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LAB REPORT NO.

1:
To plot the load extensions curve for metallic wire and hence determine the modulus of elasticity of
material of wire.
Apparatus:
Youngs modulus of elasticity apparatus, weights, meter rod, Micrometer Screw Gauge
STRESS:
Stress in a solid body is defined as its internal resistance force per unit area against the applied
load or external force.
Stress of the solid body is it ability to carry the load per unit area
Stress = load or stress / area under load
Stress is denoted by
= P /A or /A
!nd its units are in S" units
# $m%& ' (ascal '(a
"ts higher multiples are )(a , M(a , G(a , *(a
T!PES " STRESS:

*ypes of stress are determined on the base of relation between
+. ,irection of a applied load
&. !rea under load
-pon this basis there are two types of stress
i. !xial or normal stress
ii. Shear or tangential stress
"f the load is acting along the axis of the component , area of x section will be the area under load, which
is normal to direction of load.
*he stresses then produced will be axial or normal stresses.
= P /A
*here are further two types of axial stress

i# TE$S%&E STRESS
"f the load is acting outwards it is tending to elongate the component,
(roducing tension inside it. *his load will cause tensile stress in component. .od bc considered is the
external tensile stress.

ii# '"(PRESS%)E STRESS
"f the load is acting inwards it tends to shorten the component producing
compression inside it. *his load will cause compressi/e stress in component.
S*EAR%$+ STRESS

Shear
*o cut off
Shearin, force
*he force which tends to cut off or parts off one portion of the component from the other
,irection of force is parallel or tangential to the area under shear.
0xample
1utting by pair of scissor
Shearin, stress:
Stresses produced on the area under shear, due to shearing forces, are called shearing stresses.
Mathematically,
Shearin, stress = shearin, force / area under shear

- = P / As
*his relation gi/es the a/erage /alue of shearing stress

-nli2e axial forces distribution of shearing stress across the section cannot be assumed to be uniform.
*his /alue of stress /aries from 3ero at the surface of the member to a max. 4alue 56 max7 which may be
much larger than the a/erage /alue 56 a/e7.
'"(("$ APP&%'AT%"$S:
i. 8olts, ri/ets and pins.
ii. "n machine tools, the cutting edges of the tools are exerting shearing force on the
wor2 piece.
S%$+&E S*EAR:
"f the pin or bolt is under shear at one section only it will be the case of single shear
."/0&E S*EAR:
"f the pin or bolt is under shear at two sections it will be the case of double shear.
0EAR%$+ STRESSES:
9hen two components are in contact with one another and one component is exerting force on other ,
stresses produced on the area of contact or area of bearing surface are called bearing stresses
Mathematically
0earin, stresses = load / area of 1earin, surface
1 = P / A1
Examples
i. ! pillar transmitting the load of roof on the floor or soil
ii. !n axle transmitting the load of bicycle $ motor cycle
iii. *wo plates, ri/eted with each other under axial load
STRA%$S
Strain is measure of the deformation produced in a member by load . direct stresses , tensile or
compressi/e ,produce change in length l of a member caused by certain stresses then the strain.
e = 2& /&
Strain for bodies sub:ected to normal tensile or compressi/e stresses may be defined as change in length
per unit length.
*oo3e4s law
"t states that
;or materials sub:ected to simple tension or compression with in elastic limit the stress is
proportional to the strain.
Mathematically,
Stress / strain = constant
9here constant is youngs modulus
<r modulus of elasticity
p / e = E
"0SER)AT%"$ A$. 'A&'/&AT%"$S:
=east count of scale of apparatus ' >.>+ inches
=east count of micrometer ' >.>>+ inches
=east count of meter rod
"nitial load ' & lbs
,iameter of wire '> .>?@
=ength of wire ' ?A.& inch of wire
!rea of wire '+.?AB+>
C
#o.
of
obs.
=<!, 0D*0#S"<# ( $ El 0 ' ( $
El B l $!
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
o
f

w
i
r
e
=oadin
g
-nloading a/erage =oading -nloading a/erage
+. > > > > > > > >
'
o
p
p
e
r
&. @ @ @ .>+ .>+ .>+ @>> F.@B+>
C
@. C C C .>& .>& .>& @>> F.@B+>
C
?. F F F .>& .>& .>& ?A> +?B +>
C
A. +& +& +& .>@ .>@ .>@ ?>> +&.?B+>
C
C. +A +A +A .>? .>? .>? @GA ++.CB+>
C
PR"'E./RE

+. (ut initial load of two pounds to remo/e wrin2les in the wire
&. Measure the length using meter rod
@. !d:ust main scale so that 3eros of two scales coincides with each other
?. (ut load of fi/e pounds and measure the extension
A. 1ontinue for at least fi/e readings
C. .emo/e loads and measure the deflection
G. 1hec2 the 3eros at no load
H. Measure the diameter of wire with micrometer
F. 1alculate the readings using gi/en formulas
PRE'A/T%"$S :
+. !s we are assuming static load so the load should be placed slowly and steadily
&. ;inger tips should not interfere the weights in the hanger
@. "f there is the little bit mo/ement of hanger ne/er support the load to the lower side rather
touch it from left or right side
?. *he eyes of obser/er must always be in front of the reading
'omments:
+. !s the wire material was not strong, so there was /ariation in reading. *he accurate reading
should be ta2en after some time.
&. *he length of the wire may not be accurate as the corners of the meter rod were worn out.
@. Ma2e sure that wire should not exceed its elastic limit.
?. *he application of the wire in different uses depends upon the strength of material of wire.