributed Network Protocol.
DNS domain name system.
DNV Det Norske Veritas (Norway).
DO dissolved oxygen.
DOE Department of Energy (United States).
DOS disk operating system.
dp differential pressure.
DPDT double pole double throw.
dpi dots per inch.
DPM digital panel meter.
DPMI DOS-protected mode interface.
DPS distributed processor system.
DPSK differential phase-shift keying.
DPST double pole single throw.
DPU distributed processing unit; differential
pressure unit.
DQDB Distributed Queue Dual Bus.
DRAM dynamic random access memory
[pronounced dee-ram].
DS data structure [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-2000];
Dansk Standardiseringsrd (Denmark).
DSA Directory Service Agent.
DSL digital subscriber line.
DSM demand-side management.
DSO digital storage oscilloscope.
DSP digital signal processor (or processing).
DSR data set ready.
DSS decision support system.
DSSS Direct sequence spread spectrum.
DSU digital service unit.
DSVD digital simultaneous voice and data.
DTE data terminal equipment.
566
DTL / Eu
DTL diode-transistor logic.
DTMF dial tone multiple frequency.
DTP distributed transaction processing;
desk-top publishing.
DTR data terminal ready.
DTV desktop video.
DUA Directory User Agent.
DUT device under test.
DV Dynamic list of Variable list.
[ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-2000]
DVCAM digital videocassette camera video
format.
DVD digital video disk (or digital versatile
disk).
DVD-ROM digital video (versatile) disk
read-only memory.
DVI digital video interactive.
DVM digital voltmeter.
DVR dynamic voltage restorer.
DXF Document Exchange Format file.
Dy dysprosium.
E
E modulus of elasticity. Also known
as symbol of ANSI thermocouple
type for chromel versus constantan.
EABI Embedded Application
Binary Interface.
EAPROM electrically alterable programma-
ble read-only memory.
EAROM electrically alterable read-only
memory.
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code.
EC European Community.
ECC error checking and correction. Also
error correcting code.
ECL emitter coupled logic.
ECM electrochemical machining; electro-
chemical milling.
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers
Association.
ECSA Exchange Carriers Standard Associa-
tion.
EDC error detection and correction.
EDG electronic dot generation.
EDI electronic data interchange.
EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format.
EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for
Administration Commerce and Transport.
EDM electrical discharge machining.
EDO extended data out.
EDP electronic data processing.
EEC European Economic Community.
EECS Electrical Equipment Certification Ser-
vice.
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specifi-
cation.
EEPLD electronically erasable programmable
logic device.
EEPROM electrically erasable programmable
read-only memory.
EES enterprise execution system.
EFL emitter follower logic.
EFT electrical fast transient.
EFTA European Free Trade Association.
EFTS electronic funds transfer system.
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter (or Array).
EIA Electronics Industry Association.
EIS extended instruction set; enterprise infor-
mation system.
ELD electroluminescent display.
ELF extremely low frequency.
ELOT Hellenic Organization for Standardiza-
tion (Greece).
ELSI extra large-scale integration.
EMC electromagnetic compatibility.
EMD equilibrium mode distribution.
emf electromotive force.
EMI (or emi) electromagnetic interference.
EMMUA Engineering Equipment and Mate-
rials Users Association.
EMP electromagnetic pulse.
EMR Energy Mines and Resources (Canada).
EMUG European MAP Users Group.
EN European Norm (standard).
ENDEC encoder/decoder.
eng engineers.
EOF end of file.
EOT end of tape; end of transmission.
EP explosion proof; emergency power.
EPA Enhanced Performance Architecture;
Environmental Protection Agency (United
States).
EPLD erasable programmable logic device.
EPP enhanced parallel port.
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute.
EPROM erasable programmable read-only
memory.
EPS Encapsulated PostScript.
Er erbium.
ERA ERA Technology Ltd. (Britian).
EROM erasable read-only memory.
err error.
Es einsteinium.
ESCA Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical
Analysis.
ESD electrostatic discharge.
ESR equivalent series resistance.
ESS electronic switching system.
est estimated.
ETSI European Telecommunications Stan-
dards Institute.
ETX end of text.
Eu europium.
567
EU / Ge
EU engineering unit [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-
2000]; European Union.
EUI end-user interface.
eV electron volt.
EWI enterprise-wide integration.
EWICS European Workshop on Industrial
Computer Systems.
EWMA exponentially weighted moving
average.
ExCA Exchangeable Card Architecture.
Extnd Stands for "extended data transfer."
F
F farad; Fahrenheit.
FA factory automation.
FAIS Factory Automation Inter-
connection System [pronounced fice].
FAQ frequently asked questions.
FB function block. [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-2000]
FC fail closed.
FCC Federal Communications Commission;
frame code complement.
FCFS first come, first served.
FCS Frame Check Sequence.
FDA Food and Drug Administration (United
States).
FDC final control device.
FDDI fiber distributed data interface.
FDDI-II variant of FDDI that supports iso-
synchronous traffic.
FDI failure detection and identification rou-
tines.
FDM frequency division multiplexer (or mul-
tiplexing).
FDX full duplex.
FEA finite element analysis.
FED field emission display.
FEP front end processor.
FET field-effect transistor.
FF Fieldbus Foundation [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-
2000]; form feed.
FFT fast Fourier transform.
FI fail indeterminate.
FIC Fieldbus Implementation Consortium.
FICIM Fieldbus Integration into computer
integrated manufacturing.
FIFO first in, first out.
FInt Fieldbus International.
FIP Factory Instrumentation Protocol.
FIPS Federal Information Processing Sys-
tems.
FIR finite impulse response filter; in digital
signal processing (DSP), filter that has out-
put determined by its coefficients and previ-
ous inputs and is characterized by having
linear phase response; see IIR.
FIS Financial Information System.
FL fail locked.
FLC fuzzy logic controller.
FM Factory Mutual Research Corporation;
frequency modulation.
FMEA failure mode and effects analysis.
FMS flexible manufacturing system. Also,
Fieldbus Message Specification [ISA-
TR50.02, Part 9-2000]; Fieldbus Messaging
Service.
FNFT female national pipe thread.
FO fail open.
FOF first out fault.
FOIRL Fiber-Optic Inter Repeater Link.
FOV field of view.
FP-EPSM Functional Profiles for Electric
Power Systems Messaging.
FPD flat-panel display.
FPGA field-programmable gate array.
FPLA field-programmable logic array.
FPM feet per minute.
FPROM field-programmable read-only
memory.
FPS feet per second; frames per second.
FPU floating point unit.
FQ flow quantity. [ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984
(R1992)]
FRAD frame relay access device.
FRAM ferroelectric random access memory.
FRP fiber-reinforced plastic.
FSA Fault State fail-safe Active. [ISA-
TR50.02, Part 9-2000]
FSK frequency-shift keying.
FT-IR Fourier transform infrared-based ana-
lyzer.
FTAM File Transfer Access and Management
FTP file transfer protocol.
FTSA fault-tolerant system architecture.
FWA first word address.
G
G thermocouple type for tungsten
versus tungsten 26 percent rhenium.
Also known as acceleration due to
gravity; specific gravity
g gram.
Ga gallium.
gal gallon.
GAW Guided Acoustical Wave type of touch
screen, which channels acoustical energy
into the full volume of screen material; com-
pare with SAW.
Gb gigabit.
GB gigabyte.
GC gas chromatography.
GCI guest computer interface.
GCR gray component replacement.
Gd gadolinium.
GDDM graphical data display manager.
GDS graphic data system.
GDT gas discharge tube.
Ge germanium.
568
GEMS / IEEE
GEMS Global Enterprise wide Management
System.
GFCI ground fault circuit interrupter.
GFLOPS giga floating-point operations per
second.
GIF Graphics Interchange Format [pro-
nounced jiff].
GIGO garbage in, garbage out.
GIS Graphic Information System.
GIW gain in weight.
GKS Graphical Kernel System.
GLP good laboratory practice.
GMAW gas-metal arc welding.
GMC general motion controller.
GMM graphical multimeter.
GMP good manufacturing practice.
GMR giant magnetoresistive.
gnd ground.
GOSIP Government Open Systems
Interconnection Profile.
GPD gas plasma displays.
gph gallons per hour.
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus.
gpm gallons per minute.
GPSS General-Purpose Simulation System.
GRAFCET Graphe de Commande Etape-
Transition.
GRIN graded index fiber.
GS gas supply.
GSM Global System for Mobile communica-
tions.
GUI graphical user interface [pronounced:
gooey].
GX in equipment-corrosion specifications,
equal to or greater than 300 /month copper
corrosion (of electrical terminals) as one mea-
sure of severe environmental contamination.
[ISA standard S71.04]
Gy gray.
H
H henry; hydrogen; valve-travel in
inches; fluid head.
h hour (also abbreviated hr);
valve-travel function; fluid head feet.
HALT Highly Accelerated Life Test.
HAP hazardous air pollutant(s).
HAZOP Hazard and Operability studies.
HCFC Hydrochlorofluorocarbon..
HCS hybrid control system.
HDCD high-definition compatible digital.
HDCD-ROM high-density compact disk
read-only memory.
HDDR high-density digital recording
HDLC High-level Data Link Control.
HDTV high-definition television.
HDX half duplex.
H
F
latent heat of fusion.
Hf hafnium.
HFC Hart Communication Foundation.
Hg mercury.
HGED high-gain emissive display.
HIS human resources information system.
H/L high/low.
HLCD high-level computing device.
HLHI high-level human interference.
HLOI high-level operator interface.
HMD head-mounted display.
Ho holmium.
HOOPS Hierarchical Object-Oriented Picture
System.
HP high pressure.
hp horsepower.
HP-IB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus.
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatogra-
phy.
HRF Hazard Reduction Factor.
HS hand station; hydraulic supply.
HSLN high-speed local network.
HSM Hierarchal Storage Management.
HSV hue-saturation-value (or brilliance or
luminance).
HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amend-
ments.
HTML hypertext markup language.
HTTP hypertext transport protocol.
H
V
latent heat of vaporization.
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air condi-
tioning.
HVLC high volume, low concentration.
Hz hertz.
I
I current or moment of inertia;
iodine; integral (reset) action.
IA instrument air [ANSI/ISA-
7.0.01-1996]; initialization acknowl-
edge. [ISA-TR50.02, Part 9-2000]
IACS International Annealed Copper Stan-
dard.
IAE integral absolute error.
IAR instruction address register.
IBN Institut Beige de Normalisation (Bel-
gium).
IC integrated circuit.
I&C instrumentation and control.
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol.
ID A unique IDentifier for batches, lots, oper-
ators, technicians, and raw materials.
[ANSI/ISA-88.01-1995]
I.D. inside diameter.
IDLH immediately dangerous to life and
health.
IDU interface data unit (defined in ISO 7498).
IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers
(England).
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers.
569
IEC / LCIE
IEC International Electrotechnical Commis-
sion.
IES integral error squared.
IF intermediate frequency.
IFAC International Federation of Automatic
Control.
IFD intelligent field device.
IFF if and only if.
IFIP International Federation for Information
Processing.
IGES Initial Graphic Exchange Specification.
IMan initialization manual. [ISA-TR50.02,
Part 9-2000]
IMC Institute of Measurement and Control;
Internal Model-based Control.
In indium.
INERIS Institut National de L'Environnement
Industrial et des Risques. The French certifi-
cation and testing laboratory for testing the
equipment of different vendors against some
common standard.
INIEX Institut National des Industries
Extractives (Belgium).
I/O input/output.
IP Internet protocol.
I/P current to pressure transducer; current/
pneumatic; current/pressure.
IPDS Intelligent Printer Data Stream.
IPQ Instituto Portugus da Qualidade (Por-
tugal).
IPTS International Practical Temperature
Scale.
ir infrared.
Ir iridium.
IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group.
IRS information retrieval services; also, Insti-
tut Romn de Standardizare (Romania).
IS intrinsically safe; inside; international
standard.
I.S. intrinsic safety.
ISA ISA--The Instrumentation, Systems, and
Automation Society (formerly, Instrument
Society of America).
ISDN integrated systems digital network.
ISO International Organization for Standard-
ization.
ISORM ISO Reference Model.
IT information technology.
ITAE integral time absolute error.
ITB intermediate block character.
ITC International Trade Commission.
ITI Industrial Technology Institute.
ITU-TSS International Telegraphic Union-
Telecommunications Standards Sector.
ITV interactive television.
IUT instrument under test.
IVD integrated voice data LAN.
J J joule; symbol of ANSI thermocou-
ple type for iron versus constantan.
JCL job control language.
JEIDA Japan Electronic Industry
Development Association.
JFET, JUGFET junction field effect transistor.
JIS Japanese Industrial Standards.
JIT just-in-time manufacturing.
JOVIAL Jules's Own Version of International
Algebraic Language.
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group.
JSA Japanese Standards Association (member
of IEC).
JTM Job Transfer and Manipulation.
K
K kelvin; ratio of specific heats;
kilobyte (1,024 characters).
K
a
air spring rate (lb/in).
K
B
Bernoulli coefficient.
KB keyboard; kilobyte.
Kbps kilobits per second.
KByte l,024(2
10
) bytes.
kc kilocycles.
K
c
cavitation index.
kcal kilocalorie.
KEMA KEMA Registered Quality Nederland
B.V.
kg kilogram.
K
h
fluid force coefficient.
kHz kilohertz.
kl kiloliter.
km kilometer.
kPa kilopascal.
Kr krypton.
ksi 1,000 pounds per square inch.
KSR Keyboard Send/Receive.
kV kilovolt.
kVA kilovolt-ampere (1,000 volt amps).
KVVD Kelvin-Varney voltage divider.
kW kilowatt.
kWh kilowatt hour (1,000 watt-hours).
L
L liter; length.
La lanthanum.
LAN local area network.
LAP Line Access Procedure.
LAPB Link Access Procedure, Balanced.
LAPI Layered Application Programming
Interface.
LASCR Light-Activated Silicon Controlled
Rectifier.
lb pound.
LbE Loopback Enable signal (to MAU).
LCCA life cycle cost analysis.
LCD liquid crystal display.
LCH luminance, chroma, hue.
LCIE Laboratoire Central Des Industries
Electriques (France).
570
LCP / MeV
LCP liquid crystal polymer.
LCU local control unit.
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Proto-
col.
LDAR leak detection and repair.
LDM limited distance modem.
LDR Land Disposal Restrictions.
LEC local exchange carrier. The carrier
responsible for extending telephone service
to the final user.
LED light emitting diode.
LEL lower explosive limit (lower flammable
limit).
LF line feed.
LFL lower flammable limit (lower explosive
limit).
Li lithium.
LIC linear integrated circuit.
LIFO last in, first out.
LILO last in, last out.
LIMS laser ionization mass spectrometer.
lin linear.
LISP list processing language.
LIT logic integrity test.
LIW loss in weight.
L
K
A factor used in sound-prediction formu-
lae.
LLC Link Layer Control. Also called Logical
Link Control and Link Level Control.
LLEI low-level engineering interface.
LLHI low-level human interface.
LLOI low-level operator interface.
LLSAP Link Layer Service Access Point.
lm lumen.
L/min liter per minute.
LOC lines of code.
LOSC Londonderry Occupational Safety
Centre (United Kingdom).
LOX liquid oxygen.
L
p
sound pressure level, dBA (decibels).
LP linear programming.
LPM lines per minute.
L
po
Sound pressure level at a point four feet
downstream of a valve and three feet from
the surface of the pipe.
LPOF low-pass output filter.
Lr lawrencium.
LRC longitudinal redundancy check.
LRDCT linear rotary differential capacitive
transducer.
LRU line replaceable unit.
LSAP Link Service Access Point. See Service
Access Point (SAP).
LSB least significant bit.
LSC least significant character.
LSD least significant digit.
LSI large-scale integration.
LSP local set point.
LS-TTL-compatible low-power Schottky-
transistor/transistor logic.
Lu lutetium
LU logical unit.
LVDT linear variable differential transformer;
linear velocity differential transformer.
LVHC low volume, high concentration.
LVIT linear variable inductance transducer.
LVRT linear variable reluctance transducer.
L
x
lux.
Lx A factor in sound-prediction formulae.
LZH Lempel-Ziv-Huffman.
LZSS Lempel-Ziv-Huffman A refinement of
the L-Z. An algorithm for data compression
that can reconstruct data so it is exactly like
its original form with no loss.
LZW Lempel-Ziv and Welch.
M
10
-6
.
micro.
C microcontroller.
P microprocessor.
M mega.
m meter; area ratio
mA milliamperes (electrical)
MAC Media Access Control.
mach machine.
MACT Maximum Achievable Control
Technology.
man manual.
MAN Metropolitan Area Network.
MAP Manufacturing Automation Protocol.
MASER microwave amplification by the
stimulated emission of radiation.
MATE modular automatic test equipment.
MAU multistation access unit; media attach-
ment unit.
max maximum.
Mb megabit.
MBM magnetic bubble memory.
MBPC model-based predictive control.
MByte megabyte.
MCAA Measurement and Control Automa-
tion Association.
MCC motor control center.
MCI media control interface.
MCL maximum contaminant level.
MCR maximum continuous rating.
MCS matrix control strategies.
Md mendelevium.
MDA manufacturing defects analyzer.
MEIC most easily ignited concentration.
MEMS microelectro mechanical systems.
MES Manufacturing Execution System.
MESFET metalized semiconductor field
effect transistor.
MESG maximum experimental safe gap.
MeV mega-electron-volts.
571
MFD / NIC
MFD mode field diameter.
MFLOPS million floating point operations
per second ("megaflops").
MFP multifunction printer.
Mg magnesium.
MgO magnesium oxide.
MHz megahertz.
MIC minimum ignition current.
MICR magnetic ink character recognition.
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
MIE minimum ignition energy.
MIL-STD military standard (U.S.).
MIMD multiple instruction multiple data
stream (pronounced "mimdee").
MIMO multiple-input-multiple-output.
min minute; minimum.
mips million instructions per second.
MIS management information system.
MISO multiple input single output.
MKS meter-kilogram-second.
mL milliliter.
mm millimeter (length).
MMA maximum-minimum algorithm.
MMCD MultiMedia Compact Disk.
MMFS Manufacturing Messaging Format
Standard.
MMS Minerals Management Service (U.S.
Department of the Interior).
Mn manganese.
MNOS metal-nitride-oxide semiconductor.
Mo molybdenum.
MOCS multiple-output control system.
mol wt molecular weight.
MOS metal-oxide-semiconductor.
MOSFET metal oxide semiconductor field-
effect transistor.
MoS
2
molybdenum sulfide.
MOTIS message-oriented text interchange
system (ISO 10021).
MOV metal oxide varistor; motor-operated
valve.
MPC multivariable predictive control.
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group.
MPP massively parallel processing.
MPR maximum power rating.
MPU microprocessor unit.
ms millisecond.
MR magnetoresistive.
MRAC Model Reference Adaptive Control.
MRP (MRP II) Material Requirements Plan-
ning (Manufacturing Resource Planning II).
MS manual station.
MSB most significant bit.
MSD most significant digit.
MS-DOS Microsoft disk operating system.
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administra-
tion (U.S.).
MSI medium-scale integration.
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society
(Valves and Fittings Industry Inc.).
MS/TP master-slave/token-passing.
MTBF mean time between failures (since
1962); mean time before failure (until 1962).
MTTF mean-time-to-failure.
MTTR mean time to repair.
MUMS Multiuser Management Systems.
MUX multiplexer.
mV millivolt.
MV measured variable; manipulated vari-
able.
MWP maximum working pressure.
N
n power law index.
N newton; nitrogen; the thermo-
couple type for omegalloy (nicrosil-
nisil).
N
2
nitrogen (molecule).
Na sodium.
NA numerical aperture.
NACCB National Accreditation Council for
Certification Bodies.
NACE National Association of Corrosion
Engineers.
NAK negative acknowledgment.
NAMUR Normenarbeitsgemeinschaft fr
Me - und Regelungstechnik in der Chemis-
chen Industrie.
NAS National Aerospace Standards;
National Academy of Science.
NASA National Aeronautics and Space
Administration.
Nb columbium (niobium).
NBS National Bureau of Standards (now
NIST).
NC normally closed; numeric control; net-
work computer.
NCAP network-capable applications proces-
sor.
NEC National Electrical Code.
neg negative.
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers
Association.
NEMCO Norges Elektriske Materiellkontrol
(Norway).
NEPSI National Supervision and Inspection
Center for Explosion Protection and Safety of
Instrumentation.
NFPA National Fire Protection Association.
NetBEUI NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface.
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output Sys-
tem.
NetPC network PC.
NFPA National Fire Protection Association.
NFS network file server.
Ni nickel.
NIC network interface card.
572
NICET/PhICI
NICET National Institute for Certification in
Engineering Technologies.
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health.
NIS not intrinsically safe.
NIST National Institute of Science and
Technology.
NMOS N-channel metal-oxide semiconduc-
tor.
NMRR normal-mode rejection ratio.
NNI Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut
(Netherlands).
NNS non-nuclear safety.
NO normally open.
NOM natural organic materials.
NOVRAM nonvolatile random access mem-
ory.
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimi-
nation System.
NPS national pipe straight (thread); nominal
pipe size (diameter).
NPSH net positive suction head.
NPT national pipe taper thread.
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission;
National Research Council.
NRZ non-return-to-zero code.
NSE nth sequential algorithm.
NSR nuclear safety related.
NT new technology.
NTC Negative Temperature Coefficient.
NTP normal temperature and pressure.
NURBS nonuniform rational b-splines.
O
O oxygen.
OA open access.
OBE operating basis earthquake.
OCD open circuit detection.
OCR optical character recognition.
OCX OLE custom controls (extension).
OD outside diameter.
OEM original equipment manufacturer.
OFHC oxygen-free high-conductivity copper.
OI operator interface.
OLE object linking and embedding.
OOP object-oriented programming.
OS operator station; operating system.
OS&Y outside screw and yoke.
OSF Open Software Foundation.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.
OSI Open System Interconnection.
OTD Open Thermocouple Detection.
OTM overtempered martensite.
oz ounce.
P
P phosphorous; poise
p pressure, psia.
P&ID piping and instrumentation drawing.
Pa pascal.
PA plant air.
PABX private automatic branch exchange.
PAD packet access device.
PAL programmable array logic.
PAM pulse amplitude modulated.
PAM/FM/FM The frequency modulation of a
carrier by Pulse Amplitude Modulated infor-
mation.
PAT position adjusting type.
PAW plasma arc welding.
Pb lead.
PB proportional band.
PBW proportional bandwidth.
PBX private branch exchange.
P
c
thermodynamic critical pressure, psia.
PC personal computer; programmable con-
troller.
PC/AT Personal Computer/Advanced
Technology.
PCB printed circuit board; Polychlorinated
biphenyl.
PCI protocol control information.
PCIU process control interface unit.
PCM pulse code modulation.
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association.
PC/RT Personal Computer/RISC Technol-
ogy-
PCS plastic-clad silica.
PC/XT Personal Computer/Extended
Architecture.
PD pitch diameter; proportional derivative.
PD
2
plastically deformed debris.
PDA personal digital assistant.
PDD programmable data distributor.
PDES Product Definition Exchange Stan-
dard.
PDF Portable Document Format.
PDIF Product Definition Interchange Format.
Formerly, Product Data Interchange Format.
PDM pulse duration modulation, predictive
maintenance.
PDP plasma discharge panel.
PDU protocol data unit.
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Tech-
nique.
PES programmable electronic system.
PFD process flow diagram; probability of
failure on demand.
PFU programmable function unit.
PGA Professional Graphics Adapter (Array);
pin grid array.
Ph physical.
PhE physical layer entity.
PhICI physical layer interface control infor-
mation.
573
PhID / RNRZ
PhID physical layer interface data.
PhIDU physical layer interface data unit.
PhL physical layer.
PhPCI physical layer protocol control infor-
mation.
PhPDU physical layer protocol data unit.
PhS physical layer service.
PhSAP physical layer service access point.
PhSDU physical layer service data unit.
PI proportional-integral.
P/I pressure-to-current converter.
PIA Peripheral Interface Adaptor.
PID proportional-integral-derivative.
PIO programmed input/output.
PIP Peripheral Interchange Program.
pk - pk peak to peak.
pk peak.
PKNMiJ Polski Komitet Normalizacji
(Poland).
PL/1 See PL/I.
PL/I Programming Language 1.
PLA programmable logic array.
PLC programmable logic controller.
PLD programmable logic device.
PLL phase-locked loop.
PM, P/M powder metallurgy.
PMOS P-channel metal-oxide semiconduc-
tor.
PMT photomultiplier tube.
POL problem-oriented language.
pos positive.
POS point of sale.
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface
for UNIX.
ppb parts per billion.
PPD pour point depressant.
PPI programmed peripheral interface.
ppm parts per million (1/10
6
).
PPP point-to-point protocol.
PROM programmable read only memory.
PRP potentially responsible party.
PRT platinum resistance thermometer.
PRV pressure-regulating valve; pressure-
reducing valve.
PSD power spectral density.
psi pounds per square inch.
psia pounds per square inch, absolute.
psig pounds per square inch, gauge.
PSK phase shift keying.
PSM Process Safety and Management.
PSS packet switching system.
pt part.
PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
(Germany).
PTC Positive Temperature Coefficient.
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon).
PTO PROFIBUS Trade Organization.
PTR paper tape reader.
PV process variable.
PVC polyvinyl chloride.
PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar).
Material that is used in place of stainless steel
to reduce leaching contamination in some
conditions.
PWM pulse width modulation; pulse width
modulated type.
PWR pressurized water reactor.
Q q volumetric flow rate.
Q The ratio of reactance to resis-
tance in a reactive component or res-
onant circuit.
QA quality assurance.
QAD quarter amplitude damping.
QBC queue control block.
QC quality control.
QCB queue control block.
R
R Rankine; gas content (consistent
with units).
radius.
R
A,B or C
Rockwell hardness (A, B or
C scales).
rad radian.
radar radar detection and ranging.
RAID redundant array of independent disks.
RAM random access memory.
RBE report by exception.
RBS Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.
RCPB reactor coolant pressure boundary.
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act.
RCTL resistor-capacitor-transistor logic.
RDA remote database access.
RDBMS relational database management
system.
Re Reynolds number.
ref reference.
REM Roentgen equivalent man.
REP Roentgen equivalent physical.
REV reverse acting.
RF radio frequency.
RFC request for comments.
RFI radio frequency interference.
RFP request for proposal.
RFQ request for quote.
RGA relative gain array.
RH right-hand thread; relative humidity.
RIIS Research Institute of Industrial Safety of
the Ministry of Labor (Japan).
RIP real-time interrupt process.
RISC reduced instruction set computer (or
computing).
RJC reference junction compensation.
rms root mean square.
RNRZ randomized non-return-to-zero.
574
RO / SP
RO read only, reverse osmosis.
ROI return on investment.
ROM read-only memory.
RPC remote procedure calls.
RPG report program generator.
rpm revolutions per minute.
RPN reverse Polish notation.
rps revolutions per second.
RPU remote processing unit.
RS recommended standards.
RTD resistance temperature detector.
RTF rich text format.
RTL real-time language; resistor-transistor
logic.
RTOS real-time operating system.
RTS request to send.
RTU remote termination unit.
RxA receive activity signal (from DCE).
RxC receive clock signal (from DCE).
RxS receive signal (from MAU).
S
S siemens.
s second.
S-COMMISSION Komisija Za
Ispitivanje S-Vredaja (Yugoslavia).
SA Standards Australia (Australia).
SAA System Application Architecture; Stan-
dards Association of Australia (IEC).
SABS South African Bureau of Standards
(South Africa).
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAMA Scientific Apparatus Makers Associa-
tion (now Measurement and Control Auto-
mation Association, MCAA).
SAP Service Access Point.
SARA Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act.
SAR Successive Approximation Register.
SASE Specific Application Service Element.
SAW surface acoustic wave.
Sb antimony.
SBC single board computer; single board
controller.
SBE scan by exception.
SC standing committee.
SCADA supervisory control and data acqui-
sition.
SCC Standards Council of Canada (IEC).
SCFH standard cubic feet per hour (flow).
SCFM standard cubic feet per minute.
SCI Serial Communications Interface.
SCR silicon-controlled rectifier.
SCS supervisory control system.
S/D synchro-to-digital converter.
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control.
SDU service data unit.
sec second.
SECS Semiconductor Equipment
Communications Standard.
SERCOS serial real-time communication sys-
tem.
SEV Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer
Verein (Switzerland).
SFC sequential function chart; shop floor
control.
sfm surface feet per minute.
SFM scanning force microscopy.
SG specific gravity; steam generator.
SGC solid ground curing.
Si silicon.
SI Systeme Internationale d'Unites.
SIL safety integrity level.
SIMD single instruction multiple data stream
(pronounced "simdee").
SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry.
SIMTARS Safety in Mines Testing and
Research Station (Australia).
SiO
2
silicon dioxide.
SIPAI Shanghai Institute of Process Automa-
tion Instrumentation (China).
SISO single input single output.
SIT spontaneous ignition temperature.
SLA stereolithography.
SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.
SMAW shielded metal arc welding.
SMD surface-mounted device.
SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Televi-
sion Engineers.
SMRE Safety in Mines Research Establish-
ment (U.K.).
SMRT single-message unit rate timing.
SMT surface mount technology.
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
Sn tin.
S/N signal to noise.
SNAP Sub-Network Access Protocol.
SNMP Simple Network Management Proto-
col.
SNR signal-to-noise ratio.
SOE sequence of events.
SOH start of header.
SONET Synchronous Optical Network.
SOS silicon-on-sapphire.
sp ht specific heat.
SP standards and practices.
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture
(trademark of Sun Microsystems). Also,
"Scalable Processor Architecture reduced
instruction set Computer."
SPC statistical process control.
SPDT single pole double throw.
SPL sound pressure level.
SPST single pole single throw.
SP set point.
575
SQC/ UMS
SQC statistical quality control.
SQE signal quality error.
SQL Structured Query Language (pro-
nounced "see quill").
sr steradian.
SRAM static random access memory.
SRF side relief angle.
SSI small-scale integration.
SST simultaneous self-test.
SSU Seconds Saybolt Universal.
SS steam supply; stainless steel.
STC self-tuning controller.
STIM Smart Transducer Interface Module.
STL Standard Template Library.
STP standard temperature and pressure;
spanning tree protocol; standard text pro-
gramming; shielded twisted pairA routing
specification for IEEE 802.1.
STR self-tuning regulator.
STX start of text
SVGA Super Video Graphics Adapter (or
Array).
SW stud arc welding.
SWOP Specifications Web Offset Publica-
tions.
SWR standing wave ratio; switcher; switch
register.
SYN synchronous idle.
SYSGEN system generation.
T
t metric ton (tonne); also tempera-
ture (degrees F).
T/C thermocouple.
T tesla; temperature (degrees
Rankin).
Ta tantalum.
TAGS technical assistance groups.
TAPPI Technical Association of the Pulp and
Paper Industry (United States).
Tb terbium.
T
c
thermodynamic critical temperature
(degrees Rankin).
Tc technetium.
TC technical committee.
TCF totally chlorine free.
TCLP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Proce-
dure.
TCP Transmission Control Protocol.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Inter-
net Protocol.
TDEL thick dielectric electroluminescent.
TDM time division multiplex (or multi-
plexer).
TDMA time division multiplex access.
TDR time domain reflectometry.
TDS total dissolved solids.
Te tellurium.
TFE telemetry front end; tetraflouroethylene.
TFT thin film technology; thin film transistor.
Th thorium.
THD total harmonic distortion; total
dynamic head.
THF time horizon to failure.
THR throughput algorithm.
THT through-hole technology.
Ti titanium.
TIA Telecommunications Industries Associa-
tion.
TIFF Tagged Image File Format.
TITO twin input twin output.
Tl thallium.
TLC thin-layer chromatography.
TLV threshold limit value.
TLV-STEL threshold limit value-short term
exposure limit.
TLV-TWA threshold limit value-time
weighted average.
Tm thulium.
TMR triple modular redundant.
TOC total organic carbon.
TOE time of event.
tol tolerance.
TOP Technical and Office Protocol.
TOX Total Organic Halide.
TPG test pattern generator.
TP twisted pair.
tpi threads per inch.
TQC Total Quality Control.
TQM Total Quality Management.
TRI toxic release inventory.
TRS transverse rupture strength.
TSCA Toxic Substance Control Act.
TSS total suspended solids.
TTL transistor/transistor logic.
TTP telephone twisted pair.
TTY teletypewriter.
TUR test uncertainty ratio; turret.
TxC Transmit Clock signal (from DCE).
TxD Transmit Data signal (to DCE).
TxE Transmit Enable signal (to MAU).
TxS Transmit signal (to MAU).
U
U uranium; velocity (ft/sec).
UART Universal Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter.
UDP User Datagram Protocol.
UEL upper explosive limit (upper flammable
limit).
UFL upper flammable limit (upper explosive
limit).
UHF ultrahigh frequency.
UK United Kingdom.
UL Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.).
ULD unit load devices.
UMS Utilities Management System.
576
UNC/ Zr 02
UNC unified coarse thread; Uniform Naming
Convention.
UNEF unified extra fine thread.
UNF unified fine thread.
UPS uninterruptible power supply.
URL Uniform Resource Locator.
US United States.
USART universal synchronous/asynchro-
nous receiver transmitter.
USASCII U.S. Standard Code for Informa-
tion Exchange.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
USBM United States Bureau of Mines.
USCG United States Coast Guard.
USNC/IEC United States National Commit-
tee for International Electrotechnical Com-
mission.
USOC Universal Service Order Code.
USRT universal synchronous receiver trans-
mitter.
UST underground storage tank.
UTP unshielded twisted pair.
UUT unit under test.
uv, UV ultraviolet.
UVROM ultraviolet-erasable read-only
memory.
V
v volt; specific volume (ft
3
/lb).
V vanadium; velocity (ft/sec); vol-
ume (in
3
).
vA volt ampere.
VAN Value-Added Network.
VAT voltage-adjusting type.
VAV variable air volume.
VAX virtual address extension.
VBX Visual Basic extension.
VCF voltage-controlled frequency.
VCG voltage-controlled generation.
VCO voltage-controlled oscillator.
VCP video control panel.
VCR videocassette recorder.
VDE Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker
(Germany).
VDF vacuum fluorescent display.
VDI virtual device interface; Verein Deut-
scher Ingenieure (Germany).
VDT video display terminal.
VDU visual display unit; video display unit.
VESA Video Electronics Standards Associa-
tion.
V/F (vapor flow and feed flow) boi-
lup-to-feed ratio.
VFD variable frequency drive; vacuum fluo-
rescent display; virtual field device.
VGA Video Graphics Adapter (Array).
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Lan-
guage.
VHF very high frequency.
VHSIC very high speed integrated circuit.
VISRD virtual interrupt service routine
driver.
VLSI very large-scale integration.
VMS virtual memory system.
VOC volatile organic compounds.
vol volume.
VPN virtual private network.
VR virtual reality.
VRC vertical redundancy parity check.
VSI Virtual Socket Interface.
VSWR voltage standing wave ratio.
W I variable voltage input.
W w mass flow rate.
W watt; tungsten.
w.c. water column (hydrostatic
head).
WAIS Wide Area Information Servers (pro-
nounced "wayz").
WAN wide area network.
Wb weber.
WC word count.
WDM wavelength division multiplexing.
WFW Windows for Workgroups.
WG working group.
WIP work in process.
wt weight.
WWW (or W
3
) World Wide Web.
WYSIWYG what you see is what you get
(pronounced "wissywig").
X
x pressure drop ratio.
Xe xenon.
XGA Extended Graphics Adapter
(Array).
XIP execute in place.
XML Extensible Markup Language.
XOFF Transmitter off.
XON Transmitter on.
XOR exclusive OR; logic gate.
XPL external party line.
XST external start.
x
t
pressure drop ratio factor.
x
tp value of x for a valve-fitting assembly.
Y
Y yttrium; expansion factor.
Y2K Year 2000.
Z
Z compressibility factor.
ZFN zero-order fixed-aperture
non-redundant sample algorithm.
ZIF zero insertion force socket.
Zn zinc.
ZOH zero order hold.
Zr zirconium.
ZrO
2
zirconium oxide.
577