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Biggers, for personal use of Clemson University students currently in EM 202
only no distribution permitted without permission of author.
77

Appendix 1: Alternative Formulation of Rotational Kinetics
of a Rigid Body in General 2-D Motion

The derivation of the governing equation relating the sum of moments to angular acceleration in
Chapter 8 used the CG as the reference point for moment summation. This resulted in the very
simple relationship

I α ∑ =
G G
M
(8.8)

However, in static cases a point other than the CG is sometimes used to simplify the algebra or
arithmetic in solution. When all accelerations are zero, the zero form of equation (8.8) is valid
regardless of the reference point for the moments. However, in the steps of the earlier
derivation, you saw that several dramatic simplifications occurred, strictly due to the fact that the
CG was selected for the reference point for the terms m ×Δ
i/G i i
r a . Here an alternative form of
equation (8.8) is derived that is applicable when an arbitrary reference point P is selected rather
than the CG.

Alternative Form of Newton’s Second Law for Moments: Taking Moments Relative to an
Arbitrary Reference Point

Again we start with equation (8.1), Newton’s Second Law for forces on the “i
th
” infinitesimal
mass repeated below

( )
m ∑ + ∑ = Δ
internal external i i
i
F F a

but now we take the cross product of
i/P
r into both
sides to get

( )
m × ∑ + ∑ = ×Δ
i/P internal external i/P i i
i
r F F r a

Now sum these equations written for every
infinitesimal mass.

( ) ( )
( ) m × ∑ + ∑ = × Δ
∑ ∑
n n
i/P internal external i/P i i
i
i =1 i =1
r F F r a

On the left hand side, the sum of the moments of the internal forces is zero due to their equal and
opposite character. The remaining moments are simply the moments of the external forces about
point P

y’
x’
G
Δm
i

y
x
x
G
y
G
P
/ i G
r
/ G P
r
/ i P
r

© Copyright 2005, S.B. Biggers, for personal use of Clemson University students currently in EM 202
only no distribution permitted without permission of author.
78
∑ = ∑ × = ∑ ×
P P external P
M r F r F

where it is understood that the position vectors
P
r go from P to the points with external forces.

On the right hand side, the position vector relationship = +
i/P G/P i/G
r r r is substituted to obtain

( ) m ∑ = + ×Δ

n
P G/P i/G i i
i =1
M r r a

and since
G/P
r is not a function of point i remove it from the summation

m m ∑ = ×Δ + × Δ
∑ ∑
n n
P i/G i i G/P i i
i =1 i =1
M r a r a

We have already shown in Chapter 8 that the first summation is simply
G
I α while the last
summation is m
G
a . Therefore, if moments are summed about a point other than the CG, the
governing equation becomes

I m α ∑ = + ×
P G G/P G
M r a
(8.9)

Sometimes use of this more complex alternative form of the moment-rotation governing equation
will actually result in simpler algebra or arithmetic. However, the author’s experience indicates
that use of the simpler formulation in equation (8.8) normally produces higher success. It is of
some interest to recognize that equation (8.8) is actually a special case of the more general
equation (8.9) in which the point P approaches the CG and the relative position vector
G/P
r
approaches zero.

Alternative Form of the 2-D Angular Impulse-Momentum Equation Accounting for
Rotation and Translation Relative to an Arbitrary Fixed Reference Point

Sometimes in applying the angular impulse-momentum principle, it is helpful to use a point
other than the CG as the reference point. In this case equation (8.9) is integrated over time where
P is the reference point
2 2 2
1 1 1
dt I dt m dt α ∑ = + ×
∫ ∫ ∫
P G G/P G
M r a

Now let us look closely at the third integral term above. If mass is constant over time, we can
take the time derivative of m ×
G/P G
r v and get

© Copyright 2005, S.B. Biggers, for personal use of Clemson University students currently in EM 202
only no distribution permitted without permission of author.
79
( )
d d d
m m m
dt dt dt
m m
× = × + ×
= × + ×
G/P G
G/P G G G/P
G/P G G/P G
r v
r v v r
v v r a

If P is a fixed point, then 0 = +
G G/P
v v and since 0 m × =
G G
v v
( )
d
m m
dt
× = ×
G/P G G/P G
r v r a
or in differential form
( ) ( ) d m m dt × = ×
G/P G G/P G
r v r a

Now we can substitute the above for the integrand, along with dt d α ω = , in the original
equation to get
( )
( )
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 1 1
dt I d m d
I m m
ω
ω ω
∑ = + ×
= − + × − ×
∫ ∫ ∫
P G G/P G
G G/P2 G2 G/P1 G
M r v
r v r v

or rearranging
2
1 2
1
[ ] [ ] I m dt I m ω ω + × + ∑ = + ×

G G/P1 G1 P G G/P2 G2
r v M r v (10.8)

© Copyright 2005, S.B. Biggers, for personal use of Clemson University students currently in EM 202
only no distribution permitted without permission of author.
80

Appendix 2: Mean Body Weights of Americans:
1960 versus 2002

Avg. Weight (pounds) US Population
1960
2002 Increase
Men (20-74 years) 166.3 191.0 +24.7
Women (20-74 years) 140.2 164.3 +24.1
Boys (15 years) 135.5 150.3 +14.8
Girls (15 years) 124.2 134.4 +10.2
Boys (10 years) 74.2 84.9 +10.7
Girls (10 years) 77.4 88.9 +11.5

Underestimation of passenger weights and carry-on baggage weights can lead to major problems
in operating an aircraft. Likewise, improper placement of passengers and cargo can move the
CG of an aircraft into a position where control is difficult or impossible. In an aircraft, the fuel is
a significant component of the total weight. Burning fuel during flight changes the location of
the CG of the loaded aircraft. The changing location of the CG must be accounted for in
controlling the aircraft.