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Chapter 1&2: Control System Concepts & Review of

Laplace Transform
Outline
 What are Control systems?
 Basic terminologies used in Control Systems
• Process/plant/controlled system
• Control signal(MV), output, reference signal
• Disturbance and etc.
 Open-loop Control Vs Closed-loop Control
 Examples of Control System
 Review of Laplace Transform
• Laplace Transform pairs
• Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
• Laplace Transform properties & Theorems
• Solving LTI Differential Equation
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Chapter 1&2….
 What are Control Systems?
Def:
System?
• is an arrangement of Physical components connected or
related in a such a manner as to form and/or act as an
entire unit.
Control System?
• Is a device , or set of devices to manage, command,
direct or regulate the behavior of other device(s) or
system(s).
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The system to be controlled is usually called:
Process/plant/controlled system
• Input(Control Signal) – is the command applied to a
control system.
• Output – is the actual response obtained from a
control system.
• Reference signal- desired value for the output of the
control system need to follow.
• Disturbance- is external signal beyond our control !
source of disturbance:
Outside of the process (Eg. )
within the process (Eg. Parameter variation)
NB: Disturbances are usually difficult to model.
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Basic terminologies used in Control Systems
Fig 1.1 Open-loop control system
Disadvantage:
the controller doesn’t has any information about the
disturbance directly or indirectly.
Fig 1.2 Close-loop/FB control system
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Open-loop Control Vs Closed-loop Control
++
--
Ref
error
Controller Plant
Indicated Output
Actual
output
Actuator
Actuator
Ref
Controller
Plant
 Nominal Stability
 Robust Stability
 Actual plant can differ from model
 Remain stable for “reasonable” variations
 Good transient response
 Small steady state error
 Acceptable peak overshoot
 Small Rise & settling time
 Disturbance rejection
 Response due to disturbances should remain small
 Good tracking ability
 Difference between system response and reference
should remain small
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 Standard Control System Objectives:
 James Watt’s Centrifugal governor for the speed
control of a steam engine( 1769 G.C, about 244 years)
Fig 1.3 Basic principles of a Watt’s speed governor for an engine
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Examples of Control System
 Antenna Azimuth Position control System
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Examples of Control System
Fig 1.4 Antenna Azimuth Position Control System
 Bathroom Toilet Tank water level control
Fig 1.5 Bathroom Toilet Tank water level control
Feature:
Automatically reduce the error to zero ( or near to zero)
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Examples of Control System
 Thermostat in Refrigerator
 The construction of a thermostat used in a refrigerator
is shown in Figure below
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Examples of Control System
 Automobile Driving
Remark:
• A given MV in a MIMO control system could affect more
than one CVs. And this is called Cross-coupling which has
drawback on system performance.
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Examples of Control System
Figure 1.6 MIMO Control System Example
• The analysis of Linear control systems are facilitated by use
of the Laplace Transform.
(2.1a)
(2.1b)
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The Laplace Transform
The Laplace Transform of a function, f(t), is defined as;
The Inverse Laplace Transform is defined by
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 The Laplace Transform…
Building transform pairs:
A transform pair
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The Laplace Transform…
Building transform pairs:
Using Integration by parts
And letting
We get
A transform pair
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Building transform pairs:
The Laplace Transform…
A transform pair
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 Some Properties of Laplace Transform
Time Shift
“Change of variable”
Let , then and
As and
Similarly, as
so
A transform pair
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Frequency Shift
 Some Properties of Laplace Transform
A transform pair
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Time Integration:
Time Differentiation:
 Some Properties of Laplace Transform
We can extend the previous to nth order differentiation
as;
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Transform Pairs
f(t) F(s)
1
2
!
1
1
1
) (
1 ) (



n
n
st
s
n
t
s
t
a s
e
s
t u
t 
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Transform Pairs…
f(t) F(s)
 
2 2
2 2
1
2
) cos(
) sin(
) (
!
1
w s
s
wt
w s
w
wt
a s
n
e t
a s
te
n
at n
at







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Transform Pairs…
f(t) F(s)
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
sin cos
) cos(
cos sin
) sin(
) (
) cos(
) (
) sin(
w s
w s
wt
w s
w s
wt
w a s
a s
wt e
w a s
w
wt e
at
at






 

 


 

 

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Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
Example 2.1 Find the inverse Laplace transform of
Using Partial expansion , we have
With
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Inverse Laplace Transform – Partial Fraction
Expansion
Example 2.1…. continued
Then , the inverse transform of F(s) is
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Laplace Transform Theorems:
Final -Value Theorem (FVT)
Let f(t) be a function defined for t ≥ 0. If f(t) approach a
constant as t  ∞, or is s*F(s) has no pole in the closed right
half s-plane, then
(2.2)
NB: If f(t) becomes infinite or remains oscillatory as t ∞,
then the theorem can’t be used
Example 2.2 (Caution with FVT !!)
and
However, as
Hence eqn.(2.2) doesn’t hold !!
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Solving LTI Differential Equation
Example 2.3 Consider the first-order differential equation
The problem is to find y(t) due to the initial condition y(0
-
)=2
and the input u(t)=1 for t ≥ 0.
Solution:
Taking Laplace Transform on both sides gives
Substituting y(0
-
)=2 , u(0
-
)=0, and U(s)=1/s gives
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Solving LTI Differential Equation
Example 2.3…continued
Using partial fraction
Taking Inverse Laplace Transform on both sides yields
Exercise 2.1 Find the solution of
Due to u(t)=e
-t
, t ≥ 0. Assume all initial conditions to be zero
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