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A Student and Family Guide to Grade 6 Reading • Mathematics

Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

Texas Assessment

STUDY GUIDE

**Grade 6 Reading and Mathematics
**

A Student and Fa mily Guide

Copyright © 2003, Texas Education Agency. All rights reserved. Reproduction of all or portions of this work is prohibited without express written permission from Texas Education Agency.

Cover photo credits: Top left © David H. Wells/CORBIS; Top right © Royalty-Free/CORBIS; Bottom right © Royalty-Free/CORBIS; Bottom left © John Henley/CORBIS.

A Letter from the Associate Commissioner of Education

Dear Student and Parent: The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) is a comprehensive testing program for public school students in grades 3–11. TAKS replaces the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and is designed to measure to what extent a student has learned, understood, and is able to apply the important concepts and skills expected at each tested grade level. In addition, the test can provide valuable feedback to students, parents, and schools about student progress from grade to grade. Students are tested in mathematics in grades 3–11; reading in grades 3–9; writing in grades 4 and 7; English language arts in grades 10 and 11; science in grades 5, 10, and 11; and social studies in grades 8, 10, and 11. Every TAKS test is directly linked to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum. The TEKS is the statemandated curriculum for Texas public school students. Essential knowledge and skills taught at each grade build upon the material learned in previous grades. By developing the academic skills speciﬁed in the TEKS, students can build a strong foundation for future success. The Texas Education Agency has developed this study guide to help students strengthen the TEKS-based skills that are taught in class and tested on TAKS. The guide is designed for students to use on their own or for students and families to work through together. Concepts are presented in a variety of ways that will help students review the information and skills they need to be successful on the TAKS. Every guide includes explanations, practice questions, detailed answer keys, and student activities. At the end of this book is an evaluation form for you to complete and mail back when you have ﬁnished the guide. Your comments will help us improve future versions of this guide. There are a number of resources available for students and families who would like more information about the TAKS testing program. Information booklets are available for every TAKS subject and grade. Brochures are also available that explain the Student Success Initiative promotion requirements and the new graduation requirements for eleventh-grade students. To obtain copies of these resources or to learn more about the testing program, please contact your school or visit the Texas Education Agency website at www.tea.state.tx.us. Texas is proud of the progress our students have made as they strive to reach their academic goals. We hope the study guides will help foster student learning, growth, and success in all of the TAKS subject areas. Sincerely,

Ann Smisko Associate Commissioner Curriculum, Assessment, and Technology Texas Education Agency

3

Contents

Reading

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Steps to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Skills and Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 What a Careful Reader Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 “Jun Ming’s Fortune” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Help with Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Objective 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Objective 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Objective 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Objective 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Guided Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 “Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Reading Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Practice with Reading Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 “Mariachi Nuevo Santander” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Reading Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Independent Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Reading Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 “Mariachi Nuevo Santander” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

4

Contents

Math

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Mathematics Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Objective 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Objective 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Objective 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Objective 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Objective 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Objective 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Practice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Mathematics Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

5

READING

INTRODUCTION

What Is This Book?

This is a study guide to help you strengthen the skills tested on the sixth-grade TAKS test. The guide has two sections—reading and mathematics. This is the reading section. questions give you a chance to see how well you understand the skills and strategies tested on TAKS. • Part Four: “Answer Key” gives you the answers to the practice questions in this guide and explains each of the answer choices.

READING

**What Is Tested on TAKS?
**

Careful readers use many different skills to get the most out of what they read. On TAKS, these reading skills and strategies are grouped under four objectives, or goals for learning. You show how well you understand an objective by answering questions related to some of the skills grouped under that objective. The reading selections and questions in this guide provide help and practice with all four reading objectives.

**What Does a TAKS Reading Test Look Like?
**

©Jose Luis Pelaez Inc./CORBIS

**How Is the Reading Section Organized?
**

The reading section has four parts and will help you understand and apply the reading skills tested on the sixth-grade TAKS. • Part One: “Skills and Strategies” explains the skills and strategies tested on the sixth-grade TAKS test while guiding you through some practice questions. • Part Two: “Guided Practice” leads you through sample reading selections and practice questions that will give you a chance to practice the skills and strategies you learned in Part One of this guide. • Part Three: “Independent Practice” provides you with sample reading selections and questions like those on the TAKS test. These selections and

The reading section of the sixth-grade TAKS test includes several reading selections. These might be short stories, newspaper or magazine articles, or informational essays. After reading a selection, you will be asked to answer some multiple-choice questions about the passage.

**Tips for Parents or Guardians
**

●

Designate a study space and study time each day. Pace your student through the selections and questions in this guide. Work in short sessions. Stop and start again later if your student becomes frustrated. Make reading relaxing and low-key for a short part of the day.

●

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7

READING

Student’s Name

Directions: Use the following steps as you work through the Study Guide. When you complete each of the numbered steps below, place a check mark in the box.

READING

1

● ●

Getting Started Read “What a Careful Reader Does” on page 11. Now read “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on pages 12–14. Help with Skills Read “Help with Skills” on pages 15–55. You should review all the skills and strategies presented there. “Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again Read “Jun Ming’s Fortune” again on pages 59–62. Answer the questions in the margins of the story as you read. Read “Practice with Reading Skills” on pages 63–67. “Mariachi Nuevo Santander” Read “Mariachi Nuevo Santander” on pages 69–72. Answer the questions in the margins of the story as you read. Answer the practice questions on pages 73–77. Check the answers in the answer key on pages 91–92. “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah” Read “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah” on pages 81–83. Answer the practice questions on pages 84–87. Check the answers in the answer key on pages 93–94.

2

●

3

● ●

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

●

4

●

5

● ●

8

READING

SKILLS AND S T R AT E G I E S

● ● ●

What a Careful Reader Does “Jun Ming’s Fortune” Help with Skills

The purpose of pages 11–55 is to explain the skills and strategies tested on the sixth-grade TAKS reading test. Read through each part and practice with the examples. Throughout the skill and strategy explanations in this section, you will ﬁnd “Try It” boxes with a number of blank lines following some questions. Practice your writing skills by writing your answers to these questions on the blank lines provided. This section is not meant to be read all at once. You will beneﬁt from working in short sessions that take place every day. If at any time you feel frustrated, take a break, ask for help, and try again later.

9

**What a Careful Reader Does
**

READING

BEFORE reading, a careful reader sets a purpose for reading. The reader might ask

Why am I reading this selection? Am I reading for entertainment or for information? What does the selection seem to be about? Is it about something or someone I already know? Is it about something new I am learning? Is it about something I want to learn? What kind of reading will I do? Will I read to enjoy a story about characters? Will I read to learn how to do something? Will I read to discover interesting facts?

©Tom Stewart/CORBIS

**DURING reading, a careful reader asks
**

Do I understand what I’m reading? Do I need to slow down? Are there any words I don’t know? Can I ﬁgure out what they mean? Do I need to look for clues? Do I need to read some parts over again? How can I connect with what I’m reading? Is it something I already know? Is it something new I am learning? Is it something I want to know more about?

©CORBIS

**AFTER reading, a careful reader asks
**

What do I remember about the selection? Can I tell others about it in my own words? Can I name the most important ideas in it? Can I tell someone what the story is about? Can I think of other ways to show that I understand it? What do I think about the selection? Did it add to something I already knew? Did it tell me something new? Did it make me want to learn more?

11 ©CORBIS

**“Jun Ming’s Fortune”
**

READING

Read the story below. It will be used throughout the skill and strategy explanations in the “Help with Skills” section that follows. The italicized text just below the story’s title is provided to give you background information about the selection. Text like this will often accompany TAKS reading selections. Always read any additional information that is included with a reading selection.

**Jun Ming’s Fortune
**

In 1862 construction began to connect existing tracks and create a railroad across the United States, linking the East to the West. The work was hard, and the 20,000 men who completed the work were treated harshly. Most of the workers were immigrants. This story describes the experiences of one of the many young men who came from China to work on the railroad. It takes place in Cape Horn, a steep mountainous area of northern California.

1

Jun Ming scrambled down the steep face of Cape Horn, causing loose rocks to bounce and tumble into the canyon below. As day turned into evening, he thought of the way the lantern in his family’s farmhouse glowed comfortingly at this time of day. He longed for the beautiful homeland of China he had left so eagerly. Men had come to rural areas like his to recruit strong, young Chinese to help build a great railroad. Jun Ming had been thrilled by their promises of money and adventure in the United States. He had left home with plans to send his family a great fortune. Since then, Jun Ming had learned that life in the United States was not all that he had dreamed. First of all, 25 dollars a month would not soon add up to a fortune. He had to pay his bosses for a spot to sleep in a crowded tent. He and the other workers also paid a Chinese cook to import pressed duck, dried squid, and the other things needed to prepare proper meals. And his work was not glamorous—just hard. Jun Ming was too young to chip rock or set dynamite, so it was his job to carry boiled tea to the workers. This he did for 12 hours a day. On his ﬁrst day, Jun Ming had felt slow and awkward moving over the steep rock. But he had soon learned to slide with the rocks for short distances and to slow himself by locking the side of one foot into a small niche or foothold. He took pride in his skill and in doing his job. Even at the end of a long workday, Jun Ming was quick and surefooted.

Continued

12

2

“Jun Ming’s Fortune”

READING

©Photodisc

3

“Thank you, Jun Ming,” said Mr. Lai as the boy ﬁlled his cup with warm tea. “I was hoping I could have some tea before I set the last charge of the day.” Jun Ming stepped back across the rock and out of the way. When the dynamite blasts were being set, each worker had to look out for himself. Flying rock could easily send a man tumbling to his death in the canyon below. Mr. Lai was working from a small ledge that had been chipped into the mountainside. Mr. Kwan, the other blaster, was in a large wicker basket dangling from a rope. Each man worked steadily with a hand drill to make holes in the rock where sticks of dynamite could be placed. Each explosion would rip away another bit of the steep mountainside. Bit by bit, the blasters were creating a ﬂat ledge where railroad tracks could be laid. Jun Ming watched as Mr. Kwan gave Mr. Lai the signal that he was ready to set the blast. Mr. Lai signaled back, and the two men lit the fuses. Mr. Lai scrambled quickly across the rock. Mr. Kwan yanked on the rope, and workers at the top of the mountain pulled him up as fast as they could. As the basket bounced and swayed its way up the face of the cliff, the fuses burned shorter and shorter. Just as the basket neared the top, the ﬁrst blast rocked the mountain. The force ﬂung the basket out over the canyon. As it hurtled back toward the cliff, Jun Ming stared in horror. Mr. Kwan was certain to crash to his death. No one could help him. But Mr. Kwan didn’t look for help. Racing to beat the blast he had set with his own hands, Mr. Kwan leaped up and grabbed the rope. As sure and

Continued

13

4

5

6

“Jun Ming’s Fortune”

READING

©Bettmann/CORBIS

quick as a cat, he lifted himself out of the basket and scrambled up the rope. Just as the basket smashed against the rock and shattered, he reached the top of the rope. Mr. Kwan felt his hands begin to slip. He cried out. Desperately, he reached for the outstretched hands of his friends. One man got a ﬁrm hold on Mr. Kwan’s hand, and the others quickly grabbed his arm. They yanked him to safety and then dropped to the ground to brace for the next blast. Mr. Kwan’s clear thinking and quickness had saved his life. 7 Weary and relieved, the workers picked up their tools and headed down the mountain. Jun Ming was proud to walk with them. These were men of quiet honor who did their job well. Jun Ming wanted to be like them. He knew that no other workers were as brave or as skillful at blasting away rock to make way for the rails. This railroad couldn’t be built without them. For that reason alone, Jun Ming knew that the Chinese men deserved his respect. Jun Ming picked up his pace as he thought hungrily of the ﬁne dinner that was waiting for them at the camp. He felt exhausted, but tonight Jun Ming decided he would write a letter home—a letter about the courage of Mr. Kwan and Mr. Lai.

8

You’ve ﬁnished Step 1 in your “Steps to Success.” Be sure to place a check mark in your chart on page 8.

14

**Help with Skills
**

READING

Careful readers use many different skills to get the most out of what they read. These reading skills are grouped under four objectives, or goals for learning, that are listed throughout this section. Read through each objective and practice with the examples. This section is not to be done all at once. Take a break when you need one. Remember that the information presented in “Help with Skills” will refer back to “Jun Ming’s Fortune.”

**Objective 1: The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of culturally diverse written texts.
**

What is “a basic understanding”?

Having a basic understanding involves being able to do the following:

● ●

Recognize words and their meanings while reading Learn the meanings of new words that you come across while reading Learn parts of words and how they are used to help with meaning Find the main idea of a paragraph, article, or story Find the supporting details in a paragraph, article, or story Paraphrase and summarize what you have read

● ● ● ●

15

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Context Clues

TIP:

✔

Context clues may appear in the sentences near the word, or they may be spread throughout a paragraph or even appear in another paragraph.

Sometimes when you read, you will see a word that you do not know. Don’t worry. Often you can use the words you do know as clues to the meaning of a word you don’t know. These clues are called context clues. What are some examples of context clues? Synonyms—A synonym is a word that means the same or almost the same as another word. Delicate and fragile are synonyms, as are sturdy and strong. Read the sentences below. Can you ﬁnd a synonym for the word lethargic? “You sure seem lethargic this morning,” Justin’s mom said. Although he was tired, Justin managed to drag himself to the breakfast table.

The word tired is a synonym for lethargic. Antonyms—An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. Boring and fascinating are antonyms, as are rowdy and calm. Read the sentences below. Can you ﬁnd an antonym for the word accurate? Santos checked over his math assignment to make sure his answers were accurate. Last time, he had forgotten to check them, and many of his answers had been wrong. The word wrong is an antonym for accurate.

16

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Explanations, Deﬁnitions, and Descriptions—These explain, deﬁne, or describe the meanings of other words. Read the sentence below. Can you ﬁnd an explanation for the word patella? “You’ve injured your left patella,” said Dr. Morrow, pointing to Cam-Ha’s kneecap.

TIP:

✔

©LWA-Stephen Welstead/CORBIS

The word kneecap explains the meaning of patella. Example—An example is an item that is similar to other items in a group. Football, tennis, and basketball are examples of sports. Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas are examples of states. Read the sentences below. Can you ﬁnd the word that helps you ﬁgure out the meaning of the word viper? “Over here you’ll see a viper,” said the zookeeper. The snake slithered away from the glass and curled up underneath a rock.

Use the words you do know as clues to the meaning of a word you don’t know.

©Joe McDonald/CORBIS

**A viper is an example of a snake.
**

17

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Try It

Go back to the italicized paragraph on page 12 of “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” Look at the word immigrants. 1. Think about the story. Which words in that paragraph are clues that help you understand what immigrants means? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Using these words as clues, I can tell that the word immigrants means ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

1. One possible clue in the italicized paragraph is “Most of the workers were immigrants.” The sentence tells you that the immigrants in this story are workers of some kind. Another clue in the introduction is “one of the many young men who came from China.” You learn from this text that the main character is someone who comes from another country—in this case, China. 2. Using these clues, you can tell that the word immigrants means “people from one country who move to another country.” Paragraph 1 provides other clues to support this conclusion: “homeland of China he had left” and “. . . thrilled by their promises of money and adventure in the United States.” These clues conﬁrm that Jun Ming is one of many immigrants who left their homeland (native country) to come work and live in the United States.

18

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

**Multiple-Meaning Words
**

Since some words have more than one meaning, you have to consider which meaning the author intends. Keep in mind the context in which you read the word. The context will tell you which meaning to choose. What does the word scrambled mean in the sentence below? Marty scrambled the eggs with a beater, mixing in bits of onion and pepper. If you look up the word scramble in a dictionary, you might see something like this: scramble \ıskram-bəl\ v 1. to move with urgency or panic 2. to struggle eagerly for possession of something 3. to gather something with difﬁculty 4. to toss or mix together In this sentence the word mixing helps you know that scrambled means “tossed together.”

TIP:

✔

Some words have more than one meaning. Clues can help you pick the right meaning.

19

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Try It

Now look at the sentence below, taken from paragraph 5 of “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on page 13. “Mr. Lai scrambled quickly across the rock.” 1. What does the word scrambled mean in this sentence? Look back at the dictionary entry for scramble on page 19. _______________________________________________________________ 2. What clues help you know this? _______________________________________________________________

You know from the story that the men have just lit dynamite fuses. This knowledge, combined with the words “quickly across the rock,” helps you know that in this sentence scrambled means “moved with urgency or panic.”

**Prefixes and Suffixes
**

You can understand the meaning of an unfamiliar word by breaking it into its parts. You may recognize a preﬁx or a sufﬁx that has been added to a word. A preﬁx is added to the beginning of a word to make a new word. Here are some preﬁxes that you might see as you read: dis- means “the opposite of” pre- means “before” un-, im-, and in- mean “not” Can you ﬁgure out the meaning of the underlined word in the sentence below? Use what you know about preﬁxes. Kendra disliked having to wear a rabbit costume in the play. dis- (the opposite of) + liked (enjoyed) = did not enjoy A sufﬁx is a letter or group of letters that is added to the end of a word to make a new word. Here are some that you might see as you read: -able and -ible mean “able to” -er means “one who does or is” -ful and -ous mean “full of ” Figure out the meaning of the underlined word in this sentence from “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” Use what you know about sufﬁxes. “He knew that no other workers were as brave or as skillful at blasting away rock to make way for the rails.” Skill (ability) + -ful (full of) = full of ability

TIP:

✔

Knowing the meanings of prefixes and suffixes can help you figure out the meanings of words.

20

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

**Denotative and Connotative Meanings
**

The denotation of a word is its dictionary deﬁnition, or meaning. The connotation of a word is the feeling associated with it, in addition to its dictionary meaning. Words with the same denotation can have very different connotations— for example, surprised and amazed. Both words have similar meanings, but amazed has a stronger feeling connected with it than surprised does. Knowing word connotations can help you understand an author’s message. Do you think Jun Ming was tired or exhausted at the end of his workday? Tired and exhausted have similar meanings, but exhausted is connected with a stronger feeling. Jun Ming probably did get tired during the day, but because of the hard physical labor involved with his job, he was probably exhausted at the end of the day.

TIP:

✔

Words, phrases, and sentences that surround a word can help you figure out its connotation.

©Photodisc

Read the sentence below from paragraph 6 of “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on page 13. “The force ﬂung the basket out over the canyon.” Why do you think the author uses the word ﬂung rather than the word threw in this sentence? Think about what is happening in paragraph 6. Mr. Lai and Mr. Kwan have just lit some dynamite, and Mr. Kwan is being hauled up the cliff in a basket by some men. The dynamite suddenly explodes, pushing the basket away from the cliff and out over the canyon. Flung gives you a better picture of Mr. Kwan’s dangerous situation than threw would.

21

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Main Ideas, Supporting Details, and Summary

TIP:

Main idea—The main idea of a story or paragraph answers the question “What is this story or paragraph mainly about?” Sometimes the main idea is stated clearly, making it easy to ﬁnd. Reread paragraph 7 from “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on page 14. What is the main idea of paragraph 7? Jun Ming knows that the Chinese men deserve his respect. How do you know this is the main idea? It is stated clearly in the last sentence of paragraph 7.

✔ To find the main

idea, imagine saying to a friend, “Well, basically, this story is about .” What is the main thing you want to tell?

©Bettmann/CORBIS

Other times the writer does not state the main idea directly. In such cases, you have to pay attention to the supporting details to ﬁgure out the main idea. Return to “Jun Ming’s Fortune” and reread paragraph 2 on page 12. What is the main idea of this paragraph? Jun Ming becomes skillful at his job, even though the work is hard and the money is poor. How do you know that this is the main idea? The ﬁrst few sentences tell you that Jun Ming is paid “25 dollars a month” and that his work “was not glamorous—just hard.” You learn later in the paragraph that he used to feel “slow and awkward” but quickly learned how to do his job. Now he takes pride “in his skill and in doing his job.” These details from the paragraph support the main idea.

22

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Supporting details—Supporting details in a story work together with the main idea. Supporting details tell more about the main idea. They can explain an idea or make it clearer. Details that tell how something looks, feels, sounds, smells, or tastes can bring a story to life. Such details usually tell who, what, when, where, why, and how. Another way to think about supporting details is to imagine a bicycle. A bicycle has a frame, a seat, brakes, and two wheels. Think of this bicycle as the main idea.

TIP:

✔

Supporting details tell: Who What When Where Why How

©CORBIS

Now think of a few “extras” that make the bicycle more appealing— 15 speeds, an adjustable seat, a shock absorber, and off-road tires. Think of these extras as supporting details. Just as extras can make a bicycle look and perform better, supporting details can make a story more interesting and fun to read.

Shock absorber 15 speeds Adjustable seat

Off-road tires

Photo courtesy of Cannondale Corp.

23

READING

Help with Skills: Objective 1

TIP:

✔

Summarizing is briefly restating the most important ideas and making connections between them.

Summary—A summary is a way to brieﬂy restate the most important ideas and show they are connected. When you write a summary, it is important to paraphrase, or restate, the author’s ideas in your own words. A good summary usually tells what the whole story is about but focuses only on the supporting details included in the story. Read the following story. What is the main idea? What are the supporting details? How would you summarize the story?

A Better Mousetrap?

“Bob! Help! Help me!” Hal yelled as he waved his arms and shook the right sleeve of his shirt. I should have helped my brother, but I was doubled over with laughter, totally helpless. Two nights ago we had seen a mouse scampering across my bedroom ﬂoor. We had set a mousetrap and baited it with a small piece of peanut butter cracker. The next morning Hal and I were disappointed to ﬁnd the trap empty—no mouse, no cracker. So we made our own mousetrap by placing a piece of cheese under a soup pan that was propped up with a pencil and a string. Our plan was to wait for the mouse to crawl under the pan. Then we would pull the string, which would jerk the pencil out from under the pan and capture the mouse. We waited for our little mouse to arrive on the scene. In the semidark room we saw the mouse dash under the pan. I quickly jerked the string and yelled, “We got him!” As Hal slipped a piece of cardboard under the pan, the mouse scurried out and up inside his sleeve! Finally we had captured the mouse but in the most unlikely of places—Hal’s sleeve!

©David A. Northcutt/CORBIS

24

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Main Idea of “A Better Mousetrap?” When two brothers try to trap a mouse, the mouse runs up one brother’s sleeve. Supporting Details of “A Better Mousetrap?” Who is the story about? What are the brothers doing? When does the story take place? Where does the story take place? Why do the brothers make a mousetrap? How does the story end? The narrator and his brother Hal They are trying to trap a mouse. The story takes place over several nights. The brothers are in the narrator’s bedroom. The brothers make their own trap because the ﬁrst one they try doesn’t trap the mouse. The brothers capture the mouse, but it runs up Hal’s sleeve.

TIP:

✔

Good readers often stop to summarize what they have read.

Summary of “A Better Mousetrap?” Using the supporting details listed above, you can summarize the story as follows: One night Bob and Hal see a mouse in Bob’s bedroom and set a mousetrap. When the trap doesn’t work, the brothers design another one. They capture the mouse, but it runs up Hal’s sleeve.

25

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

Try It

Return to “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on pages 12–14. As a review of the story, answer the following questions about the supporting details of the story. 1. Who is the story about? ____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ 2. Where does the story take place? ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Why did Jun Ming leave his home? __________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. Why is Jun Ming disappointed? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. How does Jun Ming change by the end of the story? __________

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6. What happens that causes this change in Jun Ming? __________

**_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
**

1. The story is about Jun Ming and other Chinese workers. 2. The story takes place in the Cape Horn area of northern California. 3. Jun Ming left his home in the hope that working in the United States would bring him good money. 4. Jun Ming is disappointed because his life in the United States is not what he expected. 5. Jun Ming changes by gaining a deeper appreciation of the courage and skill of the men who work with him. 6. This change in Jun Ming happens after he watches another worker narrowly escape death.

26

Help with Skills: Objective 1

READING

You can use the answers to the previous questions as supporting details to write a summary of “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” One possible summary follows. Jun Ming is recruited to come to the United States to help build the railroad. At ﬁrst he is disappointed because life in the United States is not what he expected. As Jun Ming watches a worker narrowly escape death while doing his job, he realizes that building the railroad takes courage and skill. He is proud of the job that he and the other workers are doing.

Important Note

Readers can get confused about main ideas, supporting details, and summaries, so here is a comparison of the three. The main idea is the most important idea in a paragraph or reading selection. It can be stated in one sentence. The answers to questions such as who, what, when, where, why, and how are supporting details. You create a summary when you take the main idea and the supporting details and put them together in your own words. It usually takes several sentences to write a good summary.

27

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

**Objective 2: The student will apply knowledge of literary elements to understand culturally diverse written texts.
**

What are “literary elements”?

Literary elements are the basic parts that an author uses to create a story. These parts include the characters, the setting (time and place of the story), the plot (events in a story), and conﬂict (the main problem). Developing an understanding of literary elements includes being able to do the following:

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Examine characters, including their traits, motivations, conﬂicts, and points of view Examine characters’ relationships Examine the changes that characters go through, both personally and in their relationships with others or the world around them Recognize the story problem(s) and identify events that affect the plot Identify a story’s setting and its effect on the story’s meaning Recognize how literary devices such as ﬂashback, foreshadowing, and symbolism shape the reader’s understanding of characters, events, and meaning

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●

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Analyzing Characters

Characters are the people or animals in a story. You can tell a lot about characters by what they say and do in a story. An author may not tell you directly that a character has a certain trait, but you can look for clues in the story to ﬁgure out what the character is like. You can tell a lot about a character by asking these questions as you read: How does the character feel? What does the character do? What does the character say? How does the character change in the story? How do other characters feel about the character? What do other characters say about the character? Traits—A character in a story has certain traits, or qualities, that set him or her apart from other characters. How can you identify a character’s traits? Look at what the character says and does.

TIP:

✔

Readers come to know a character through the character’s words, thoughts, and actions.

28

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

In “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” what are some of Jun Ming’s traits? In other words, what words could describe Jun Ming? You might have answered hardworking, responsible, and proud. What examples from the story tell you that Jun Ming is hardworking, responsible, and proud? Paragraph 2 of the story reveals Jun Ming’s traits. Even though carrying tea to the workers is difﬁcult, Jun Ming shows that he is responsible by doing the job well. He reveals his hardworking nature by doing his job quickly and skillfully even at the end of a 12-hour workday. He is proud of the skill with which he performs his job. Motivation—What makes characters behave the way they do in a story? A character’s motivation is something that makes the character think, feel, or act in a particular way. When you know the reasons for a character’s actions, you understand his or her motivation. Think back to “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” What is Jun Ming’s motivation for coming to the United States? How do you know this? He wants to make money for his family. Paragraph 1 states that he eagerly left his homeland and that he was thrilled by the recruiters’ promises of money and adventure. He also planned to earn a fortune to send back to his family in China. You can see that a character’s motivation inﬂuences his or her actions. The actions, in turn, reveal the character’s traits. Conﬂict—A conﬂict is a struggle between two opposing forces. For example, a conﬂict can be

● ● ●

TIP:

✔

To understand a character’s motivation, think about why a character thinks, acts, or feels a certain way.

between two or more characters between a character and an outside force within a character

Sometimes a character’s traits will contribute to a conﬂict in a story. In most cases, a character’s conﬂict is resolved by the end of the story. What conﬂict does Mr. Kwan face in “Jun Ming’s Fortune”? The conﬂict is between Mr. Kwan and an outside force, the dynamite explosion. How do you know? Paragraph 6 on pages 13–14 of the story describes the lifethreatening experience.

29

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

Point of View—A character’s point of view is the way he or she views the events or circumstances in which he or she is involved. Characters often have differing points of view about a situation or another character. This leads to a conﬂict. In “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” how does Jun Ming’s point of view affect his attitude toward his fellow workers? Because Jun Ming is a Chinese immigrant worker, he can see clearly the troubles his fellow workers experience. He is also able to see how brave and hardworking they are and believes these “men of quiet honor” deserve his admiration. Someone with a different point of view, say, a railroad supervisor who was not from China, might not view the workers with such respect. A supervisor might have a different point of view. Relationships—One way to understand a character is to look at the character’s relationships with other characters in the story. Does the character get along with others? Is he or she in conﬂict with another character? Does the character have a best friend? What can you tell about Jun Ming’s relationship with Mr. Lai in this passage from “Jun Ming’s Fortune”? “ ‘Thank you, Jun Ming,’ said Mr. Lai as the boy ﬁlled his cup with warm tea. ‘I was hoping I could have some tea before I set the last charge of the day.’ ” They seem to have a friendly relationship; they treat each other kindly. Changes—Just as we are changed by our experiences in real life, characters in stories also undergo changes as different events occur in the story. For example, a grouchy person may become kinder because of another’s kindness toward him. As you read, notice the ways in which characters change through their experiences. Do these changes sometimes help you understand your own changes? That’s exactly what an author hopes will happen.

TIP:

✔

To understand relationships, look at the ways the characters interact.

TIP:

✔

When thinking about how a character changes, ask yourself what events or experiences have caused the character to change.

30

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

Try It

Return to “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on pages 12–14. 1. What is one change that Jun Ming undergoes after coming to the United States? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. How do you know? What clues in the story tell you this? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

1. Jun Ming changes his expectations for life in the United States. Before coming to the United States, Jun Ming dreams of adventure and of making a fortune to send back to his family, but he learns that the work is hard, the pay is low, and he won’t soon make a fortune. Once he realizes this, he changes his expectations about his life in the United States. He may not make a fortune, but he learns to take pride in the job that he is doing. 2. Paragraph 2 in the story states that “Jun Ming had learned that life in the United States was not all that he had dreamed.” It also says that his work “was not glamorous—just hard,” but Jun Ming takes “pride in his skill and in doing his job.” You can conclude from these clues that his expectations for his life in the United States have changed.

31

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

**Story Plot and Problem Resolution
**

The plot is the sequence of events that make up a story. This sequence of events is usually arranged around a conﬂict, or problem. You can often ﬁnd the problem in a story by asking, “What’s going wrong for the main character?” As one or more characters try to solve the problem, events build to a climax, or turning point. Then comes the resolution, in which the reader learns how the problem turns out. What is Jun Ming’s major problem in the story? Jun Ming’s major problem in the story is that life in the United States is not how he expected it to be, full of adventure and fortune. How is the problem resolved? Jun Ming realizes that the work he and the other workers are doing is important. Without them the railroad could not be built. He may not make much money, but he is a part of something that he can be proud of, which is a kind of fortune in itself.

TIP:

✔

When thinking about the plot of a story, ask yourself how suspense, anticipation, or excitement is built into the story.

**Setting and Its Importance
**

The setting is the time and place in which the events of a story happen. In some stories the setting is very speciﬁc. In others the setting is not as speciﬁc. Four minutes before the tardy bell was scheduled to ring, Emmitt was still asleep in his bed. This sentence tells when something happened. A large crowd gathered outside the building where the city council was meeting. This sentence tells where something happened. At four o’clock on a hot afternoon, Kiki and her friends were playing volleyball at a July Fourth picnic. This sentence tells when and where something happened. It is very speciﬁc. Setting can be an important part of the plot. It can also help you understand why characters act as they do. Often, setting creates a particular mood or atmosphere in a story. When you read, look for clues that tell you about the setting.

32

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

Try It

Return to “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” Reread the italicized paragraph on page 12. Then answer these questions about setting. 1. Where does the story take place? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. In what time period does the story take place? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Why are time and place important in the story? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

1. The italicized paragraph tells you that the story takes place in a mountainous area of northern California known as Cape Horn. 2. The story takes place in the 1860s. 3. Knowing the time and place of the story helps you understand that the men were working at a time when immigrants did not have many rights. It also helps you understand how dangerous it is for the men to work among the steep rocks of the canyon.

TIP:

✔

Setting = When and where a story takes place

33

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

**Understanding Literary Devices
**

Writers bring their stories to life by using special tools called literary devices. These tools include ﬂashback, foreshadowing, and symbolism. Literary devices help you understand the characters, the events, and the meaning of a story. Flashback—Have you ever watched a movie in which the image on the screen becomes wavy or hazy and the action shifts from the present to the past? This is known as a ﬂashback. A ﬂashback interrupts the sequence of events in a story to show something that happened before the story’s beginning. The ﬂashback helps the reader understand a character’s present situation. Can you ﬁnd a ﬂashback in this story?

TIP:

✔

A flashback takes you to past events to help you understand other events in the story.

Glimpsing the Past

Mariah was helping her brother Ben slide into his wheelchair from the seat of the car. The two were arguing playfully about which of them was better at a word game they liked to play together. As Mariah watched her brother use his strong arms to ease himself into the wheelchair, she slipped back in time to three years ago. She was nine, and Ben had just turned 11. It was the ﬁrst day of summer. Ben had been rushing through the house all morning. “Where are my sandals? Where’s my beach towel?” he hollered to no one in particular. When his friend’s dad honked the horn, Ben burst out the front door and skipped down the sidewalk, whistling. At what point in the story above does the forward movement in time stop? The ﬂashback begins with “she slipped back in time to three years ago.” The author wants the reader to experience Mariah’s memory of an important time. This excerpt shows only part of the ﬂashback. If you were to read it all, you would have a better understanding of why Ben is in a wheelchair and how his life has changed. Not all stories are told in time order. As you read, pay attention to when each event in a story actually takes place.

34

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

Foreshadowing—In foreshadowing, an author gives hints about what might happen later in a story. These clues come from events in the story. Hints can also come from information shared by the narrator or a character. Foreshadowing is used to build suspense or tension in a story. Read the sentences below from “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” “Jun Ming stepped back across the rock and out of the way. When the dynamite blasts were being set, each worker had to look out for himself. Flying rock could easily send a man tumbling to his death in the canyon below.”

TIP:

✔

Foreshadowing is a hint of things to come in the story.

©Bettman/CORBIS

What is foreshadowed by these sentences? The description shows that Jun Ming works in a dangerous environment where accidents can easily occur. The author is foreshadowing Mr. Kwan’s narrow escape from death later in the story. As you read, look for the use of foreshadowing and think about what future event each clue might be suggesting.

35

Help with Skills: Objective 2

READING

TIP:

✔

A symbol often provides a deeper understanding of a story.

Symbolism—A symbol is something that stands for or suggests something else. For example, a dove or a heart can be a symbol. To many people, a dove stands for peace, and a heart symbolizes love. In a story a symbol can be a person, an object, a place, or even a situation. Writers use symbols to make a point, create a particular feeling, or present a theme.

Sometimes an author will use a symbol in the story to create a certain feeling in the reader, make an important point, or explain a theme. The writer does this to tell you something important about a character or a situation in the story. Can you ﬁnd a symbol in the story “Jun Ming’s Fortune”? Reread paragraph 1 on page 12. What does the lantern symbolize to Jun Ming? The lantern symbolizes the comforts of home for Jun Ming. How do you know? Jun Ming is feeling homesick as he thinks of the lantern that “glowed comfortingly at this time of day.” To Jun Ming the lantern represents the comforts of home.

36

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Important Note

Objectives 3 and 4 both require students to analyze culturally diverse written texts. What does “analyzing a text” mean? Analyzing a text means recognizing the way an author organizes information in order to understand the author’s purpose. By analyzing a text, careful readers move beyond reading the words on the page and begin to think critically about the information presented.

**Objective 3: The student will use a variety of strategies to analyze culturally diverse written texts.
**

What are “reading strategies,” and how do they help students analyze text?

Reading strategies help readers think about what they are reading by providing a structure, or framework, for looking at texts in different ways. This process allows readers to understand how ideas are connected and why the author might have presented those ideas in a particular way. Reading strategies help careful readers gain a deeper understanding of the information they are reading. Reading strategies include being able to do the following:

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Locate and recall information using organizational clues such as cause and effect and sequential order Recognize similarities and differences across texts Use outlines, time lines, and graphic organizers to organize information from a story or a book Identify the purposes of a text Examine the ways an author’s point of view, or perspective, affects his or her writing

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37

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Using a Text’s Structure to Locate and Recall Information

TIP:

✔

Look for clues in a story to help you figure out things that aren’t stated.

Authors put the events of a story in a certain order so that the events will make sense. When you read, look for patterns in the way events have been organized and how those events relate to one another. You can use patterns of organization, such as cause and effect or chronology, to help you locate information in a selection. Cause and effect—Authors often write stories as a series of causes and effects. Knowing how to recognize these causes and effects helps you better understand a writer’s message. A cause makes something happen. An effect is what happens as a result. As you read stories and articles, you will notice that authors don’t always state every cause-and-effect relationship. Instead, you must use clues from the story to ﬁgure out these relationships.

Try It

Find the causes and effects in the paragraphs below. “Wow, look at this bike!” said Tai to his brother. Kito stopped stirring the chili and set the spoon on the counter. “Let me see that,” said Kito, yanking the magazine away from Tai. He stared at the picture of the off-road bicycle. “Look at those tires. You could ride on just about any surface with those,” he said. “If you like these tires, look at the bike on page 39,” said Tai excitedly. The two brothers sat down at the table and ﬂipped through the magazine. After a while Tai sniffed the air. “What’s that smell?” he asked. “Oh, no!” shouted Kito as he raced over to the stove. “I burned it!” What is the effect of Kito’s forgetting to stir the chili? Write your answer in the blank box. Cause Effect Tai shows Kito a picture. Kito looks at a magazine with his brother.

The chili burns on the stove.

TIP:

✔

To identify an effect, ask, “What happened?” To identify a cause, ask, “Why?”

Kito stops stirring the chili.

38

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Chronological Order—An author puts story events in a certain order so that they will make sense to the reader. You’ve already learned that a writer can present events as a series of causes and effects. Another way of presenting events is in the order in which they occur in time. These stories begin with the ﬁrst event that occurs and end with the last event. Authors will often use clue words to help you see the order clearly. Read the story below. What clues help you understand the order in which things happen in the story?

The Tunesmith

TIP:

✔

Most stories are told in the order in which the events happen.

James was eager to practice the guitar after school, but he had several things to do ﬁrst. He made himself a turkey and cheese sandwich and scanned the daily newspaper as he ate. Next he read the list of chores his mother had left on the kitchen counter. Then he set to work on the chores. He made a check mark next to each chore after it was done. After that James sat at the kitchen table and ﬁnished the homework he had started at school. Finally he retreated to his room. He carefully removed the guitar from its case, sat on his bed, and began to strum the tune he had written the night before.

In this story what does James do ﬁrst after he comes home from school? He makes a sandwich. What happens after James does his chores? He ﬁnishes his homework. What happens last in the story? James plays his guitar.

TIP:

✔

Use these clue words when you are looking for the order of events: next, then, after that, yesterday, earlier, later, finally.

39

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Comparing Two Selections or Stories

TIP:

✔

Compare = Show how two things are alike or different.

Have you ever watched a movie or a television show and thought, “Hey, that was kind of like another show I saw”? If you have, you already know how to compare two stories. No two stories are exactly alike. However, sometimes two stories or pieces of writing can have a lot in common. Here are some ways in which two or more pieces of writing might be similar and different:

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Main Idea: Two stories might be about different characters in different settings but still have the importance of honesty or some other theme as the main idea. Subject: You might read a narrative story about a scuba diver, a nonﬁction essay about a real scuba diver, an article about the history of scuba diving, or a poem about the thrill of scuba diving. Each of these has the same subject or topic (scuba diving), but each presents the subject in a different way. Setting: Stories might be set in the same place and time but be about different characters. Characters: You might read two stories about the same characters. Or you might read the same story told by two different characters. Plot: Stories might have the same plot. Even if the setting and the characters are different, you might recognize that the action is the same in each story. Conﬂict: Two stories might have the same basic conﬂict, such as a struggle against the forces of nature. Organization: Two authors might choose to organize their writing in similar ways, such as in chronological order.

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Sometimes the sixth-grade TAKS reading test will have two stories that are meant to be read together. These are called paired selections. When reading paired selections, you must be able to recognize how the two stories are similar and how they are different.

40

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

**Compare the two stories that follow. First, take a look at this story:
**

The Gift

“Gotta go,” said Sam quietly. He handed me a small wad of newspaper and closed my hand around it. “Don’t lose this. I’ll want it back.” I waved good-bye and watched the plane take off. I wondered when I would see my cousin next—maybe next summer or during spring break. I carefully opened the crumpled newspaper and stared at the contents inside. I couldn’t believe it. It was the rusty key, the one we had found near the lighthouse. Sam thought it had probably once belonged to a pirate. Maybe he was right. He wore it on a string around his neck all summer while we explored the cape. And now, for a brief time, it was mine. Now look at this story:

The Key

“Gotta go,” I said, looking at the ﬂoor. I dug deep into my pocket and pulled out the key that I had wrapped in newspaper the night before. I put it in Kira’s hand. “Don’t lose this,” I told her. “I’ll want it back.” She stared at the wad of newspaper, somewhat puzzled. I wanted to tell her what was inside, but I decided to let her ﬁnd out on her own. We waved good-bye, and I boarded the plane. I took my seat and thought about the day we had found the old key near the lighthouse. We had spent the rest of the summer at the cape, looking for pirate treasure. I had known we probably wouldn’t find any, but I hadn’t cared. We had had fun searching for it anyway. Kira wasn’t just my cousin—she was my best friend. How are these two stories alike? They both have the same characters, setting, and plot. Both stories are centered around a key, which symbolizes Kira and Sam’s friendship. Both stories contain a reference to the past that lets the reader understand the importance of the key. How are these stories different? Each story is told from a different character’s point of view. In the ﬁrst story, the reader learns what Kira is thinking when Sam gives her the key. In the second story, the reader learns what Sam is thinking. Each story focuses on a different character’s thoughts and feelings.

41

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Representing Information in Different Ways

TIP:

✔

Graphic organizers such as outlines, time lines, and cluster diagrams are good ways to keep track of information.

One way to keep track of the information you read is to take notes. Another way is to use graphic organizers such as outlines, sequence charts, and cluster diagrams. Seeing information in a graphic organizer can help you answer questions about what you read.

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An outline is an organized list of main ideas and important details. You can use an outline to show the relationship between ideas in informational text.

Outlines usually follow the form shown below. Camping I. Places to go A. National park B. State park C. Private land 1. Uncle Benny’s farm 2. Will McDonald’s Wildlife Ranch II. Things to pack A. Food B. ________________________ C. Shelter 1. Four-person tent 2. Plastic rain tarp What information could you add to II.B above? Think about other items you would need to pack. Some possible answers might be water, maps, or games to play.

©Roy Morsch/CORBIS

42

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

●

A sequence chart is a type of graphic organizer that can help you keep track of the order in which events occur. To make a sequence chart, organize story events in the order they take place.

Look at the following sequence chart concerning “Jun Ming’s Fortune”: What happens to Mr. Kwan? First event: The basket with Mr. Kwan in it goes up the cliff while the fuses burn. Second event: When the basket is near the top of the cliff, the ﬁrst blast goes off. Third event: The blast ﬂings the basket over the canyon and back toward the cliff. Fourth event: Mr. Kwan grabs the rope and uses it to climb up. Fifth event: Mr. Kwan’s hands slip from the rope, and he cries out. Sixth event: The workers grab Mr. Kwan and pull him to safety.

What happens in “Jun Ming’s Fortune” between the time that the ﬁrst blast goes off and when Mr. Kwan grabs the rope? By listing the events in the order that they occur, you can tell that the ﬁrst blast is what ﬂings the basket with Mr. Kwan in it out over the canyon. This is the reason that Mr. Kwan must grab the rope to which the basket is tied and climb the rest of the way up the cliff. By using a sequence chart, you can better understand and appreciate what you have read.

43

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

●

A cluster diagram is another type of graphic organizer that can help you keep track of information. For example, you can list the traits of a main character in a story. A cluster diagram can also help you keep track of ideas or possible solutions to a problem that a character faces.

Here’s a cluster diagram you might make to describe the character of Jun Ming.

Is quick and surefooted

Misses his family

Jun Ming

Carries tea Carries tea to workers to workers Seeks adventure and money

What information could you add to the blank boxes in the cluster diagram? “Admires his fellow workers” and “works long, hard hours” might be some good choices.

Purposes of Text

As you read, ask yourself, “Why did the author write this?” Authors write stories and articles for different reasons, or purposes. Some of these reasons include:

TIP:

✔

An author’s purpose is his or her reason for writing the text.

To inform—Some types of writing are created to inform readers about topics or events. You read them to ﬁnd out factual information. Newspapers, encyclopedias, and textbooks are all written to inform. To persuade—If a writer wants to make you feel a certain way about something, he or she is trying to inﬂuence or persuade you. The writer uses powerful words to make the reader feel a certain way. To explain—Some pieces of writing are created to give the reader speciﬁc instructions or directions. To entertain—Many stories and books are written to entertain readers by telling a good story. Of course, some writing has more than one purpose. A story about an encounter with a coyote might entertain you and teach you about coyotes at the same time. An advertisement for hand weights might include suggestions for exercises to do with the weights.

44

Help with Skills: Objective 3

READING

Why do you think the author of “Jun Ming’s Fortune” wrote the story? To entertain and inform the reader. How do you know? In “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” the author presents details in such a way as to build suspense in the story—a clue that one purpose of the story is to entertain. In addition, the author provides a factual introduction, a sign that the author is also writing to inform.

TIP:

✔

As you read, think about why the author wrote the selection.

**How an Author’s Perspective Affects a Text
**

An author’s perspective, or point of view, is the way the author looks at the world. This perspective is a combination of ideas, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings. Understanding an author’s point of view is sometimes easier in a nonﬁction selection. The author may state his or her opinion directly, as in “I have always loved the sound of a distant train whistle” or “Watching television is the fastest way to turn one’s brain to oatmeal.” Authors of fictional, or made-up, stories don’t usually state their opinions directly in their works. Still, you can often figure out an author’s point of view by looking closely at story elements such as plot, character, and theme. What is the perspective of the author of “Jun Ming’s Fortune” toward immigrant workers? The author seems to sympathize with the workers because of their harsh conditions. What parts of the story tell you this? The story introduction and the admiring tone in the descriptions of the men point to the author’s sympathetic point of view.

45

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

**Objective 4: The student will apply critical-thinking skills to analyze culturally diverse written texts.
**

What are critical-thinking skills, and how do they help students analyze texts?

Critical-thinking skills help careful readers use the information they are reading in order to develop an understanding that goes beyond the lines of texts. Careful readers understand that reading requires them to make connections between what they have read and what they already know. Reading in this way is an important tool for thinking and learning in daily life. Thinking critically about a text includes being able to do the following:

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Understand when deeper meanings are suggested rather than directly stated in a selection Form conclusions based on the information within a selection Make reasonable predictions about what might happen next Support conclusions, generalizations, and interpretations with ideas and sentences from the selection Distinguish between facts and opinions, especially in selections such as newspaper articles and advertisements, whose purpose is to persuade the reader about a speciﬁc topic Make connections between the themes and issues presented in texts Recognize how an author chooses to organize information Assess the ways that style, tone, and mood affect a text

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46

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

Inferences

Authors don’t always directly state every idea in a story or article. When you recognize these unstated ideas, you are making an inference. As you read, you make inferences by drawing a conclusion, forming a generalization, or making a prediction. Conclusions—One type of inference is a conclusion. When you draw a conclusion as you read, you ask questions such as: What is the author suggesting in this selection? What does my own experience tell me about this? What “educated guess” makes sense based on what I’m reading? Drawing conclusions helps you better understand characters and situations in a story. Read the sentence below from “Jun Ming’s Fortune.” “He and the other workers also paid a Chinese cook to import pressed duck, dried squid, and the other things needed to prepare proper meals.”

TIP:

✔

When you make an inference, look for evidence in the text that will support your “educated guess.”

©Horace Bristol/CORBIS

What conclusion can you draw from this information? The Chinese workers do not want to eat typical American food. How do you know? The workers go to the expense of paying to have their favorite foods brought to the site.

47

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

Generalizations—A generalization is a judgment. Drawing conclusions and making generalizations depend on putting together what you know and what you have read. Suppose you read a magazine article that tells about new soccer leagues that are being formed in many cities across the United States. Based on this information, you might make this generalization: Soccer is becoming a popular sport in the United States.

©CORBIS

For a generalization to be valid, or truthful, it must be based on evidence. Valid generalizations are not guesses. Valid generalizations often use words such as many, often, and some: Snow falls in many northern states in winter. Generalizations that aren’t valid make statements that are too broad. They may use words such as all, always, every, or never: Every student has read Charlotte’s Web. Making generalizations will help you connect information that you read with your own experiences.

TIP:

✔

To make generalizations, look for patterns in what you read.

Try It

Reread paragraph 2 of “Jun Ming’s Fortune” on page 12. Pay close attention to the details. 1. What generalization can you make about the lives of Chinese immigrant railroad workers based on the information given? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. What evidence supports this generalization? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

1. Chinese immigrants working on the railroad lived and worked in difﬁcult conditions. 2. Jun Ming carries boiled tea to workers 12 hours a day. The workers pay to sleep in crowded tents. They also chip rock or set dynamite for 12 hours a day. Their work is very dangerous, and their pay is low.

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Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

Predictions—When you make a prediction about a story, you make a guess about what might happen. You use information in the story and your own experience to make the prediction. To make a prediction, notice the following as you read:

● ● ●

TIP:

✔

When you read, try to guess what will happen by asking “What do I think will happen next?” and “Why do I think that will happen next?”

Details about character, plot, and setting What a character says and does Foreshadowing, or hints about what might happen in the future

In paragraph 6 of “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” what prediction does Jun Ming make? He thinks Mr. Kwan will crash to his death. On what does Jun Ming base his prediction? He observes the apparent hopelessness of Mr. Kwan’s situation.

**Read the story below. What predictions can you make?
**

Will the Show Go On?

Tran and his parents are on their way to his ﬁrst piano recital. Tran tries to ignore the butterﬂies in his stomach. In his mind he rehearses his piano piece one more time. Then Tran glances at his watch. He guesses that they will arrive at the auditorium with a few minutes to spare. Suddenly Tran notices that trafﬁc has stopped ahead. Tran’s father slows the car to a stop. There are cars as far as the eye can see. And not one of them is moving.

TIP:

✔

Predictions can be changed as you read new details.

©CORBIS

What is your prediction? Tran will be late to his recital. What clues helped you make this prediction? Trafﬁc is not moving; there are many cars ahead.

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Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

**Supporting Your Interpretation with Text Evidence
**

A key ingredient in making an inference is the information an author gives. This can be ideas, details, facts, and examples. The author’s thoughts and ideas combined with prior knowledge allow a reader to provide powerful support, or evidence, for a particular interpretation of a text. When interpreting a text, you may use the actual words an author has written to support your interpretation. Other times you will paraphrase, or restate in your own words, what the author has written. When you paraphrase, you often think again about how your own knowledge and experiences are connected to what you have just read.

**Fact and Opinion
**

A fact is a statement that can be proved true. An opinion is a statement that cannot be proved true or false. An opinion tells what someone thinks, feels, or believes. Certain words help you recognize an opinion. Some of these are I think and I believe. Other clues to opinions are words such as best, should, worst, and wonderful. Read the sentences below. Which sentence states a fact? Which states an opinion? Sentence 1: Rob Reiner directed the movie The Princess Bride. Sentence 2: The Princess Bride was the best movie made in the 1980s. Sentence 1 is a fact. You can prove it by using a reference source about motion pictures. Sentence 2 is an opinion. It tells what a person believes.

TIP:

✔

A fact is a statement that can be proved true. An opinion is a statement that cannot be proved true or false.

50

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

Try It

Read the excerpt of a report. The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad were the most courageous men in history. The brave men who were recruited to build the railroad were promised money and adventure in their new life in America. Construction on the railroad began in 1862. 1. Which underlined sentence is a fact? _______________________________________________________________ 2. Which underlined sentence is an opinion? _______________________________________________________________

1. The second underlined sentence is a fact that can be proved by using a reference source such as an encyclopedia. 2. The ﬁrst underlined sentence is an opinion. Many of the workers might be described as being courageous, but there is no way to prove that they were “the most courageous men in history.” This is an opinion of the student writing the report.

51

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

Connecting and Comparing

TIP:

✔

When you make connections while you read, you are more likely to remember important information.

An important way to make sense of what you read is to think about the ideas in a story or article. This is especially helpful when you read two selections based on the same topic or theme. Think about the connection between the paired selections by asking these questions as you read. What can I learn when I connect the main ideas? How are the ideas alike? How are they different?

Dolphin

Porpoise

Read the following selections about dolphins and porpoises. Think about how you can compare the information contained in each selection.

Dolphins

Dolphins are considered part of the whale family. They use sonar to see underwater, and a blowhole allows them to breathe. These mammals have a long snout, sharp coneshaped teeth, and a tall curved ﬁn. Dolphins like to come close to a boat in the ocean to bowride, or surf the wave that the boat makes as it travels through the water.

Porpoises

Did you know that porpoises are part of the whale family, too? They have small rounded teeth, a small triangular-shaped ﬁn, and a rounded head in which there is a blowhole for breathing. They use sonar to see ﬁsh and other things underwater. In the water porpoises make wheel-like rolls, surfacing four times a minute to breathe. When swimming fast, they create a V-shaped splash that is known as a rooster tail.

52

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

You might compare the ideas in the selections by using a graphic organizer like the Venn diagram below.

Dolphins

long snout tall curved fin sharp cone-shaped teeth small whale blowhole sonar

Porpoises

rounded head small triangular fin small rounded teeth

**Analyzing the Ways Authors Present Ideas
**

You already know that authors organize information in their stories in speciﬁc ways. They arrange and link ideas in a pattern. If you recognize and understand the pattern, you will have a better understanding of the information the author is trying to present. Here are some of the patterns authors use to arrange and link ideas: Cause and effect: The author focuses on something that has happened (effect) and tells you why it has happened (cause). Comparison: The author focuses on how two or more things are alike or different. Speciﬁc-to-general reasoning: The author begins with facts and examples and leads you to a general conclusion based on the facts and examples. Generalization-to-conclusion reasoning: The author begins with a general statement and provides facts and examples that support the general statement. Chronological order: The author tells events in the order in which they occur in time.

TIP:

✔

To better understand the text you are reading, look at the way it is organized.

53

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

**Read the following story. Which organizational pattern has the author used?
**

The Two Brothers

Both boys had inherited their mother’s love of nature and their father’s sense of humor. But that’s where the similarities ended. Wayne was restless and outgoing. He was always on the move, usually with a ﬂock of friends. Keenen, on the other hand, was quiet and solitary. He spent long afternoons hiking in the woods by himself or hiding in a tree, reading a book.

How has the author organized the story? The author has organized the story through comparison. What clues tell you this? The descriptions of how the brothers are alike and how they are different show a pattern of comparison. Paying attention to how an author organizes a selection can help you understand the information. Often authors will use more than one organizational pattern in their writing.

54

Help with Skills: Objective 4

READING

**Style, Tone, and Mood
**

Suppose you read a story about someone who survives a bad storm. Then you read a story about the same subject by a different author. What sets these stories apart? The main difference might be that the authors don’t use language in the same way. Another difference might be that one author tells the story in a humorous way, while the other tells the story in a serious way. The overall feeling of each story might be different, too. No two authors write in the same way. The writing of different authors is likely to differ in style, tone, and mood. Style is the way an author uses words, phrases, and sentences. Two authors’ styles can be as different as their speaking voices or signatures. Tone is an author’s attitude toward the subject he or she is writing about. The tone of a story can be lighthearted, curious, angry, and so on. An author’s perspective determines the language he or she uses. Language sets the tone for writing. Mood is the overall feeling of a story. The mood of a story can be peaceful, mysterious, suspenseful, and so on. An author’s choice of words and details creates mood. Return to “Jun Ming’s Fortune” and reread the last two paragraphs on page 14. What mood does the author create with these paragraphs? The author creates a feeling of inspiration and pride. How do you know? Jun Ming admires the courage and honor shown by the workers and wants to be like them. He believes that there is honor in doing a job well, whatever the job may be.

TIP:

✔

Style, tone, and mood set a story apart from other stories.

Great work! You’ve ﬁnished Step 2 in your “Steps to Success.” Be sure to place a check mark in your chart on page 8.

55

READING

GUIDED PRACTICE

● ●

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again “Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

The purpose of pages 59–77 is to provide you with reading selections so that you can apply the skills and strategies you learned in the previous section. Read each selection carefully, look at the questions in the margins, and try to answer them as you read. Although the selections on the actual TAKS test do not include questions in the margins, they are provided here as examples of the types of questions you should ask yourself as you read. Writing the answers to the questions in the margins of both stories will help guide your thinking and will help you practice a very important life skill.

57

**“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again
**

READING

Now you will read “Jun Ming’s Fortune” for a second time. This time you will see questions written next to the story. Although the selections on the actual TAKS test do not include questions in the margins, questions are included here to help guide your thinking as you read. They are examples of the types of questions you should ask yourself when you are reading a narrative. Answer the questions as you read, and they will help you understand the story better.

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” is a narrative. It is something you might read for fun, but you might also read it to learn something new. When you read a narrative, look for these things:

● ● ● ● ●

Characters, such as people or animals A place where the story happens A time when the story happens A conﬂict or problem that a character has A resolution to the problem

59

Reading Selection

READING

**Jun Ming’s Fortune
**

In 1862 construction began to connect existing tracks and create a railroad across the United States, linking the East to the West. The work was hard, and the 20,000 men who completed the work were treated harshly. Most of the workers were immigrants. This story describes the experiences of one of the many young men who came from China to work on the railroad. It takes place in Cape Horn, a steep mountainous area of northern California.

(Question 1)

**Why did Jun Ming come to the United States?
**

(Question 2)

1

**What does the word recruit mean?
**

(Question 3)

**What does the United States symbolize for Jun Ming?
**

(Question 4)

Jun Ming scrambled down the steep face of Cape Horn, causing loose rocks to bounce and tumble into the canyon below. As day turned into evening, he thought of the way the lantern in his family’s farmhouse glowed comfortingly at this time of day. He longed for the beautiful homeland of China he had left so eagerly. Men had come to rural areas like his to recruit strong, young Chinese to help build a great railroad. Jun Ming had been thrilled by their promises of money and adventure in the United States. He had left home with plans to send his family a great fortune. Since then, Jun Ming had learned that life in the United States was not all that he had dreamed. First of all, 25 dollars a month would not soon add up to a fortune. He had to pay his bosses for a spot to sleep in a crowded tent. He and the other workers also paid a Chinese cook to import pressed duck, dried squid, and the other things needed to prepare proper meals. And his work was not glamorous—just hard. Jun Ming was too young to chip rock or set dynamite, so it was his job to carry boiled tea to the workers. This he did for 12 hours a day. On his ﬁrst day, Jun Ming had felt slow and awkward moving over the steep rock. But he had soon learned to slide with the rocks for short distances and to slow himself by locking the side of one foot into a small niche or foothold. He took pride in his skill and in doing his job. Even at the end of a long workday, Jun Ming was quick and surefooted. “Thank you, Jun Ming,” said Mr. Lai as the boy ﬁlled his cup with warm tea. “I was hoping I could have some tea before I set the last charge of the day.”

2

**What information suggests that the men who hired the workers lied?
**

(Question 5)

**What does the word glamorous mean?
**

(Question 6)

3

**What words would you use to describe Jun Ming?
**

Continued

60

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

©Photodisc

4

Jun Ming stepped back across the rock and out of the way. When the dynamite blasts were being set, each worker had to look out for himself. Flying rock could easily send a man tumbling to his death in the canyon below. Mr. Lai was working from a small ledge that had been chipped into the mountainside. Mr. Kwan, the other blaster, was in a large wicker basket dangling from a rope. Each man worked steadily with a hand drill to make holes in the rock where sticks of dynamite could be placed. Each explosion would rip away another bit of the steep mountainside. Bit by bit, the blasters were creating a ﬂat ledge where railroad tracks could be laid. Jun Ming watched as Mr. Kwan gave Mr. Lai the signal that he was ready to set the blast. Mr. Lai signaled back, and the two men lit the fuses. Mr. Lai scrambled quickly across the rock. Mr. Kwan yanked on the rope, and workers at the top of the mountain pulled him up as fast as they could. As the basket bounced and swayed its way up the face of the cliff, the fuses burned shorter and shorter. Just as the basket neared the top, the ﬁrst blast rocked the mountain. The force ﬂung the basket out over the canyon. As it hurtled back toward the cliff, Jun Ming stared in horror. Mr. Kwan was certain to crash to his death. No one could help him. But Mr. Kwan didn’t look for help. Racing to beat the blast he had set with his own hands, Mr. Kwan leaped up and grabbed the rope. As sure and

Continued

61

5

(Question 7)

**Why does Mr. Kwan yank on the rope?
**

(Question 8)

6

What feeling is the author trying to create by using the word hurtled?

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

quick as a cat, he lifted himself out of the basket and scrambled up the rope. Just as the basket smashed against the rock and shattered, he reached the top of the rope. Mr. Kwan felt his hands begin to slip. He cried out. Desperately, he reached for the outstretched hands of his friends. One man got a ﬁrm hold on Mr. Kwan’s hand, and the others quickly grabbed his arm. They yanked him to safety and then dropped to the ground to brace for the next blast. Mr. Kwan’s clear thinking and quickness had saved his life.

7

(Question 9)

**Why does Jun Ming respect the workers?
**

8

Weary and relieved, the workers picked up their tools and headed down the mountain. Jun Ming was proud to walk with them. These were men of quiet honor who did their job well. Jun Ming wanted to be like them. He knew that no other workers were as brave or as skillful at blasting away rock to make way for the rails. This railroad couldn’t be built without them. For that reason alone, Jun Ming knew that the Chinese men deserved his respect. Jun Ming picked up his pace as he thought hungrily of the ﬁne dinner that was waiting for them at the camp. He felt exhausted, but tonight Jun Ming decided he would write a letter home—a letter about the courage of Mr. Kwan and Mr. Lai.

©KJ Historical/CORBIS

62

**Practice with Reading Skills
**

READING

Question 1: Why did Jun Ming come to the United States? Let’s go back to the ﬁrst paragraph of the story on page 60. Sentences 3, 4, and 5 of this paragraph help you answer the question. Sentence 3 tells you that Jun Ming left China eagerly. The next sentence explains that men had come to Jun Ming’s area to persuade young men to help build a railroad in the United States. Sentence 5 says “Jun Ming had been thrilled by their promises of money and adventure in the United States.” This sentence is important because it tells you the speciﬁc reasons Jun Ming came to this country—for money and adventure. This information is an important supporting detail in the story. Turn to page 23 for more help with ﬁnding supporting details.

©Bettman/CORBIS

Question 2: What does the word recruit mean? Let’s go back to paragraph 1 of the story on page 60 and ﬁnd the word recruit. When you read “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” you might not have known what the word recruit means. But paragraph 1 helps you ﬁgure it out. Look at the words around recruit. In that same sentence the story says “strong young Chinese to help build a great railroad.” These words provide a clue to the meaning of recruit. They suggest that someone is asking for help with a job. The words help you know that recruit means “to get the services of.” Turn to page 16 for more help with context clues and vocabulary words.

TIP:

✔

Use the words and phrases that surround a word you don’t know as clues to the word’s meaning.

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“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

Question 3: What does the United States symbolize for Jun Ming? Let’s look at paragraph 1 on page 60. Find the sentence that mentions the United States in this paragraph. In the next-to-last sentence, the author writes, “Jun Ming had been thrilled by their promises of money and adventure in the United States.” From this sentence, you can tell that the United States symbolizes wealth and excitement to Jun Ming. Turn to page 36 for more help with recognizing symbolism.

Question 4: What information in the story suggests that the men who hired the workers lied? Suppose you made this statement: “The men who hired the workers lied about what the workers could expect in the United States.” What evidence in the text supports your statement? First review the information in paragraph 1 on page 60 that tells about the promises the men made to the workers in China. The next-to-last sentence tells about “promises of money and adventure.” Now look at the ﬁrst few sentences in paragraph 2 for evidence that the promises had not come true. The second sentence says that Jun Ming is not being paid very much. The next two sentences tell you that the workers have to pay for a place to sleep and for a cook. You learn from the following sentence that the men work very hard—the job is hardly the adventure they had been promised. All this information suggests that the men who hired the workers lied to them about what they could expect in the United States. You could quote any one—or all—of these sentences as evidence. Or you could paraphrase the ideas in a sentence such as this: Even though the workers were promised money and adventure, they were paid little and worked long, hard hours. Turn to page 50 for more help with using text to support responses.

TIP:

✔

When you make an inference, look for evidence in the text that will support your “educated guess.”

64

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

Question 5: What does the word glamorous mean? To ﬁgure out the meaning of glamorous, look for a word that you recognize. The word glamor (or glamour) means “attractiveness.” The sufﬁx -ous means “full of.” You can put together the meanings of the word and sufﬁx to ﬁgure out that glamorous means “full of attractiveness.” Turn to page 20 for more help with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes.

Question 6: What words would you use to describe Jun Ming?

©Photodisc

Let’s look at paragraph 2 on page 60. Information in the paragraph tells you that Jun Ming works 12 hours a day. What trait does this reveal? One word you could use to describe Jun Ming is hardworking. Other information in the paragraph tells you that Jun Ming takes “pride in his skill and in doing his job” and that he is “quick and surefooted” even at the end of a long workday. What words sum up these traits? Based on this information, you could say that Jun Ming is proud and skillful. Thinking about what a character says and does as you read will tell you a lot about that character. Thinking about how you would feel if you were that character may also help you identify character traits. Turn to page 28 for more help with analyzing characters.

TIP:

✔

How can you identify character traits? Look at what the character says and does.

65

“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

Question 7: Why does Mr. Kwan yank on the rope?

©Photodisc

TIP:

✔

Look for clues in a story to help you figure out things that aren’t stated.

In paragraph 5 on page 61, Mr. Kwan is hanging in a basket, placing dynamite in the side of the mountain. He lights the dynamite fuse and then yanks the rope. So far the information in the paragraph hasn’t told you why he yanks the rope. But after Mr. Kwan yanks the rope, workers pull him up as fast as they can. What the workers do tells you why Mr. Kwan yanks on the rope. Mr. Kwan yanks on the rope as a signal for the workers to pull him up the mountain before the dynamite explodes. Turn to page 47 for more help with inferences.

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“Jun Ming’s Fortune” Again

READING

Question 8: What feeling is the author trying to create by using the word hurtled? Look at the word hurtled in paragraph 6 on page 61. If you look up hurtled in a dictionary, you will see that its denotation, or dictionary meaning, is “moved rapidly.” Now look at the words and phrases near hurtled in the story: the basket is “ﬂung” out over the canyon and back toward the cliff as Jun Ming stares “in horror,” sure that Mr. Kwan will “crash” to his death. All these words help you see that hurtled has a connotation of danger. Turn to page 21 for more help with denotative and connotative meanings of words.

TIP:

✔

Words, phrases, and sentences that surround a word can help you figure out its connotation.

Question 9: Why does Jun Ming respect the workers? Notice that the answer to this question isn’t something that is directly stated in the story. You have to use information in the story to understand why Jun Ming feels the way he does about the workers. The question itself tells us that Jun Ming respects the workers, but we have to determine why. The information in paragraph 7 on page 62 tells you that the workers are “men of quiet honor” who do their jobs well. They are brave and skillful. Jun Ming understands that the “railroad couldn’t be built without them.” These clues tell you why Jun Ming respects the workers. Turn to page 38 for more help with cause-and-effect structure. Excellent! You’ve ﬁnished Step 3 in your “Steps to Success.” Be sure to place a check mark in your chart on page 8.

TIP:

✔

To identify an effect, ask, “What happened?” To identify a cause, ask, “Why?”

67

**“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”
**

READING READING

Next you will read “Mariachi Nuevo Santander.” This is an informational article. An informational article contains facts. It can describe someone or explain something. It might also tell how to do something.

COM

P UTER

**When you read an informational article, look for these things:
**

● ●

Facts about the real world Information about . . . what something is like how to do something what happened long ago an interesting person, place, or thing

● ●

Examples to help readers understand the topic New words to learn

Informational reading will help you learn more about the world around you. You may want to read an informational article more slowly than a narrative. An informational article can give you a lot to think about. Here are some helpful hints for when you read an informational article:

● ● ●

Take notes while you read. Try to connect the information with what you already know. When you have ﬁnished the article, try to retell the main ideas in your own words.

Just as with the story “Jun Ming’s Fortune,” you will see questions written next to the article. Although the selections on the actual TAKS test do not include questions in the margins, they are provided here as examples of the types of questions you should ask yourself as you read an informational article. They will help guide your thinking and help you understand the information in the article better.

69

Reading Selection

READING

**Mariachi Nuevo Santander
**

How can you tell that the author admires the mariachi program at Roma High School? 1 Roma, Texas, may be a small city on the border with Mexico, but this quiet town is making a lot of noise. The students at Roma High School have formed the band Mariachi Nuevo Santander. Their music has won contests, recognition, and lots of attention. Mariachi music developed from the rich, complex rhythms of Mexican folk music, and many see it as representative of Mexican culture. The word mariachi can refer to an individual or to a group of musicians. Mariachi music is sung in Spanish to the accompaniment of such instruments as the violin, guitar, harp, and trumpet. A huge bass guitar, called a guitarrón, is unique to the mariachi tradition. In addition to having an unmistakable sound, mariachi bands stand out because of their dramatic clothes. Mariachi costumes are different for every group, but they all have certain things in common. The men usually wear a white shirt, a jacket, a big sombrero (hat) with embroidery, and tailored pants with leg seams lined with silver studs. The women can be more versatile in their clothing choices, wearing either long, ﬂowing skirts or the traditional men’s costumes. Inspired by their heritage, students at Roma High School came up with the idea to start their own mariachi band, and in 1993 students, parents, teachers, and others in the community cooperated to create a temporary mariachi program. After much practice the student musicians held their ﬁrst performance. The superintendent of Roma schools was so impressed that he made the mariachi program a permanent part of the school curriculum, offering students an alternative to the regular band and choir programs.

2

What does unmistakable mean in this paragraph?

3

4

Continued

70

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING

Photo courtesy of Mariachi Roma, Roma, Texas.

5 Why did the school decide to hire Yamil Yunes? Why is the author quoting Yunes? How do you know that not every student becomes a member of the mariachi band? What does the word source mean in this paragraph? 6

The school hired Yamil Yunes, a veteran mariachi performer, to lead the new program. Since there were no textbooks available for mariachi teachers, music director Yunes had to create his own. “This is a full-time job,” says Yunes, who now has two assistants and a secretary to help him run the mariachi department. When asked how he gets students interested in mariachi music, Yunes says, “I don’t have to. Mariachi has become so popular that the whole school auditions. Auditions are three days long.” Both boys and girls try out for Mariachi Nuevo Santander, but the mariachi tradition has not always welcomed female members. According to Yunes, mariachi players in Mexico were mostly men because they performed in places women did not usually go. “But here in the United States,” Yunes adds, “we need the female voice.” In addition to singing, female students can also play violin, guitar, or trumpet. Yunes hopes to build a unique all-female mariachi band at Roma High School. Mariachi music is extremely demanding, but once mastered, it offers musicians an exciting way of life. To Yunes, mariachi music is a beautiful art form. It brings conﬁdence, cultural pride, new experiences, and national recognition. For some students, their experience could even provide a source of future income. Mariachi Nuevo Santander has brought about many positive changes in its student musicians. Yunes proudly tells the story of one student who was able to overcome a speech problem. “He now sings in the front row to all the girls in the audience,” Yunes says.

Continued

71

7

8

9

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING

What information helps you know that the mariachi band gives excellent performances?

10

When students tour the country to perform, they are able to see how important mariachi music is to their heritage and culture. Not only do they enjoy the rare chance to travel, but they also ﬁnd an abundance of support and enthusiasm outside Roma. The student mariachi band has won many awards. For the last three years, it has claimed ﬁrst place at San Antonio’s annual mariachi competition, which involves more than 100 public school mariachi bands from across the United States. In 1998 the members of Mariachi Nuevo Santander were named national champions at a contest in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Back home the city of Roma has honored the musicians by naming one week in July “Mariachi Week.” The Roma mariachi program has also given students a lasting love of music. Before the program was started, only ﬁve percent of the students in the Roma High School band and choir became music majors in college. In contrast, about 25 percent of mariachi graduates now become music majors. In addition to ﬁnding pride and recognition, some student mariachis have found a way to earn money for college. Each senior in the mariachi program receives a $1,000 scholarship, and many go on to play in college mariachi bands. Some of these resourceful high school and college students earn money for college by forming private mariachi bands outside school. Why has this mariachi band been so successful? Yunes gives the credit to his students. Their energy and determination have pushed them to excel. The music director also cites the school’s and community’s willingness to treat mariachi music as a way of life instead of just an extracurricular activity. “If looked at from an artistic point of view, mariachi will change the lives of the teachers and the students,” says Yunes. “Especially in the schools that don’t have a symphony, mariachi provides a musical culture.”

11

How does the mariachi program benefit students?

12

13

14 How would you summarize this article? Why did the author write this article? 15

72

Practice Questions

READING

Here are some questions that are similar to the questions you thought about as you read “Mariachi Nuevo Santander.” Each question now has four answer choices. See whether one of the choices matches the answer you thought of as you were reading. If not, think about the four choices and choose the best one. Mark your answer in the book.

Question

1

The author most likely wrote this article in order to — A B C share an exciting story about the adventures of a mariachi band describe how mariachi programs in high schools should be designed tell the history of the Roma High School mariachi band

TIP:

✔

An author’s purpose is his or her reason for writing the text.

D persuade other high schools to start their own mariachi programs

Answer Key: page 91

Question

2

How can the reader tell that the author admires what the mariachi program has been able to accomplish? A B C The author gives information about the history of mariachi music. The author says that mariachi music is representative of Mexican culture. The author describes in detail the costumes that the band members wear.

**D The author describes the many positive outcomes students enjoy as a result of being in the band.
**

Answer Key: page 91

Question

3

The reader can conclude that the band Mariachi Nuevo Santander gives excellent performances because — A B C the band has gained the support of parents, teachers, and other community members more students are becoming music majors when they go to college the band has won contests and tours the country to perform

**D the people of Roma named one week in July “Mariachi Week”
**

Answer Key: page 91

73

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING

Question

4

In paragraph 3, the word unmistakable refers to a sound that is — A B C easy to identify original exciting

TIP:

✔

Break a word into its parts to figure out its meaning.

D painfully loud

Answer Key: page 91

Question

5

Read the dictionary entry below for the word source. source \s¯ rs\ n 1. the cause of something’s beginning 2. the place where a river begins o 3. a person who gives information 4. a book or document

Which deﬁnition represents the meaning of source as it is used in paragraph 8? A B C Deﬁnition 1 Deﬁnition 2 Deﬁnition 3

TIP:

✔

When a word has multiple meanings, use information in the sentence and paragraph to help you decide which meaning the author intended.

D Deﬁnition 4

Answer Key: page 92

74

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING

Question

6

What information from the article suggests that not every student becomes a member of Mariachi Nuevo Santander? A B C Students must speak Spanish ﬂuently. Students have to audition. Students must play the violin, guitar, or trumpet.

Answer Key: page 92

D Students who are female cannot join the band.

Question

7

Read this beginning to a summary of the article.

The students at Roma High School in Texas have formed the Mariachi Nuevo Santander band. The band’s dress and music are representative of Mexican culture.

Which of these best completes the summary? A Male band members wear a white shirt, a jacket, a big sombrero (hat) with embroidery, and tailored pants. Female members can wear either the traditional men’s costumes or a long, ﬂowing skirt. After the mariachi band’s ﬁrst performance, the superintendent of Roma schools decided to make the mariachi program a permanent part of the school curriculum. Yamil Yunes, an experienced mariachi performer, runs the Roma mariachi program. Yunes says that mariachi is a beautiful art form. Students have gained a lasting love of music by participating in the mariachi program. Many band members go on to play in college mariachi bands and earn money for college by playing their music. In the city of Roma, one week in July is “Mariachi Week.”

TIP:

✔

A good summary captures the main points. Be careful not to include minor details in a summary.

B

C

D The male and female students who make up the band tour the country to perform, sharing their heritage and culture. By playing mariachi music, band members have won a variety of competitions, found pride and recognition, and earned money for college.

Answer Key: page 92

75

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING

Question

8

The author includes quotations from Yamil Yunes in order to — A B C make the article more interesting to read prove that the mariachi program really exists show the community’s support for the mariachi program

TIP:

✔

Ask yourself, “What would the article be like without any quotations?” and “What purpose do the quotations serve?”

D emphasize that the music director is more important than the band

Answer Key: page 92

Question

9

According to information in the article, why did the school decide to hire Yamil Yunes? A B C Yunes was part of the band when he was in high school. Yunes was an experienced mariachi performer. Yunes had taught at the high school before.

TIP:

✔

Ask yourself, “What do I know about Yamil Yunes? What would be the reason the school would want to hire him?”

D Yunes had thought of the idea to form a local mariachi group.

Answer Key: page 92

76

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

READING READING

Question

10

Look at the diagram of information about the Roma High School mariachi band.

Cultural appreciation

Recognition

Love of music Pride

Money for college

Which information belongs in the empty oval? A B C Ways student mariachis have helped the community What student mariachis have gained by being in the band Competitions and awards student mariachis have won

D Qualities students must have to become part of the mariachi group

Answer Key: page 92

You have ﬁnished Step 4 in your “Steps to Success.” Be sure to place a check mark in your chart on page 8.

77

READING

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

●

“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

The purpose of pages 81–87 is to provide you with an opportunity to practice what you have learned by reading stories and answering questions similar to those that are on the TAKS test. The two selections, “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah,” on pages 82–83 are paired selections and should be read together before you answer the questions that follow. Like the selections on the TAKS test, selections in this section do not have questions in the margins to guide your thinking. You may want to use “What a Careful Reader Does” on page 11 to help you remember what types of questions to ask yourself as you read.

79

**“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”
**

READING

Now you will read two selections, “A Dream Turns 70,” and “Dear Sarah.” These are paired selections and should be read together before you answer the questions that follow. The ﬁrst selection, “A Dream Turns 70,” is an informational article written for a newspaper. Do you remember what an informational article is? It contains facts and can describe or explain something (a person, place, or event). It can also tell you how to do something. You might want to read this article slowly because it has a lot of information in it. The second selection, “Dear Sarah,” is written in the form of a friendly letter. The letter is a narrative because it has characters, a setting, a problem, and a resolution to the problem. It is also informational because it contains facts. As you read “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah,” remember to use what you have learned so far about being a careful reader. Answer the questions who? what? when? where? why? and how? while you are reading. If you come across a word that is new to you, remember to use context clues and your experiences to ﬁgure out the meaning. Also think about how the two selections are alike and the ways they are different.

I just read something interesting. It was about how some doctors have to fly in planes to help people who live in remote areas of Australia.

81

Reading Selections

READING

**The Morning Star
**

Section E: Lifestyles

Sunday, May 17, 1998

A Dream Turns 70

Australia’s Flying Doctors Still Flying High

1 SYDNEY, Australia—Early afternoon ﬁnds the base for Australia’s Royal Flying Doctor Service a blur of activity. A 35-yearold man has been seriously injured. In less than 90 minutes, a medical team will be airborne, on its way to the victim 200 miles away. Flying to give emergency care to the victim is just another day at the ofﬁce—or in this case, away from the ofﬁce—for the men and women of the medical service, which today celebrates the 70th anniversary of its ﬁrst ﬂight. That ﬁrst ﬂight, on May 17, 1928, was a dream come true for John Flynn, the medical service’s founder. Flynn came to the Outback in 1911. At that time only two doctors served this remote area of Australia. Flynn set up hospitals throughout the region. His goal was to make medical care readily available to everyone living there. However, because of the Outback’s vast size, many people were still not able to reach help quickly. Flynn refused to give up. He continued to look for ways to improve medical care in

the Outback. A friend suggested using airplanes to ﬂy doctors to people in need of emergency care. Flynn liked the idea and began asking for donations to start a ﬂying medical service. It took Flynn years to raise the money to make his dream a reality, but his efforts were ﬁnally successful. On May 15, 1928, the Aerial Medical Service was born. Just two days later it made its ﬁrst ﬂight. During its ﬁrst year it made 50 ﬂights, treated 225 patients, and saved at least four lives. Much has changed since then. The Royal Flying Doctor Service, as it has been known since 1955, helps thousands of people every year. Its 40 planes, equipped much like hospital emergency rooms, make thousands of flights from bases across Australia. Technology continues to affect life in the Outback. However, the medical service’s vital role has not diminished. Doctors still ﬂy to people in need of emergency care, and the service still flies patients to hospitals when necessary. After 70 years, people in the Outback still depend on the ﬂying doctors. 4

5

2

6

3

82

READING

August 1, 1928 Dear Sarah,

1

You’ll never believe what happened to your nephew Billy. It all started last Saturday when he woke up with a fever and stomachache. He’s at the age when kids always seem to get sick, so we weren’t concerned at ﬁrst. However, his fever wouldn’t go down, and the stomach pains got worse. I knew then that it had to be serious. I thought he might have been bitten by a poisonous spider. I wanted to take him to see a doctor, but the nearest one is more than 300 kilometers away. Then I remembered the Aerial Medical Service. I had heard about this new service last month while I was in town buying supplies. It uses airplanes to ﬂy doctors to people in the Outback who need emergency care. The service has set up places called outstations. The outstations have two-way radios that are used to call the medical service for help. The nearest outstation is an hour away. When I arrived, the manager contacted the service by radio and gave directions to our farm. A pilot and a doctor were soon on the way. The doctor said that Billy had a condition called appendicitis. Billy needed emergency surgery. Within a few minutes he was in the plane on his way to a hospital. The plane was not big enough to accommodate his mother and me, so we had to drive. When we arrived the next morning, Billy was feeling much better. He is quite proud of his new scar and eager to ﬂy again as soon as possible. In the next few months, the medical service is planning to set up clinics that can be moved from place to place. Traveling doctors will use these mobile clinics to make regular visits to areas without doctors. Soon we won’t have to wait for an emergency to see a doctor. I had often wondered what we would do if one of us got badly hurt or became seriously ill. Now I feel much safer. Maybe this expanded service will encourage more people to move to the Outback. We will leave for home tomorrow if Billy can travel. His mother and I hope he can avoid any more airplane rides for now. I will mail you another letter when I am in town next month.

2

3

4

5

6

Your loving brother, Arnold

83

Practice Questions

READING

Answer these questions about the selections you just read, “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah.” Mark your answers in the book. As you do, think about the skills you have learned already in reading “Jun Ming’s Fortune” and “Mariachi Nuevo Santander.”

**Use “A Dream Turns 70” to answer questions 11–13.
**

Question

11

What is the newspaper article mainly about? A B C The development of an emergency medical service in the Outback The importance of modern technology to the Outback The types of hospitals located throughout the Outback

**D The modern airplanes now used by the medical service
**

Answer Key: page 93

Question

12

Which sentence shows that John Flynn was a determined person? A B C His goal was to make medical care readily available to everyone living there. At that time only two doctors served this remote area of Australia. It took Flynn years to raise the money to make his dream a reality, but his efforts were ﬁnally successful.

D Doctors still ﬂy to people in need of emergency care, and the service still ﬂies patients to hospitals when necessary.

Answer Key: page 93

Question

13

The tone of paragraph 1 is one of — A B C urgency disbelief anger

D sorrow

Answer Key: page 93

84

“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

READING READING

**Use “Dear Sarah” to answer questions 14–16.
**

Question

14

In paragraph 4, the word accommodate means to — A B C satisfy impress hold

D follow

Answer Key: page 93

Question

15

Why does Arnold feel safer after the experience he describes? A B C He thinks that his family might go home the next day. He plans to visit a doctor when he next goes to town. He thinks more people will move to the Outback.

D He knows that the Aerial Medical Service can provide emergency help.

Answer Key: page 93

Question

16

The reader can conclude that stomach pain and fever — A B C are two of the symptoms of appendicitis usually require an emergency operation often occur on a plane trip

D are symptoms of all common illnesses

Answer Key: page 94

85

“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

READING

**Use “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah” to answer questions 17–20.
**

Question

17

One similarity between the selections is that both discuss — A B C the number of planes used by the Aerial Medical Service the difﬁculty of reaching medical care in the Outback the Aerial Medical Service’s ﬁrst ﬂight

D a boy’s medical condition that requires immediate attention

Answer Key: page 94

Question

18

Why is Billy fortunate that his illness did not happen a year earlier? A B C The family had not yet moved to the Outback. The Aerial Medical Service did not yet exist. Airplanes at that time could not ﬂy into the Outback.

D The Aerial Medical Service had never treated appendicitis.

Answer Key: page 94

Question

19

Which of these is an idea present in both Arnold’s letter and the newspaper article? A B C Donations were collected to start and maintain the medical service. The Aerial Medical Service made the Outback a safer place to live. The Aerial Medical Service encouraged more people to move to the Outback.

D Technology continues to change the Outback, but people still depend on the medical service for help.

Answer Key: page 94

86

“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

READING

Question

20

Based on information in both selections, the reader can tell that Billy — A B C needed to go back to the hospital for additional medical care wanted to become a pilot for the medical service someday was the Aerial Medical Service’s ﬁrst patient

D was one of the 225 patients helped by the medical service during its ﬁrst year

Answer Key: page 94

Congratulations! You’ve ﬁnished the last step in your “Steps to Success.” Be sure to place a check mark in your chart on page 8.

87

READING READING

ANSWER KEY

● ●

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander” “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

The reading answer key on pages 91–94 provides the answers and explanations for the practice questions that follow “Mariachi Nuevo Santander” and the paired selections “A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah.” Check your answers to see whether you got the questions right. Don’t worry if you miss some; the explanations included with each question will help you know how to answer the questions correctly.

89

**Reading Answer Key
**

READING READING

“Mariachi Nuevo Santander”

Question A Question A

3 (page 73)

1 (page 73)

Incorrect. The article does not describe adventures, although the story of the band’s history can be described as exciting. B Incorrect. The article is not written as a how-to description for other mariachi programs, although schools wishing to develop their own programs can get useful information from the article. C Correct. The author begins by talking about the history of mariachi music and then describes how the mariachi band at Roma High School got started and what the results of the program have been. D Incorrect. The article does not use persuasive language. While some high schools might be inspired to start their own mariachi program after reading this article, the author’s purpose for writing is not persuasive. If you missed this question, turn to page 44 to read more about an author’s purpose for writing. Question A

Incorrect. Paragraph 14 does say that the community supports the band, but that does not necessarily mean the band gives good performances. B Incorrect. Paragraph 12 does say that the band has produced music majors, but that does not necessarily mean the band gives good performances. C Correct. The fact that Mariachi Nuevo Santander performs outside Roma and wins contests, as mentioned in paragraphs 10 and 11, leads you to conclude that the band gives very good performances. D Incorrect. Paragraph 11 does mention that a week has been named “Mariachi Week,” but this doesn’t necessarily mean the band gives good performances. If you missed this question, turn to page 47 to read more about drawing conclusions. Question A

4 (page 74)

2 (page 73)

Incorrect. Paragraphs 2 and 3 do give information about the history of mariachi music, but these paragraphs say nothing about the mariachi program at Roma High School. B Incorrect. Paragraph 2 does say this, but the statement does not prove that the author admires the mariachi program at Roma High School. C Incorrect. Paragraph 3 does describe mariachi costumes, but this does not prove that the author admires the mariachi program. D Correct. In paragraphs 8 through 15, the author tells of the program’s positive results, such as helping students develop conﬁdence, allowing them to travel, and giving them a lasting love of music. If you missed this question, turn to page 45 to read more about how an author’s perspective affects a text.

Correct. If you look at the meanings of the preﬁx un-, the root word mistake, and the sufﬁx -able, you can ﬁgure out that unmistakable means “not likely to be confused with something else.” Also, the words stand out in the same sentence help you ﬁgure out that an unmistakable sound is one that is “easy to identify.” B Incorrect. This choice does not make sense if you look at the meanings of the word parts. C Incorrect. This choice does not make sense if you look at the meanings of the word parts. D Incorrect. Nothing in the article suggests that the music is “painfully loud.” If you missed this question, turn to page 20 to read more about preﬁxes and sufﬁxes.

91

Reading Answer Key

READING

Question A

5 (page 74)

Question A

8 (page 76)

Correct. The context clue “future income” in that sentence tells you that students who learn to play mariachi music could use that skill in the future to earn money. So source in this instance means “the cause of something’s beginning.” B Incorrect. The article does not mention rivers. C Incorrect. The article states that mariachi music, not a person, can provide a future source of income. D Incorrect. Nothing in the sentence or paragraph suggests that a book or document can provide income. If you missed this question, turn to page 19 to read more about multiple-meaning words. Question A

Correct. The quotations make the article more interesting by supporting the author’s main idea. Using quotations is the author’s way of saying “Don’t just take my word for it. Hear it from someone who has ﬁrsthand knowledge.” B Incorrect. The use of quotations does not necessarily prove that something exists. C Incorrect. The author has already established that the community supports the program. D Incorrect. The article never suggests that the music director is more important than the band. If you missed this question, turn to page 55 to read more about how an author’s style affects a text. Question

6 (page 75)

9 (page 76)

A

Incorrect. Nothing in the article says that students must speak Spanish to join the band. B Correct. Paragraphs 6 and 7 state that students have to audition, or try out, for the band. You can infer from this that some students do not pass the audition. C Incorrect. These are just a few of the instruments that make up a mariachi band. So not every student would need to be able to play one of these instruments to become part of the program. D Incorrect. This choice contradicts information in paragraph 7, which states that Yunes welcomes female mariachis in the band. If you missed this question, turn to page 50 to read more about using text to support responses. Question A

Incorrect. Paragraph 5 says that the Roma High School band was a new program when Yunes was hired, so he could not have been part of it in high school. B Correct. Information in paragraph 5 describes Yunes as “a veteran mariachi performer.” C Incorrect. There is no information in the article that suggests that Yunes had taught at the high school before. D Incorrect. There is no information to suggest that Yunes had thought of forming a local mariachi group. If you missed this question, turn to page 47 to read more about drawing conclusions. Question A

10 (page 77)

7 (page 75)

Incorrect. This choice leaves out important details, such as how being in the mariachi band beneﬁts students. B Incorrect. This choice leaves out key points from the article and includes facts that are less important. C Incorrect. This choice focuses on the beneﬁts of the mariachi band but leaves out important details, such as what the band does and who can be in it. D Correct. When combined with the beginning of the summary, this choice covers all the key points of the article. If you missed this question, turn to page 24 to read more about summarizing texts.

Incorrect. Not all the words and phrases describe the ways student mariachis have helped the community. B Correct. All the words and phrases surrounding the center oval show beneﬁts students have gained from being in the band, as described in the article. C Incorrect. None of the words or phrases name competitions or awards. D Incorrect. Not all the words and phrases describe qualities the students must have to become part of the group. If you missed this question, turn to page 42 to read more about using graphic organizers.

92

Reading Answer Key

READING READING

“A Dream Turns 70” and “Dear Sarah”

C

Question A

11 (page 84)

Correct. The newspaper article is mainly about how an emergency medical service known as the Aerial Medical Service was established in 1928 in the Outback to provide emergency medical care and how the service has changed since then. B Incorrect. Paragraph 6 does say that technology affects life in the Outback, but this answer does not include any information from the rest of the article. C Incorrect. Hospitals in the Outback are mentioned, but this is not the main focus of the article. D Incorrect. Paragraph 5 describes modern airplanes, but this answer does not include any information from the rest of the article. If you missed this question, turn to page 22 to read more about ﬁnding main ideas. Question A

Incorrect. There is nothing in the paragraph to suggest that the author is angry. D Incorrect. A medical team is about to ﬂy to help an injured man, and the medical service is celebrating its anniversary. These are not sorrowful events. If you missed this question, turn to page 55 to read more about how style, tone, and mood affect text. Question A

14 (page 85)

Incorrect. The word satisfy does not ﬁt with the last part of the sentence, “so we had to drive.” B Incorrect. The word impress does not ﬁt with the last part of the sentence, “so we had to drive.” C Correct. The words “not big enough” and “so we had to drive” are clues that show accommodate means “to hold.” D Incorrect. Other information in the paragraph shows that the plane is supposed to rush Billy to the hospital, not follow Arnold. If you missed this question, turn to page 16 to read more about context clues. Question A

12 (page 84)

15 (page 85)

Incorrect. The sentence states that John Flynn had a goal, but it does not show that he was determined. B Incorrect. The sentence explains why an emergency medical service was needed. It says nothing about John Flynn. C Correct. The words “It took Flynn years” and “his efforts were ﬁnally successful” suggest that John Flynn was a determined person. D Incorrect. The sentence gives information about the Royal Flying Doctor Service, but it says nothing about John Flynn. If you missed this question, turn to page 50 to read more about using text to support responses. Question A

Incorrect. Paragraph 6 does say that Arnold’s family might go home the next day, but it does not say that this makes Arnold feel safer. B Incorrect. The letter never says that Arnold plans to visit a doctor the next time he goes to town. C Incorrect. Paragraph 5 does say that more people may move to the Outback, but this has nothing to do with why Arnold feels safer. D Correct. Paragraph 5 shows that Arnold no longer wonders what his family would do in a medical emergency, because he now knows all about the medical service. If you missed this question, turn to page 28 to read more about analyzing characters.

13 (page 84)

B

Correct. The words “a blur of activity” and “less than 90 minutes” help create a tone of urgency in this paragraph. Incorrect. The paragraph is reporting facts. There is nothing in the paragraph to suggest that the author does not believe these facts.

93

Reading Answer Key

READING

Question A

16 (page 85)

C

Correct. Paragraph 1 states that Billy has a fever and stomach pain, and paragraph 4 states that he has appendicitis. B Incorrect. Paragraph 1 shows that fever and stomach pain are nothing that would require an emergency operation unless they get much worse. C Incorrect. Billy has a fever and stomach pain before he gets on the plane. D Incorrect. Paragraph 1 shows that fever and stomach pain are common but not that they are symptoms of all common illnesses. If you missed this question, turn to page 47 to read more about drawing conclusions. Question

Incorrect. It is not logical to think that airplanes could ﬂy into the Outback in 1928 but that they couldn’t in 1927. D Incorrect. Neither selection reveals whether the Aerial Medical Service had treated appendicitis before, but it stands to reason that the doctors would have been trained to treat it. If you missed this question, turn to page 39 to read more about analyzing the order of events. Question A

19 (page 86)

B

17 (page 86)

A

Incorrect. Paragraph 5 of the newspaper article tells how many planes the service has today, but the letter never mentions the number of planes. B Correct. Paragraph 2 of the newspaper article states that in 1911 there were only two doctors in the Outback. The paragraph also states that “because of the Outback’s vast size, many people were still not able to reach help quickly.” In paragraph 2 of the letter, Arnold writes, “I wanted to take him to see a doctor, but the nearest one is more than 300 kilometers away.” Also, paragraph 5 of the letter shows that Arnold has worried about what would happen if his family had a medical emergency. C Incorrect. Paragraph 4 of the newspaper article mentions the ﬁrst ﬂight, but the letter does not. D Incorrect. The letter is about a boy’s medical condition, but the newspaper article never mentions a boy. If you missed this question, turn to page 40 to read more about similarities and differences across texts. Question A

Incorrect. Paragraphs 3 and 4 of the newspaper article mention the donations, but the letter does not. Correct. Paragraph 4 of the newspaper article states that in its ﬁrst year, the Aerial Medical Service treated 225 patients and saved at least four lives. Paragraph 6 of the newspaper article states that people in the Outback still depend on the service. Paragraphs 3 and 4 of Arnold’s letter describe how the Aerial Medical Service saves his son. Paragraph 5 shows that knowing about the service makes Arnold feel much safer.

C

Incorrect. The newspaper article never says that the service caused people to move to the Outback. D Incorrect. This idea does appear in the last paragraph of the newspaper article, but the letter is from 1928. If you missed this question, turn to page 52 to read more about connecting and comparing ideas across texts. Question A

20 (page 87)

18 (page 86)

B

Incorrect. If the family had not yet moved to the Outback, Arnold would have been able to drive Billy to a doctor. Correct. The date at the top of the letter shows that Billy’s illness happened in the summer of 1928. Paragraph 2 of the newspaper article states that the Aerial Medical Service had its ﬁrst ﬂight in May 1928. So if Billy had gotten sick in 1927, the Aerial Medical Service would not have been created yet.

Incorrect. This idea is not supported by information in either selection. B Incorrect. This idea is not supported by information in either selection. C Incorrect. This idea is not supported by information in either selection. D Correct. This is the only answer supported by information from both selections. The letter is dated August 1, 1928, and paragraphs 3 and 4 of the letter describe how Billy is helped by the medical service. Paragraph 2 of the newspaper article states that 1928 was the ﬁrst year that the Aerial Medical Service existed. Therefore, Billy must be one of the 225 patients mentioned in paragraph 4 of the newspaper article. If you missed this question, turn to page 52 to read more about connecting and comparing ideas across texts.

94

M AT H E M AT I C S

INTRODUCTION

What Is This Book?

This is a study guide to help your child strengthen the skills tested on the Grade 6 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). TAKS is a statedeveloped test administered with no time limit. It is designed to provide an accurate measure of learning in Texas schools. By acquiring all the skills taught in sixth grade, your child will be better prepared to succeed on the Grade 6 TAKS and during the next school year. This study guide is organized into two sections. This section is about mathematics. Each objective is organized into review sections and a practice section. The review sections present examples and explanations of the mathematics skills for each objective. The practice sections feature mathematics problems that are similar to the ones used on the TAKS test.

**How Can I Use This Book with My Child?
**

First look at your child’s Conﬁdential Student Report. This is the report the school gave you that shows your child’s TAKS scores. This report will tell you which TAKS subject-area test(s) your child passed and which one(s) he or she did not pass. Use your child’s report to determine which skills need improvement. Once you know which skills need to be improved, you can guide your child through the instructions and examples that support those skills. You may also choose to have your child work through all the sections.

MATHEMATICS

**What Are Objectives?
**

Objectives are goals for the knowledge and skills that a student should achieve. The speciﬁc goals for instruction in Texas schools were provided by the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). The objectives for TAKS were developed based on the TEKS.

**How Is the Mathematics Section Organized?
**

The mathematics section of this study guide is divided into the six objectives tested on TAKS. A statement at the beginning of each objective lists the mathematics skills your child needs to acquire. The study guide covers a large amount of material, which your child should not complete all at once. It may be best to help your child work through one objective at a time.

95

**How Can I Help My Child Work on the Study Guide?
**

●

●

Look for the following features in the margin: Ms. Mathematics provides important instructional information about a topic.

When possible, review each section of the guide before working with your child. This will give you a chance to plan how long the study session should be. Sit with your child and work through the study guide with him or her. Pace your child through the questions in the study guide. Work in short sessions. If your child becomes frustrated, stop and start again later. There are several words in the mathematics section that are important for your child to understand. These words are bold-faced in the text and are deﬁned when they are introduced. Help your child locate the bold-faced words and discuss the deﬁnitions.

●

●

●

MATHEMATICS

Detective Data offers a question that will help remind the student of the appropriate approach to a problem. Do you see that . . . points to a signiﬁcant sentence in the instruction.

**What Are the Helpful Features of the Mathematics Section?
**

●

Examples are contained inside shaded boxes. Each objective has “Try It” problems based on the examples in the review sections. A Grade 6 Mathematics Chart is included on pages 98–99 and also as a tear-out page in the back of the book. This chart includes useful mathematics information. The tear-out Mathematics Chart in the back of the book also provides both a metric and a customary ruler to help solve problems requiring measurement of length.

●

●

96

**How Should the “Try It” Problems Be Used?
**

“Try It” problems are found throughout the review sections of the mathematics study guide. These problems provide an opportunity for a student to practice skills that have just been covered in the instruction. Each “Try It” problem features lines for student responses. The answers to the “Try It” problems are found immediately following each problem. While your child is completing a “Try It” problem, have him or her cover up the answer portion with a sheet of paper. Then have your child check the answer.

**How Do You Use an Answer Grid?
**

The answer grid contains seven columns, including columns for two decimal places: tenths and hundredths. Suppose 108.6 is the answer to a problem. First write the number in the blank spaces. Be sure to use the correct place value. For example, 1 is in the hundreds place, 0 is in the tens place, 8 is in the ones place, and 6 is in the tenths place. Then ﬁll in the correct bubble under each digit. Notice that if there is a zero in the answer, you need to ﬁll in the bubble for the zero. The grid shows 108.6 correctly entered. The zero in the tens place is bubbled in because it is part of the answer. It is not necessary to bubble in the zeros in the thousands place or the hundredths place, because these zeros will not affect the value of the correct answer. 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

**What Kinds of Practice Questions Are in the Study Guide?
**

The mathematics study guide contains questions similar to those found on the Grade 6 TAKS test. There are two types of questions in the mathematics section.

●

MATHEMATICS

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Multiple-Choice Questions: Most of the practice questions are multiple choice with four answer choices. These questions present a mathematics problem using numbers, symbols, words, a table, a diagram, or a combination of these. Read each problem carefully. If there is a table or diagram, study it. Your child should read each answer choice carefully before choosing the best answer. Griddable Questions: Some practice questions use a seven-column answer grid like those used on the Grade 6 TAKS test.

●

**Where Can Correct Answers to the Practice Questions Be Found?
**

The answers to the practice questions are in the answer key at the back of the mathematics section (pages 235–244). The answer key explains the correct answer, and it also includes some explanations for incorrect answers. After your child answers the practice questions, check the answers. Each question includes a reference to the page number in the answer key for the answer to the problem. Even if your child chose the correct answer, it is a good idea to read the answer explanation because it may help your child better understand why the answer is correct.

97

Mathematics Chart

LENGTH

Metric 1 kilometer = 1000 meters 1 meter = 100 centimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters Customary 1 mile = 1760 yards 1 mile = 5280 feet 1 yard = 3 feet 1 foot = 12 inches

Grade 6

**CAPACITY AND VOLUME
**

Metric 1 liter = 1000 milliliters Customary 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 gallon = 128 ounces 1 quart = 2 pints 1 pint = 2 cups 1 cup = 8 ounces

MATHEMATICS

**MASS AND WEIGHT
**

Metric 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 1 gram = 1000 milligrams Customary 1 ton = 2000 pounds 1 pound = 16 ounces

TIME

1 year = 365 days 1 year = 12 months 1 year = 52 weeks 1 week = 7 days 1 day = 24 hours 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds Metric and customary rulers can be found on the tear-out Mathematics Chart in the back of this book.

98

**Grade 6 Mathematics Chart
**

P = 4s P = 2l + 2w C = 2πr A = s2 A = lw or A = bh or A = bh

2

Perimeter

square rectangle

or

P = 2(l + w)

Circumference Area

circle square rectangle triangle trapezoid circle

or

C = πd

A = 1 bh

2

A = 1 (b1 + b2)h

2

or

A=

(b1 + b2)h 2

MATHEMATICS

A = πr 2 V = s3 V = lwh π ≈ 3.14 or π ≈ 7

22

Volume

cube rectangular prism

Pi

π

99

Objective 1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of numbers, operations, and quantitative reasoning.

For this objective you should be able to

●

represent and use rational numbers in a variety of equivalent forms; and add, subtract, multiply, and divide to solve problems and justify answers.

●

**What Are Integers?
**

Integers include whole numbers, zero, and negative whole numbers. You can represent them on a number line, which extends in both directions from 0.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

MATHEMATICS

**You can use a number line to model the integers.
**

●

Integers to the right of 0 are read using the word positive. For example, the integer 3 is read as positive 3. Integers to the left of 0 are read using the word negative. For example, the integer 3 is read as negative 3. The number 0 is neither negative nor positive. The integers decrease from right to left on the number line. The integer 7 is less than 6. The integer 6 is less than 7. The integers increase from left to right on the number line. The integer 4 is greater than 5. The integer 5 is greater than 4.

●

● ●

●

**How Can You Use Integers?
**

You can represent many real-life situations with integers. The Thompsons went shopping for a new television. The store window had a sign that read “Save $150 off the marked price.” What integer can be used to represent the change in price? The price decreased $150. The integer 150 represents this reduction in price.

Do you see that . . .

When writing integers, be sure to use the negative sign to indicate a negative number, such as 4. Positive integers can be written without a sign. You can write either 4 or 4 to represent positive 4. If a number does not have a sign in front of it, you can assume the number is positive.

100

Objective 1

The temperature was 30ºC at 12:30 P M. At 4:00 P M. the . . temperature was 34ºC. What integer can be used to represent the change in temperature from 12:30 P M. to 4:00 P M.? . . The temperature went from 30ºC to 34ºC. It increased 4ºC. The integer 4 represents this increase in temperature.

Tom makes deliveries along Main Street. His starting point is the delivery ofﬁce on Main Street. His ﬁrst delivery is 6 blocks directly east of the ofﬁce. His next delivery is 2 blocks directly west of the ﬁrst delivery. His third delivery is 7 blocks directly west of the second delivery. How can you use integers to model his travels? You can use a number line to model Tom’s travels for these deliveries. Let east be to the right of 0 on the number line and west to the left.

●

Tom starts at the delivery ofﬁce. Let the integer 0 on the number line represent the delivery ofﬁce.

MATHEMATICS

●

Tom’s ﬁrst delivery is 6 blocks east. Count 6 units to the right of 0 on the number line. The integer 6 can be used to represent this part of his travels. You are now at 6 on the number line. Tom’s second delivery is 2 blocks west of his ﬁrst delivery. Count 2 units to the left of 6 on the number line. The integer 2 can be used to represent this part of his travels. You are now at 4 on the number line. Tom’s third delivery is 7 blocks west of his second delivery. Count 7 units to the left of 4 on the number line. The integer 7 can be used to represent this part of his travels. You are now at 3 on the number line.

N

●

●

Delivery Office 1st Delivery (+6)

W

E

S

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

+1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 +10 2nd Delivery (–2)

3rd Delivery (–7)

101

Objective 1

Try It

One summer day Chris took a bottle of water from the refrigerator and went outside. The temperature of the water was 45ºF After the water . had been in the sun for 2 hours, its temperature was 75ºF What integer . describes the change in the temperature of the water in those 2 hours? The temperature of the water went from _______ ºF to _______ ºF . The temperature of the water ___________________ by _______ degrees. The integer _______ can be used to represent the change in temperature.

The temperature of the water went from 45ºF to 75ºF. The water temperature increased by 30 degrees. The integer 30 can be used to represent the change in temperature.

80 70 60 50 40

°F

MATHEMATICS

**How Do You Compare and Order Whole Numbers?
**

Look at the place value of the digits to help you compare and order whole numbers. Look at the whole numbers 34,652,859 and 34,839,064. Which of these two whole numbers is the greater number? To determine which number is greater, compare the digits in each place value. A placevalue chart can help you compare the digits.

Ten Millions Millions Hundred Thousands Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

3 3

●

4 4

6 8

5 3

2 9

8 0

5 6

9 4

Start at the left. Both numbers have a digit in the ten-millions place. Compare those digits. Both numbers have a 3 in the ten-millions place. 34,652,859 34,839,064 34,839,064 6, then 34,839,064 34,652,859. 34,839,064 Look at the digit in the next place value. Both numbers have a 4 in the millions place. 34,652,859 Look at the digit in the next place value. Since 8 34,652,859

●

●

The number 34,839,064 is the greater number.

102

Objective 1

**When Do You Use Multiplication and Division to Solve Problems?
**

Use multiplication when you want to combine groups of equal size. Use division when you want to separate a whole into groups of equal size. Jennifer has 36 packages of cookies for a party. Each package contains 24 cookies. How many cookies does Jennifer have in all? Multiply 36

●

**24 to ﬁnd the total number of cookies.
**

2

First multiply the ones. 36 24 144

●

**Then multiply the tens.
**

1

**36 24 144 720
**

●

MATHEMATICS

Next add the products.

36 24 144 720 864 Jennifer has 864 cookies in all.

The 0 is a placeholder.

103

Objective 1

A gymnastics coach ordered 15 T-shirts for her team. The total cost of the T-shirts was $165.00. How much did each T-shirt cost? Divide to ﬁnd the cost of each T-shirt. 1 15 165 –15 1 11 15 165 –15 15 –15 0 Each T-shirt cost $11.

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Divide: 16 Multiply: 1 Subtract: 16

15 15 15

1. 15. 1.

Compare: 1 < 15. Bring down the 5. Divide: 15 Multiply: 1 Subtract: 15 15 15 15 1. 15. 0.

MATHEMATICS

As you continue learning mathematics, you will see different ways to indicate multiplication and division.

Do you see that . . .

Multiplication can be indicated by a dot (•) or by parentheses. For example, 24 30 can be written as 24 • 30. It can also be written as (24)(30). Division can be indicated by a fraction bar. For example, 165 15 can be written as

165 . 15

**How Do You Solve Problems Involving Ratios and Rates?
**

When a ratio is written as a fraction, the ﬁrst number is the numerator of the fraction, and the second number is the denominator. The ratio 1:3 is 1 equivalent to the ratio . The two numbers are separated by a colon (:). The colon is read as the word to and the ratio 3:5 is read 3 to 5.

3

You can use multiplication and division to solve problems involving ratios and rates. A ratio is a comparison of two quantities. For example, if you sleep 8 out of every 24 hours, the ratio of the number of hours you sleep to the number of hours in a day is

8 8 1 . The ratio simpliﬁes to . When 24 24 3 8 1 two ratios are equal, such as and , they are called equivalent ratios. 24 3 1 The ratio can also be written in the form 1:3. The ratio of the 3

number of hours you sleep to the number of hours in a day is 1:3.

104

Objective 1

Some ratio problems use the word rate. For example, a ratio can be used to describe how far you walk in a given amount of time. If you walk 5 miles in 2 hours, the ratio 5:2 refers to the rate at which you walk. Suppose you and a friend made two types of holiday decorations. In the time it took you to make 7 window decorations, your friend made 5 door decorations. The ratio of decorations made is 7 window decorations to 5 door decorations, or 7:5.

Bill can swim 3 laps in 2 minutes. If he continues to swim at this rate, how many laps will Bill swim in 26 minutes?

●

Find the rate at which Bill swims. The numerator of the ratio is the number of laps he swims. The denominator of the ratio is the number of minutes it takes him to swim those laps.

3 laps 2 minutes 3 2

Bill’s swimming rate is 3 laps to 2 minutes, or 3:2.

MATHEMATICS

●

Find an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 26 minutes. Multiply by a fraction equal to 1 that results in 26 minutes in the denominator.

3 • 13 2 • 13 39 26

If Bill continues to swim at the same rate, he will swim 39 laps in 26 minutes.

**Any fraction with the same numerator and denominator equals 1.
**

8 8

1

John is taking a test with 150 questions. He has answered 45 of the ﬁrst 50 questions correctly. If John continues at this rate, how many questions will he answer correctly out of 150?

●

Find the rate at which John has answered questions correctly on the ﬁrst part of the test. The numerator of the ratio is the number of questions answered correctly. The denominator of the ratio is the total number of questions answered so far. John answered questions correctly at the rate 45:50.

45 correct 50 questions 45 50

●

Find an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 150 questions. Multiply by a fraction equal to 1 that results in 150 questions in the denominator.

45 • 3 50 • 3 135 150

If John continues to answer questions correctly at the same rate, he will answer 135 out of 150 questions correctly.

105

Objective 1

Try It

George earns $30 in 2 hours. If George’s rate of pay remains the same, how much money will he earn in 36 hours?

●

Find the rate at which George is paid in dollars per hour. The numerator of the ratio is the number of ________________ __________________________ . The denominator of the ratio is the number of ______________ __________________________ . He is paid at the rate $ . h

●

MATHEMATICS

**Find an equivalent ratio with a denominator of _______ hours. 30 2
**

• •

36

What is 36

2?

**If George continues to be paid at the same rate, he will earn $_______ in 36 hours.
**

The numerator of the ratio is the number of dollars he earns. The denominator of the ratio is the number of hours he works. He is paid at the rate

$30 . Find an equivalent ratio with a 2h 30 • 18 2 • 18 540 36

denominator of 36 hours.

If George continues to be paid at the same rate, he will earn $540 in 36 hours.

106

Objective 1

**How Do You Compare and Order Decimals?
**

Look at the value of the digits to help you compare and order decimals. Looking at the numbers in a place-value chart can also help you compare decimals. Order these numbers from least to greatest. 4.3 4.03 5.3 0.53 Look at the numbers in a place-value chart. You can place zeros at the end of a decimal number without changing its value.

Ones . Tenths Hundredths

Do you see that . . .

0 4 4 5

●

. . . .

5 0 3 3

3 3 0 0

Start at the left. Three of the numbers have a digit in the ones place. These numbers will be greater than the number that does not have a digit in the ones place. The number 0.53 is the least number. Look at the ones place again. Two of the numbers have a 4 in the ones place, and one number has a 5 in the ones place. The numbers with a 4 in the ones place are less than the number with a 5 in the ones place. Decide which of the two numbers with a 4 in the ones place is less. Look at the next place value, the tenths place. One of the numbers with a 4 in the ones place has a 0 in the tenths place. The other number with a 4 in the ones place has a 3 in the tenths place. The number 4.03 is less than the number 4.3. The number 5.3 is the greatest number because it has a 5 in the ones place and no other number has anything greater than or equal to a 5 in the ones place. 0.53 4.03 4.3 5.3

MATHEMATICS

●

●

●

The numbers in order from least to greatest are as follows:

107

Objective 1

Here are some math symbols you need to know. Symbol = > < ≥ ≤ Meaning is equal to is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to

**Which of these two decimals, 0.127 or 0.13, is greater? Look at the numbers in a place-value chart.
**

Ones . Tenths Hundredths Thousandths

0 0

●

. .

1 1

2 3

7 0

Start at the left. Look at the digits in the ones place. Both numbers have a 0 in the ones place. Look at the digits in the tenths place. Both numbers have a 1 in the tenths place. Look at the digits in the hundredths place. Since 3 decimal 0.13 is the greater number. 2, the

●

●

Try It

MATHEMATICS

Ricci was measuring the volume of water in several containers for a science experiment. The table below shows the measurements he took in milliliters.

Water Samples Sample 1 2 3 Volume (mL) 15.23 15.25 15.03

List the samples in order from greatest to least volume. To compare the numbers, look at the digits. Start with the digits on the left. Look at the digits in the _______________ place. All three numbers have a _______ in the tens place. Look at the digits in the _______________ place. All three numbers have a _______ in the ones place. Look at the digits in the _______________ place. Since _______ _______ , the decimals 15.23 and 15.25 are both

greater than 15.03. To determine whether 15.23 or 15.25 is greater, look at the digits in the _______________ place.

108

Objective 1

Since _______ _______ .

_______ , the decimal _______ is greater than

The measurements listed in order from greatest to least are as follows: __________ mL, __________ mL, __________ mL The samples listed in order from greatest to least volume are as follows: Sample _______ , Sample _______ , Sample _______

Start with the digits on the left. Look at the digits in the tens place. All three numbers have a 1 in the tens place. Look at the digits in the ones place. All three numbers have a 5 in the ones place. Look at the digits in the tenths place. Since 2 0, the decimals 15.23 and 15.25 are both greater than 15.03. Look at the digits in the hundredths place. Since 5 3, the decimal 15.25 is greater than 15.23. The measurements listed in order from greatest to least are 15.25 mL, 15.23 mL, and 15.03 mL. The samples listed in order from greatest to least volume are Sample 2, Sample 1, and Sample 3.

MATHEMATICS

**How Do You Add or Subtract Decimals?
**

To add or subtract decimals, follow these steps:

●

Line up the decimal points of the numbers being added or subtracted. When necessary, place zeros at the end of the decimals so that each number has the same number of decimal places. Add or subtract. Regroup when necessary. Bring the decimal point straight down in the answer.

●

● ● ●

Hannah is making a picture frame. The length of the frame is 34.5 cm. The width of the frame is 7.25 cm less than the length. How wide is the frame in centimeters? Write the numbers in a column and line up the decimal points. Use subtraction to ﬁnd the difference. Be sure to place the decimal point in the answer.

2 14 4 10

34.50 7.25 27.25 The frame is 27.25 centimeters in width.

109

Objective 1

Gail mixed together several chemicals in the science laboratory to form a compound. The table below shows the masses of the chemicals she mixed together.

Compound Chemical A B C D Mass (g) 182.74 51.03 0.29 0.045

What was the total mass of the compound in grams? Write the numbers in a column. Line up the decimal points. If necessary, place zeros at the end of the decimals so that each number has the same number of decimal places.

1 1 2

MATHEMATICS

182.740 51.030 0.290 0.045 234.105 The total mass of the compound was 234.105 grams.

Jennie has a spool with 35.5 meters of ribbon on it. She uses 2.14 meters of ribbon to wrap one gift and 2.23 meters of ribbon to wrap another gift. How many meters of ribbon are left on the spool?

●

Add to ﬁnd the amount of ribbon Jennie used in all. 2.14 2.23 4.37 Subtract to ﬁnd how much ribbon is left. Add a zero so that the numbers have the same number of decimal places. Regroup 5 tenths as 4 tenths and 10 hundredths.

● ●

4 10

●

35.50 4.37 31.13

There are 31.13 meters of ribbon left on the spool.

110

Objective 1

Try It

Jolene is on the track team. She runs the 100-yard dash. The table below shows her times for the last four races she ran.

100-Yard Dash Race 1 2 3 4 Time (seconds) 17.024 16.91 16.835 17.1

How do you know which is the fastest time?

What is the difference between her fastest and slowest times? Her fastest time is __________ seconds. Her slowest time is __________ seconds. Use the operation of _________________ to ﬁnd the difference between these times. Use the space below to ﬁnd the answer. _______ _______ . _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ . _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ . _______ _______ _______ The difference between her fastest and slowest times is _______ second.

Her fastest time is 16.835 seconds. Her slowest time is 17.1 seconds. Use the operation of subtraction to ﬁnd the difference between these times. Line up the decimal points, place zeros at the end of 17.1, and regroup to subtract. The difference between her fastest and slowest times is 0.265 second.

10 9 6 1110 10

MATHEMATICS

Numbers multiplied together to give a product are called factors of that product. For example, 8 and 5 are factors of 40 because 8 5 40. One number is a factor of another number if it divides into that number evenly. This means it divides with a zero remainder. For example, 7 is a factor of 56 because it divides evenly: 56 7 8.

17.100 –16.835 00.265

**What Is a Common Factor?
**

Factors shared by two or more numbers are called common factors of those numbers. For example, 7 is a factor of 21 because 21 ÷ 7 = 3. It is also a factor of 63 because 63 ÷ 7 = 9. Therefore, 7 is a common factor of 21 and 63.

111

Objective 1

**Find all the common factors of 18 and 27.
**

●

List the factors of each number. Factors of 18: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 Factors of 27: 1, 3, 9, 27

●

Circle the factors that 18 and 27 have in common.

The common factors of 18 and 27 are 1, 3, and 9.

**How Do You Identify a Greatest Common Factor?
**

The greatest factor shared by two numbers is called the greatest common factor of the two numbers. What is the greatest common factor of 42 and 70?

●

List the factors of each number. Factors of 42: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42 Factors of 70: 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 35, 70

MATHEMATICS

●

Circle the factors that 42 and 70 have in common.

The greatest common factor is 14. It is the greatest number that is a factor of both 42 and 70.

Try It

Find the common factors of 36 and 54. Then identify the greatest common factor. Factors of 36 are 1, _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , and 36. Factors of 54 are 1, _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , and 54. The common factors of 36 and 54 are _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , and _______ . The greatest common factor of 36 and 54 is _______ .

Factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 36. Factors of 54 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18, 27, and 54. The common factors of 36 and 54 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 18. The greatest common factor of 36 and 54 is 18.

112

Objective 1

**What Is a Multiple of a Number?
**

A multiple of a number is any product of that number and another whole number. Is 20 a multiple of 4?

●

The number 20 can be written as the product of 4 and another whole number. 20 = 4 • 5

●

Since 20 is the product of 4 and 5, the number 20 is a multiple of 4. To determine whether a given number is a multiple of another number, you can also divide. If a number can be divided evenly by another number, the ﬁrst number is a multiple of the second number. Is 55 a multiple of 11?

● ●

A number can be divided evenly by another number if there is no remainder. 30 5 6 Since there is no remainder, 30 can be divided evenly by 5. 27 5 5 R2 Since there is a remainder of 2, 27 cannot be divided evenly by 5.

Does 55 divide evenly by 11, or is there a remainder? 55 11 5 There is no remainder, so it divides evenly.

MATHEMATICS

Since 55 divides evenly by 11, the number 55 is a multiple of 11.

**How Do You Identify a Least Common Multiple?
**

The least common multiple of two or more numbers is the least number that is in each of their list of multiples. To list the multiples of a number, multiply that number by 1, and then by 2, and then by 3, and so on. For example, ﬁnd the ﬁrst ﬁve multiples of 7. 1•7=7 2 • 7 = 14 3 • 7 = 21 4 • 7 = 28 5 • 7 = 35 The ﬁrst ﬁve multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. To ﬁnd the least common multiple of two or more numbers, follow these steps:

● ● ●

List the ﬁrst several multiples of each of the numbers. Identify the least number that appears in all the lists. If there is no common number in the lists, ﬁnd more multiples.

**What is the least common multiple of 24 and 18?
**

●

List the ﬁrst several multiples of both numbers. Multiples of 24: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, … Multiples of 18: 18, 36, 54, 72, 90, 108, …

●

The least number in both lists of multiples is 72.

**The least common multiple of 24 and 18 is 72.
**

113

Objective 1

Try It

What is the least common multiple of 40 and 50? The ﬁrst six multiples of 40 are as follows: 40, _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , and _______ . The ﬁrst six multiples of 50 are as follows: 50, _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , and _______ . The least number that appears in both lists is _______ . The least common multiple of 40 and 50 is _______ .

The ﬁrst six multiples of 40 are 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240. The ﬁrst six multiples of 50 are 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300. The least number that appears in both lists is 200. The least common multiple of 40 and 50 is 200.

MATHEMATICS

What Is an Exponent?

An exponent is a number that tells how many times a number, the base, is used as a factor.

3

● ●

4

Exponent Base

The expression 34 means the number 3 is used as a factor 4 times. 34 3 3 3 3 The expression 34 is read as three to the fourth power. In this expression, 3 is the base, and 4 is the exponent. Since 3 3 3 3 81, you can also write 34 81.

●

**Here are some examples of expressions that use exponents and what they are equal to:
**

● ● ● ●

32 43 5 3

2

3 4 62 2

4

3 4 5 (3

9 4 (6 3) 64 6) (2 5 2 36 2 180 2) 9 16 144

114

Objective 1

**How Can You Use Exponents?
**

You can use exponents to write the prime factorization of a number. Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers. This is called the prime factorization of the number. When a factor is repeated in a prime factorization, express the repeated factor using an exponent. A factor tree also can help you ﬁnd the prime factorization of a composite number. It does not matter which factor pair you start with, as long as you continue factoring until you have only prime numbers. What is the prime factorization of 48 using exponents? ● 48 3 16 The number 3 is prime, but 16 is

● ● ●

A prime number is a number with exactly two factors, 1 and itself. The ﬁrst eight prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, and 19. A composite number is a number that has more than two factors. For example, the factors of 39 are 1, 3, 13, and 39. Therefore, 39 is a composite number. The numbers 0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite.

composite. Find the factors of 16. The numbers 3 and 2 are prime, but 8 is composite. Find the factors of 8.

48 48 48

3 3 3

2 2 2

48

8 2 2 4 2 2

The numbers 3 and 2 are prime, but 4 is composite. Find the factors of 4.

MATHEMATICS

The numbers 3 and 2 are prime. There is 1 factor of 3 and 4 factors of 2. The number 3 is prime, but 16 is composite. Find the factors of 16. The numbers 3 and 2 are prime, but 8 is composite. Find the factors of 8. The numbers 3 and 2 are prime, but 4 is composite. Find the factors of 4. The numbers 3 and 2 are prime. There is 1 factor of 3 and 4 factors of 2.

3 x 16 3 x 2 x 8 3 x 2 x 2 x 4 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 Four of the factors are 2.

The prime factorization of 48 is 3

24.

The exponent 4 shows how many times the base number 2 is used as a factor. The factor 3 is used only once. It has an exponent of 1. Exponents of 1 do not need to be written. Prime factorizations are usually written in order from least to greatest base number. The prime factorization of 48 can also be written 24 3.

Do you see that . . .

115

Objective 1

**Here is one way to ﬁnd the prime factorization of 72 using a factor tree.
**

72 6 x 12

3 x 2 x 3 x 4 3 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 2

● ● ● ●

72 72 72 72

6 3 3 (2

12 2 2 2 3 3 2) 4 2 (3 2

The numbers 6 and 12 are composite. Continue factoring. The numbers 2 and 3 are prime, but 4 is composite. Factor 4. Both 2 and 3 are prime.

**3) Arrange the factors in order and then
**

group them. There are 3 factors of 2 and 2 factors of 3.

MATHEMATICS

The prime factorization of 72 is 23

32.

**What is the prime factorization of 126 using exponents?
**

126 2 x 63 2 x 9 x 7 2 x 3 x 3 x 7

● ● ● ●

126 126 126 126

2 2 2 2

63 7 7 (3 9 3 3) 3 7

The number 2 is prime, but 63 is composite. Factor 63. The numbers 2 and 7 are prime, but 9 is composite. Factor 9. The numbers 2, 3, and 7 are all prime. Arrange the factors in order and then group them.

The prime factorization of 126 is 2

32

7.

116

Objective 1

Try It

Complete the factor tree below to ﬁnd the prime factorization of 90. 90

10

x

9

x

x

x

The prime factors of 90 are _______ , _______ , _______ , and _______ . There are _______ factors of 3. The prime factorization of 90 written using exponents is _____________________________ .

The prime factors of 90 are 2, 3, 3, and 5. There are 2 factors of 3. The prime factorization of 90 written using exponents is 2 32 5.

MATHEMATICS

**How Do You Compare and Order Fractions?
**

To compare and order fractions with the same denominator, compare their numerators. Compare the fractions

3 7 and . These two fractions have the 10 10

**same denominator. Compare their numerators. Since 3 fraction
**

3 7 is less than . 10 10 3 10 7 . 10

7, the

A fraction is a number that names part of a whole. The denominator tells the number of equal parts into which the whole has been divided. The numerator tells how many of the equal parts have been selected.

3 4

The model below also shows that

Numerator Denominator

117

Objective 1

**Order the fractions below from least to greatest.
**

1 12 5 12 3 12 2 12 7 12

All the denominators are the same. Compare the numerators. The numerators are 1, 5, 3, 2, and 7. The numerators in order from least to greatest are 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7. The fractions in order from least to greatest are as follows:

1 12 2 12 3 12 5 12 7 12

To compare two fractions that have different denominators, rewrite them as equivalent fractions with the same denominator. Then compare the numerators. Which of these two fractions,

4 7 or , is greater? 9 18

MATHEMATICS

●

Because the fractions have different denominators, you cannot compare them directly. You must ﬁrst rewrite them as equivalent fractions with common denominators. Find the least common multiple of 9 and 18. Multiples of 9: 9, 18, 27, 36, … Multiples of 18: 18, 36, 54, 72, … The least common multiple is 18. Use 18 as the common denominator.

●

●

**Find a fraction that is equivalent to of 18. Since 9 2 is equal to one.
**

4•2 9•2 8 18

4 with a denominator 9 2 18, multiply by the fraction , which 2

**To ﬁnd an equivalent fraction, multiply by a fraction equal to 1.
**

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 3 4 6 6 9 8 12

●

8 4 is equivalent to . 18 9 8 7 Now compare and . 18 18 8 7 Since 8 7, the fraction is greater than . 18 18 8 7 4 4 Since , the fraction is greater than . 18 9 9 18

The fraction

**These fractions are all equivalent.
**

2 3 4 6 6 9 8 12

118

Objective 1

Try It

Which of these two fractions,

5 12 or , is greater? 6 15

The fractions have different denominators. Find a __________________________ . Multiples of 6: ______ , ______ , ______ , ______ , ______ , ______ , … Multiples of 15: ______ , ______ , ______ , ______ , ______ , … The least common multiple of 6 and 15 is _______ . Use _______ as the common denominator. Find a fraction that is equivalent to and has a denominator of _______ . Since 6 _______ 30, multiply by the fraction :

5 6 5 5 5 6

.

Find a fraction that is equivalent to 15 _______

12 and has a denominator of _______ . Since 15

MATHEMATICS

30, multiply by the fraction

:

12 15

2 2

.

Now compare

30

and

30

. Since _______

_______ , the fraction

30

30

. Therefore,

30

is the greater fraction.

Since

30

6

, the simpliﬁed fraction

is the greater fraction.

Find a common denominator. Multiples of 6: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, . . . Multiples of 15: 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, . . . The least common multiple of 6 and 15 is 30. Use 30 as the common denominator. Find a fraction that is equivalent to

5 and has a denominator of 30. Since 6 5 5 5 25 12 6 5 30, multiply by the fraction : . Find a fraction that is equivalent to 5 6 5 30 15 2 12 2 24 and has a denominator of 30. Since 15 2 30, multiply by the fraction : . 2 15 2 30 25 24 25 24 25 Now compare and . Since 25 24, it follows that . The fraction is the 30 30 30 30 30 25 5 5 greater fraction. Since , the simpliﬁed fraction is the greater fraction. 30 6 6

119

Objective 1

**A mixed number is a number that represents a whole number plus a fraction. The mixed number 5 is equivalent to 5
**

1 3 1 . 3 1 3

**How Do You Compare and Order Mixed Numbers?
**

To compare two mixed numbers, ﬁrst compare the whole-number parts. Then compare the fractional parts. Compare the mixed numbers 2 and 2 .

1 5 3 8

In the mixed number 5 , we refer to the 5 as the whole-number part and to the as the fractional part.

● ●

Compare the whole-number parts of the two mixed numbers. 2 Compare the fractional parts. To compare

1 3 and , you will need to ﬁnd a common 5 8

1 3

2

The whole-number parts are equal.

MATHEMATICS

denominator. The least common multiple of 5 and 8 is the common denominator. Multiples of 5: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, . . . Multiples of 8: 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, . . . The common denominator is 40. Multiply by fractions equal to one to change each fraction to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 40.

1•8 5•8 3•5 8•5

●

8 40 15 40

8 3 1 , the fraction is greater than . 40 8 5 3 1 3 1 Therefore, 2 is greater than 2 , or 2 2 . 8 5 8 5

Since

15 40

**Place the mixed numbers below in order from least to greatest. 6
**

●

Compare the whole-number parts of the mixed numbers: 6, 6, 4, and 5. The number 4 is the least number in this list, so the mixed number 4 is the least. List it ﬁrst. The next-lowest number on the list of whole numbers is 5. The mixed number 5 is next on the list.

1 3 2 3

5 8

6

1 4

4

2 3

5

1 3

●

120

Objective 1

● ●

common multiple of 8 and 4 is the common denominator. Multiples of 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, . . . Multiples of 8: 8, 16, 24, . . . The common denominator is 8. The fraction denominator of 8. Multiply to change with a denominator of 8. Since

2 8 1•2 4•2 2 8

5 1 and 6 have 6 as the whole-number part. 8 4 5 1 Compare the fractional parts, and . 8 4 5 1 To compare to , ﬁnd a common denominator. The least 8 4

The mixed numbers 6

1 to an equivalent fraction 4

5 already has the 8

●

**The mixed numbers listed in order from least to greatest are as follows: 4
**

2 3

5 1 , then the fraction 8 4 1 3

1 5 , and 6 4 8 5 8

6 .

5 8

MATHEMATICS

5

6

1 4

6

Try It

Place the numbers below in order from least to greatest. 3

5 12

3

1 2

7 12

4

3 10

6

1 2

The list includes mixed numbers and a fraction. Since

is

a fraction without a whole-number part, it is the least number. Compare the whole-number parts of the remaining numbers: 3, 3, 4, and 6. Two of the mixed numbers have a _______ as their whole-number part. Since 3 4 and 3 _______ , the numbers with a 3 as their wholenumber part are next on the list. Compare the fractional parts of 3

5 1 and 3 . 12 2

Find the least common multiple of _______ and _______ . Multiples of 12: _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , … Multiples of 2: _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , _______ , …

121

Objective 1

The least common multiple is _______ . Use _______ as the common denominator. Find a fraction that is equivalent to of 12. Since 2 _______ and has a denominator

6 6

**12, multiply by the fraction .
**

1 2 6 6

The fraction Compare

1 is equivalent to 2

12

. _______ , the

12

and

12

. Since _______

MATHEMATICS

fraction

5 6 _______ . 12 12

So the mixed number _______ number _______ _______ .

_______ , or the simpliﬁed mixed

The remaining numbers are 4

1 3 and 6 . Since _______ 2 10

6, the

**numbers written in order from least to greatest are as follows: ___________ , ___________ , ___________ , ___________ , ___________
**

Since

7 is a fraction without a whole-number part, it is the least number. 12

Two of the mixed numbers have a 3 as their whole-number part. Since 3 and 3

4

6, the numbers with a 3 as their whole-number part are next on the

list. Find the least common multiple of 12 and 2. Multiples of 12: 12, 24, 36, 48, . . . Multiples of 2: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, . . . The least common multiple is 12. Use 12 as the common denominator. Find a fraction that is

1 and has a denominator of 12. Since 2 6 12, multiply by 2 6 1 6 6 1 6 5 the fraction : . The fraction is equivalent to . Compare and 6 2 6 12 2 12 12 6 5 6 5 6 . Since 5 6, the fraction . So the mixed number 3 3 , or 12 12 12 12 12 5 1 7 5 1 3 3 3 . Since 4 6, the numbers written in order are , 3 , 3 , 4 , 12 2 12 12 2 10 1 and 6 . 2

equivalent to

122

Objective 1

**How Can You Change a Fraction into Its Decimal Equivalent?
**

One way to change a fraction into its decimal equivalent is to divide the numerator of the fraction by the denominator. Suppose you want to write the fraction as a decimal. Divide the 8 numerator, 3, by the denominator, 8. In a decimal number you can place zeros at the end of the number without changing its value. Continue to place zeros at the end of the number until the division yields a remainder of zero. 0.375 8 3.000 24 60 56 40 40 0

3

Do you see that . . .

MATHEMATICS

The fraction

3 3 expressed as a decimal is 0.375, so 8 8

0.375.

You can also change a fraction into its decimal equivalent by rewriting it as a fraction with a denominator of 10, 100, or 1,000, and so on. Then write it as its decimal equivalent. Write the fraction

●

1 as a decimal. 2 1 First write the fraction as an equivalent fraction with a 2

denominator of 10. The fraction

● ● ● ●

1 5 is equivalent to . 2 10 5 The fraction is read as ﬁve tenths. 10

1•5 2•5

5 10

The decimal 0.5 is read as ﬁve tenths. These two numbers have the same value; they are equivalent.

1 is equivalent to the decimal 0.5. 2

The fraction

123

Objective 1

**How Do You Compare and Order Different Types of Numbers?
**

One way to compare and order a set of different types of numbers (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and mixed numbers) is to plot them on a number line. Write these numbers in order from least to greatest. 4 Plot each number on a number line. The marks on the number line below separate each unit into 10 smaller divisions.

7 10

3

1 2

4.3

4.8

Do you see that . . .

**Each smaller division represents
**

32 3

●

1

1 , or 0.10. 10

4.3

4 10 4.8 5

7

number 4.

7 The point for 4 is 7 one-tenth marks past the whole 10

4

MATHEMATICS

●

The point for 3 is halfway between the 3 and the 4. It is

**the way between the 3 and the 4. It is 5 one-tenth marks past the whole number 3.
**

●

1 2

5 of 10

The point for 4.3 is 3 one-tenth marks past the whole number 4. The point for 4.8 is 8 one-tenth marks past the whole number 4.

1 2 7 , 10

●

Now use the number line to put the numbers in order. The numbers in order from least to greatest is are 3 , 4.3, 4 and 4.8.

Another way to compare and order different types of numbers is to rewrite the numbers as either all fractions or all decimals. The format you choose depends on the set of numbers you wish to order.

124

Objective 1

**Write these numbers in order from least to greatest. 2.9
**

●

1

**To compare these numbers, rewrite them as their decimal equivalents. Original Number 2.9 is already a decimal. 1
**

1 5 1 2 2

1 5

2

1 2

2.3

Equivalent Decimal 2.9 1.2 2.5 2.3 1.2 2.5 2.3

1

2 10 5 2 10

1.2 2.5

2.3 is already a decimal.

●

Compare 2.9, 1.2, 2.5, and 2.3. Look at the ones place: 2.9 Three of the numbers have a 2 in the ones place, and one number has a 1 in the ones place. Since 1 2, the decimal 1.2 is the least number. It should be written ﬁrst. Now look at the tenths place: 2.9 Since 3 5 and 5 1.2 1

1 5

MATHEMATICS

2.5

2.3 2.5 and 2.5 2.9 2.9 2.9.

9, the number 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.5 2

1 2

The decimals written in order from least to greatest are as follows: The original numbers written in order are as follows:

Try It

Which is the greatest number: 3.4, 3 , or 3.67? Since two of the numbers are already in decimal form, one way to compare them is to write all three numbers as decimals. Find the decimal equivalent of the mixed number _______ . To convert

5 into a decimal, use the operation of _______________ . 8

5 8

Divide _______ by _______ . Place zeros after the decimal point in order to complete the division. 8 5.000

125

Objective 1

The fraction

5 8

5 is equivalent to the decimal ____________ . 8

So, 3 is equivalent to ____________ . Compare the three decimals: 3.4, 3.625, 3.67. They all have a _______ in the ones place. Look at the _______________ place. Since _______ _______ , the

decimal ____________ is the least. Compare the two remaining decimals. They both have a _______ in the tenths place. Look at the ____________________ place. Since _______ the decimal ____________ is the greatest number.

Find the decimal equivalent of the mixed number 3 . To convert

5 8 5 into a 8

_______ ,

MATHEMATICS

**decimal, use division. Divide 5 by 8. The fraction
**

5 8 5 is equivalent to the decimal 0.625. 8

So, 3 is equivalent to 3.625. The decimals all have a 3 in the ones place. Look at the tenths place. Since 4 6, the decimal 3.4 is the least. The two remaining decimals both have a 6 in the tenths place. Look at the hundredths place. Since 7 2, the decimal 3.67 is the greatest number.

0.625 8 5.000 48 20 16 40 40 0

You can also compare a group of fractions and decimals by changing each decimal number into an equivalent fraction or mixed number. Then compare the fractions or mixed numbers. To change a decimal into an equivalent fraction or mixed number, follow these steps:

●

Use the digits to the right of the decimal point as the numerator of the fractional part of the number. The last place value of the decimal will be the denominator of the fraction. If there is a digit to the left of the decimal point, it will be the whole-number part of the mixed number.

●

●

126

Objective 1

Suppose you want to compare the mixed number 5 and the 4 decimal 5.43. One way would be to write them both as mixed numbers.

●

1

The decimal 5.43 is read as 5 and 43 hundredths.

5.43

Whole-number Decimal part part

5

43 100

Since 3 is in the hundredths place, 100 is the denominator of the fraction.

**The decimal 5.43 is equivalent to the mixed number 5
**

●

Compare 5 and 5

Compare the whole-number parts. They both are 5. Look at the fractional parts. The fractional parts have different denominators. Rewrite

1 4

43 . 100

43 . 100

●

1 as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100. 4 1 • 25 25 • 25 4 100 1 25 The fraction 5 is equivalent to the fraction 5 . 4 100 25 43 Compare 5 and 5 . 100 100

MATHEMATICS

The denominators are equal. Compare the numerators of the fractional parts. Since 25 43, the mixed number 5

●

**Rewrite the numbers in their original forms. 5 5.43.
**

1 4

25 100

5

43 . 100

1 The mixed number 5 4

5.43

Try It

Order these numbers from least to greatest. 4 Since _______

3 4

4

9 10

5.01

4.6

Compare the whole-number parts. _______ , the decimal 5.01 will be last on the list. Compare the three numbers that have a 4 as their whole-number part. Since two of the numbers are already mixed numbers, one way to compare them is to write all three numbers as mixed numbers. Convert the decimal _______ into a mixed number. The decimal 4.6 is read as 4 and 6 tenths.

127

Objective 1

The whole-number part of the mixed number is _______ . The numerator of the fractional part is _______ . The denominator of the fractional part is _______ . The decimal 4.6 is equivalent to the mixed number _______ . The numbers 4 , 4 , and 4

3 4 9 10 6 need to be rewritten as fractions 10

that have a common denominator. The least common multiple of 4 and 10 is _______ . Use _______ as the least common denominator. Change each fraction into an equivalent fraction that has the common denominator of 20.

3 4

MATHEMATICS

20

44

9

3

4

20

9 10

20

410 410

6

4

20

6 10

20

4

20

Since 12 is the least numerator, the mixed number _______ should be listed ﬁrst. The numbers in order from least to greatest are as follows: 4

12 20

4

15 20

4

18 20

5.01

**The original numbers in order from least to greatest are ___________ , ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ .
**

Since 4 5, the decimal 5.01 will be last on the list. Convert the decimal 4.6 into a mixed number. The whole-number part of the mixed number is 4. The numerator of the fractional part is 6. The denominator of the fractional part is 10. The decimal 4.6 is equivalent to the mixed number 4 . The least common multiple of 4 and 10 is 20. Use 20 as the least common denominator.

18 9 18 6 2 ,4 4 20 10 20 10 2 12 Since 12 is the least numerator, 4 should be listed ﬁrst. 20 3 4 5 5 15 3 ,4 20 4 6 10

4

15 20

9 10

2 2

12 6 ,4 20 10

4

12 20

**The original numbers in order from least to greatest are as follows: 4.6
**

128

4

3 4

4

9 10

5.01

Objective 1

**How Do You Add or Subtract Fractions and Mixed Numbers?
**

To add or subtract fractions with a common denominator, add or subtract their numerators. The denominator remains the same. If necessary, simplify the answer. Add

3 7 2 . 7

**The fractions have the same denominator, so add their numerators.
**

3 7 3 Therefore, 7 5 12 11 . 12 2 7 5 . 7 2 7 (3 7 2) 5 7

Add

●

The fractions have a common denominator, so add their numerators. The answer has a numerator that is greater than its denominator. This is sometimes referred to as an improper fraction. Rewrite the improper fraction as a mixed number. To rewrite an improper fraction as a mixed number, divide the numerator by the denominator and write the remainder as a fraction. The remainder is the numerator, and the divisor is the denominator. 1 R4 12 16 1

4 12 5 12 11 12 (5 11) 12 16 12

MATHEMATICS

●

●

●

**Simplify the fractional part of 1 .
**

4 12 4 4 4 1 12 1 3

4 12

1

1 3

Therefore,

5 12

11 12

1 .

1 3

129

Objective 1

Subtract

●

**The fractions have a common denominator, so subtract their numerators.
**

2 8 5 8 1 . 4 3 8 2 8

5 8

3 . 8

●

**Simplify the fraction:
**

5 8 3 8 1 . 4

Therefore,

To add or subtract fractions or mixed numbers that have different denominators, ﬁrst ﬁnd a common denominator for the fractions. Add 3

●

MATHEMATICS

These mixed numbers have different denominators. Rewrite them using a common denominator. Find the least common multiple of 3 and 8. The least common multiple is 24.

2•8 3•8 2 3 16 24 16 24 1•3 8•3 1 8 3 24 3 24

2 3

4 .

1 8

**The mixed numbers now have a common denominator. 3
**

●

3

4

4

**Add the mixed numbers.
**

16 Add the numerators: 16 3 19. 24 3 4 The denominators stay the same. 24 19 7 Add the whole numbers: 3 4 7. 24 1 19 4 7 . 8 24

3

Therefore, 3

2 3

130

Objective 1

When subtracting mixed numbers, you sometimes need to find a common denominator and regroup the whole-number and fractional parts. Subtract 3

●

These mixed numbers have different denominators. Rewrite them using a common denominator. Find the least common multiple of 4 and 2. The least common multiple is 4. The fraction

1 4

1 .

1 2

1 already has a denominator of 4. 4 1 Find an equivalent fraction for 1 that has a denominator of 4. 2 1•2 2 2•2 4 1 4 1 2 2 4

**The fractions now have a common denominator. 3
**

●

1

1

Since

1 2 1 is less than , 3 must be regrouped. 4 4 4 1 4 1 5 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 5 4 2 1 4 3 1 4

MATHEMATICS

●

**Subtract the mixed numbers. 2
**

Subtract the numerators: 5 2 3.

The denominators stay the same. Subtract the whole numbers: 2 1 1.

Therefore, 3

1 4

1

1 2

1 .

3 4

131

Objective 1

Jean is cutting strips of paper for a decorating project. One strip of paper is 3 inches long, and another strip of paper is 8 inches long. How much longer is the second strip than the ﬁrst strip?

●

2 3

**To ﬁnd the difference, subtract the mixed number 3 from the 3 whole number 8. 8 3
**

2 3

2

●

Since the whole number 8 does not have a fractional part, it must be regrouped to form a mixed number. Use 3 as the denominator because the mixed number 3 has a denominator 3 of 3. 8 7 7

3 3 2

The mixed numbers now have a common denominator.

3 3

7

2 3

3 3

MATHEMATICS

3

●

**Subtract the mixed numbers.
**

3 3 2 3 3 1 4 3

7

Subtract the numerators: 3

2

1.

The denominators stay the same. Subtract the whole numbers: 7 3 4.

The second strip is 4 inches longer than the ﬁrst strip.

1 3

132

Objective 1

Try It

Terry received

1 of the votes. What fraction of the votes did Terry and Missy 4

3 of the votes for class president. Missy received 5

receive altogether?

Use the operation of ____________________ to ﬁnd the fraction of votes they received altogether.

Express both fractions as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. The least common multiple of 4 and 5 is _______ . Use _______ as the common denominator.

3• 5• 12 20 1•5 4•5

MATHEMATICS

The fractions now have a common denominator, so add their numerators.

Altogether, Terry and Missy received president.

of the votes for class

**Use the operation of addition to ﬁnd the fraction of votes they received altogether:
**

3 5 1 . The least common multiple of 4 and 5 is 20. Use 20 as the 4 3•4 5•4 12 20 5 20 12 20 1•5 4•5 5 20

common denominator.

**The fractions now have a common denominator, so add their numerators:
**

17 17 . Altogether, Terry and Missy received of the votes for class 20 20

president.

133

Objective 1

**How Can You Model Problems Involving Fractions?
**

You can model problems involving fractions by writing expressions that represent the problem situation.

1 of the cookies to his 4 1 1 brother, of the cookies to a friend, and of the cookies to his 3 5

Mario has a plate of cookies. Mario gives

mother. What expression represents the fraction of the plate of cookies that Mario has left? whole plate of cookies. He gives away , then , and then

1 4 1 3

The plate of cookies represents one whole. Mario starts with one cookies. The operation of subtraction can be used to ﬁnd the fraction of cookies that Mario has left. 1

1 (4 1 3 1 5

1 of the 5

)

1

1 4

1 3

1 5

MATHEMATICS

Try It

Hal used

1 1 gallon of paint for one part of a room, gallon of paint 2 3 1 for another part of the room, 1 gallons of paint for a patio room, 3 1 and gallon of paint for a kitchen cabinet. Write an expression 4

that represents the total number of gallons of paint that Hal used. Use the operation of ______________ to ﬁnd the total.

Use the operation of addition to ﬁnd the total: 2

1

1 3

13

1

1 4.

134

Objective 1

Try It

Ralph has 2 loaves of bread. He uses 1 loaves to make stufﬁng. How much bread does Ralph have left? These mixed numbers have different denominators, so rewrite them using a common denominator. The least common multiple of 3 and 4 is _______.

1• 3• 3• 4•

1 3

3 4

12

12

**The mixed numbers now have a common denominator. 2 Since regrouped.
**

4 9 is less than , the mixed number __________ must be 12 12 1 3

__________

1 = __________

3 4

MATHEMATICS

2

4 12

1

12 12 16 12

__________

9 12

__________

Subtract the mixed numbers. 1 Ralph has 1

of a loaf of bread left.

**The least common multiple of 3 and 4 is 12.
**

1•4 3•4 4 12 3•3 4•3 9 12

**The mixed numbers now have a common denominator. 2 Since
**

1 3

2

4 12

1

3 4

1

9 12

4 9 4 is less than , the mixed number 2 must be regrouped. 12 12 12 4 12 4 16 2 1 1 12 12 12 12

**Subtract the mixed numbers. 1 Ralph has
**

7 of a loaf of bread left. 12 16 12

1

9 12

7 12

135

Objective 1

**How Do You Determine Whether a Solution to a Problem Is Reasonable?
**

One way to determine whether an answer to a problem is reasonable (makes sense) is to round the numbers in the problem before you do the arithmetic. Then solve the problem using the rounded numbers. When you do this, you are making an estimate of the answer. The estimate tells you about how big or small the exact answer should be. It is always a good idea to estimate ﬁrst; then you will know whether your exact answer is reasonable. You can also estimate when you do not need an exact answer to a problem. For example, some problems ask about how many or approximately how much. Use estimation to solve such problems. Mrs. Gupta places a check mark on the board for each day a student orders lunch. Of the students in Mrs. Gupta’s classes, 18 have ordered lunch 22 times, 12 have ordered lunch 29 times, and 11 have ordered lunch 42 times. What would be a reasonable estimate of the number of lunches these students have ordered altogether?

●

MATHEMATICS

Look at the pairs of numbers of students and numbers of lunches. 18 and 22 12 and 29 11 and 42 One way to estimate the answer is to round each number to the nearest ten. To round to the nearest ten, look at the ones place. Round 18 to 20 Round 22 to 20 Round 12 to 10 Round 29 to 30 Round 11 to 10 Round 42 to 40

●

●

Multiply to estimate the number of lunches. 18 12 11 22 29 42 400 becomes 20 becomes 10 becomes 10 300 400 20 30 40 1,100 400 300 400

●

Add to ﬁnd an estimate of the total number of lunches.

Mrs. Gupta’s students have ordered about 1,100 lunches altogether.

136

Objective 1

When estimating a total from a list of numbers, you sometimes can pair numbers that add up to an easier number. For example, 7 3 10, 8 2 10, and so on. Jeff is estimating his total grocery bill for 6 items. $4 $5 $1 $2 $3 $4 Jeff pairs numbers that add up to 5, and he quickly estimates that the total is about $20.

● ● ● ● ●

4 3

1 2

5 5

One item costs $5. Another item costs $4, which is close to 5. 5 5 5 5 20

A total of $20 is a good estimate.

MATHEMATICS

Try It

All 98 students in the sixth-grade class at Acme School went on a ﬁeld trip. Each student walked 4.7 miles on a guided sight-seeing tour. About how many miles did the students walk altogether? Estimate to ﬁnd about how many miles they walked altogether. Round 98 to _______ . Round 4.7 to _______ . Use the operation of _____________________ to ﬁnd the total number of miles walked. _______ _______ _______

**Altogether, the students walked about _______ miles.
**

Round 98 to 100. Round 4.7 to 5. Use the operation of multiplication to ﬁnd the total number of miles walked: 100 5 500. Altogether, the students walked about 500 miles.

Now practice what you’ve learned.

137

Objective 1

Question

1

Question

3

Harry was conducting a science experiment. He measured the lengths of four insects in centimeters. The ﬁrst insect was 1.81 cm long, the second was 2.134 cm long, the third was 2.9 cm long, and the fourth was 1.88 cm long. Which list shows these numbers in order from greatest to least? A B C 2.134 2.9 2.134 2.9 2.134 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.81 2.134 1.81 1.81 2.9 2.9

Answer Key: page 235

At basketball practice John attempted 30 free throws and made 25 of them. What fraction represents the ratio of free throws John made to the free throws he attempted? A B C D

6 5 5 11 5 6 1 6

D 1.81

MATHEMATICS

Question

2

Karl has a collection of colored marbles. Some of the marbles are polished, and others are not. The table below shows the fraction of marbles that are polished for each color.

**Karl’s Marble Collection Color Red Blue Green White Fraction Polished
**

1 3 5 12 2 3 1 6

For which color are the greatest fraction of marbles polished? A B C Red Blue Green

D White

Answer Key: page 235

Answer Key: page 235

138

Objective 1

Question

4

Question

6

5

2 2

Victoria surveyed all the students in her sixthgrade class to ﬁnd her classmates’ favorite type of pet. The table below shows the results of her survey.

**Find the prime factorization of 360. A B C 2 2
**

2 3

3 3 3

5 5

Favorite Pets Type of Pet Dog Cat Fish Number of Students 15 7 3

2

D 10

36

Answer Key: page 236

Question How is the fraction of students whose favorite pet is a dog expressed as a decimal? A B C 0.15 0.06 3.5

7

Earl has 36 red jelly beans, 48 blue jelly beans, and 72 yellow jelly beans. He wants to divide his jelly beans evenly among his friends. What is the greatest number Earl can use to divide the jelly beans evenly? A B C 6 8 12

MATHEMATICS

D 0.6

Answer Key: page 235

D 18 Question

5

At 6 A.M. the thermometer outside Tim’s door showed a temperature of 52ºF. At 8 A.M. the thermometer showed a temperature of 78ºF. Which best describes the change in temperature from 6 A.M. to 8 A.M.? A B C D 26ºF 26ºF 78ºF 52ºF

Answer Key: page 236 Answer Key: page 236

139

Objective 1

Question

8

Question

10

**Cheryl buys a sheet of 60 stamps to mail her
**

1 party invitations. She uses of the stamps to 3 1 mail invitations to her friends. She uses of 5

the stamps to mail invitations to her family. Which expression represents the fraction of the sheet of stamps she has left after mailing these invitations? A B C 1 1

1 3 1 60

Vince had $138.45 in his bank account. He took out $13.92 to buy a CD. The next week he earned $27.23 and put that money in his bank account. How much money is in Vince’s bank account now? A B C $142.76 $151.76 $145.76

D $152.76

( ) 1 (610 5)

1 5 1 5 Answer Key: page 236 Answer Key: page 237

1 3

1 5

MATHEMATICS

D

Question

11

Joe’s father drives a truck 8 hours per day. His average speed is 40 miles per hour. At this rate, how many miles will Joe’s father drive in 5 days? A B C 1,600 mi 2,400 mi 64 mi

Question

9

Louis has a board that is 7 feet long. He cuts off two pieces to use in a building project. One piece is 1 feet long, and the other piece is 3 feet long. What mixed number shows the length of board left after Louis cuts off these two pieces? A B C 4 ft 4 ft 1 ft

1 2 1 2 3 4 5 8 3 4 3 4

D 520 mi

D 2 ft

Answer Key: page 236 Answer Key: page 237

140

Objective 1

Question

12

Question

13

Doug’s school is selling 5,000 bumper stickers for a fund-raiser. The stickers have been divided equally among each of the 5 grades. Each grade has 125 students. If all the bumper stickers must be sold, how many bumper stickers will each student have to sell? A B C 40 10 8

Mike is using small tiles to cover the ﬂoors in his bathroom and kitchen. He needs about 600 tiles for the bathroom. His kitchen will need 48 rows of 32 tiles each. Which is a reasonable estimate of the total number of tiles Mike will need to cover the ﬂoors in his bathroom and kitchen? A B C 1,500 2,100 700

D 4

D 1,800

Answer Key: page 237

Answer Key: page 237

MATHEMATICS

141

Objective 2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of patterns, relationships, and algebraic reasoning.

For this objective you should be able to

● ●

solve problems involving proportional relationships; use letters as variables in mathematical expressions to describe how one quantity changes when a related quantity changes; and use letters to represent an unknown in an equation.

●

**How Can You Simplify a Ratio?
**

A ratio can be written as a fraction. You can simplify the ratio by simplifying the fraction. A game has 4 red squares and 10 blue squares. The ratio of the number of red squares to the number of blue squares is 4:10. Written as a fraction, the ratio is be found by simplifying this fraction.

4 . An equivalent ratio can 10

MATHEMATICS

A ratio is a comparison of two quantities. Ratios can be written as fractions or by using a colon. For example, the ratio 1 out of 3 can be 1 written as or 1:3.

3

Simplify the fraction by dividing the numerator and denominator by 2, which is the greatest common factor of 4 and 10.

4 10 2 2 2 5

An equivalent ratio that compares the number of red squares to the number of blue squares is 2:5. There are many different ways to compare numbers in real-life problems. Sometimes different ratios can be formed. You must be careful to compare the correct numbers in the order the problem requires. Rita attends a family reunion. There are 60 people at the reunion: 24 adults and 36 children. What ratio compares the number of adults at the reunion to the number of children at the reunion? Look at the different ratios that can be used to compare the numbers of people at the reunion.

●

One ratio compares the number of children at the reunion to the total number of people at the reunion. There are 36 children at the reunion. There are 60 people at the reunion. The ratio compares the number of children at the reunion to 60 the total number of people at the reunion.

36

142

Objective 2

36 60 3

12 12

3 5

The ratio compares the number of children at the reunion to 5 the total number of people at the reunion. This is not the ratio the problem requires.

●

Another ratio compares the number of children at the reunion to the number of adults at the reunion. There are 36 children at the reunion. There are 24 adults at the reunion. The ratio to the number of adults at the reunion.

3 36 24 12 12 3 2

36 compares the number of children at the reunion 24

The ratio compares the number of children at the reunion 2 to the number of adults at the reunion. This is not the ratio the problem requires. It compares the right quantities, but in the wrong order.

●

MATHEMATICS

Another ratio compares the number of adults at the reunion to the number of children at the reunion. There are 24 adults at the reunion. There are 36 children at the reunion. The ratio to the number of children at the reunion.

24 36 2 12 12 2 3 24 compares the number of adults at the reunion 36

The ratio compares the number of adults at the reunion to 3 the number of children at the reunion. This is the ratio the problem requires.

143

Objective 2

Try It

Mr. Jones has 120 cows, 20 horses, and 50 chickens on his farm. These are the only animals on the farm. What is the ratio of the number of cows on the farm to the total number of animals on the farm? There are _______ cows on the farm. Use the operation of _____________________ to ﬁnd the total number of animals on the farm. The equation _______ _______ _______ total number of animals on the farm. _______ represents the

What is the greatest common factor of 120 and 190?

The ratio _______:_______ compares the number of cows on the farm to the total number of animals on the farm. This ratio can be simpliﬁed by dividing the numerator and denominator by _______ . The ratio of the number of cows on the farm to the total number of animals on the farm is .

MATHEMATICS

There are 120 cows on the farm. Use addition to ﬁnd the total number of animals on the farm. The equation 120 20 50 190 represents the total number of animals on the farm. The ratio 120:190 compares the number of cows on the farm to the total number of animals on the farm. This ratio can be simpliﬁed by dividing the numerator and denominator by 10. The ratio of the number of cows on the farm to the total number of animals on the farm is

12 . 19

What Is a Proportion?

A proportion is a statement that two ratios are equal. Compare the ratio 4:10 to the ratio 8:20. Do they form a proportion?

●

**Compare the two ratios. Does Simplify both fractions.
**

4 10 2 2 2 5 8 20 4 4 2 5 4 10 8 ? 20

●

●

● ●

The proportion is read as 4 is to 10 as 8 is to 20.

2 , the ratios are equal. 5 4 8 Since is equal to , the ratios form a proportion. 10 20 4 8 Therefore, is a proportion. 10 20

Since both fractions can be simpliﬁed to the same fraction,

144

Objective 2

John was purchasing special food to feed his sheep. He needed to purchase 3 pounds of food for each sheep. Based on the ratio of 3 pounds of food for 1 sheep, John decides that he needs 60 pounds of the special food to feed 20 sheep. What proportions represent this relationship? There are several different ways that a proportion can be written for this situation.

●

One way to set up a proportion is to compare sheep to food. For 1 sheep there needs to be 3 pounds of food. This can be represented as 1:3, or . For 20 sheep there needs to be 60 pounds of food. This can be represented as 20:60, or The proportion can be written as follows:

1 20 3 60 20 1 This is a proportion because simpliﬁes to . 60 3 sheep food 1 3 20 . 60

MATHEMATICS

●

Another way to set up a proportion is to compare food to sheep. Every 3 pounds of food will feed 1 sheep. This can be represented as 3:1, or . Every 60 pounds of food will feed 20 sheep. This can be represented as

food sheep 3 1 60 . 20

**The proportion can be written as follows:
**

3 60 1 20 60 3 This is a proportion because simpliﬁes to . 20 1

●

Another way to set up a proportion is to use one ratio to represent the food and another ratio to represent the sheep. The food ratio is 3 pounds to 60 pounds, which is 3:60, or The sheep ratio is 1 sheep to 20 sheep, which is 1:20, or The proportion can be written as follows:

3 60 1 20 3 1 simpliﬁes to . 60 20 3 . 60

1 . 20

This is a proportion because

All three of these proportions can be used to represent the relationship between pounds of food and number of sheep.

145

Objective 2

**How Do You Use Ratios to Make Predictions?
**

In some situations you can use a ratio describing one event to predict how often a related event will happen. You can describe the related event with an equivalent ratio. When you compare ratios in this way, set up a proportion. A proportion is a statement that two ratios are equal. Walter has 1 limestone rock in his rock collection for every 2 granite rocks. If Walter has 5 limestone rocks in his collection, how many granite rocks does he have?

●

Set up a proportion to solve the problem. Walter has 1 1 limestone rock for every 2 granite rocks. This ratio is 1:2, or . There are 5 limestone rocks in Walter’s collection. The question 5 asks how many granite rocks he has. This ratio is 5:?, or . One way to set up this proportion is

limestone granite 1 2 5 ? ? 2

●

●

MATHEMATICS

●

To change 1 to 5 in the proportion, multiply by 5. Since you multiply the numerator by 5, you must also multiply the denominator by 5: 2 5 10. The proportion that represents the problem is as follows:

1 2 5 10

Therefore, Walter has 10 granite rocks. A variable is a symbol used to represent a number. Letters of the alphabet are frequently used as variables.

**If 3 apples cost 29¢, how much do 45 apples cost?
**

●

**Describe 3 apples cost 29¢ using a ratio.
**

apples cost 3 29

●

Write a ratio that compares 45 apples to c, the cost of 45 apples. You do not know how much 45 apples cost, so use the variable c to represent the cost of 45 apples in cents.

45 c

●

**Write a proportion to show that these two ratios are equal.
**

3 29 45 c 45 c

●

**Solve this proportion by using cross products.
**

3 29

146

Objective 2

To ﬁnd the cross products, multiply the numbers that are diagonally across from each other. 3c 3c 29 • 45 1,305

Do you see that . . .

**Divide both sides of the equation by 3. This will leave c by itself on one side of the equation.
**

3c 3 1,305 3

c

435

The cost of 45 apples is 435¢, or $4.35.

Beverly asks her fellow sixth-grade students to name their favorite type of book. She ﬁnds that 3 out of every 8 students prefer to read mysteries. If there are 240 sixth-grade students, how many prefer to read mysteries?

●

MATHEMATICS

**Describe 3 out of every 8 students prefer to read mysteries using a ratio.
**

3 8

●

**Write a ratio that compares m students who prefer mysteries to 240 students in all.
**

m 240

●

Write a proportion to show that these two ratios are equal. Solve this proportion by using cross products. To use cross products, multiply the numbers that are diagonally across from each other.

3 8 m 240

3 • 240 720

8m 8m

**Divide both sides of the equation by 8. This will leave m by itself on one side of the equation.
**

720 8 8m 8

90

m

Out of 240 sixth-grade students, 90 prefer to read mysteries.

147

Objective 2

Try It

A seed company says that 4 out of every 5 of its seeds will grow. If Melissa plants 40 of these seeds, how many seeds can she expect to grow? Use a proportion to ﬁnd the answer. Describe 4 out of every 5 of its seeds will grow using a ratio.

Write a ratio that compares s, the number of seeds expected to grow, to 40 seeds planted.

Write a proportion.

MATHEMATICS

Solve this proportion by using cross products. _______ • _______ _______ 5 _______ s _______ s _______ s 5 s

**Melissa can expect _______ seeds to grow.
**

4 s describes the company’s statement. The ratio describes the 5 40 4 s number of seeds expected to grow if 40 are planted. The proportion is . 5 40 160 5s Solve this proportion: 4 • 40 5s; 160 5s; ; and 32 s. Melissa 5 5

The ratio

can expect 32 seeds to grow.

148

Objective 2

**How Can You Compare Fractions, Decimals, and Percents?
**

To compare fractions, decimals, and percents, you sometimes need to convert all of them into the same forms of the numbers. A decimal can be changed into an equivalent fraction by expressing it as a ratio. A decimal compares a number to 10, 100, or 1,000, and so on. Look at the decimal 0.45. It is read as forty-ﬁve hundredths. It compares 45 to 100. The decimal 0.45 is equivalent to the fraction

A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. For example, 53% means 53 parts out of 100 parts, or On the square below, 53 parts out of 100, or 53%, are shaded.

53 . 100

A fraction can be changed into an equivalent decimal by dividing the fraction’s numerator by its denominator. Change the fraction

4 into an equivalent decimal. 5

45 . 100

**Divide the fraction’s numerator, 4, by its denominator, 5. 0.8 5 4.0 –40 0
**

4 5

MATHEMATICS

8 10 4 equals the decimal 0.8. 5

The fraction

The decimal 0.8 is equivalent to the fraction . They are both read 10 as eight tenths. The fraction and the denominator by 2. The numbers

8 can be simpliﬁed by dividing both the numerator 10 8 4 , , and 0.8 are all equivalent ratios. 10 5

8

Ken got a score of 75% on a science test. What fraction of the questions did he answer correctly? The ratio 75% compares 75 questions answered correctly to a total of 100 questions. Simplify the ratio. An equivalent ratio can be found by dividing both the numerator and the denominator by 25.

3 4 3 3 The ratio 75% is equivalent to the ratio , so Ken answered of the 4 4 75 100 25 25

questions correctly.

149

Objective 2

Try It

There are 25 birds in Robin’s backyard. Of these birds, 10 are eating at the bird feeder. What percent of the birds are eating at the feeder? Find the ratio that compares the number of birds eating at the feeder to the total number of birds in the yard. There are _______ birds eating at the feeder. There are _______ birds in the yard altogether. The ratio compares the number of birds eating at the

feeder to the number of birds in the yard altogether. Write

10 as an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 100. 25

10

• •

MATHEMATICS

25 The ratio

100

**Of the birds in the yard, _______ % are eating at the feeder.
**

There are 10 birds eating at the feeder. There are 25 birds in the yard altogether. The ratio

10 compares the number of birds eating at the feeder to the number 25 10 • 4 40 40 10 of birds in the yard altogether. Multiply: . The ratio , and 25 • 4 100 100 25 10 40% . Of the birds in the yard, 40% are eating at the feeder. 25

10 . 25 100 10 Therefore, _______% is equivalent to . 25

is equivalent to

150

Objective 2

**How Can You Change a Percent into a Decimal?
**

Change a percent into a decimal by ﬁnding an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 100. Pablo decided not to carry all his books home. He took 40% of them home. Which decimal best represents the percent of his books that Pablo took home?

●

Pablo took 40% of his books home. A percent compares a number to 100. Write 40% as an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 100. 40% = Pablo took

40 of his books home. 100 40 The fraction is equivalent to the decimal 0.40. 100 40 100

●

●

40%

0.40

**Pablo took 0.40 of his books home.
**

●

A percent can also be converted to a decimal by dividing by 100. This moves the decimal point two places to the left.

MATHEMATICS

0.40%

Pablo took 0.40 of his books home.

0.40

**How Can You Change a Decimal into a Fraction?
**

Change a decimal into a fraction by ﬁnding an equivalent fraction with a denominator such as 10, 100, or 1,000. Read the decimal to ﬁnd the numerator and the correct denominator. Gloria has an insect collection. She found that 0.15 of the insects are moths. What fraction of her insects are moths?

●

The decimal 0.15 is read as ﬁfteen hundredths. The decimal 0.15 compares 15 to 100. Write 0.15 as a fraction. The numerator is 15, and the denominator is 100. 15 0.15

100 15 Of Gloria’s insects, are moths. 100

●

●

**Simplify the fraction by dividing both its numerator and its denominator by 5.
**

15 100 5 5 3 20 3 are moths. This means that 3 out of every 20

Of Gloria’s insects,

20 insects in Gloria’s collection are moths.

151

Objective 2

**How Can You Change a Decimal into a Percent?
**

Change a decimal into a percent by ﬁnding an equivalent ratio with a denominator of 100. Paula is measuring the temperature of some samples in her science lab. If 0.6 of the samples have a temperature above 100ºC, what percent of the samples have a temperature above 100ºC?

●

**The decimal 0.6 is read as six tenths. Write this ratio as a fraction. 6 0.6
**

10

●

Write

6 as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100. 10 6 • 10 10 • 10 60 100 60 100

0.6

MATHEMATICS

●

**A percent compares a number to 100. The ratio compares 100 60 to 100. 60 60%
**

100

60

**Of Paula’s samples, 60% have a temperature above 100ºC.
**

●

You can also ﬁnd the equivalent percent by multiplying by 100. This moves the decimal point in 0.6 two places to the right. 0.6 0.60 60%

152

Objective 2

**Here are some equivalent fractions, decimals, and percents you need to know: Fraction
**

1 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 1 5 2 5

Decimal = = = = = = = = = = = 0.5 1.0 0.3 0.6 1.0

–– ––

**Percent 50% 100% 33 % 66 % 100% 25% 50% 75% 100% 20% 40%
**

2 3 1 3

Fraction

3 5 4 5 5 5 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 8 8

Decimal = = = = = = = = = = = 0.6 0.8 1.0 = = =

Percent 60% 80% 100% 12.5% 25% 37.5% 50% 62.5% 75% 87.5% 100% A bar over a decimal number indicates a repeating decimal.

1

= = = = =

0.125 = 0.25 =

The fractions and 3 3 convert to repeating decimals. 0.3 = 0.3333333…

2

0.25 = 0.5 =

0.375 = 0.5 =

0.6 = 0.6666666…

MATHEMATICS

0.75 = 1.0 0.2 0.4 = = =

0.625 = 0.75 =

0.875 = 1.0 =

153

Objective 2

Try It

John tosses a number cube. The decimal 0.5 represents the fraction of tosses that land showing an even number. What percent of the tosses land showing an even number? 0.5

10

100

**_______% 100 The number cube lands showing an even number _______% of the times it is tossed.
**

The decimal 0.5

5 10 50 50 , and the fraction 100 100

50%. The number

cube lands showing an even number 50% of the times it is tossed.

MATHEMATICS

**How Can You Use Variables to Represent Relationships Between Numbers in a Table?
**

Relationships between numbers are usually represented with an expression or equation that uses a variable, such as x, y, or some other letter. Rialdo is 4 years older than Sara. Write an expression that can be used to represent Rialdo’s age in terms of Sara’s age.

●

An expression consists of numbers combined with operations signs. For example, 4 7 3 is an expression. An equation consists of numbers and mathematical symbols. It tells what happens to the numbers and what the results are. For example, 4 7 3 8 is an equation.

Sara’s age is not known. Let the variable s represent Sara’s age. Rialdo is 4 years older than Sara. Represent Rialdo’s age in terms of s, Sara’s age. Rialdo’s age can be represented by s 4 years.

●

The expression s 4 can be used to represent Rialdo’s age in terms of Sara’s age.

154

Objective 2

When information is organized in a table, it is often easier to see relationships between the quantities. Use the data in the table to ﬁnd an expression that represents the y-values in terms of the x-values.

x 2 3 7 11

●

y 5 7 15 23

**Look for a relationship between the x-values and the y-values.
**

x 2 3 Process 2(2) 1 5 2(3) 1 7 y 5 7

MATHEMATICS

**To ﬁnd the y-value, the rule might be to multiply the x-value by 2 and then add 1.
**

●

**Check this rule to determine whether it satisﬁes the remaining pairs of numbers.
**

x Process y 7 2(7) 1 15 15 True 11 2(11) 1 23 23 True

**The rule describes the relationship between x and y for all the number pairs.
**

●

Use variables to represent this relationship. The y-value equals two times the x-value plus 1. y 2x 1 1 represents the y-values in terms of

The expression 2x the x-values.

155

Objective 2

Try It

Use the data in the table to ﬁnd an expression that represents the y-values in terms of the x-values.

x 4 5 8 10 y 12 15 24 30

Find a relationship between 4 and 12 based on multiplication. 4 • _______ 12 Determine whether this relationship is true for 5 and 15 and for 8 and 24. 5 • _______ 15 _______

MATHEMATICS

8 • _______

Determine whether this relationship is true for 10 and 30. 10 • _______ _______

**The expression _____________ represents the y-values in terms of the x-values.
**

4 • 3 12; 5 • 3 15; 8 • 3 24; 10 • 3 30. The expression x represents the y-values in terms of the x-values.

•

3 or 3x

156

Objective 2

**How Can You Use Variables When Working with Perimeter, Area, and Volume?
**

Many relationships between numbers, such as relationships that describe perimeter, area, and volume, are represented by formulas that contain variables. The side lengths and volumes of four cubes are shown in the table below.

Cube Measurements Side Length (units) 1 2 4 5

●

Volume (cubic units) 1 8 64 125

Notice the relationship between the number pairs in the table. 1 2 4 5 1 2 4 5 1 2 4 5 1 8 64 125 or 13 23 43 53 1 8 64 125

MATHEMATICS

●

The volume of a cube is equal to its side length to the third power.

If the side length is equal to s, the expression s3 can be used to represent the volume of a cube.

157

Objective 2

Try It

The lengths, widths, and perimeters of four rectangles are shown in the table below.

Rectangle Measurements Length (l) 2 4 8 40 Width (w) 1 2 5 20 Perimeter 6 12 26 120

What expression can be used to ﬁnd the perimeter of a rectangle that is l units long and w units wide? Look for the relationship between the numbers in the table. 2(_______ _______) _______) _______) _______) 6 12 26 120

MATHEMATICS

2(_______ 2(_______ 2(_______

The perimeter of a rectangle is _______ times the sum of its ______________ and ______________ . The expression __________________________ can be used to ﬁnd the perimeter of a rectangle with a length of l and a width of w.

Look for the relationship between the numbers in the table: 2(2 1) 6; 2(4 2) 12; 2(8 5) 26; 2(40 20) 120. The perimeter of a rectangle is 2 times the sum of its length and width. The expression 2(l w) can be used to ﬁnd the perimeter of a rectangle with a length of l and a width of w.

158

Objective 2

**How Can You Write an Equation to Represent a Relationship Between Numbers in a Problem?
**

To write an equation that represents a relationship between numbers in a problem, take the information given in everyday language and rewrite it using mathematical symbols. Look for the relationship between the quantities in the problem. It may be necessary to use a variable to represent an unknown quantity. A jeweler makes bracelets and rings. Each ring requires 7 pieces of gold wire. Each bracelet requires 5 pieces of gold wire. Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd w, the total number of pieces of wire needed to make 3 rings and 2 bracelets.

●

Each ring requires 7 pieces of gold wire. The jeweler makes 3 rings. The jeweler uses (7 • 3) pieces of wire to make the rings. Each bracelet requires 5 pieces of gold wire. The jeweler makes 2 bracelets. The jeweler uses (5 • 2) pieces of wire to make the bracelets. The jeweler uses (7 • 3) 3 rings and 2 bracelets. (5 • 2) pieces of wire to make

●

MATHEMATICS

●

The equation w (7 • 3) (5 • 2) can be used to ﬁnd the total number of pieces of wire needed to make 3 rings and 2 bracelets.

Todd is determining the relationship between his age and his cousin’s age. He ﬁnds that his cousin’s age multiplied by 2 is the same as his own age, 12, minus his cousin’s age. If a represents the age of Todd’s cousin, what equation represents this relationship?

●

One side of the equation will be an expression representing Todd’s cousin’s age multiplied by 2. 2a The other side of the equation will be an expression representing the difference between Todd’s age and his cousin’s age. 12 a The problem states that these two quantities are equal. The equation 2a 12 a represents this relationship.

●

●

159

Objective 2

Try It

Trina collects postage stamps. The ﬁrst two pages of her stamp album hold 5 stamps per page. All the remaining pages in the album hold 12 stamps per page. Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd n, the total number of stamps that can ﬁt on 20 pages. Represent the number of stamps that can ﬁt on the ﬁrst two pages. The number of stamps that can ﬁt on the ﬁrst two pages is represented by _______ • _______. Represent the number of stamps on the remaining pages. There are _______ pages in all. Of these pages, _______ have already been counted. There are _______ _______ _______ pages remaining.

MATHEMATICS

The number of stamps that can ﬁt on the remaining pages is represented by _______ • _______. The number of stamps that can ﬁt on all 20 pages is represented by n ( _______ • _______ ) ( _______ • _______ ).

The number of stamps that can ﬁt on the ﬁrst two pages is represented by 2 • 5. There are 20 pages in all. Of these pages, 2 have already been counted. There are 20 2 18 pages remaining. The number of stamps that can ﬁt on the remaining pages is represented by 18 • 12. The number of stamps that can ﬁt on all 20 pages is represented by n (2 • 5) (18 • 12).

Now practice what you’ve learned.

160

Objective 2

Question

14

Question

16

Mark can hit the bull’s-eye 3 out of every 15 times he throws a dart. Which ratio compares the number of throws that hit the bull’s-eye to the number of throws that do not hit the bull’s-eye? A B C 1:5 4:1 1:4

**George answered 76% of the questions on a test correctly. Which fraction is equivalent to 76%? A B C D
**

1 76 24 76 19 25 100 76 Answer Key: page 238

D 5:1

Answer Key: page 237

Question

15

Question

17

MATHEMATICS

In the ﬁrst grading period, Janet either walked or rode the bus to school. She walked 36 days and rode the bus 6 days. Which fraction is equivalent to the ratio of the number of days Janet walked to school to the total number of days in the ﬁrst grading period? A B C D

1 6 1 7 7 6 6 7 Answer Key: page 237

Marie had several pencils on her desk. Ted borrowed 25% of the pencils. What decimal represents the percent of Marie’s pencils that Ted borrowed? A B C 0.025 0.25 0.312

D 25.0

Answer Key: page 238

161

Objective 2

Question

18

Question

20

José has two volunteer jobs, one as an assistant at a nursing home and another as a math tutor. José spends 45% of his volunteer time at the nursing home. Which fraction is equivalent to the percent of volunteer time José spends tutoring? A B C D

9 20 11 20 50 100 1 2 Answer Key: page 238

There are 24 vanilla cookies in a cookie jar. There are 4 chocolate cookies in the jar for every 3 vanilla cookies. Which proportion can be used to ﬁnd y, the total number of chocolate cookies in the jar? A B C D

3 4 20 4 4 3 4 7 y 24 y 3 y 24 y 24 Answer Key: page 239

MATHEMATICS

Question

19

Question

21

Lynn paints small ceramic ﬁgures. She can paint 6 ﬁgures in 45 minutes. If she continues to paint at this rate, how many ﬁgures can she paint in 1 hours? Record your answer and ﬁll in the bubbles. Be sure to use the correct place value.

1 2

Which expression represents the y-values in terms of the x-values in the table below?

x 4 13 22 51

A y y y 3x x x 2x 8 8 4

y 12 21 30 59

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

B C

D y

Answer Key: page 238

Answer Key: page 239

162

Objective 2

Question

22

Question

23

The table below shows the relationship between the age of a tree and its height in feet.

Age Height (years) (feet) 1 3 6 10 m 5 9 15 23

Michelle has 25 CDs. She gives 2 of her friends 4 CDs each. Then she gets 3 new CDs for her birthday. Which equation can be used to ﬁnd x, the number of CDs Michelle has now? A B C x x x 25 25 25 25 4 4 (2 (2

• •

3 3 4) 4) 3 3

D x

Which expression can be used to ﬁnd the height of the tree when it is m years old? A B C m 2m 5m 4 3

MATHEMATICS

D 3m

Answer Key: page 239

Answer Key: page 239

163

Objective 3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of geometry and spatial reasoning.

For this objective you should be able to

●

use geometric vocabulary to describe angles, polygons, and circles; and use coordinate geometry to identify a location in two dimensions.

●

**How Do You Classify Angles?
**

Angles are classiﬁed according to their measurement. Angles are measured in degrees. The symbol ° stands for degrees. You can write the measure of an angle using notation such as m T 40°. The equation m T 40° is read as “the measure of angle T equals 40 degrees.” If two angles have an equal measure, they are congruent. For example, if m R 40° and m S 40°, then R is congruent to S. Look at the angles below and their measurements in degrees.

R A

C

MATHEMATICS

When two rays meet at a common endpoint, they form an angle. Look at the angle formed by the rays BA and BC.

A

Rays

B

Vertex

Point B is called the vertex of ABC, or B.

B

C

S

T

The measure of ∠ABC = 35°.

The measure of ∠RST = 90°.

L N M

The measure of ∠LMN = 155°.

●

D E

F

The measure of ∠DEF = 180°.

An acute angle measures more than 0° but less than 90°. Angle ABC above is an acute angle. Its measure is 35°, a value between 0° and 90°. A right angle measures exactly 90°. Right angles are formed by perpendicular lines. Angle RST above is a right angle. Its measure is 90°. A small is placed at the vertex of an angle to show that it is a right angle. An obtuse angle measures more than 90° but less than 180°. Angle LMN above is an obtuse angle. Its measure is 155°, a value between 90° and 180°. A straight angle measures 180°. Straight angles are formed by rays that lie on a line. Angle DEF above is a straight angle. Its measure is 180°.

●

●

●

164

Objective 3

Try It

Classify the angles shown below as acute, right, obtuse, or straight. D A

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

80 70 0 0 10 0 6 11 0 12

90

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

0 10 20 180 170 160

40

B

160 20

170 10

C

180 0

The measure of

ABC is _______°.

ABC is an ______________ angle. The measure of ABD is _______°.

MATHEMATICS

ABD is an ______________ angle. The measure of DBC is _______°.

**DBC is a______________ angle.
**

The measure of ABC is 130°. It is an obtuse angle. The measure of ABD is 40°. It is an acute angle. The measure of DBC is 90°. It is a right angle.

165

Objective 3

**How Can You Describe Geometric Figures Using the Measures of Their Angles?
**

Many geometric ﬁgures, such as polygons, can be described by determining whether their sides are parallel, perpendicular, or congruent. The measures of special pairs of angles also help describe some ﬁgures. Look at the following quadrilaterals and their special properties, including the relationships between special angle pairs.

Quadrilaterals

Figure Example

● ●

Properties Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. Both pairs of opposite sides are congruent. Both pairs of opposite angles are congruent. The sum of the measures of any two consecutive angles is 180°.

Parallelogram

Consecutive angles

● ●

MATHEMATICS

●

Rectangle

Adjacent sides

● ● ●

Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. Both pairs of opposite sides are congruent. All pairs of adjacent sides are perpendicular. All the angles are right angles.

● ●

Rhombus

Opposite angles

● ●

Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. All sides are congruent. Both pairs of opposite angles are congruent. The sum of the measures of any two consecutive angles is 180°.

●

Square

● ● ●

Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. All sides are congruent. All pairs of adjacent sides are perpendicular. All angles are right angles.

●

Trapezoid

Exactly one pair of opposite sides is parallel. The other pair of opposite sides is not parallel.

166

Objective 3

What is the measure of B

B in parallelogram ABCD below? C

110°

A

●

D

Use what you know about parallelograms to ﬁnd the measure of B. m A 110° The sum of the measures of consecutive angles in a parallelogram is 180°. m A m B 110° 180°

●

MATHEMATICS

●

Subtract 110° from 180° to ﬁnd the measure of 180° 70° B is 70°.

B.

The measure of

Try It

What is the measure of R

45°

T in rhombus PRST below? S

P

T

The opposite angles of a rhombus are ___________________ . R and S and _______ are opposite angles. _______ are opposite angles. m T is _______°. m P is _______°.

m R is _______°. m S is _______°.

The opposite angles of a rhombus are congruent. R and T are opposite angles. S and P are opposite angles. m R 45°; m T 45°; m S 135°; m P 135°.

167

Objective 3

A polygon is a closed plane ﬁgure with straight sides. A triangle is a polygon with three sides. A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides.

**How Do You Use Relationships Between Angles in a Figure?
**

Knowing the relationships between pairs of angles in a polygon can help you classify the polygon and determine the measures of other angles in the ﬁgure. Here are some special relationships among angles in polygons that you should know:

●

The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle always equals 180°. Look at the triangle below. A

35° The sum of the measures of the angles of triangle ABC is 35° 50° 95°, or 180°. 50° 95°

B

C

MATHEMATICS

●

The measures of the base angles of an isosceles triangle are always equal. Look at the isosceles triangle below.

Base angles

K

L

The triangle is isosceles because two sides are congruent: KM LM. The two angles opposite the congruent sides, K and L, are the base angles.

M

●

The base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent: m K m L.

The sum of the measures of the four angles of a quadrilateral always equals 360°. Look at the quadrilateral below. X

110° 85° The sum of the measures of the angles of quadrilateral WXYZ is 40° 110° 85° 125°, or 360°. 125°

Y

Z

40°

W

168

Objective 3

The right triangle shown below has an acute angle that measures 33°. What is the measure of the other acute angle?

●

You know the measures of two angles of the triangle. Find their sum: 90° 33° 123°. The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180°.

33°

A right triangle is a triangle with a right angle. A right angle has a measure of 90°.

●

●

Subtract 123° from 180° to ﬁnd the measure of the third angle: 180° 123° 57°.

The measure of the third angle of the triangle is 57°.

Try It

A quadrilateral has three angles that measure 31°, 105°, and 73°. What is the measure of the fourth angle?

MATHEMATICS

105° 73°

31°

You know the measures of three angles in the quadrilateral. Find their sum. _______° is _______°. Subtract _______° from _______° to ﬁnd the measure of the fourth angle. _______° _______° _______° The measure of the fourth angle of the quadrilateral is _______°.

Find their sum: 31° 105° 73° 209°. The sum of the measures of the four angles of a quadrilateral is 360°. Subtract 209° from 360° to ﬁnd the measure of the fourth angle: 360° 209° 151°. The measure of the fourth angle of the quadrilateral is 151°.

_______°

_______°

_______°

The sum of the measures of the four angles of a quadrilateral

169

Objective 3

**How Do You Describe the Relationships Between the Parts of a Circle?
**

A circle is the set of all points that are the same distance from a given point called the center. Look at the parts of the circle below.

Radius Circumference Center

Diameter

●

A radius (r) of a circle is a line segment joining the center of the circle and any point on the circle. The radius of a circle is half the diameter, or r A diameter (d) of a circle is a line segment that joins any two points on the circle and passes through the center of the circle. The diameter of a circle is twice the radius, or d 2r. The circumference (C) is the distance around the circle.

1 d. 2

MATHEMATICS

●

●

One of the most important relationships in a circle is the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. For any circle, no matter how big or small, this ratio is always the same value. It is represented by pi (π), which is approximately 3.14, or

22 . 7 Circumference Diameter C d

π

This relationship provides the formula for the circumference of a circle: C πd. The circumference of any circle is equal to π times the diameter. Since the diameter of any circle is equal to twice the radius, you can also ﬁnd the circumference with this formula: C π • 2 • r. You can arrange the factors in any order: C 2πr. A circle has a radius of 9 cm. What expression describes the circumference of the circle in centimeters? Apply the formula C 2πr to ﬁnd the circumference of the circle. C C C 2πr 2π9 18π

An expression that describes the circumference of a circle with a radius of 9 cm is 18π.

170

Objective 3

Try It

How many times greater is the circumference of circle B than the circumference of circle A?

d d 4 units

8 units

A

B

Look at the Mathematics Chart. The formula that uses the diameter to ﬁnd the circumference of a circle is ______________ . Circle A has a diameter of _______ units. Its circumference can be expressed as follows: C _______ π

MATHEMATICS

Circle B has a diameter of _______ units. Its circumference can be expressed as follows: C _______ π Since 8 2 4, the circumference of circle B is _______ times the circumference of circle A. Circle B has a circumference that is _______ the circumference of circle A.

The formula that uses the diameter to ﬁnd the circumference of a circle is C πd. Circle A has a diameter of 4 units. The circumference can be expressed as C 4π. Circle B has a diameter of 8 units. The circumference can be expressed as C 8π. Since 8 2 4, the circumference of circle B is 2 times the circumference of circle A. Circle B has a circumference that is twice the circumference of circle A.

171

Objective 3

**How Can You Locate and Name Points on a Coordinate Plane?
**

A coordinate grid is used to locate and name points on a plane. A point is located by using an ordered pair of numbers. The two numbers that form the ordered pair are called the coordinates of the point. Look at the coordinate grid below.

●

The point on every coordinate grid where the two axes cross is called the origin. The coordinates of the origin are (0, 0). All points on a coordinate grid are assigned coordinates based on their distance from the origin. The horizontal line that crosses the origin is called the x-axis. The ﬁrst coordinate of an ordered pair is called the x-coordinate. It tells how many units the point lies to the right or the left of the origin. The vertical line that crosses the origin is called the y-axis. The second coordinate of an ordered pair is called the y-coordinate. It tells how many units the point lies above or below the origin.

y y-axis x-coordinate Ordered (x, y) pair y-coordinate x Origin (0, 0)

●

●

MATHEMATICS

x-axis

172

Objective 3

Try It

A circle on a coordinate plane has its center at (3, 4). The radius of the circle is 2.5 units. Name the coordinates of points F and G on the circle.

y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F E H

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

G

x

Point F is _______ units to the right of the origin. Its x-coordinate is _______ . Point F is _______ units above the origin. Its y-coordinate is _______ . The coordinates of point F are ( _______ , _______ ). Point G is _______ units to the right of the origin. Its x-coordinate is _______ . Point G is _______ units above the origin. Its y-coordinate is _______ . The coordinates of point G are ( _______ , _______ ).

Point F is 3 units to the right of the origin. Its x-coordinate is 3. Point F is 6.5 units above the origin. Its y-coordinate is 6.5. The coordinates of point F are (3, 6.5). Point G is 5.5 units to the right of the origin. Its x-coordinate is 5.5. Point G is 4 units above the origin. Its y-coordinate is 4. The coordinates of point G are (5.5, 4).

MATHEMATICS

Now practice what you’ve learned.

173

Objective 3

Question

24

Question

26

Y?

Angle T is formed by the hands of the clock below. Each minute represents 6°.

What type of angle is

Y 11 12 1 10 2 3 9 T 8 7 6

T?

49°

41°

5

4

A B C Acute Right Obtuse

X

Z

What type of angle is A B C Obtuse Right Acute

D Straight

Answer Key: page 239

MATHEMATICS

D Straight

Answer Key: page 239

Question

27

Question

25

Which of the following could be the measures of the angles of a triangle? A B C 110 120°, 50°, 20° 100°, 200°, 60° 30°, 50°, 80°

Which angle below is acute?

D 40°, 50°, 90°

L

N

140

50

M

A B C D L M N P

P

Answer Key: page 239

Answer Key: page 239

174

Objective 3

Question

28

R in the parallelogram

Question

30

What is the measure of below?

**Which expression can be used to approximate the diameter of a circle with a circumference of 48 inches? A B C 48 48 48 3.14 3.14 2 2
**

Answer Key: page 240

S

105°

T

D 48

R

A B C 75° 105° 180°

U

Question

31

D 360°

Answer Key: page 239

Roy wants to draw a circle on the side of a barn to use for pitching practice. He wants the circle to have a radius of 3 feet.

MATHEMATICS

Question

29

Triangle PQR is an isosceles triangle. The length of side PQ is equal to the length of side QR.

Q

Which expression will help Roy ﬁnd the circumference of the circle?

P

If m P A B C 35° 90° 110° 35°, what is m Q?

R

A B C

9π 2π 6π

D 3π

D 180°

Answer Key: page 240 Answer Key: page 240

175

Objective 3

Question

32

Question

33

**What ordered pair shows the coordinates of point T on the coordinate grid below? y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 A (2, 3) (2 , 3 ) (3, 2)
**

1 2 (3 , 2 ) 3 3 2 3 1 3

Alejandro is drawing a rectangle on a coordinate grid. He wants the rectangle to have one pair of sides 4 units long and the other pair of sides 3 units long. He has drawn one vertex of the rectangle at (2 , 5). y

1 2

V T S

U

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x

MATHEMATICS

B C D

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

**Which group of coordinates can Alejandro use for the other three vertices of the rectangle? A B C D
**

1 2 1 1 1 (6 , 5), (6 , 8), (2 , 8) 2 2 2 1 1 1 (5 , 5), (5 , 8), (1 , 9) 2 2 2 1 1 1 (5, 2 ), (3, 4 ), (4, 3 ) 2 2 2

(5, 6), (8, 6), (8, 2 )

Answer Key: page 240

Answer Key: page 240

176

Objective 4

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and uses of measurement.

For this objective you should be able to solve problems involving estimation and measurement of length, area, time, temperature, capacity, weight, and angles.

**How Can You Use Estimation in Measurement Problems?
**

In some problems you may be given only approximate values for measurements. In these cases you must estimate an answer. For example, some measurement problems ask about how many or approximately how long. Use estimation when solving such problems. You can also estimate the answer to any problem before you ﬁnd the exact answer. One way to estimate is to round the numbers in a problem before working it out. The estimate tells you approximately what the answer will be. If you estimate ﬁrst, you will know whether the answer you calculate is reasonable. For example, some problems ask whether a certain number is a reasonable answer to a problem. Use estimation to answer such questions. Mr. and Mrs. Watson want to build a small rectangular toolshed. The shed’s ﬂoor will measure 2 feet wide by 3 feet long. What is a reasonable estimate of the area of the shed’s ﬂoor in square feet?

●

MATHEMATICS

1 4

3 4

The problem asks for a reasonable estimate, so you can round the measurements to ﬁnd an estimate of the answer. Round the dimensions of the ﬂoor of the toolshed. Length: 3 ft rounds to 4 ft.

3 4 1 Width: 2 ft rounds to 2 ft. 4

●

●

To ﬁnd the area of the rectangular ﬂoor, use the formula for the area of a rectangle in the Mathematics Chart. A A A

lw

(4)(2) 8 ft2

2

**All of the following indicate multiplication: p times q
**

p q p•q (p)(q) pq

The area of the toolshed’s ﬂoor is approximately 8 ft , or 8 square feet.

177

Objective 4

Try It

Gary is painting a sign in the shape of an octagon. The sign just ﬁts inside a circle with a radius of 5 inches.

5 inches

What is a reasonable estimate of the area of the sign? In the Mathematics Chart the formula for the area of a circle is

MATHEMATICS

A

______ .

The value of r is _______ . Replace the variables in the formula with the values given in the problem. Since only a reasonable estimate is needed, a whole-number estimate The symbol means approximately equal to. of π is acceptable. Use _______ as an estimate of π. A A A _______ _______ _______2 _______ _______

_______ in.2

**A reasonable estimate of the area of the sign is _______ square inches.
**

In the Mathematics Chart the formula for the area of a circle is A πr 2. The value of r is 5. Use 3 as an estimate of π. A 3 52; A 3 5 5; A 75 in.2 A reasonable estimate of the area of the sign is 75 square inches.

178

Objective 4

**How Do You Use a Ruler to Find Area?
**

To ﬁnd the area of an object, measure the dimensions of the object and then use the appropriate area formula. What is the area of the right triangle shown below?

Height

●

In the Mathematics Chart the formula for ﬁnding the area of a triangle is A

of the triangle, and h represents the height of the triangle. In a right triangle the base and height are the legs that form the right angle.

●

The rulers show that the base of the triangle measures 2 inches and the height of the triangle measures 3 inches. Substituting these numbers for b and h in the formula results in the following equation: A A A bh

2 (2)(3) 2 6 2

**The area of the triangle is 3 square inches.
**

179

0 in. 1 2

MATHEMATICS

3

Base

0 in.

1

2

bh . In the formula, b represents the base 2

3 in.2

Objective 4

Try It

Use the inch ruler on the Mathematics Chart to measure the sides of the rectangle below. Then ﬁnd the area of the rectangle in square inches.

MATHEMATICS

Place the 0-inch mark of the ruler at one end of a longer side of the rectangle. Read the number of inches at the other end of the side. The length of the rectangle is _______ inches. Place the 0-inch mark of the ruler at one end of a shorter side of the rectangle. Read the number of inches at the other end of the side. The width of the rectangle is _______ inches. The formula for the area of a rectangle is A A A

lw.

( _______ )( _______ ) _______ in.2

**The area of the rectangle is _______ square inches.
**

The length of the rectangle is 4 inches. The width of the rectangle is 2 inches. A (4)(2). A 8 in.2 The area of the rectangle is 8 square inches.

180

Objective 4

**How Can You Select and Use Appropriate Formulas to Solve Problems?
**

The Mathematics Chart lists formulas for perimeter, circumference, area, and volume. To select and use a formula, follow these steps:

● ● ● ● ●

Identify what you are being asked. Identify the type of ﬁgure you are working with. Identify the quantities in the problem. Substitute the variables in the formula. Solve the problem.

Will built a rectangular dog run that was 20 feet by 7 feet. Find the perimeter of the dog run in feet. Use the formula in the Mathematics Chart for the perimeter of a rectangle. P

●

2(l

w)

Identify the quantities in the problem. The length (l) of the dog run is 20 feet. The width (w) of the dog run is 7 feet. Replace the variables in the formula with their values from the problem. P P P P 2(l 2(20 2 • 27 54 ft

w)

MATHEMATICS

●

7)

The perimeter of the dog run is 54 feet.

A farmer wants to replace the wire fencing around a circular pen. The pen has a diameter of 24 feet. How many feet of wire fencing will the farmer need? To solve this problem, calculate the pen’s circumference, which is the distance around a circle. Use the formula in the Mathematics Chart for the circumference of a circle. C πd The diameter, d, of the circular pen is 24 feet. Replace the variable in the formula with the diameter given in the problem. C C π(24) 24π ft

**The farmer will need 24π feet of wire fencing.
**

181

Objective 4

Nora is buying fertilizer for her rectangular vegetable garden. The garden measures 40 feet by 20 feet. Each bag of fertilizer covers 200 square feet. How many bags of fertilizer does Nora need?

●

First ﬁnd the area of Nora’s garden. Use the formula for the area of a rectangle. A lw Replace the variables in the formula with the values given in the problem. The length, l, of the garden is 40 feet. The width, w, of the garden is 20 feet. A A (40)(20) 800

●

**The area of Nora’s garden is 800 ft2.
**

●

MATHEMATICS

Each bag of fertilizer covers 200 ft2. Divide 800 ft2 by 200 ft2 per bag to ﬁnd the number of bags needed. 800 200 4

Nora needs 4 bags of fertilizer.

Try It

Use the centimeter ruler on the Mathematics Chart to ﬁnd the perimeter of this rectangle. The length of the rectangle is _______ cm. The width of the rectangle is _______ cm. One way to ﬁnd the perimeter of a rectangle is to add all 4 sides. P P _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

**The perimeter of the rectangle is _______ cm.
**

The length of the rectangle is 6.5 cm. The width of the rectangle is 4 cm. P 6.5 4 6.5 4; P 21. The perimeter of the rectangle is 21 cm.

182

Objective 4

**How Do You Measure Angles with a Protractor?
**

A protractor is a tool for measuring the number of degrees in an angle. Most protractors look like the one shown below.

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

90

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

180 0

Outer scale

Center

Inner scale

**A protractor has two scales.
**

●

The outer scale starts at 0° on the left and increases clockwise to 180° on the right. The inner scale starts at 0° on the right and increases counterclockwise to 180° on the left. Place the center of the protractor on the vertex of the angle. Line up one ray of the angle with a 0-degree mark on either the outer scale or the inner scale. Read the angle measure where the second ray crosses the scale. Be sure to look at the same scale that you used in the previous step. You can write the measure of an angle in two ways. For example, you can write the measure of angle R is 35° or m R 35°. Both expressions are read as the measure of angle R is 35 degrees. Check to make sure that your angle measurement makes sense. If the angle is larger than a right angle, it should measure more than 90°. If the angle is smaller than a right angle, it should measure less than 90°.

**Do you see that . . .
**

MATHEMATICS

●

**To measure an angle with a protractor, follow these steps:
**

● ●

●

●

●

183

Objective 4

**Use the protractor to ﬁnd m S to the nearest degree.
**

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

90

30 15 0

55

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

S

● ● ●

The center of the protractor is on the vertex of the angle. One ray is lined up with the 0-degree mark on the outer scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at 55° on the outer scale and at 125° on the inner scale. The angle measures 55° because that measure uses the same scale as was used in the previous step, the outer scale. m S 55°

180 0

●

MATHEMATICS

This answer makes sense because S is smaller than a right angle, so its measure should be less than 90°. If you had chosen 125°, the measure on the inner scale, the answer would not have been reasonable.

184

Objective 4

Try It

Find m D to the nearest degree.

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

90

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

D

The center of the protractor is on the ______________ of the angle. One ray is lined up with the 0-degree mark on the ___________ scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at _______° on the inner scale. The angle measures _______° because that measure uses the same scale, the inner scale. Angle D measures _______° to the nearest degree. This answer is reasonable because than a right angle. D is ________________________

The center of the protractor is on the vertex of the angle. One ray is lined up with the 0-degree mark on the inner scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at 28° on the inner scale. The angle measures 28° because that measure uses the same scale, the inner scale. Angle D measures 28° to the nearest degree. This answer is reasonable because D is smaller than a right angle.

185

180 0

MATHEMATICS

Objective 4

Try It

A parallelogram is shown below.

W

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

90

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

180 0

X

MATHEMATICS

Find the measure of

W to the nearest degree. X.

The center of the protractor is on the ______________ of One ray of

X is lined up with _______° on the inner scale.

The other ray crosses the protractor at _______° on the inner scale. _______° Angle X measures _______°. Since the opposite angles in a parallelogram are _________________ ,

What do you know about opposite angles in a parallelogram?

_______°

_______°

m X

m

_______ .

**Angle W measures _______°.
**

The center of the protractor is on the vertex of X. One ray of X is lined up with 20° on the inner scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at 80º on the inner scale. 80º 20º 60º. Angle X measures 60º. Since the opposite angles in a parallelogram are congruent, m X m W. Angle W measures 60º.

**How Do You Convert Measurements from One Unit to Another?
**

Some problems involve more than one measurement unit. To solve these problems, you may need to change from one unit of measurement to another. The Mathematics Chart lists units of measure for the metric and customary systems.

186

Objective 4

●

To convert a smaller unit to a larger unit, divide by the number of smaller units there are in one of the larger units. To convert a larger unit to a smaller unit, multiply by the number of smaller units there are in one of the larger units.

●

Large units

Small units

**A table is 60 inches long. How long is the table in feet?
**

●

Use the Mathematics Chart to ﬁnd the measurement fact that relates feet to inches. 1 foot 12 inches Change from a smaller unit (inches) to a larger unit (feet). 60 inches smaller unit ? feet larger unit 12 5

●

MATHEMATICS

●

Divide 60 by 12. 60

The table is 5 feet long.

**Mr. Tanako bought 5 pounds of ground turkey. How many ounces of turkey did he buy?
**

●

Use the Mathematics Chart to ﬁnd the measurement fact that relates pounds to ounces. 1 pound 16 ounces ? ounces smaller unit 80 Change from a larger unit (pounds) to a smaller unit (ounces). 5 pounds larger unit

●

●

Multiply 5 by 16. 5 • 16

Mr. Tanako bought 80 ounces of turkey.

187

Objective 4

Try It

One day Joley ran 6.7 kilometers, swam 1.9 kilometers, and biked 15.4 kilometers. What is the total distance Joley traveled in meters? The total distance Joley traveled in kilometers is _______ _______ _______ _______ km.

Joley traveled _______ kilometers in all. The measurement fact that relates kilometers to meters is _______ kilometer _______ meters.

Change from a ____________ unit to a ____________ unit. Use the operation of __________________ to change from kilometers to meters.

MATHEMATICS

_______

_______

____________

**Joley traveled a total of ____________ meters.
**

Joley traveled 6.7 1.9 15.4 24 km. Joley traveled 24 kilometers in all. According to the Mathematics Chart, 1 kilometer 1,000 meters. Change from a larger unit to a smaller unit. Use the operation of multiplication to change from kilometers to meters: 24 1,000 24,000. Joley traveled a total of 24,000 meters.

188

Objective 4

Try It

Otto delivers newspapers. The table below shows the number of minutes it took him to deliver papers each weekday last week. Otto’s Newspaper Route

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Delivery Time (min) 55 45 65 50 55

How many hours did Otto spend delivering papers last week? Use the operation of ______________ to ﬁnd the total time in minutes. _______ minutes

MATHEMATICS

_______ minutes _______ minutes _______ minutes _______ minutes _______ minutes Otto spent a total of _______ minutes delivering newspapers last week. The problem asks for the total number of _____________ he spent delivering papers. Change from a _____________ unit to a _____________ unit. Use the operation of _____________ to change from minutes to hours. _______ _______ _______

**Otto spent a total of _______ hours delivering newspapers last week.
**

Use the operation of addition to ﬁnd the total time in minutes: 55 45 65 50 55 270 minutes. Otto spent 270 minutes delivering newspapers. The problem asks for the total number of hours he spent delivering papers. Change from a smaller unit to a larger unit. Use the operation of division to change from minutes to hours: 270 60 4.5. Otto spent a total of 4.5 hours delivering newspapers last week.

**Now practice what you’ve learned.
**

189

Objective 4

Question

34

Question

36

24

A basketball hoop is 120 inches above the court. A player is 62 inches tall. Find the approximate distance in feet between the top of the player’s head and the basketball hoop. A B C 4 ft 5 ft 6 ft

The polygon below has a perimeter of 108 units.

12 6 6

Answer Key: page 240

D 7 ft

24

x

Question

6 18

35

What is the length of x? A B C 6 units 18 units 12 units

MATHEMATICS

At 10:00 A.M. the temperature is 51ºF. If the temperature rises at an average rate of 4ºF per hour, what will the temperature be at 3:00 P.M.? A B C 71ºF 70ºF 63ºF

D 10 units

D 55ºF

Answer Key: page 240

Answer Key: page 241

190

Objective 4

Question

37

Question

38

Look at the scale drawing below. Use the ruler on the Mathematics Chart to ﬁnd the perimeter of the scale drawing in inches.

Michael kept track of the time he spent doing his chores last weekend.

Michael’s Chores Chore Cleaning room Doing dishes Taking care of pets Time (min) 53 27 36

Class Garden

Key 1 inch = 10 feet What is the perimeter of the actual garden in feet? A B C 25 ft 70 ft 60 ft

What is the total amount of time Michael spent doing chores? A B C 2 hours 16 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes 1 hour 56 minutes

MATHEMATICS

D 1 hour

D 35 ft

Answer Key: page 241

Answer Key: page 241

191

Objective 4

Question

39

R to the nearest degree.

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

Find the measure of

90

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

R

180 0

A B C

**160º 100º 130º
**

Answer Key: page 241

D 30º

MATHEMATICS

Question Triangle

40

**MNP is shown below. Sides PM and PN are congruent.
**

80 70 100 60 110 0 12

90

4 14 0 0

50 0 13

100 110 80 12 70 0 60 13 50 0

P

0 14 0 4

0 15 30

30 15 0

170 160 10 20

0 10 20 180 170 160

180 0

M

N

**Find m N. A B C 30º 50º 100º
**

Answer Key: page 241

D 80º

192

Objective 4

Question

41

Question

43

A school softball team has a 5-gallon container of water. How many cups of water are equivalent to 5 gallons? A B C 20 c 40 c 80 c

Use the ruler on the Mathematics Chart to measure the lengths of the sides of the rectangle below in inches.

D 60 c

Answer Key: page 241

Question

42

The table shows the number of yards Miguel carried the ball during his ﬁrst three football games.

MATHEMATICS

Miguel’s Football Records Game First Second Third Number of Yards 34 28 41

What is the area of the rectangle? A B C 5 in.2 6 in.2 10 in.2

How many feet in all did he carry the ball during these three games? A B C 103 ft 34 ft 309 ft

D 12 in.2

D 1,240 ft

Answer Key: page 241

Answer Key: page 242

193

Objective 5

The student will demonstrate an understanding of probability and statistics.

For this objective you should be able to

●

use experimental and theoretical probability to make predictions; and use statistical representations to analyze data.

●

**What Is a Sample Space?
**

A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes for an event or the set of data from an experiment. For example, if you ﬂip a coin, it will land either heads up or tails up. One way to display the sample space for this experiment is to list all the possible outcomes: heads or tails. You can also show a sample space in a table or a tree diagram. Juan has several choices of items to take in his lunch. He can choose either a cheese sandwich or a ham sandwich. He can also choose to take an apple, an orange, or a pear. What are all the possible combinations of 1 sandwich and 1 piece of fruit?

●

MATHEMATICS

**You can use a table to list all the possible combinations.
**

Juan’s Lunch Sandwich Cheese Cheese Cheese Ham Ham Ham Fruit Apple Orange Pear Apple Orange Pear

First list a cheese sandwich with each of the pieces of fruit Juan can choose. Then list a ham sandwich with each of the pieces of fruit Juan can choose.

The table shows that Juan can choose 6 possible combinations of 1 sandwich and 1 piece of fruit.

194

Objective 5

●

**You can also use a tree diagram to list all the possible combinations.
**

Cheese Apple Orange Pear Apple Ham Orange Pear

There are 6 branches in the tree diagram. This shows that Juan can choose a total of 6 possible combinations of 1 sandwich and 1 piece of fruit.

●

You can also use multiplication to ﬁnd the total number of possible combinations. Number of sandwiches 2 Number of pieces of fruit 3 Total number of combinations 6

MATHEMATICS MATHEMATICS

Try It

Quinlan is selecting clothes to wear to school. He has three pairs of pants to choose from: jeans, shorts, or dress pants. He has two shirts to choose from: a long-sleeved shirt or a short-sleeved shirt. Complete the tree diagram below, listing all the possible combinations of pants and a shirt Quinlan could choose.

Jeans

Long-sleeved

Jeans Long-sleeved Short-sleeved

Shorts Long-sleeved Short-sleeved

Dress pants Long-sleeved Short-sleeved

195

Objective 5

Try It

Hillary is wrapping a gift. She can choose from 4 different kinds of wrapping paper: solid-color paper, polka-dot paper, striped paper, or picture paper. She can also choose from 2 different colors of ribbon: red or blue. Complete the table below, listing all the possible combinations of 1 kind of wrapping paper and 1 color of ribbon.

Gift Wrapping Wrapping Paper Solid-color Ribbon Color

MATHEMATICS

The total number of combinations in the table is _______ _______ _______ .

**There are _______ different combinations of 1 kind of paper and 1 color of ribbon to wrap the gift.
**

Gift Wrapping Wrapping Paper Solid-color Solid-color Polka-dot Polka-dot Striped Striped Picture Picture Ribbon Color Red Blue Red Blue Red Blue Red Blue

The total number of combinations in the table is 4 2 8. There are 8 different combinations of 1 kind of paper and 1 color of ribbon to wrap the gift.

196

Objective 5

When counting the possible outcomes for an experiment, you sometimes must eliminate duplicate outcomes. There are 6 colored marbles in a bag: 2 red marbles, 2 white marbles, and 2 blue marbles. Without looking, you draw 2 marbles out of the bag at the same time. What are all the possible color combinations of the 2 marbles drawn? You can organize the possible outcomes in a table.

Color Combinations Red Red Red White White White Blue Blue Blue Red White Blue Red White Blue Red White Blue

MATHEMATICS

Three of the combinations are crossed out because they are duplicates. For example, the outcomes red-white and white-red are the same outcome. In this case it doesn’t matter in what order the two colors are listed—you still have the same two colors. There are only six possible outcomes for this experiment. When making a table or a tree diagram for such experiments, you do not need to list the duplicate combinations. The table below lists all the possible outcomes.

Color Combinations Red Red Red White White Blue Red White Blue White Blue Blue

Do you see that . . .

197

Objective 5

Try It

Is red-blue the same as blue-red?

A box contains 2 red chips, 3 blue chips, and 1 yellow chip. Tyrone selects 2 chips at random from the box. Complete the tree diagram below, listing all the possible combinations of colors Tyrone could choose. Do not include duplicate combinations.

Red Red

Blue

Yellow

MATHEMATICS

There are only two branches on the tree diagram next to blue because the combination red-blue is the same as the combination blue-red. There are no branches next to yellow on the tree diagram. Yellow-yellow would be the only new, unique combination possible, but there is only one yellow chip. Therefore, the combination yellow-yellow is not a possible combination. There are ﬁve possible combinations of chips.

Red Red Blue

1 2

Yellow 3 Blue Blue Yellow 5 4

198

Objective 5

**How Do You Find All the Possible Arrangements When the Order of the Events Is Important?
**

In some experiments the order in which events occur determines different outcomes. For example, if you are counting the number of ways you can line up the two letters A and B, the outcome A-B is a different outcome from B-A. Ella, Violet, and Brandy are going to have their picture taken together. In how many different ways can they stand in a line for the picture?

MATHEMATICS

Ella

Violet

Brandy

In this problem the order in which the girls are standing matters. Ella-Violet-Brandy is different from Ella-Brandy-Violet. You can use a table to list all the possible ways the girls can line up.

●

List the possible arrangements with Ella ﬁrst and each of the other girls either second or third. Then list the possible arrangements with Violet ﬁrst. Finally list the possible arrangements with Brandy ﬁrst.

Orders First Girl Ella Ella Violet Violet Brandy Brandy Second Girl Violet Brandy Ella Brandy Ella Violet Third Girl Brandy Violet Brandy Ella Violet Ella

● ●

The table shows a total of 6 possible ways in which the 3 girls can line up for their picture. The order in which the names are listed is important.

199

Objective 5

**How Do You Find the Probability of an Event?
**

Probability is a way of describing how likely it is that a particular outcome will occur. A fraction can be used to describe the results of a probability experiment.

●

The numerator of the fraction is the number of favorable outcomes for the experiment. The denominator of the fraction is the number of all the possible outcomes for the experiment.

Number of favorable outcomes Total number of possible outcomes

●

Kim is choosing a marble from a bag containing 1 red marble, 1 blue marble, and 1 green marble. What is the probability that she will choose a green marble?

● ●

There is 1 green marble in the bag. There is 1 favorable outcome. There are 1 outcomes. 1 1 3 marbles in the bag. There are 3 possible

Number of favorable outcomes Total number of possible outcomes 1 3 1 3

MATHEMATICS

Probability of choosing a green marble

The probability that Kim will choose a green marble is , or 1 out of 3.

Consider Kim and the marbles again. The bag contains 1 red marble, 1 blue marble, and 1 green marble. What is the probability of Kim not choosing a green marble? Think of the question this way. If choosing a green marble is the favorable outcome, what is the probability that the outcome will not be favorable? An unfavorable outcome is not choosing a green marble. So choosing a red or a blue marble is not a favorable outcome.

●

There is 1 red marble and 1 blue marble in the bag. There are 1 1 2 outcomes that are not favorable. There are 1 outcomes. 1 1 3 marbles in the bag. There are 3 possible

Number of outcomes that are not favorable Total number of possible outcomes 2 3 2 3

●

Probability of not choosing a green marble

The probability of Kim not choosing a green marble is , or 2 out of 3.

200

Objective 5

You just saw that the probability of Kim not choosing a green marble is , or 2 out of 3. There is another way to express this answer. Not choosing a green marble is called the complement of choosing a green marble. The complement of an event is the set of all the possible outcomes that are not favorable. So you could say that the probability of the complement of choosing a green marble is , or 2 out of 3. Michelle has 10 quarters, 5 dimes, 3 nickels, and 2 pennies in her coat pocket. If Michelle selects a coin from her pocket, what is the probability that the coin is a dime?

●

2 3

2 3

Michelle has 5 dimes in her pocket. There are 5 favorable outcomes. She has 10 5 3 2 20 coins in her coat pocket. There are 20 possible outcomes.

Probability of selecting a dime

●

The probability of a favorable outcome plus the probability of its complement (all unfavorable outcomes) is always equal to 1.

1 4 3 4

1

Number of favorable outcomes Total number of possible outcomes 1 The probability that Michelle will select a dime is . 4

5 20

1 4

MATHEMATICS

Consider the experiment above in which Michelle has 10 quarters, 5 dimes, 3 nickels, and 2 pennies in her coat pocket. If Michelle selects a coin from her pocket, what is the probability that the coin selected is not a dime? The probability of not selecting a dime is the same as selecting a quarter, a nickel, or a penny.

●

Michelle has 10 quarters, 3 nickels, and 2 pennies in her coat pocket. There are 10 3 2 15 favorable outcomes. She has 10 5 3 2 20 coins in her coat pocket. There are 20 possible outcomes.

Probability of not selecting a dime

●

Number of favorable outcomes Total number of possible outcomes 3 The probability of Michelle not selecting a dime is . 4

15 20

3 4

201

Objective 5

Try It

While playing a board game, Tyra uses a spinner to determine how many spaces to move her game piece each turn. The spinner is divided evenly into 8 sections, labeled 1 through 8. What is the probability that Tyra will move her game piece at least 5 spaces on her next turn?

MATHEMATICS

The favorable outcomes are to move ______ , ______ , ______ , or ______ spaces. The number of favorable outcomes is _______ . There are _______ possible outcomes. The probability that Tyra will move her game piece at least 5 spaces on her next turn is , or .

The favorable outcomes are to move 5, 6, 7, or 8 spaces. The number of favorable outcomes is 4. There are 8 possible outcomes. The probability that Tyra will move her game piece at least 5 spaces on her next turn is , or .

4 8 1 2

202

Objective 5

Try It

A bag contains 20 marbles, 8 of which are blue. If you take a marble from the bag, what is the probability that it will not be blue? The probability of not selecting a _______ marble is the same as selecting any color marble other than blue. There are _______ blue marbles in the bag. There are a total of _______ marbles in the bag. There are 20 8 _______ other color marbles in the bag.

The number of favorable outcomes is _______. The total number of possible outcomes is _______. The probability of not selecting a blue marble is , or .

MATHEMATICS

The probability of not selecting a blue marble is the same as selecting any color marble other than blue. There are 8 blue marbles in the bag. There are a total of 20 marbles in the bag. There are 20 8 12 other color marbles in the bag. The number of favorable outcomes is 12. The total number of possible outcomes is 20. The probability of not selecting a blue marble is

12 3 , or . 20 5

203

Objective 5

**How Can You Organize and Display Data?
**

You can use tables, line graphs, bar graphs, circle graphs, and pictographs to organize and display data. When data are organized and displayed in a graph or diagram, it is easier to see relationships between the pieces of data. This can be helpful in problem solving. A bar graph uses either vertical or horizontal bars of different heights or lengths to display data. A bar graph has a scale and labels to tell the reader what the bars represent. Bar graphs are useful for analyzing and comparing data. The bar graph below shows the average number of hours six students study each week.

**Average Study Hours per Week
**

Bob

MATHEMATICS

Joan

Jeff

Carol

Art

Miriam 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Number of Hours

**How many more hours each week does Bob study than Jeff studies?
**

●

The scale on the bottom shows the average number of hours the students study. The bar for Jeff ends halfway between the 6 and the 8 on the scale, so Jeff studies 7 hours per week. The bar for Bob ends halfway between the 8 and the 10 on the scale, so Bob studies 9 hours per week. Use subtraction to ﬁnd how many more hours Bob studies. 9 7 2

●

●

●

Bob studies 2 hours more than Jeff studies each week.

204

Objective 5

A line graph shows points plotted on a coordinate grid. The points are connected by line segments. The plotted points represent data presented as pairs of numbers. Line graphs are particularly useful for showing trends, or changes in data over a period of time. The line graph below shows the temperature at different times during the day.

Temperature from 6 A.M. to 6 P.M.

90

80

Temperature (°F)

70

60

MATHEMATICS

50 0 6 A.M. 8 A.M. 10 A.M. 12 P.M. 2 P.M. 4 P.M. 6 P.M.

Time

This symbol means there is a break in the scale.

Use the graph to ﬁnd the four-hour period during which the temperature increased and then decreased. From 6 A.M. to 8 A.M., the temperature increased from 64°F to 68°F . ● From 8 A.M. to 10 A.M., the temperature increased from 68°F to 78°F . ● From 10 A.M. to 12 P M., the temperature increased . from 78°F to 80°F . ● From 12 P M. to 2 P M., the temperature increased . . from 80°F to 84°F . ● From 2 P M. to 4 P M., the temperature increased . . from 84°F to 86°F . ● From 4 P M. to 6 P M., the temperature decreased . . from 86°F to 80°F . During the four-hour time period from 2 P M. to 6 P M., the . . temperature increased and then decreased.

●

205

Objective 5

Try It

The bar graph below shows the results of a survey about people’s favorite season. Favorite Seasons

50 40

30

Number of People

20

10

0

Spring

Summer

Fall

Winter

Season

MATHEMATICS

What is the difference between the total number of people who prefer cool seasons, fall and winter, and the total number of people who prefer warm seasons, spring and summer? The number of people who prefer fall is ________ . The number of people who prefer winter is ________ . The total number of people who prefer cool seasons is ________ ________ ________ .

The number of people who prefer spring is ________ . The number of people who prefer summer is ________ . The total number of people who prefer warm seasons is ________ ________ ________ . The difference between the number of people who prefer cool seasons and the number of people who prefer warm seasons is ________ – ________ ________.

The number of people who prefer fall is 40. The number of people who prefer winter is 15. The total number of people who prefer cool seasons is 40 15 55. The number of people who prefer spring is 25. The number of people who prefer summer is 20. The total number of people who prefer warm seasons is 25 20 45. The difference between the number of people who prefer cool seasons and the number of people who prefer warm seasons is 55 – 45 10.

206

Objective 5

**How Can You Describe Data?
**

A set of data can be described by its range, median, or mode. The range of a set of data is the difference between the greatest and the least numbers in the data set. Subtract to ﬁnd the difference. What is the range for this set of data? 99, 92, 89, 84, 79, 77, 68, 66, 64

● ● ●

The largest number is 99. The smallest number is 64. Subtract: 99 – 64 35.

The range for this data set is 35. The median of a set of data is the middle value of all the numbers. To ﬁnd the middle value, list the numbers in order from least to greatest or from greatest to least. Cross out one value on each end of the list until you reach the middle. If there are two values in the middle, ﬁnd the number halfway between the two values by adding them together and dividing their sum by 2. What is the median for this set of data? 45, 71, 55, 13, 22, 88, 91, 18

●

Do you see that . . .

MATHEMATICS

Write the numbers in order. 13, 18, 22, 45, 55, 71, 88, 91 Cross out the numbers on the ends until you reach the middle. 13, 18, 22, 45, 55, 71, 88, 91 The numbers in the middle are 45 and 55. Find the number halfway between 45 and 55. 45 100 55 2 100 50

●

● ●

The number 50 is exactly halfway between these numbers. The median for this data set is 50. The mode is the value (or values) that appears in a set of data more frequently than any other value. If all the values in a set of data appear the same number of times, the set does not have a mode.

207

Objective 5

**What is the mode of this set of data? 70, 83, 90, 70, 83, 83, 90, 100
**

● ●

The value 83 appears three times. No other value appears more than twice.

The mode is 83.

What is the mode of this set of data? 3, 6, 2, 3, 12, 2, 6, 12 There is no mode of this data set because each value appears twice.

Try It

MATHEMATICS

The table below shows the number of sunny days in a city for each month of the year. Find the range, the median, and the mode of this data set.

Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

●

Number of Sunny Days 13 12 18 19 22 27 26 28 24 18 15 11

Find the range of the set of data. The greatest number is _______ , and the least number is _______ . Use the operation of _____________________ to ﬁnd the range of this set of data. _______ _______ _______

The range of the set of data is _______ .

208

Objective 5

●

Find the median of the set of data. Place the numbers in order from least to greatest. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ The numbers in the middle of the list are _______ and _______ . The median is exactly halfway between _______ and _______ . The median of the set of data is _______ .

●

Find the mode of the set of data. The only value that appears more than once is _______ . The mode of the set of data is _______ .

The greatest number is 28, and the least number is 11. Use the operation of subtraction to ﬁnd the range: 28 11 17. The range is 17. Ordered from least to greatest, the numbers are 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 27, and 28. The numbers in the middle of the list are 18 and 19. The median is exactly halfway between 18 and 19. The median is 18.5. The only value that appears more than once is 18. The mode is 18.

MATHEMATICS

Try It

There is a value missing in the set of data below. The mode of the complete set of data is 74. ? 88, 91, 74, 90, 67, 88, 73, 74, 70, 75, ____ Find the missing value. The mode of a set of data is the number in the data set that __________________________________________________________ . The number _______ appears twice in the set of data. The number _______ also appears twice in the set of data. If _______ is the mode of the set of data, it must appear more often than any other number in the data set. The missing value is _______ .

The mode is the number in the data set that appears most frequently. The number 88 appears twice in the set of data. The number 74 also appears twice in the set of data. If 74 is the mode of the set of data, it must appear more often than any other number in the data set. The missing value is 74.

209

Objective 5

**How Do You Use a Circle Graph to Display Data?
**

A circle graph compares the numbers in a set of data by showing the relative size of the parts that make up a whole. The circle represents the whole, which is made up of all the data elements. Each section of the circle represents a part of the whole. The table below shows the number of each type of book checked out from a library one day.

Books Checked Out from a Library Type of Book Art Biography Fiction History Sports Number of Books 20 70 150 30 90

MATHEMATICS

The circle graph also represents the number of each type of book checked out from the library one day.

Art 20

History 30

Biography 70

Fiction 150

Sports 90

**Does the graph accurately reﬂect the data in the table?
**

●

In this circle graph the whole is the total number of books checked out. 150 90 70 30 20 360 Determine what fraction of the books checked out belong to a particular category. For example, 90 of the 360 books checked out were sports books.

090 360 1 1 were about sports. Therefore, of 4 4 90 90 1 4

●

Of the books checked out,

**the circle graph should represent sports books. Look at the graph. It appears that
**

1 of the circle represents sports books. 4

210

Objective 5

●

Compare the sizes of the other sections of the circle graph. The size of each section should be proportional to the number of books represented by that section. Compare 150 ﬁction books to 70 biographies. The number 150 is more than twice 70. Therefore, the section of the circle graph representing the number of ﬁction books should be a little more than twice the size of the section representing biographies. Look at the graph. The section for ﬁction books is a little more than twice the section for biographies. Only 20 art books were checked out. This represents the least number of books checked out compared to the numbers of other types of books. The section of the circle graph representing the number of art books should be the smallest. Look at the graph. That section is the smallest.

●

●

The graph accurately reﬂects the data in the table.

MATHEMATICS

Try It

Mitch owns a number of music CDs: 50 country, 25 rock, 10 rap, and 15 miscellaneous types of music. Use this information to label the sections of the circle graph shown below. Mitch’s CD Collection

The total number of CDs Mitch owns is _______ . Mitch owns _______ country CDs. The fraction of his collection that is country music is The fraction of the circle that should represent country music is . .

211

Objective 5

Mitch owns _______ rock CDs. The fraction of his collection that is rock music is The fraction of the circle that should represent rock music is Mitch owns _______ rap CDs. The fraction of his collection that is rap music is . . . .

The fraction of the circle that should represent rap music is Mitch owns _______ miscellaneous CDs. The fraction of his collection that is miscellaneous music is

.

MATHEMATICS

The fraction of the circle that should represent miscellaneous music is .

The total number of CDs Mitch owns is 100. Mitch owns 50 country CDs. The fraction of his collection that is country music is

1 2 50 . The fraction of the 100

circle that should represent country music is . Mitch owns 25 rock CDs. The fraction of his collection that is rock music is

1 4 25 . The fraction of the 100

circle that should represent rock music is . Mitch owns 10 rap CDs. The fraction of his collection that is rap music is that should represent rap music is

1 . Mitch owns 15 miscellaneous CDs. The 10 15 fraction of his collection that is miscellaneous music is . The fraction of the 100 3 circle that should represent miscellaneous music is . The largest section of 20 10 . The fraction of the circle 100

the graph should be labeled “Country.” Going clockwise from that section, the other sections should be labeled “Rock,” “Rap,” and “Miscellaneous.”

Now practice what you’ve learned.

212

Objective 5

Question

44

In the cafeteria Barry can choose from 3 different cereals: rice, corn, or wheat. He can also choose between skim milk and whole milk. Which diagram shows all the possible combinations of 1 type of cereal and 1 type of milk? Rice A Corn Wheat Whole Rice Skim

Rice B Skim Whole

Corn Skim Whole

Wheat Skim Whole

Rice C Skim Whole Corn Skim

Corn Whole Wheat Skim

Wheat

MATHEMATICS MATHEMATICS

Whole

Rice

Rice D Skim Whole

Corn Skim Whole

Skim Wheat Whole

Whole Wheat Skim

Answer Key: page 242

213

Objective 5

Question

45

Marissa is arranging a blue candle, a yellow candle, and a red candle on a shelf. Which table shows all the possible ways of arranging the three candles on her shelf?

A

First Position Red Blue Yellow First Position Red Blue Yellow Red First Position Blue Blue Yellow Yellow Red Red First Position Blue Blue Yellow Yellow Red Red Yellow

Second Position Yellow Red Blue Second Position Red Red Blue Yellow Second Position Yellow Red Blue Red Yellow Blue Second Position Yellow Red Blue Red Yellow Blue Blue

Third Position Blue Yellow Red Third Position Blue Yellow Red Blue Third Position Red Yellow Red Blue Blue Yellow Third Position Red Yellow Red Blue Blue Yellow Yellow

B

MATHEMATICS

C

D

Answer Key: page 242

214

Objective 5

Question

46

Question

47

Wilma chooses 2 jelly beans from a jar containing 10 red, 10 purple, and 10 orange jelly beans. Which list shows all the possible color combinations of 2 jelly beans that Wilma can choose? A Red and red Red and orange Red and purple Orange and orange Orange and purple Purple and purple B Orange and red Red and purple Purple and orange C Orange and red Purple and orange Green and purple Purple and purple Orange and orange Red and red

A bag contains 11 tiles numbered 1 through 11. What is the probability that a tile selected at random from the bag will be marked with an even number? A B C D

1 5 5 6 1 2 5 11 Answer Key: page 242

Question

48

A gum-ball machine contains 6 blue gum balls, 3 pink gum balls, and 1 white gum ball. If Marcus buys a gum ball from the machine, what is the probability that he will NOT get a blue gum ball? A B C D

3 10 3 5 2 3 2 5

MATHEMATICS

D Not Here

Answer Key: page 242 Answer Key: page 242

215

Objective 5

Question

49

CD Sales Type of Music Number Sold Country 25 Pop 45 Rock 42 Jazz 32

The table below shows the number of CDs sold at the Mighty Music Store on Monday.

Which bar graph best represents the information in the table?

CD Sales

60 50 60 50

CD Sales

Number Sold

40 30 20 10 0 Country Pop Rock Jazz

Number Sold

40 30 20 10 0 Country Pop Rock Jazz

MATHEMATICS

A

C

Type of Music

Type of Music

CD Sales

60 50 60 50

CD Sales

Number Sold

40

Number Sold

40 30 20 10

B

D

30 20 10 0 Country Pop Rock Jazz

0

Country

Pop

Rock

Jazz

Type of Music

Type of Music

Answer Key: page 242

216

Objective 5

Question

50

Turkey Sandwiches Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Number of Sandwiches 20 20 10 35 15

The table below shows the number of turkey sandwiches made last week at a school cafeteria.

Which of these graphs best represents the same data?

Turkey Sandwiches

40

Turkey Sandwiches

MATHEMATICS

Monday Tuesday

Number of Sandwiches

30

A

Wednesday Thursday Friday

= 5 sandwiches.

C

20

10

0

Monday

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Day

Turkey Sandwiches

40

Turkey Sandwiches

Number of Sandwiches

Friday

Monday

30

B

Thursday Tuesday

D

20

10

0

Wednesday

Monday

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Day

Answer Key: page 243

217

Objective 5

Question

51

Question

52

Ms. Brown made a list of the ages of all the students in her dance class. 8, 12, 9, 9, 12, 12, 9, 8, 10, 11, 11, 12, 11 What is the median of this set of data? A B C 10 11 12

The table below shows the high temperatures in Springville for one week.

High Temperatures Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Temperature (°F) 77 68 66 73 77 74 ?

D 9

MATHEMATICS

The highest temperature for the week occurred on Sunday. If the range of high temperatures for the week was 13°F, what was the high temperature on Sunday? A B C 79°F 81°F 87°F

D 90°F

Answer Key: page 243 Answer Key: page 243

218

Objective 5

Question

53

Regina conducted a survey about the type of pet people prefer. The table below shows the results of the survey.

Favorite Pets

Type of Pet Cat Dog Fish Gerbil Number of People 30 45 5 20

Which circle graph correctly displays this information?

Favorite Pets

Favorite Pets

MATHEMATICS

Gerbil Cat

A

Gerbil

C

Cat

Fish

Dog

Fish

Dog

Favorite Pets

Favorite Pets

Gerbil Gerbil

B

Cat Cat

D

Fish

Fish Dog

Dog

Answer Key: page 243

219

Objective 5

Question

**54 Milk Sales
**

50

The bar graph below shows the number of cases of milk B & B Dairy sold each day for ﬁve days.

40

30

Number of Cases

20

10

MATHEMATICS

0

Monday

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Day

Between which two days did the numbers of cases of milk sold differ the most? A B C Monday and Tuesday Wednesday and Friday Wednesday and Thursday

**D Thursday and Friday
**

Answer Key: page 243

220

Objective 6

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the mathematical processes and tools used in problem solving.

For this objective you should be able to

● ● ●

apply mathematics to everyday experiences and activities; communicate about mathematics; and use logical reasoning.

**How Can You Use Mathematics to Solve Everyday Problems?
**

Many situations in everyday life involve mathematics. For example, you might use math to determine whether you have enough money to buy several items from a list or to estimate how long it will take you to walk to a movie theater. Solving problems involves more than just numerical computation; logical reasoning and careful planning also play important roles. Here are some steps to follow when solving problems:

●

MATHEMATICS

Understand the problem. Organize the information you are given and identify exactly what you must ﬁnd. You may need information that is not given in the problem, such as a formula. You may be given information that is not needed in order to solve the problem. Make a plan. After you have organized the information, decide how to use this information to ﬁnd an answer. Think about the math concepts that apply to the situation. Identify the order in which you will ﬁnd new information and the formulas or equations you will use to ﬁnd it. Carry out the plan. After you have chosen a problem-solving strategy, use the strategy to work toward a solution to the problem. Go step-by-step through your plan, writing down important information at each step. Check to see whether your answer is reasonable. Check to see whether your answer makes sense. Does it answer the question asked? Is it stated in the correct units? Is it reasonable? You can estimate the solution and then compare the estimate to your answer. They should be approximately equal.

●

●

●

221

Objective 6

A ranch worker is building a wooden fence. He needs 24 nails for each fence post, and there are 140 fence posts. If each box of nails holds 250 nails, how many boxes of nails does the ranch worker need to buy? Understand the problem.

●

What do you want to know? The number of boxes of nails to buy What do you already know? 24 nails per fence post 140 fence posts 250 nails per box

●

Make a plan.

●

MATHEMATICS

Multiply the number of fence posts by the number of nails per fence post to ﬁnd the total number of nails the ranch worker needs. Divide the total number of nails by the number of nails per box to ﬁnd the number of boxes he needs to buy. 24 • 140 3,360 3,360 250 13 R110

●

**Carry out the plan.
**

● ● ●

**Do you see that . . .
**

●

The whole-number part of the quotient tells you that the ranch worker will need 13 whole boxes of nails. The remainder tells you that he will also need an additional 110 nails. Since the ranch worker cannot buy part of another box, he will need to buy 14 boxes of nails to have enough. If the ranch worker purchases only 13 whole boxes of nails, he will be short 110 nails. He needs to buy 14 boxes of nails to be sure he has enough.

Check to see whether your answer is reasonable.

222

Objective 6

Try It

Gloria is repainting the walls in her bedroom. Two of the walls are 9 feet long and 8 feet high, and the other two walls are 13 feet long and 8 feet high. One quart of paint will cover about 120 square feet of wall space. Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd p, the number of quarts of paint Gloria needs to buy. Gloria is painting _______ walls. Two walls measure _______ ft by _______ ft. The other two walls measure _______ ft by _______ ft. The area of a rectangle is equal to its ______________ multiplied by its ______________ . One quart of paint will cover _______ square feet of wall space.

MATHEMATICS

Use the operation of __________________ to represent the area of each wall. Use the operation of __________________ to represent the total area of all four walls. Use the operation of __________________ to ﬁnd the number of quarts of paint needed. The area of each smaller wall can be represented by _______ • _______ . The total area of the two smaller walls can be represented by 2( _______ • _______ ). The area of each larger wall can be represented by _______ • _______ . The total area of the two larger walls can be represented by 2( _______ • _______ ). The total area of all four walls can be represented by 2( _______ • _______ ) 2( _______ • _______ ).

223

Objective 6

The number of quarts of paint needed, p, can be found using this equation: p 2

(

•

)

2

(

•

)

Gloria is painting 4 walls. Two walls measure 9 ft by 8 ft, and the other two walls measure 13 ft by 8 ft. The area of a rectangle is equal to its length multiplied by its width. One quart of paint will cover 120 square feet of wall space. Use multiplication to represent the area of each wall. Use addition to represent the total area. Use division to ﬁnd the number of quarts of paint needed. The area of each smaller wall is 9 • 8. The total area of two of them is 2(9 • 8). The area of each larger wall is 13 • 8. The total area of two of them is 2(13 • 8). The total area of all four walls can be represented by 2(9 • 8) 2(13 • 8). p

2(9 • 8) 2(13 • 8) 120

MATHEMATICS

**What Is a Problem-Solving Strategy?
**

A problem-solving strategy is a plan for solving a problem. Different strategies work better for different types of problems. Sometimes you can use more than one strategy to solve a problem. As you practice solving problems, you will discover which strategies you prefer and which work best in various situations. Some problem-solving strategies include

● ● ● ●

drawing a picture; looking for a pattern; guessing and checking; acting it out;

● ● ●

making a table; working a simpler problem; and working backwards.

One way to solve a problem is to make a table. Organizing data in a table can help you ﬁnd the information you are looking for. Look for patterns in the data.

224

Objective 6

A scientist ﬁlls a balloon with a gas. As the gas is heated, the balloon expands in proportion to the temperature of the gas. The table below shows the measurements the scientist recorded.

Balloon Measurements Volume (cm3) 125 150 V Temperature (ºC) 25 30 35

Write a proportion that can be used to ﬁnd V, the volume of the balloon when the temperature is 35ºC.

●

**Write a ratio that compares a known volume to a known temperature.
**

volume temperature 125 25

MATHEMATICS

●

**Write a ratio that compares the unknown volume to the temperature 35ºC.
**

volume temperature V 35

●

The volume of the balloon is proportional to the temperature of the gas. Write a proportion setting these two ratios as equal.

The following proportion can be used to ﬁnd the value of V, the volume of the balloon when the temperature is 35ºC:

125 25 V 35

Joel is buying hot dogs and hot-dog buns for a school picnic. Hot dogs are sold in packages of 12, and buns are sold in packages of 10. What is the least number of packages Joel can buy in order to have an equal number of hot dogs and hot-dog buns?

●

The number of hot dogs Joel buys depends on the number of packages he buys. Make a table to see the pattern.

Hot Dogs Number of Packages Number of Hot Dogs 1 12 2 24 3 36

The number of hot dogs Joel buys will be a multiple of 12.

225

Objective 6

●

The number of hot-dog buns Joel buys also depends on the number of packages he buys. Make a table to see the pattern.

Hot-Dog Buns Number of Packages 1 2 3 Number of Buns 10 20 30

**The number of hot-dog buns Joel buys will be a multiple of 10.
**

●

To ﬁnd an equal number of hot dogs and hot-dog buns, look for a common multiple of 12 and 10. Multiples of 12: 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, … Multiples of 10: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, …

● ●

The least common multiple of 12 and 10 is 60. If Joel buys 5 packages of hot dogs, he will have 5 • 12 dogs. If Joel buys 6 packages of buns, he will have 6 • 10 60 hot

MATHEMATICS

●

60 buns.

The least numbers of packages Joel can buy in order to have an equal number of hot dogs and buns are 5 packages of hot dogs and 6 packages of buns. Another problem-solving strategy is to work backwards. Start with what you know and work backwards to ﬁnd the answer. Melissa wants to see a movie with her friend Gillian. The movie starts at 3:15 P M., and they want to get to the theater 10 minutes early to buy . tickets. It will take Melissa 10 minutes to ride her bike to Gillian’s house and twice that time for the girls to ride from Gillian’s house to the movie theater. What time should Melissa leave her house? Identify the steps you would take to solve this problem logically. Begin with the starting time of the movie, 3:15 P M., and work backwards. .

●

Find the time the girls need to arrive at the theater. Ten minutes before 3:15 P M. is 3:05 P M. . . Find the time they need to leave Gillian’s house. Multiply 10 minutes by 2 to ﬁnd the number of minutes needed to ride from Gillian’s house to the theater. Twenty minutes before 3:05 P M. is 2:45 P.M. . Find the time Melissa needs to leave her house. Ten minutes before 2:45 P M. is 2:35 P M. . .

●

●

**Melissa needs to leave her house at 2:35 P.M.
**

226

Objective 6

Sometimes solving a simpler problem can help you solve a more difﬁcult problem. The diagram shows a swimming pool in the shape of a rectangle with semicircular ends.

34 feet 16 feet

Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd A, the approximate area of the pool. By looking closely at the pool, you can see that it consists of a rectangle and two semicircles of equal size. One way to ﬁnd the area of the pool is to solve two simpler problems.

MATHEMATICS

● ●

Find the area of the rectangle. Find the area of the circle equal to the sum of the areas of the two semicircles. Add the area of the rectangle and the area of the circle to represent the total area of the pool.

34 ft 16 ft 16 ft

●

Area of rectangle Area of rectangle

lw

Area of circle

πr2

34 • 16

The radius is equal to the diameter divided by 2. r 16 2 8 3.14 • 82 Use 3.14 for π. Area of circle

The equation A (34 • 16) (3.14 • 82) can be used to ﬁnd the approximate area of the pool.

227

Objective 6

Some problems can be solved by acting them out. To act out a problem means to perform or model the actions in the problem. Marco tosses two coins, a quarter and a nickel. Write a proportion that can be used to ﬁnd p, the percent of times Marco can expect both coins to land heads up.

●

You can act out this problem by using two actual coins. Take a quarter and a nickel and turn them over one at a time until you have listed all the possible outcomes of tossing both coins.

LI

BER T Y

TR US

T

LI

LI

BER T Y

Y 1989 RT ER B

D W GO

1 989

MATHEMATICS

ATES OF A ST

UNITED

UNITED

TR US

AR

●

There are four possible outcomes to this experiment: both coins land heads up; the quarter lands heads up and the nickel lands tails up; both coins land tails up; or the quarter lands tails up and the nickel lands heads up. Only one of these outcomes—both coins land heads up—is a favorable outcome. The probability of both coins landing heads up is the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes: . A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. Find the number of favorable outcomes for every 100 possible outcomes. Represent p, the percent of favorable outcomes, in a ratio.

p 100 1 4

●

●

●

●

**Write a proportion using these two ratios.
**

p 100 1 can be used to ﬁnd p, the percent of times 4 p 100 1 4

The proportion

Marco can expect both coins to land heads up.

228

II N

UA L RT LL E R D OL DO

UA L RT LL E R D OL DO

A R

D W GO

IN

IN GOD WE TRUST

IN GOD WE TRUST

1 989

ATES OF A ST

T

LI

RICA R ME M

RIICA R ME

1989 9 R TY BE B

Q

Q Q

Objective 6

Try It

Ms. Meyer is purchasing tickets for a class trip to an art museum. She has $200 in the class-trip fund. The table below shows the cost of various numbers of tickets.

Museum Tickets Number of Tickets 3 5 8 n Cost (dollars) 21 35 56

Does Ms. Meyer have enough money in the fund to purchase tickets for 20 students? One way to solve this problem is to look for a pattern in the table. Use that pattern to write an expression for the cost of n tickets. Look at the cost of 3 tickets. Use the operation of ______________ to ﬁnd the cost per ticket. $_______ 3 $_______

MATHEMATICS

Use the cost per ticket to ﬁnd the cost of 5 tickets. $_______ • 5 This value is in the table. Use the cost per ticket to ﬁnd the cost of 8 tickets. $_______ • 8 This value is in the table. The pattern in the table is to multiply the number of tickets by $_______ to ﬁnd the total cost. The expression _______ can be used to represent the total cost of n museum tickets. There are 20 students in the class. Write an equation using the expression to ﬁnd the total amount of money needed to purchase tickets for the class. $_______ • _______ $_______ $_______ $_______

This total is _________ than $200. Ms. Meyer _________ have enough money in the class-trip fund to purchase the museum tickets.

Use division to ﬁnd the cost per ticket: $21 3 $7. Use the cost per ticket to ﬁnd the cost of 5 and 8 tickets: $7 • 5 $35; $7 • 8 $56. The pattern in the table is to multiply the number of tickets by $7 to ﬁnd the total cost. The expression 7n can be used to represent the total cost of n museum tickets. The total amount of money needed is $7 • 20 $140. This total is less than $200. Ms. Meyer does have enough money in the class-trip fund to purchase the museum tickets.

229

Objective 6

**How Do You Change Words into Math Language and Symbols?
**

An important part of solving many problems is rewriting them with math language and symbols. The words used in the problem will give you clues about what operations to use. Paul has 16 quarters, 5 dimes, and 14 nickels. Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd m, the total amount of money he has.

●

First multiply the number of each type of coin by that coin’s value. Total value of Paul’s quarters Total value of Paul’s dimes Total value of Paul’s nickels 16(0.25) 5(0.10) 14(0.05)

●

Then add the total values of each type of coin to ﬁnd the total amount of money. m total value of quarters value of nickels 16(0.25) 5(0.10) total value of dimes 14(0.05) 14(0.05) can be used to total

MATHEMATICS

m

So, the equation m 16(0.25) 5(0.10) ﬁnd the total amount of money Paul has.

Try It

Gina, Marie, and Todd bought their parents a cake, ﬂowers, and a picture frame for their anniversary. The cake cost $18.49, the ﬂowers cost $28.35, and the picture frame cost $12.29. These costs were split equally by the 3 children. Write an equation that can be used to ﬁnd c, the amount each child spent on the gifts. Use the operation of _______________ to ﬁnd the total cost of the gifts. The expression _________ __________ to ﬁnd the total cost of the gifts. __________ can be used

Use the operation of _______________ to ﬁnd the amount spent by each child. The equation that can be used to ﬁnd c, the amount each child spent on the gifts, is as follows: c ( _______ _______ _______ ) _______

Use the operation of addition to ﬁnd the total cost of the gifts. The expression 18.49 28.35 12.29 can be used to ﬁnd the total cost of the gifts. Use the operation of division to ﬁnd the amount spent by each child. The equation that can be used to ﬁnd c, the amount each child spent on the gifts, is c (18.49 28.35 12.29) 3.

230

Objective 6

**How Can You Use Logical Reasoning as a Problem-Solving Tool?
**

Logical reasoning is thinking of something in a way that makes sense. Thinking about mathematics problems involves logical reasoning. You can use logical reasoning to ﬁnd patterns in a set of data. You can then use those patterns to draw conclusions about the data that can be used to solve problems. Finding patterns involves identifying characteristics that numbers or objects have in common. Look for the pattern in different ways. A sequence of geometric objects may have some property in common. For example, they may all be quadrilaterals or all have right angles. Look at the set of ordered pairs below. {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9), (4, 16), …} Which of the following would not belong in this set? (9, 81), (7, 49), (11, 22) In the given set, the y-coordinate of each ordered pair is the square of the x-coordinate of that ordered pair.

x 1 2 3 4 9 7 11 1 2

2 2 2

MATHEMATICS

Process 1 •1 2 •2 3 •3 4 •4 9 •9 7 •7 11 • 11 1 4 9 16 81 49 121

y 1 4 9 16 81 49 22

3 9 7 11

2

42

2 2

The square of 11 is 121, not 22. The ordered pair (11, 22) does not follow this pattern. It does not belong in this set.

231

Objective 6

Try It

Look at the ﬁgures below.

Which ﬁgure does not belong in this set? The ﬁgures are all ___________________ . They are all closed plane ﬁgures with ________________ sides. The ﬁrst ﬁgure appears to have 3 ___________________ sides. The second ﬁgure appears to have 7 ___________________ sides.

MATHEMATICS

The third ﬁgure appears to have 5 ___________________ sides. The fourth ﬁgure appears to have 4 ___________________ sides. The ﬁfth ﬁgure appears to have 6 ___________________ sides. All the ﬁgures except the ___________________ ﬁgure appear to have equal sides. The ___________________ ﬁgure does not belong in this set.

The ﬁgures are all polygons. They are all closed plane ﬁgures with straight sides. The ﬁrst ﬁgure appears to have 3 equal sides. The second ﬁgure appears to have 7 equal sides. The third ﬁgure appears to have 5 equal sides. The fourth ﬁgure appears to have 4 unequal sides. The ﬁfth ﬁgure appears to have 6 equal sides. All the ﬁgures except the fourth ﬁgure appear to have equal sides. The fourth ﬁgure does not belong in this set.

Now practice what you’ve learned.

232

Objective 6

Question

55

Question

57

Janet and Martha jogged every day for 10 days. Each day the number of minutes Janet jogged was 1 minute less than the number of minutes Martha jogged. Which piece of information can help you ﬁnd the total number of minutes Janet jogged in 10 days? A B C The distances that the girls jogged The speed that each of the girls jogged The number of minutes Janet jogged in 1 day

Mr. Jones wants to enclose his backyard with a fence. His backyard is rectangular in shape and measures 40 feet by 60 feet. The fencing costs $1.50 per foot. Which piece of information will NOT help you ﬁnd the total cost to enclose Mr. Jones’s backyard? A B C The area of Mr. Jones’s backyard The cost of the fencing per foot The lengths of the four sides of Mr. Jones’s backyard

D The number of minutes Martha jogged each of the 10 days

D The perimeter of Mr. Jones’s backyard

Answer Key: page 244 Answer Key: page 243

MATHEMATICS MATHEMATICS

Question

56

Question

58

Angela’s car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline. Which statement is best supported by this information? A B The car can travel 400 miles on a tank of gasoline. If the car made a trip of 45 miles and another trip of 180 miles, it would use 9 gallons of gasoline. The car will get better mileage on the highway than in the city.

Henry is one of four students sharing a hotel room on a class trip. The total cost for the hotel room, which is shared equally by the four students, is $207. Henry spends an average of $11 on food each of the 5 days of the trip. He also spends $23 on souvenirs. What is the total amount in dollars and cents Henry spends on the trip? Record your answer and ﬁll in the bubbles. Be sure to use the correct place value.

C

D The car will use 10 gallons of gasoline to travel 200 miles and 16 gallons to travel 400 miles.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Answer Key: page 244

Answer Key: page 244

233

Objective 6

Question

59

Question

61

Arlen needs to purchase bags of fertilizer for 3 garden plots. Each bag of fertilizer covers 25 square feet of garden. Arrange the problem-solving steps in the correct order for Arlen to ﬁnd the total number of bags he needs to purchase to cover his garden plots. Step M: Add the areas of the 3 garden plots. Step N: Divide the total area by 25. Step O: Find the area of each garden plot in square feet. What list shows the steps in the correct order? A B M, N, O N, O, M O, M, N

Leah plans to cover the top of a table with small square tiles. The tabletop is a triangle with a base of 18 inches and a height of 24 inches. Which expression can be used to ﬁnd the area of the tabletop surface? A B C D

1 (18 • 24) 2 1 (18 2 1 2 1 2

24)

•

(18 (18

24) 24)

Answer Key: page 244

MATHEMATICS

C

D N, M, O

Answer Key: page 244

Question

62

(5, 25) (7, 70) (12, 144)

Look at the group of number pairs below. (3, 12)

Question

60

**Which of the following number pairs could belong to this group? A B C (10, 25) (8, 30) (2, 15)
**

Answer Key: page 244

At the store Bill buys 12 cans of vegetables for $0.48 each, 2 loaves of bread for $1.29 each, and a roast for $8.22. Bill pays for the groceries with a $20 bill. Which equation can be used to ﬁnd c, the change in dollars and cents Bill should receive? A B C c c c 20 20 20 (12

•

D (4, 28)

0.48 (12 (12 0.48)

•

1.29 0.48) 0.48) (2

•

8.22 (2

•

1.29) 1.29) 8.22

8.22 8.22

Question

(2 1.29)

63

D c

A book is printed on large sheets of paper in such a way that 1 large sheet of paper becomes 8 pages in the book. Which of these could be the number of pages in a book printed in this way? A B C 122 238 416

D 501

Answer Key: page 244 Answer Key: page 244

234

**Mathematics Answer Key
**

Objective 1

Question B Since 8 5 4 2, the fractions written in order from greatest to least are as follows:

8 12 5 12 4 12 2 12

1 (page 138)

Correct. Look at the values of the digits to help you compare and order the decimals. To determine which decimal is greatest, look at the numbers in a place-value chart.

Ones . Tenths Hundredths Thousandths

**The simpliﬁed fractions in order from greatest to least are as follows:
**

2 3 5 12 1 3 1 6

1 2 2 1

. . . .

8 1 9 8

1 3 0 8

0 4 0 0

The corresponding colors of marbles are green, blue, red, and white. Green has the greatest fraction of polished marbles. Question C

3 (page 138)

Look at the ones place. Two numbers have a 2 in the ones place. Since 2 1, they are the greatest numbers. For these two numbers, look at the tenths place. Since 9 1, the number 2.9 is greater than 2.134. The greatest number, 2.9, should be listed ﬁrst, and 2.134 should be listed next. Compare the remaining two numbers, 1.81 and 1.88. Both numbers have the same digits in the ones and the tenths places. For these two numbers, look to the hundredths place. Since 8 1, the number 1.88 is greater than 1.81. The number 1.88 should be listed next, and 1.81 should be listed last. Only choice B shows the numbers listed in the correct order. Question C

Correct. John made 25 out of the 30 free throws he attempted. The ratio of free throws made to free throws attempted is 25 to 30. Written as a 25 fraction, this ratio is . The answer choices do 30 25 not include .

30

Simplify the fraction. To simplify the fraction, divide the numerator and denominator of the fraction by a common factor of 25 and 30. Factors of 25: 1, 5, and 25 Factors of 30: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, and 30 The greatest common factor is 5.

25 30 5 5 5 6

MATHEMATICS

**The ratio of free throws made to free throws 5 attempted is .
**

6

2 (page 138)

Question

4 (page 139)

Correct. To compare fractions with different denominators, rewrite the fractions as equivalent fractions that have a common denominator. The denominators are 3, 6, and 12. The least common multiple of these numbers is their least common denominator. Multiples of 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, … Multiples of 6: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, … Multiples of 12: 12, 24, 36, 48, … The least common multiple is 12. Rewrite the fractions using 12 as their common denominator.

1•4 3•4 4 12 5 12 2•4 3•4 8 12 1•2 6•2 2 12

D Correct. First ﬁnd the fraction of students whose favorite pet is a dog. The numerator of the fraction is the number of students whose favorite pet is a dog, 15. The denominator of the fraction is the total number of students in the class, 25. The fraction of students whose favorite pet is a 15 dog is . 25 Next ﬁnd the decimal equivalent of this fraction. Rewrite the fraction as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100.

15 • 4 25 • 4 60 60 100

To compare fractions with a common denominator, compare their numerators.

The fraction is equivalent to 0.60, or 0.6, and 100 represents the fraction of students whose favorite pet is a dog.

235

Mathematics Answer Key

Question A

5 (page 139)

Question A

8 (page 140)

60 , or 1, 60

Correct. To ﬁnd the difference between two numbers, subtract. Since 78 52 26, the temperature changed by 26°F. The temperature was higher at 8 A.M. than at 6 A.M., so the temperature increased 26°F. Since the temperature increased, a “ ” sign is used to represent the change: 26°F.

Correct. There are 60 stamps, so will be subtracted. Cheryl uses invite her friends. She uses

**represents the whole from which fractional parts
**

1 of the stamps to 5 1 3 1 of the stamps to 3

invite her family. The part of the sheet of stamps Cheryl uses is the sum of the two fractions:

1 . 5

Question C

6 (page 139)

**This sum must be subtracted from the whole. Use the expression 1
**

1 (3 1 to represent the 5

Correct. To ﬁnd the prime factors of 360, use a factor tree. Pick a factor pair for 360. Since 360 ends in a zero, 10 is a factor. A good factor pair to begin with would be 36 • 10. A factor tree can also be started by using the ﬁrst prime factor of the number, in this case 2 • 180. Continue to factor each number in the tree until all the factors are prime numbers. Look at the factor trees below.

360 36 x 10 360 2 x 180 2 x 2 x 90 2 x 2 x 2 x 45 2 x 2 x 2 x 9 x 5 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5

)

fraction of the sheet of stamps Cheryl has left after mailing her invitations. Question C

9 (page 140)

**Correct. Add to ﬁnd the total length of the pieces he cuts off. 1
**

3 4

MATHEMATICS

3

3 4

4 4 4

6 4 4 4 2 4 2 4

2 x 18 x 2 x 5 2 x 2 x 9 x 2 x 5 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 5

1

The factors 2, 3, and 5 are all prime. Three factors are 2; two factors are 3; and one factor is 5. The prime factorization of 360 is 2 • 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 5. Rewrite the factors using exponents. 2 • 2 • 2 23 3 • 3 32 The prime factorization of 360 can also be written as 23 • 32 • 5. Question C

2 4 1 5 2

5

Subtract the total length cut from 7 ft to ﬁnd the length of board remaining. To do this, 2 regroup. Rewrite 7 as 6 so that you have 2 1 halves from which to subtract . 7 –5

1 2 2 2 1 –5 2 1 1 2 2

6

7 (page 139)

Correct. Find the greatest common factor of the numbers of jelly beans. List the factors of 36, 48, and 72. Factors of 36: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36 Factors of 48: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 Factors of 72: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 72 The greatest number that appears in all three lists of factors is 12. The greatest common factor is 12. The greatest number Earl can use to divide the jelly beans evenly is 12.

Louis has 1 feet of board left after he cuts off 2 the two pieces.

1

236

Mathematics Answer Key

Question B

10 (page 140)

Correct. Use subtraction to ﬁnd Vince’s bank balance after he took out $13.92. 7 14 $138.4 5 13.92 Remember to regroup. $124.53 Use addition to ﬁnd his bank balance after he put in $27.23. 1 $124.53 27.23 Remember to regroup. $151.76 Vince now has $151.76 in his bank account.

To estimate the number of tiles needed in the kitchen, round the number of rows and the number of tiles in each row to the nearest 10. Round 48 to the nearest 10. Since 8 5, the number 48 rounds to 50. Round 32 to the nearest 10. Since 2 5, the number 32 rounds to 30. Use multiplication to estimate the number of tiles needed in the kitchen. 50 • 30 1,500 Bathroom tiles kitchen tiles total tiles needed 600 1,500 2,100 Mike will need about 2,100 tiles.

Question A

11 (page 140)

Objective 2

Question A

**Correct. Joe’s father drives 40 miles each hour. Express this as a rate.
**

40 mi 1h

14 (page 161)

Find an equivalent ratio for 8 hours (1 workday). To change 1 workday to 8 hours, multiply by 8. 8 Use the fraction to change the ratio so that 8 is 8 the denominator.

40 • 8 1•8 320 8

Find an equivalent ratio for 5 days. Multiply 8 hours by 5 to ﬁnd the number of hours in 5 1 workweek. Use the fraction to change the 5 ratio so that 40 is the denominator.

320 • 5 8•5 1,600 40

Joe’s father will drive 1,600 miles in 5 days. Question C

12 (page 141)

Correct. Use division to separate the whole (5,000 stickers) into 5 equal parts. 5,000 stickers 5 grades 1,000 stickers per grade Use division to separate the whole (1,000 stickers per grade) into 125 equal parts. 1,000 stickers per grade 125 students per grade 8 stickers per student Each student will have to sell 8 bumper stickers.

Incorrect. This ratio compares the number of throws that hit the bull’s-eye (3) to the total number of throws (15). The ratio has been simpliﬁed to 1:5. It is the wrong comparison. B Incorrect. This ratio compares the number of throws that do not hit the bull’s-eye (12) to the number of throws that hit the bull’s-eye (3). The ratio has been simpliﬁed to 4:1. It is the right comparison, but in the wrong order. C Correct. The number of throws that hit the bull’seye is 3. The number of throws that do not hit the bull’s-eye is 15 3 12. The ratio that compares the number of throws that hit the bull’s-eye (3) to the number of throws that do not hit the bull’s-eye (12) is 3:12. The ratio has been simpliﬁed to 1:4. D Incorrect. This ratio compares the total number of throws (15) to the number of throws that hit the bull’s-eye (3). The ratio has been simpliﬁed to 5:1. It is the wrong comparison. Question

MATHEMATICS

15 (page 161)

D Correct. Janet walked to school 36 school days. The total number of school days in the grading period was 36 6 42. The ratio of days walked (36) to total number of days in the grading period (42) is 36 to 42. Written as a fraction, the ratio 36 is .

42

Question B

13 (page 141)

Correct. The problem asks for a reasonable estimate of the total number of tiles needed. Round the numbers in the problem to estimate the answer.

237

**To ﬁnd an equivalent ratio, simplify the fraction by dividing the numerator and denominator by 6.
**

36 42 6 6 6 7

**Mathematics Answer Key
**

The ratio that compares the number of days Janet walked to the total number of school days is 6:7. Question C

Question

19 (page 162)

**16 (page 161)
**

76 is equivalent to 100

Correct. A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. The ratio

The correct answer is 12. One time is given in minutes; the other time is given in hours. To compare the times with a ratio, express them in the same unit: minutes. 1 hour 30 minutes 60 minutes 30 minutes 90 minutes Represent the rate at which Lynn works. Lynn can paint 6 ﬁgures in 45 minutes. This ratio is 6 to 45. Find an equivalent ratio in which the number of minutes is 90. Let the variable m represent the number of ﬁgures Lynn can paint in 90 minutes. Write a proportion that compares these two equivalent ratios.

6 45 m 90

1 hours

1 2

76%. This ratio compares 76 questions answered correctly to 100 total questions. Simplify the ratio. An equivalent ratio can be found by dividing the numerator and denominator by 4.

76 100 4 4 19 25

The fraction Question B

19 is equivalent to 76%. 25

**17 (page 161)
**

25 . 100

Correct. Ted borrowed 25% of Marie’s pencils. A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. The percent 25% is equivalent to the fraction Ted borrowed

MATHEMATICS

25 is also equivalent to the decimal 0.25. They 100

25 of Marie’s pencils. The fraction 100

both are read as twenty-ﬁve hundredths. Ted borrowed 0.25 of Marie’s pencils. The decimal 0.25 is equivalent to 25%. Question B

To solve the proportion, set the cross products equal to each other. 6 • 90 45 • m 540 45m Divide both sides of the equation by 45. m 12 Lynn can paint 12 ﬁgures in 90 minutes.

**18 (page 162)
**

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Correct. The total amount of time José spends doing volunteer work is equivalent to 100%. The percent of volunteer time José spends at the nursing home is 45%. The percent of volunteer time José spends tutoring is 100% minus the percent of volunteer time he spends at the nursing home. 100% 45% 55% The percent of volunteer time he spends tutoring is 55%. A percent is a ratio that compares a

55 number to 100. The fraction is equivalent to 100 55 55%. José spends of his volunteer time 100 55 tutoring. Simplify the ratio . An equivalent 100

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

**ratio can be found by dividing both the numerator and denominator by 5.
**

55 100 5 5 11 20

The fraction

11 of his volunteer time tutoring. 20

11 is equivalent to 55%. José spends 20

238

Mathematics Answer Key

Question C

20 (page 162)

Correct. The question asks which proportion you can use to ﬁnd y, the total number of chocolate cookies. Write a ratio that shows 4 chocolate cookies for 4 every 3 vanilla cookies. This ratio is 4:3, or . 3 Write a ratio that shows y, the total number of chocolate cookies. There are a total of 24 vanilla y cookies in the jar. This ratio is y:24, or . 24 To ﬁnd the proportion, set the two ratios as 4 y equal. The proportion = can be used to ﬁnd 3 24 the total number of chocolate cookies in the jar.

She gets 3 CDs for her birthday. This increases the number of CDs she has. 25 (2 • 4) 3 The equation x 25 (2 • 4) 3 can be used to ﬁnd the number of CDs Michelle has now.

Objective 3

Question A

24 (page 174)

Correct. An obtuse angle measures more than 90° but less than 180°. The angle shown on the clock is greater than 90°, but less than 180°. It is obtuse.

Question C

21 (page 162)

Correct. Each y-value is 8 more than its corresponding x-value.

11 12 1 10 2 3 9 8 7 6 5 4

x 4 13 22 51

x 4 13 22 51

8 8 8 8 8

y 12 21 30 59

y 12 21 30 59

MATHEMATICS

Question

25 (page 174)

D Correct. An acute angle measures more than 0° but less than 90°. Angle P is acute. Question B

The equation that represents the y-values in terms of the x-values is y x 8. Question B

26 (page 174)

22 (page 163)

Correct. Evaluate the expression 2m 3 by replacing the variable m with the ages of the tree in the table.

Age 1 3 6 10

2m 2(1) 2(3) 2(6) 2(10)

3 3 3 3 3

Height 5 9 15 23

Correct. The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle always equals 180°. Add the measures of angles X and Z. 49° 41° 90° To ﬁnd the measure of Y, subtract the sum, 90°, from 180°. 180° 90° 90° Angle Y has a measure of 90°. A right angle has a measure of 90°. Therefore, angle Y is a right angle.

Question

27 (page 174)

The expression 2m + 3 can be used to ﬁnd the height of the tree in terms of its age. Question 23 (page 163) C Correct. Michelle starts with 25 CDs. She gives 2 friends 4 CDs each. This decreases the number of CDs she has. 25 (2 • 4)

D Correct. The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle always equals 180°. In choice D, 40° 50° 90° 180°. Question B

28 (page 175)

Correct. The opposite angles of a parallelogram always have equal measures. Since R and T are opposite angles, m R m T.

239

**Mathematics Answer Key
**

Since the measure of of R is also 105°. Question C T is 105°, the measure Find how far the point (6 , 8) is from the point (6 , 5). Since 8 – 5 = 3, the point is 3 units above (6 , 5). Find how far the point (2 , 8) is from the point (6 , 8). Since 6 – 2 = 4, the point is 4 units to the left of (6 , 8). Find how far the point (2 , 5) is from the point (2 , 8). Since 8 – 5 = 3, the point is 3 units below (2 , 8). 2 These coordinates form a rectangle that has one pair of sides of 4 units long and the other pair of sides of 3 units long.

1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

29 (page 175)

Correct. The measures of the base angles of an isosceles triangle are always equal. The two equal sides of triangle PQR are PQ and QR. PR is the base of the triangle, and P and R are the base angles. Since the base angles are equal and m P = 35°, then m R 35°. The sum of the measures of P and R is 35° 35° 70°. The sum of the measures of all the angles of a triangle always equals 180°. To ﬁnd the measure of Q, subtract 70° from 180°. 180° 70° 110° The measure of Q is 110°.

Objective 4

Question B

Question

30 (page 175)

34 (page 190)

B

Correct. The circumference of a circle is equal to the product of π and the diameter of the circle: C πd. To ﬁnd the diameter, divide the circumference, 48 inches, by π. Use 3.14 to approximate the value of π. The exact diameter is equal to 48 inches π. This can be approximated by the expression 48 3.14.

Question C

31 (page 175)

Correct. The formula for the circumference of a circle is C πd. If the radius is 3 feet, the diameter is 2 times 3, or 6, feet. Roy can ﬁnd the circumference by using the expression π • 6, which can also be written as 6π.

Correct. Since the problem asks for an approximate answer, round the numbers before calculating. Round 62 to 60. Subtract to ﬁnd the distance in inches between the top of the player’s head and the basketball hoop. 120 60 60 The top of the player’s head is approximately 60 inches below the hoop. There are 12 inches in 1 foot. Divide by 12 to convert inches to feet. 60 12 5 The top of the player’s head is about 5 feet below the hoop.

MATHEMATICS

Question A

35 (page 190)

Question C

32 (page 176)

Correct. Each line on the grid represents 1 unit. Point T is 3 units to the right of the origin. Its x-coordinate is 3. Point T is 2 units above the origin. Its y-coordinate is 2. The coordinates of point T are (3, 2).

Question B

**33 (page 176)
**

1 2

Correct. One vertex of the rectangle has the coordinates (2 , 5). Find how far the point (6 , 5) is from the point (2 , 5). Since 2 + 4 = 6 , the point is 4 units to the right of (2 , 5).

240

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

Correct. The amount of time between 10:00 A.M. and 3:00 P.M. is 5 hours. To ﬁnd the increase in temperature, multiply the number of hours by the rate the temperature is increasing. 5 • 4 20 The temperature will increase 20°F. Add the increase in temperature to the 10:00 A.M. temperature to ﬁnd the 3:00 P.M. temperature. 51°F 20°F 71°F The temperature at 3:00 P.M. will be 71°F.

Mathematics Answer Key

Question C

36 (page 190)

Question B

39 (page 192)

Correct. The perimeter of a polygon is the sum of the lengths of all its sides. Find the sum of the given lengths. 6 6 12 24 24 18 6 96 Subtract this sum from the perimeter to ﬁnd x. 108 96 12 The missing length is 12 units, or x 12 units.

Correct. One ray of R is lined up with 50° on the outer scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at 150° on the outer scale. 150° – 50° 100° The measure of R is 100°.

Question B

40 (page 192)

Question C

37 (page 191)

Correct. Find the perimeter of the drawing in inches. Measure the length and the width of the drawing in inches. Length: 2 inches Width: 1 inch The formula for the perimeter of a rectangle is P 2(l w). Substitute the variables. P 2(2 1) P 2(3) P 6 Use the key for the drawing to ﬁnd the actual perimeter in feet. The key states that 1 inch on the drawing equals 10 feet. Multiply the perimeter of the drawing by 10 to ﬁnd the actual garden’s perimeter. 6 • 10 60 The perimeter of the garden is 60 feet.

Correct. The base angles of an isosceles triangle are always equal. Since PM PN, the base angles are M and N. Therefore, M has the same measure as N. Use the protractor to ﬁnd the measure of M. One ray of M is lined up with 0° on the inner scale. The other ray crosses the protractor at 50° on the inner scale. The measure of M is 50°. Therefore, the measure of N is also 50°.

Question C

41 (page 193)

MATHEMATICS

Question C

38 (page 191)

Correct. First add to ﬁnd the total number of minutes. 53 27 36 116 Michael spent 116 minutes doing chores. Next change 116 minutes to hours and minutes. There are 60 minutes in 1 hour. Divide the number of minutes by 60 to ﬁnd the number of hours. 116 60 1 R56 The whole-number part of the answer shows the number of hours, and the remainder shows the number of minutes. 116 minutes 60 minutes per hour 1 hour 56 minutes Michael spent 1 hour 56 minutes doing chores.

Correct. First change 5 gallons to quarts. There are 4 quarts in 1 gallon. Multiply by 4 to ﬁnd the number of quarts in 5 gallons. 5 • 4 20 There are 20 quarts in 5 gallons. Next change 20 quarts to pints. There are 2 pints in 1 quart. Multiply by 2 to ﬁnd the number of pints in 20 quarts. 20 • 2 40 There are 40 pints in 20 quarts. Then change 40 pints to cups. There are 2 cups in 1 pint. Multiply by 2 to ﬁnd the number of cups in 40 pints. 40 • 2 80 There are 80 cups in 40 pints. Five gallons is equivalent to 80 cups.

Question C

42 (page 193)

Correct. First add to ﬁnd the total number of yards he carried the ball. 34 28 41 103 Miguel carried the ball a total of 103 yards. Next change 103 yards to feet. There are 3 feet in 1 yard. Multiply by 3 to ﬁnd the number of feet. 103 • 3 309 Miguel carried the ball a total of 309 feet.

241

Mathematics Answer Key

Question B

43 (page 193)

Question A

46 (page 215)

Correct. Measure the length and the width of the rectangle in inches. Length: 3 inches Width: 2 inches The formula for the area of a rectangle is A lw. A (3)(2) A 6 The area of the rectangle is 6 square inches.

Correct. This list shows all the possible combinations. Since the order in which the jelly beans are chosen does not matter, the outcome red-orange is the same as the outcome orangered. Make a list of all the possible combinations based on a ﬁrst choice and a second choice. Cross out the duplicate combinations.

Objective 5

Question A

44 (page 213)

Incorrect. This choice shows two combinations of two types of cereal and a combination of two types of milk. B Correct. This tree diagram shows that rice cereal can be served with skim milk or whole milk, that corn cereal can be served with skim milk or whole milk, and that wheat cereal can be served with skim milk or whole milk. There are six possible combinations. C Incorrect. This choice shows combinations of one type of cereal and one type of milk, but it also shows combinations of two types of cereal. D Incorrect. This choice shows combinations of one type of cereal and one type of milk, but it also shows combinations of two types of milk. Question C

MATHEMATICS

**First Jelly Bean Red Red Red Orange Orange Orange Purple Purple Purple
**

Question

Second Jelly Bean Red Orange Purple Orange Red Purple Purple Red Orange

47 (page 215)

D Correct. A favorable event for this experiment is to select an even-numbered tile. The bag contains 5 even-numbered tiles: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. Therefore, there are 5 favorable outcomes. There are 11 tiles in all, which means that there are 11 possible outcomes. The probability of selecting 5 an even-numbered tile is .

11

**45 (page 214)
**

Question

Correct. Since the order of the three candles matters in the arrangement, all the different possibilities must be listed. List each of the three colors in the ﬁrst position. Then list each of the other two colors in the second position. List the remaining color in the third position. Only choice C arranges the candles in all these ways.

48 (page 215)

D Correct. If Marcus does not get a blue gum ball, he will get either a pink or a white gum ball. There are 3 pink gum balls and 1 white gum ball. Therefore, there are 4 favorable outcomes. There are 10 possible outcomes because there are 10 gum balls in all. The probability that Marcus 4 will not get a blue gum ball is , which simpliﬁes to . Question A

2 5 10

49 (page 216)

B

Incorrect. The graph shows that the store sold 32 rock CDs and 42 jazz CDs. These values do not match the ones in the table. They have been switched. Correct. This graph correctly shows that on Monday the store sold 25 country CDs, 45 pop CDs, 42 rock CDs, and 32 jazz CDs.

242

**Mathematics Answer Key
**

C Incorrect. The graph shows that the store sold 42 pop CDs and 45 rock CDs. These values do not match the ones in the table. They have been switched. D Incorrect. The graph shows that the store sold 38 rock CDs and 28 jazz CDs. These values do not match the ones in the table. Question A

Question A

53 (page 219)

50 (page 217)

Correct. Each picture of a sandwich represents 5 sandwiches. The pictograph shows that 20 sandwiches were made on Monday, 20 were made on Tuesday, 10 were made on Wednesday, 35 were made on Thursday, and 15 were made on Friday. These values match the values in the table. B Incorrect. Each section of this circle graph is the same size, so this graph indicates that the same number of sandwiches were made each day. The table, however, shows that a different number of sandwiches were made on nearly all of those days. C Incorrect. This bar graph shows that the cafeteria made 15 sandwiches on Thursday and 35 sandwiches on Friday. These values do not match the ones in the table. They have been switched. D Incorrect. This line graph shows that the cafeteria made 35 sandwiches on Wednesday and 10 sandwiches on Thursday. These values do not match the ones in the table. They have been switched. Question B

Correct. According to the table, the order of preference of animals is dog, cat, gerbil, and ﬁsh. In order from largest to smallest, the sections of this graph are “Dog,” “Cat,” “Gerbil,” and “Fish.” This graph matches the values in the table. B Incorrect. This graph shows that the numbers of people who prefer gerbils and who prefer cats are equal. The table, however, shows that more people prefer cats than prefer gerbils. This graph does not match the values in the table. C Incorrect. This graph shows that the numbers of people who prefer different pets are equal. The table shows that different numbers of people prefer each type of pet. This graph does not match the values in the table. D Incorrect. This graph shows that the numbers of people who prefer dogs and who prefer cats are equal. The table, however, shows that more people prefer dogs than prefer cats. The graph also shows that the numbers of people who prefer gerbils and who prefer ﬁsh are equal. The table, however, shows that more people prefer gerbils than prefer ﬁsh. This graph does not match the values in the table. Question A

MATHEMATICS

54 (page 220)

51 (page 218)

Correct. The median of a set of data is the middle value when the data are listed in order. The ages listed in order are as follows: 8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 10, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12 The middle value in this list is 11, so the median of the students’ ages is 11.

Incorrect. The difference in sales between Monday and Tuesday was about 12 cases. B Correct. The graph shows that 40 cases were sold on Wednesday and that 20 cases were sold on Friday. Subtract to ﬁnd the difference in sales. 40 20 20 The sales decreased about 20 cases. This represents the greatest change in sales. C Incorrect. The difference in sales between Wednesday and Thursday was about 8 cases. D Incorrect. The difference in sales between Thursday and Friday was about 12 cases.

Question A

52 (page 218)

Objective 6

Question

Correct. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest temperatures. The lowest temperature listed in the table is 66°F. Because the range is 13°F, the highest temperature for the week must be 13°F higher than 66°F. 13°F 66°F 79°F The high temperature on Sunday must have been 79°F.

55 (page 233)

D Correct. Janet’s jogging time was 1 minute less than Martha’s each day. If you know the number of minutes Martha jogged each day, you can add to find her total time and then subtract 10 minutes (1 minute for each of the 10 days) to ﬁnd Janet’s total jogging time.

243

Mathematics Answer Key

Question B

56 (page 233)

Question B

60 (page 234)

Correct. If the car made a trip of 45 miles and another trip of 180 miles, it would travel a total of 225 miles. The problem says that the car uses gasoline at the rate of 25 miles to a gallon of gasoline. Divide 225 miles by 25 miles per gallon to ﬁnd the number of gallons used. The car would use 9 gallons of gasoline.

Correct. Bill’s change should be equal to $20 minus the cost of the groceries. The 12 cans of vegetables cost 12 • 0.48. Two loaves of bread cost 2 • 1.29. The roast costs $8.22. To ﬁnd the change, c, subtract. c 20 – (12 • 0.48) – (2 • 1.29) – 8.22

Question A

57 (page 233)

Question A

61 (page 234)

Correct. The fence will go around the edge of the backyard. This is the perimeter of the backyard. To ﬁnd the perimeter of the backyard in feet, add the lengths of the four sides of the backyard. The total cost of the fence is equal to the perimeter of the backyard in feet multiplied by the cost per foot of the fencing. Knowing the area to be enclosed by the fence will not help in determining the cost of the fencing.

**Correct. The formula for the area of a triangle is A
**

1 bh. Substitute the numbers in the 2

**problem for the base (b) and for the height (h). A Question
**

1 (18 • 24) 2

62 (page 234)

MATHEMATICS

Question

58 (page 233)

The correct answer is 129.75. Divide the total hotel cost by 4 to ﬁnd the amount Henry spends on the room: 207 4 51.75. Multiply the daily cost of food by 5 to ﬁnd the total cost of his food: 11 • 5 55. Add to ﬁnd the total cost for the trip: 51.75 55 23 129.75.

D Correct. In each number pair in the problem, the second number is a multiple of the ﬁrst number. For example, 12 3 • 4, so 12 is a multiple of 3. Similarly, 25 5 • 5, so 25 is a multiple of 5. In the number pair (4, 28), 28 4 • 7, so 28 is a multiple of 4. The number pair (4, 28) could belong to this group. Question C

63 (page 234)

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Correct. Of the answer choices, only 416 is a multiple of 8. The number 416 divides evenly by 8, meaning there is no remainder: 416 8 52. Only a number of pages that is a multiple of 8 would be possible for this book.

Question C

59 (page 234)

Correct. In order to determine the number of bags of fertilizer Arlen needs to purchase, ﬁrst ﬁnd the area of each garden plot. Then add the areas of the three plots to ﬁnd the total area. Finally divide the total area by 25 to ﬁnd the number of bags to purchase. The correct order for the steps is O, M, N.

244

Grade 6

Mathematics Chart

20

LENGTH

19

Metric 1 kilometer = 1000 meters 1 meter = 100 centimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

**Customary 1 mile = 1760 yards 1 mile = 5280 feet 1 yard = 3 feet 1 foot = 12 inches
**

1

18

Inches

0

15

16

17

14

**CAPACITY AND VOLUME
**

Metric Customary 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 gallon = 128 ounces 1 quart = 2 pints 1 pint = 2 cups

3 2

13

1 liter = 1000 milliliters

10

11

12

1 cup = 8 ounces

9

**MASS AND WEIGHT
**

8

Metric 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 1 gram = 1000 milligrams

Customary 1 ton = 2000 pounds 1 pound = 16 ounces

4

6

7

5

5

TIME

4

**1 year = 365 days 1 year = 12 months
**

6

3

2

1 year = 52 weeks

Centimeters

1 week = 7 days 1 day = 24 hours 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds Continued on the next side

0

1

**Grade 6 Mathematics Chart
**

P = 4s P = 2l + 2w C = 2πr A = s2 A = lw or A = bh or A = bh

2

Perimeter

square rectangle

or

P = 2(l + w)

Circumference Area

circle square rectangle triangle trapezoid circle

or

C = πd

A = 1 bh

2

(b + b )h A = 1 (b1 + b2)h or A = 1 2 2 2

A = πr 2 V = s3 V = lwh π ≈ 3.14 or π ≈ 7

22

Volume

cube rectangular prism

Pi

π

Texas Education Agency

TX00000158

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