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lector drd. arh. Raluca DIACONESCU

Universitatea Spiru Haret, Facultatea de Arhitectura

Role and Impac !
In"l#ence on he
Ur$an Selemen%
Archaeological discoveries, regardless the anner the! are underta"en, thus #e it accidentall! or
conse$uentl! to soe scienti%ical research, once the! are accoplished &ould ceaselessl! in%luence the
cit! planning as &ell as the entire surrounding area. 'hese &n"l#ence% a! #e o% h&%or&cal 'al#e,
&hile also %or the #r$an plann&ng o% the pro(iit! )one, thus intending a great ipact.
Ur$an archaeology and he $#&l en'&ronmen are m##ally &n"l#enc&ng* the! #oth can
ipose soe special easures to ta"e in ters o% esthetic and special steps at #uilt area level.
A $alance $e(een d&%co'ery and pre%er'&ng he archaeolog&cal 'e%&ge%) hen *$r&ng&ng
ne( 'al#e+ o hem &% raher a del&cae maer,
'he archaeological aps are de%initel! iportant as related to %ind out soe strategies %or ur#an
archaeolog!. In +elgiu, the atlases %or historical ur#an settleents around +russels are alread! issued,
&hile in 'ur"e!, the archaeological aps %or cities li"e An"ara and Foca ,-ho"aia. are under printing.
/an! countries have #een used in ters o% using the pattern o% this archaeological aps pro0ect, %or
instance Ireland and Northern Ireland. Soe other countries are also preparing these archaeological
aps, li"e Estonia and Roania. 'he data#ase and cartograph! are #oth strongl! lin"ed to the
etodolog! o% an! ur#an settleent evolution. Iportant re%erences %or copleting this evolution &ere
in Finland, 1o#ardia area 2 Ital!, as France and United 3ingdo are in the process o% preparing the.
A% a %c&en&"&c doma&n) archaeology &% endo(ed (&h pleny o" e'&dence ha can lead o
re&nerpree he h&%ory o" he %elemen%, 'his reinterpreting can urge us to regard &ith a
di%%erent a&areness degree the %act that &e are practicall! involved into the past, anchored there &ith
our origins, &ith our core and that is &h! reaching a special t!pe o% #roaching the present ties
appears so necessar!. On a cit! scale, this care %or historical evidence can #e ena#led at a visi#l! ore
di%%icult pace, #ecause soe la#el it as pett!, #ut in ters o% the interior decorations, the archaeological
vestiges are o%ten present, thus #uilding out a #roach o% uni$ueness and e(pressivit! erged into a
special a#iental area.

'he la&%ul nors %or archaeolog! as science are provided #! t&o great conventions* 4ranada
Convention in 5678, Octo#er 9 2 Convention %or -rotecting the Architectural -atrion! o% Europe
,%ollo&ing the -aris Convention in 568:. and ;aletta</alta Convention in 566=, >anuar! 5? ,adopted #!
Roania in 566@ and en%orced #! the 1a& Order No. 58A, pu#lished in O%%icial /onitor No. 5@8, in 566@,
>ul! =6.
Archaeology (&h&n he -roce%% o" Ur$an -lann&ng
'he presence o% nuerous ancient vestiges under the cities and villages &as ade pu#lic #!
printing soe aps in 5@th centur!. Since that period, the old age interests started to have a visi#le
ipact on the ost rear"a#le areas, such as Bcataco#sC and classic vestiges, are visi#le and can #e
easil! accessed. Ho&ever, no digging &or"s &ere underta"en #! late 56th centur! or earl! =Ath centur!.
/oreover, #! the sae period o% tie, no protection and preservation easures had #een ta"en, #ut
later, &ithin the ur#an areas 2 nael! in the classic )ones o% Ra#at 2 and there%ore soe iportant
parts o% these historical and architectural areas #rought to the pu#lic "no&ledge in the Roan /useu
o% Anti$uities. 'hese !ears o% research led to the e(istance o% /useu o% Departents and introduction
o% the %irst la&s o% the -atrion!.
'he principle o% instituting a national governental #od! to ena#le the protection o%
archaeological onuents < especiall! the #odies ainl! concerning the developent and planning o%
the atter < is the ground %or /altese Codes o% 1a&s, that &ould have a great ipact on the -atrion!.
In spite o% soe recent iproveents, the patrionial district o% the /altese islands re$uires a constant
attention, there%ore #oth e(isting codes o% rules recoend the en%orceent o% periodical revisions as
&ell as the andator! esta#lishing o% 4overnental +od! as a Departent o% the /useus. On dail!
#ases, the operational echaniss and the rules are decisive in ters o% ur#an archaeolog! resources
anageent. 'his anageent is vital %or ur#an archaeolog! in ters o% t&o a0or copartients.
'he %irst coponent is 1egislation, then %re$uentl!, the la&%ul statute o% the -atrion! is de%ined #! the
Anti$uit! Act ,56=8., the Environental Act ,5665. and the Developent -lanning Act ,566=..
'he second act coprises the National E(ecutive +odies and their operational %rae. 'he action
on the vestiges stipulates the %irst %rae that the /useu Departent can intervene on the inspector
e(ecutive o% /altese vestiges. 'his action has #een ad0usted several ties, thus responding #!
increasing the pressure in di%%erent sectors.
Esta#lishing the Authorit! -lanning has not onl! the attri#ution o% chec"ing and instituting the rules, #ut
also %ocus on the protected #uildings that &ere #o#ed during the Dorld Dar II, as &ell as to increase
the activit! o% protecting the present -atrion! #) eans o% political upgrades and procedures. Aong
the various innovations ta"en over %ro the +ritish odel, the Authorit! &as also epo&ered to appoint
the -rotected Ur#an Areas and to attach the plans %or preserving these i% necessar!.

.##re -ol&&c%
In spite o% these draatic iproveents, a %undaental re<consideration o% the /altese
patrion! supervision and anageent. It is o#vious the necessit! o% allo&ing the countr! to "eep the
line o% pressure, i% regarding the %act that all discoveries #eing unavoida#l! placed in the centers o%
historical cities. 'his eans that such an e(ercice is to #ecoe relevant in ters o% culture and long<
ter developent, as &ell as to ipl! ore than a re<consideration o% soe various legislative
docuents related to the archaeolog&cal par&mony managemen,
Impro'ed Leg&%la&on and -ar&mony /anagemen
'hese are to #e constituted on the grounds o% a &ell<docuented approach and $uite suggestive o%
the archaeological resources. 'he sae it attepts to re%ers to the /altese societ! pressing needs %or
developent < creativit! and values 2 and this leads to an inherent archaeolog&cal record, No&here
else is ore criticall! %elt this urge as in the ur#an archaeolog! area. A short revie& o% the sae atters
that a%%ect the ur#an patrion! anageent o% Ireland should #e help%ul %or highlighting the "e!<
characteristics o% the conteporar! in%rastructure anageent that deserves reconsideration.
E0&%&ng -ro$lem%
One central pro#le o% the entire issue o% archaeological anageent &ithin the ur#an areas is
the conceptual %ragentation o% the -atrion! resources. In this anner, the present preserving plan
can #e grounded %or sustaining the practices thus prograed or classi%ied according to the )ones, and
thus setting a predeterination o% the value scales.
'he 566A structural plan also can encourage the archaeological resources to #e split in a certain nu#er
o% coposing %ragents and onuents, as an archaeological cit! is usuall! seen as containing a serial
o% cataco#s, churces or classical ruins. A onuent is #ased on the principle that it ight not al&a!s
#e enough to deal &ith the di%%erent archaeological re$uireents and e(igenc!, &hich is actuall!
s!noniic &ith the ur#an European phenoenon. A ore classical approach is necessar! to anage the
changing aspects o% the ur#an European landscape under all its "no&ledgea#le %acets.
Archaeology &n Roman&a 1 General De%cr&p&on
'he earliest evidence o% the ur#an settleents in Roania &ere %ound &ithin the space #et&een Danu#e
and +lac" Sea, in Do#rud0a area. 'he three 4ree" colonies Histri ,Istria no&ada!s. set in ?8@ +.C.,
'ois ,ConstanEa. and Callatis, near /angalia &ere discovered in ?th centur! +.C. #! the colonists o%
/iletos and -ontic Heraclea. 'he Roan ruling in Dacia #et&een =nd and 9rd centuries, then in the area
#et&een Danu#e and +lac" Sea ,5st to @th A.C.. led to a polic! eant to esta#lish ur#an centers 2
colonies and unicipal areas 2 as &ell as to encourage a $uasi<ur#an li%e %or the counities that
lac"ed the la&%ul status o% unicipalit!. In order to understand the histor! o% ur#an developent, it is o%
essence to "no& the advantages that unicpalit! status provided to various counities. In ters o%
searching %or the ur#ani)ation process, identi%ication in the %ield #! using archaeological studies and the
photographic archive related to this, a! #e the ost relevant techni$ue. In Dacia, the %ollo&ing Roan
cities &ere identi%ied #! archaeological eans* Ulpia 'raiana, Sarisegetusa, Apulu, Napoca, Roula,
Dro#eta, Dierna, Apelu, -otaissa, -orolissu and 'i#iscu. Dritten sources in%or us a#out soe
other settleents* Sc!thia /inor &ent to decline under the Otoan Epire ruling.
'he Roan<+!)antine age &as de%ined #! a serial o% ur#an t!pologies 2 %orti%ied settleents li"e
'ropaeu 'raiani, Histria, Noviodunu, Dinogetia, Hal!ris , Carsiu, Aegissus, Uletu, A(iopolis
and Capidava. 'he %ortresses o% these to&ns var! depending on the evolution o% the Epire politics and
on the igrations in the area. Soe iportant activities can #e identi%ied in #uilding doain, eant to
rein%orce, to e(tend the de%ence s!ste or to add a su#ur#an area.
/odi%ications &ere applied to the cit! planning in the Roan<+!)antine age.
.or#m%) emple%) pagan rel&g&o#% %&e% and he hermal place% $ecome Chr&%&an proper&e% or
cener% o" o(n%) l&2e mar2e%) "or &n%ance. 'hese %orti%ied settleents reach the level o%
iportant econoic and religious centers, &hile their densit! &ithin the provinces at the Roan Epire
#orders &ould gro&, thus creating a lin" #et&een the doination and the supervision o% the
inha#itants, including those %ro the North o% Danu#e River. 'he ur#an discoveries &ere a%%ected #! the
code o% rules en%orced #! the Roan Epire, later collapsing also as a conse$uence o% the igrations
during the last third o% the illeniu.
De have toda! soe evidence o% reconstruction o% the ne&est parts i% the Roan and +!)antine
%ortresses 2 Capidava, Dinogetia, Noviodunu, Aeg!ssus, la %el ca Fi cele nou construite* -acuiul lui
Soare, Nu%Gru. 'oate aceste centers initiall! used to #e m&l&ary cener% and the! &ere #uilt to
overvie& the Danu#e #orders, #ut soon the! got a &ell<o%% econoic leading status, especiall! in ters
o% trade.
'he three %actors that contri#uted at the proce%% o" med&e'al o(n% "orma&on &ithin the intra
and e(tra<Carpathian area around !ear 5AAA are the %ollo&ing*
5. deographic gro&th
=. esta#lishing the %eudal relations
9. returning to +!)antine rules in the Southern Danu#e )one. 'here can #e identi%ied the &or"shops %or
trading #oats, vaults &ith coins and soe patterns %or settleents, &ith streets that %acilitated the
tra%%ic and lined the activit! areas. 'he ne(t three centuries &ere critical %or ur#an developent in
Roania, #ut the docuentation is scarce. +!)antine and /ongolian doination, the Italian colonies
and the 4eran colonialists 2 all these pla!ed an iportant role.
Starting &ith the iddle o% 59th centur!, Dallachia and /oldavia Cities #ecoe econoic centers
and their population increases in ters o% occupied territories. In 'rans!lvania, to&ns as Al#a Iulia
,Apulu., Si#iu<Heranstadt, 'urda<-otaisa are entioned as unicipal areas. 'he ur#an centers o%
+rasov<3ronstadt and Rodna are also in e(pansion.
Docuentar! and archaeological research in /oldavia and Dallachia #ring to light soe in%oration
on the 5:th centur! to&ns < CHpulug /uscel, Curtea de ArgeF, 'HrgoviFte, Suceava, +rGila, Siret, IaFi,
Ranicu ;Hlcea, -iteFti 2 as &ell as a#out soe developed to&ns &ithin ur#an settleents as
+ucharest, +rGila, Slatina.
In 'rans!lvania, the episcopalian centers Al#a Iulia, Oradea ,Nag!vared., Cenad and Si#iu are
stated as to&ns %ro the political and eclesiastic points o% vie&, &hile in the to&ns De0, Hunedoara,
Cetatea de +altG and soe others, the econoic criteria are o% a0or consideration.
/an! o% these to&ns sprang out during the edieval period o% Roanian histor!, thus #eing
%ounded soe o% the ost iportant ur#an centers o% the countr!.
Ur$an archaeolog&cal re%earch ha% mo%ly "oc#%ed aro#nd he royal co#r% and he
"orre%%e%) (h&le he ma&n a%pec %#d&ed ha% $een he&r #r$an&%&c role,
Doc#mena&on% and &n'enor&e%* 'he research centered on the #r$an archaeolog&cal
par&mony &ere underta"en in Arad, +acau, IaFi, 'argoviFte, +u)au, Suceava, -iteFti, +ucureFti,
Capulung /uscel, Craiova, +raila, ConstanEa, Siret, +otoFani, 'iiFoara, Al#a, Clu0, Dro#eta, OrFova,
'urda and Ilatna.
'he data#ase lin"ed to #r$an archaeology &% he L&% o" H&%or&cal /on#men% I%or&ce,
issued #! /inistr! o% Culture and designed as a coputer<assisted docuentation %ollo&ed #! state
%inancial support. S!steaticall!, the archaeological research are copletel! su#sidi)ed #! State.
Sponsorship in this doain is not agreed #! la&. In soe cases, preserving or conservation e(penses o%
the la#orator! o#0ects are covered #! the #ene%iciar!Js investent. Ho&ever, in several cases, &hen
"eeping the o#0ects is decided, this is state decision. In a#sence o% an! speciali)ation in ur#an
archaeolog!, those &ho gained e(perience in the %ield are ac"no&ledged as #r$an archaeolog&%%.
Onl! %e& o% the e(clusivel! &or" in this doain. /ost o% these specialists &or" in the useus,
research la#s, educational or specialt! institutions. Even i% it sees that a certain tradition has #een
esta#lished in Roania, in ur#an archaeolog!, the doain is still at the #eginning regarding the ur#an
planning. 'here is no #alance in ters o% "eeping and using the o#0ects, #ecause there are still an!
o#stacles in prevailing the archaeological research &ithin the ur#an area. One can still #itterl! rear"
that cit! planning is ade #! archaeologists and the! are deterined to %ree)e the cit! in its BpresentC
state. Another %actor is lac"ing the real cooperation aong the, thus &e can note as e(ceptions the
cases &here the archaeological vestiges are ver! thoroughl! presented in IaFi, as &ell as in ConstanEa.
-re%ena&on% and p#$&ca&on%* 'he ipact o% archaeological vestiges on the residents o% a cit! is a
ver! %ee#le one. Archaeological research are iportant %or understanding the d!naics o% the
developent in Roania. 'he research result is scienti%icall! shared #! pu#lications o%ten issued #!
institutions or useus. Studies and historical onogras o% the ur#an settleents are draaticall!
seldo pu#lished. -reliinar! reports o% the diggings are !earl! pu#lished in Archaeological /aterials
and Research. In 5669, CIOR printed its %irst issue in Ur#an Histor!.
/useus e(hi#itions are not part o% the national progra, even i% there is a strateg! generated
#! the /inistr! o% Culture and lin"ed to the Cultural -atrion!. 'his is co#ined &ith the %act that
archaeological research underta"en in the ur#an areas, usuall! is not s!steaticall! organi)ed and ost
o% the ties is ade #! perilous digging &or"s. Con%er'a&on o" *&n %&#+ 'e%&ge% &% raher rare.
'here is a sole case, Kn ConstanEa, &here a useu &as #uilt a#ove the ruins o% a pu#lic edi%ice that
contained a 9rd centur! osaic, A.C. 'he di%%iculties are de%initel! caused #! the %unds de%icit, the sall
nu#er o% specialists in restoring the historical onuents as &ell as the lac" o% interest %ro the
pu#lic authorities and residentsJ part.
Con%er'a&on o" archaeolog&cal 'e%&ge% and &ner&or decora&on%
Out o% the a#ove presentation, &e can conclude that archaeology &% no 3#% a %&mple (ord
and & &% no a local "ac) $# a general one,
'here is a need %or traces, %or vestiges, %or coping soe landar"s, at least %or our ere space<
and<tie orientation. Our li%e is spinning &ithin a %rae &here &e crave %or space BeoriesC and &e
can get the #! those %e& tie %actors that &e can have at our disposal #! discoveries. Connecting
ourselves to histor! is also ade #! creating these old<ties insertions &ithin a ne& architecture.
S&gn% are &nerpreed a lea% poe&cally) &" no %c&en&"&cally and h&% m&gh $e made
hro#gh o(n (&ll and &nen&onally $y he &ner&or decora&on,
Signs are apparentl! a#andoned, &hile the vestiges lead us to reinterprete the o#0ects.
-racticall!, at this level, archaeolog! reinds us peranentl! &hat (e #%ed o $e, at the sae tie
thus apli%!ing the $ualit! o% our historical and architectural e(perience, #! preserving it as sheer
De can as" ourselves &hat a place is, 0ust staring %ro a ruin, in the sae anner &e can prove
&hat a BplaceC can #ecoe #! reinterpreting the interior decoration. Fro a echn&cal) l&'&ng %pace,
this &a! it can #ecoe a "a&ry ale %pace, #! ultiple aspects < lights, colour, ad0acent aterials or
%unctions 2 giving us &hat &e &ant to #e. Archaeological o#0ect, translated in interior decoration, can
capture the developent o% its o&n stor! 2 a scenographic stage. At this level, I do not thin" &e can
spea" o% a st!listic ecleticis, overlapping soe o#0ects o% di%%erent BagesC, %or adding soe e(presivit!
to a #ac"ground. In their intiate, BinnerC li%e, the archaic o#0ects &ith a decorative purpose inherit
their utilit! %ro one generation to the other, thus passing to&ards a ore serious level 2 the eor!
ran", the lanscape<eor! stage.
4ha can a place mean %ar&ng "rom a r#&n5 It can ean the ph!siological living in the sae
place, &ith ore signi%icance that &e #ecoe ore a&are o%, thus a"ing space and tie to #elong to
each other and this &a! to trans%or ever!thing into a living poetr!. 'races ean ever!thing lin"ed to
the place #ehind and I here#! &ant to pledge %or preserving the, %o o #nder%and (ha
happenede $e"ore #%, 6he rema&n&ng race &%) ac#ally) arch&ec#re #nder%ood a% a %&gn,
'here are ore signi%icance<"e!s, %or ever! %ragent %ro a vestige. Overlapping several places and, at
the sae tie, several BthingsC in the sae conte(t, can create signi%icant values that the one guiding
the interior decoration is ade a&are and, %irstl!, responsi#le o%. +! creating e%%ects, sensations,
appealing to the BpastC plan %ri the space and tie point o% vie&, one can create %eelings lin"ed to
spatialit! and co%ort.
4iovanni /orelli ade a stud! regarding the activit! o% traces. 'he lost eleent de%ines Bthe
trace as eor!C, &hile design intention is o $#&ld,
'he &a! o% highlighting the postures, the positions, the #alance #et&een past and present, in %act
creates the di%%erence #et&een Bree#ranceC and BreindC, thus #inding a correspondence &hich
#rings us in %rontline the useu science, &ith a re<eori)ing role.
In conclusion, (hen a2&ng &no con%&dera&on he "ac ha archaeology &% omn&pre%en)
%ra&"&ed) rememor&7&ng %pace% and ac&on%) (e can creae ha ype o" ran%d&%c&pl&nar&y
$e(een to create and to excavate) a% (ell a% $e(een to understand and
+i#liograph! *
-r&mary %o#rce%8
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