Laplace Transform
Outline
What are Control systems?
Basic terminologies used in Control Systems
• Process/plant/controlled system
• Control signal(MV), output, reference signal
• Disturbance and etc.
Openloop Control Vs Closedloop Control
Examples of Control System
Review of Laplace Transform
• Laplace Transform pairs
• Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
• Laplace Transform properties & Theorems
• Solving LTI Differential Equation
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Chapter 1&2….
What are Control Systems?
Def:
System?
• is an arrangement of Physical components connected or
related in a such a manner as to form and/or act as an
entire unit.
Control System?
• Is a device , or set of devices to manage, command,
direct or regulate the behavior of other device(s) or
system(s).
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The system to be controlled is usually called:
Process/plant/controlled system
• Input(Control Signal) – is the command applied to a
control system.
• Output – is the actual response obtained from a
control system.
• Reference signal desired value for the output of the
control system need to follow.
• Disturbance is external signal beyond our control !
source of disturbance:
Outside of the process (Eg. )
within the process (Eg. Parameter variation)
NB: Disturbances are usually difficult to model.
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Basic terminologies used in Control Systems
Fig 1.1 Openloop control system
Disadvantage:
the controller doesn’t has any information about the
disturbance directly or indirectly.
Fig 1.2 Closeloop/FB control system
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Openloop Control Vs Closedloop Control
++

Ref
error
Controller Plant
Indicated Output
Actual
output
Actuator
Actuator
Ref
Controller
Plant
Nominal Stability
Robust Stability
Actual plant can differ from model
Remain stable for “reasonable” variations
Good transient response
Small steady state error
Acceptable peak overshoot
Small Rise & settling time
Disturbance rejection
Response due to disturbances should remain small
Good tracking ability
Difference between system response and reference
should remain small
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Standard Control System Objectives:
James Watt’s Centrifugal governor for the speed
control of a steam engine( 1769 G.C, about 244 years)
Fig 1.3 Basic principles of a Watt’s speed governor for an engine
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Examples of Control System
Antenna Azimuth Position control System
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Examples of Control System
Fig 1.4 Antenna Azimuth Position Control System
Bathroom Toilet Tank water level control
Fig 1.5 Bathroom Toilet Tank water level control
Feature:
Automatically reduce the error to zero ( or near to zero)
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Examples of Control System
Thermostat in Refrigerator
The construction of a thermostat used in a refrigerator
is shown in Figure below
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Examples of Control System
Automobile Driving
Remark:
• A given MV in a MIMO control system could affect more
than one CVs. And this is called Crosscoupling which has
drawback on system performance.
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Examples of Control System
Figure 1.6 MIMO Control System Example
• The analysis of Linear control systems are facilitated by use
of the Laplace Transform.
(2.1a)
(2.1b)
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The Laplace Transform
The Laplace Transform of a function, f(t), is defined as;
The Inverse Laplace Transform is defined by
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The Laplace Transform…
Building transform pairs:
A transform pair
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The Laplace Transform…
Building transform pairs:
Using Integration by parts
And letting
We get
A transform pair
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Building transform pairs:
The Laplace Transform…
A transform pair
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Some Properties of Laplace Transform
Time Shift
“Change of variable”
Let , then and
As and
Similarly, as
so
A transform pair
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Frequency Shift
Some Properties of Laplace Transform
A transform pair
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Time Integration:
Time Differentiation:
Some Properties of Laplace Transform
We can extend the previous to nth order differentiation
as;
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Transform Pairs
f(t) F(s)
1
2
!
1
1
1
) (
1 ) (
n
n
st
s
n
t
s
t
a s
e
s
t u
t
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Transform Pairs…
f(t) F(s)
2 2
2 2
1
2
) cos(
) sin(
) (
!
1
w s
s
wt
w s
w
wt
a s
n
e t
a s
te
n
at n
at
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Transform Pairs…
f(t) F(s)
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
sin cos
) cos(
cos sin
) sin(
) (
) cos(
) (
) sin(
w s
w s
wt
w s
w s
wt
w a s
a s
wt e
w a s
w
wt e
at
at
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Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
Example 2.1 Find the inverse Laplace transform of
Using Partial expansion , we have
With
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Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
Example 2.1…. continued
Then , the inverse transform of F(s) is
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Laplace Transform Theorems:
Final Value Theorem (FVT)
Let f(t) be a function defined for t ≥ 0. If f(t) approach a
constant as t ∞, or is s*F(s) has no pole in the closed right
half splane, then
(2.2)
NB: If f(t) becomes infinite or remains oscillatory as t ∞,
then the theorem can’t be used
Example 2.2 (Caution with FVT !!)
and
However, as
Hence eqn.(2.2) doesn’t hold !!
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Solving LTI Differential Equation
Example 2.3 Consider the firstorder differential equation
The problem is to find y(t) due to the initial condition y(0

)=2
and the input u(t)=1 for t ≥ 0.
Solution:
Taking Laplace Transform on both sides gives
Substituting y(0

)=2 , u(0

)=0, and U(s)=1/s gives
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Solving LTI Differential Equation
Example 2.3…continued
Using partial fraction
Taking Inverse Laplace Transform on both sides yields
Exercise 2.1 Find the solution of
Due to u(t)=e
t
, t ≥ 0. Assume all initial conditions to be zero
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