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# Determination of Ultimate Strain for Spirally/Circular Confined Concrete

Core Dimension: b
cx
= 9.38 Spiral/Hoop Wire Type: W or D 0
or
Core Dimension: b
cy
= 21.38 Spiral/Hoop Bar Size: # 5
Pitch of Confining Steel: s = 4.00 Nominal Diameter: d
s
= 0.625
Number of legs (x -direction): n = 4.00 Nominal Area: A
s
= 0.310
Number of legs (y -direction): m = 2.00 Longitudinal Bars: Number
Spacing of Reinforcement: s
lx
= 9.38 Size: #
Spacing of Reinforcement: s
ly
= 7.69 d
ls
= 0.000
Steel Modulus of Elasticity: E
s
= 29000 A
ls
= 0.00
Steel Strength: f
y
= 60.0
Specified Concete Strength: f'
c
= 8.0
Step 1: Determine the properties of unconfined concrete:
Peak strength of unconfined concrete: 8.0
Weight of concrete: w = 0.148
Modulus of elasticity: E
c 0
= 5314.4
Curve fitting factor: n = 4.00
Strain at peak strength: 0.00201
Step 2, 3: Determine the volumetric reinforcement ratios and longitudinal reinforcement to core ratio:
Step 4: Determine the confinement effectiveness coefficient:
0.6133
0.01450 0.01652 0.03103 0.00000
in.
in.
2
in.
in.
ksi.
ksi.
kips/ft.
3 3
kips/ft. 155 . 0
000 , 1
140 . 0 ) (
0
s
'
+ =
c
f
w
0 0
5 . 1
000 , 33
c c
f w E ' =
c c
f f ' = '
0
= '
0 c
f
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
÷
=
1
0
0
0
n
n
c
c
c
E
f
c
= '
0 c
c
in.
in.
50 . 2
80 . 0
'
c
f
n + =
in.
2
( )
= =
¿
=
s b
A
cy
n
i
i sx
x
1
µ
( )
= =
¿
=
s b
A
cx
m
j
j
sy
y
1
µ
in.
in.
in.
ksi.
ksi.
in. in.
ksi.
= =
cy cx
ls
cc
b b
A
µ
in.
( )
( )
=
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| '
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| '
÷
=
¿
=
cc
cy cx
cy cx
n
i
l
cy cx
e
b b
b
s
b
s s
b b
k
µ 1
2
1
2
1
6
1
2
= + =
y x s
µ µ µ
Step 5: Determine the effective confining pressures:
Step 6: Determine the effective confining stress ratios:
Step 7: Read the confined strength ratio from the figure:
1.43
Step 8: Determine the strain at peak strength: 0.00632
Step 10: Use the modified Popovics formula to determine confined concrete stress-strain relationship:
Modulus of elasticity: 1809.4
Modular ratio: 1.516
Confined concrete stress-strain relationship:
17.35 0.00632
1.516
0.00632
0.0667
The peak confined concrete strength is therefore: 11.44
0.516
0.5337 0.6081
0.0760
ksi.
ksi.
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
'
+ ÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
'
' =
r
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc cc
r r f f
c
c
c
c
1
( ) = ÷ =
cc c c
E E E r
0 0
= ' ' =
cc cc cc
f E c
in.
in.
( )
+
( )
cc
c
cc
c
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
' = ' 4 5
0
0
c
cc
c cc
f
f
c c
ksi.
= = '
y x e x
f k f µ

= = '
y y e y
f k f µ

ksi.
= ' '
0
/
c x
f f

= ' '
0
/
c y
f f

~ ' '
c cc
f f /
= '
cc
f
f
cc
@ c
ccu
= 0.80f'
cc
= 9.1520
c
ccu
= 0.01794 at f
cc
~ 9.1519
Alternative Values for Ultimate Strain:
By Priestley's proposed equation: 0.02000
By Scott et al.: 0.04152
Step 8: Determine c
ccu
by examining the confined conrete stress-strain relationship.
The ultimate strain of confined concrete is conservatively taken at 80% of the peak
strength on the descending branch of the stress-strain curve.
ksi.
ksi.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
= ÷ s
'
+ =
ccu
cc
s
s u c ccu
f
f
c µ c c 020 . 0 14 . 0
0
= |
.
|

\
|
+ =
5 . 43
9 . 0
0
s
s u c ccu
f
µ c c
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
----------- Unconfined Concrete
Confined Concrete
_______

) (in./in.
c
c
) (ksi.
c
f