INTERLEAVE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

(IDMA)

By

SAJJAD ASHRAF
MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
DL STUDENT
SP2013-MSEE-011
CENTER FOR ADVANCED STUDIES IN ENGINEERING
sajjadashraf@gmail.com
Mob No. 0321-8503485

. Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) is a multiuser scheme which enables user separation on the basis of interleavers.ABSTRACT Interleave-division multiple-access (IDMA) is a multiple access scheme that employs chip-level interleavers for user separation. I have studied and discussed transmitter and receiver architecture of IDMA. The performance of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is mainly limited by multiple access interference (MAI). It can also be regarded as a special form of CDMA by treating interleaving index sequences as multiple access codes. It allows a very simple chip-by-chip (CBC) iterative MUD strategy with complexity (per user) independent of the user number. In this project.

....5 2.............1 Spreader..................5........................5............................2 Random Deinterleaver:........................................................................9 2.......................................................................................3 Channel Coefficient h(k):.4.........................................4..5................5...........5 1....................................................................................................................4 1......3 The Decoder:.........10 2....5................................................................................6 2..........................................................4.................................................2 What is CDMA?........................9 2.................................3 Comparison of IDMA with CDMA..................................................... INTERLEAVE DIVISION MULIPLE ACCESS (IDMA)....2 Limitations in CDMA system..1 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA).....6 CONCLUSION..............4 1.............................1.............................................................1............................TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.....4 1.........................8 2.................................11 2........12 2..3 Spread Spectrum Characteristics......4...........................8 2........................................2 Interleaver:.....................INTRODUCTION TO CDMA....................2 What is IDMA?............................4 Random Interleaver:......................................1 Why CDMA?...............6 2..................................................................................................................4 1................................6 Decoder for 2nd Iteration:.......................1...............13 ........................1 Why IDMA?.........10 2........1.........4......................................................................................................12 2........................................5 ITERATIVE CHIP-BY-CHIP RECEIVER.........5 The Second Iteration:...................11 2.............................................................................................................................1 FEC Encoder....5...1 The First Iteration:...................................................7 2................................................................6 2......................................9 2...12 2..................8 2..........................................................2 Spreader:........1.......4 IDMA TRANSMITTER STRUCTURE.................................................

1 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Some of the main features of CDMA related to IDMA are high lightened as: 1. In addition to supporting more traffic. good protection against multi-path interference. CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology. including better voice quality. INTRODUCTION TO CDMA In this chapter. and provided roughly ten times more capacity than analog networks. privacy.1. 1. I will emphasize on the features of CDMA and then I will proceeds towards IDMA. allowing many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space.1 of CDMA transmitter is shown here: . 1. CDMA-based mobile cellular systems bring many other benefits to carriers and consumers. broader coverage.1 Why CDMA? The first CDMA network was commercially launched in 1995. lower average power emission. stronger security. more than TDMA-based DAMPS or GSM. CDMA-based mobile cellular has become the fastest growing of all wireless technologies. IDMA is normally defined as the special case of CDMA. As its name implies. Since then. Figure 1. with over 100 million subscribers worldwide today. I have discussed limiting factors in CDMA that forms the basis towards the research of a new multiple access technique. low probability of interception.1. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) assigns unique codes to each communication to differentiate it from other users in the same spectrum.2 What is CDMA? Code division multiple accesses exploit the nature of spread spectrum transmission to enable multiple users to independently use the same bandwidth with very little interference [1]. Therefore after gaining basic knowledge of CDMA.1. I will move to the introduction of IDMA.

.2 Limitations in CDMA system Some of the main disadvantages/limitations of CDMA are: 1. otherwise system may suffer near-far problem. interference and noise. Orthogonality of codes use to distinguish the users in CDMA is necessary otherwise MAI and self jamming will occur in the system. CDMA systems require good power control. 3. This results in many benefits. USER M FEC INTERLEAVER XM SPREADER M M Figure 1. Due to spread spectrum techniques eavesdropping is avoided. Same frequency can be use in all cells by using CDMA. . The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. Some more basic features of CDMA are as under: 1. 2. such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access. .1. 2. . 3. the performance of CDMA systems decreases. With the increase of users.1 CDMA transmitters In a world of finite spectrum resources. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time. 1. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. .X1 USER 1 FEC INTERLEAVER SPREADER 1 X2 USER 2 FEC INTERLEAVER SPREADER 2 .3 Spread Spectrum Characteristics The basic features of Spread spectrum in CDMA are: 1. 4. . CDMA enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time than do alternative technologies.

An interleave-based multiple access scheme has been studied in for high spectral efficiency. which increases rapidly with the number of users. Some description is as under: 2.2. turbo-type iterative multi-user detection (MUD) has been extensively studied to mitigate MAI. INTERLEAVE DIVISION MULIPLE ACCESS (IDMA) IDMA may be considered as a special Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) scheme.1 Why IDMA? The performance of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is mainly limited by multiple access interference (MAI). Iterative multi-user detection has been widely investigated as a potential approach to enhance the performance of CDMA systems and significant progress has been made recently. diversity against fading and mitigation of the worst-case other-cell user interference problem. it allows a very simple chip-by-chip iterative MUD strategy. complexity and cost has always been a stringent concern for MUD. All of the users employ a common spreading sequence. The complexity of CDMA multi-user detection has always been a serious concern for practical systems. 2. This scheme relies on interleaving as the only means to . Furthermore. improved performance and low receiver complexity. in particular. It can also be regarded as a special form of CDMA by treating interleaving index sequences as multiple access codes. IDMA inherits many advantages from CDMA. In the wake of the success of turbo codes. However.2 What is IDMA? Interleave-division multiple-access (IDMA) [2] is proposed scheme that employs chip-level interleavers for user separation. Different users are separated only by different interleavers as opposed to different frequency carriers as in FDMA or different time slots as in TDMA or different signature sequences as in CDMA. It is a special case of CDMA in which bandwidth expansion is entirely performed by low-rate coding. and significant progress has been made. The performance of an IDMA system is strongly dependent on interleavers.

. . .e. .3 Comparison of IDMA with CDMA IDMA may be considered as a special Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) scheme. Only authorized receivers are able to decode the message. As a consequence. The interleaver may be interpreted as a key word. however. forward error correction (FEC) and spreading can be combined in a single encoder (ENC). very low-rate encoding is used.2 Comparison of IDMA with CDMA IDMA may be interpreted as follows: 1. The spreader (i. 2. .1 IDMA transmitters 2. a repetition code) may be used to simplify the overall encoder. The spreader has no fundamental relevance any more.. The ordering of interleaving and spreading is reversed. X1 USER 1 FEC SPREADER INTERLEAVER 1 X2 USER 2 FEC SPREADER INTERLEAVER 2 . . which is the same for all users. USER M FEC SPREADER XM INTERLEAVER M M Figure 2. The differences and commonalities of conventional CDMA in conjunction with channel coding (top part) and IDMA (bottom part). Figure 2.distinguish the signals from different users and hence it has been called interleavedivision multiple-access (IDMA). In IDMA.

which is key principle for user separation.4.1.3 Transmitter structure of an IDMA scheme with K simultaneous users 2.1 FEC Encoder Both CDMA and IDMA uses Low rate Convolution Encoder. Convolution codes can be devised for correcting random errors.3 shows the transmitter structure of the multiple access scheme under consideration with K simultaneous users. FEC encoder and Spreader.2. 2. h (k) d1 j Spreader (k) C j (k) Spreader dk x j (k) j Cj (k) AWGN X (k) h rj (k) + X x j (k) Figure 2. spreader consists of two parts.4 IDMA Transmitter Structure The Figure 2. While in IDMA. shown in fig 2. Basic Convolution encoder is shown in figure below. It consists of buffer which takes 1 bit and transforms it into 2 bit encoded stream. . burst errors or both [3].1.4.1 Spreader In CDMA the spreader comes after the Interleaver.

3. ck (J)]T.4. 2. .O/P 1 X O R CODED DATA USER DATA 1 0 11 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 11 X O R O/P2 Figure 2. spreading is performed before Interleaving and is not used for user separation. Each user is assigned orthogonal code and Number of user is dependant on length of spreading code. ck (j). the input data sequence dk of user-k is encoded based on a lowrate code C.4 Convolution Encoder of rate 1/2 In this model.2 Spreader: Referring to figure 2. While in IDMA. the spreading operation in CDMA is done after interleaving and is used for user separation. There are basic two types of spreading codes. Orthogonal Codes and Repetitive codes. .. Both of Convolution encoded streams are concatenated and then treated as independent channel for every user..1.….. where J is the frame length. generating a coded sequence ck= [ck (1).

Referring figure 2.5 Iterative Chip-by-Chip Receiver Receiver structure of an IDMA scheme with K simultaneous users are shown in figure 2. there should not more than one bit in each spreaded sequence.2 Interleaver: As discussed earlier. The iterative chip-by-chip receiver consists of an Elementary Signal Estimator (ESE) and a bank of “K” single-user a posteriori probability decoders DES. any bit at any location in a byte should be uncorrelated. Then the ESE starts a chip by chip estimation called the Maximum Likelihood estimation.3. An example of repetitive code is [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. While in Repetitive code.4. There are two basic conditions for designing of Interleavers. xk(J)]T. the main difference between CDMA and IDMA is interleaving. consist of equal number of 1’s and -1.Orthogonal codes consist of equal number of 1 and -1. Following the CDMA convention. …. 2. Used to combat Fading and Multipath effects. Data within User should be UNCORELATED. The basic purpose of Interleaver in CDMA is to combat against burst errors. equal to the length of spreaded code. Used for unequal power distribution for all the users. xk(j). We first assume that the channel has no memory. Data of all Users should be UNCORELATED. While the only mean for user separation in IDMA system is unique Interleaver.3 Channel Coefficient h(k): Channel coefficient is used for following purposes. 2. That is. This is basic requirement for approaching Shannon’s limit. data after spreading is biased towards 1 or -1 depend upon the value of spreading code. ck is permutated by an interleaver k. each bit is repeated into number of times. Firstly. a.4. Data is balanced i. CDMA uses orthogonal codes. Secondly. The received signal at time instant j can be written as . 2.5. In repetitive code. Further. …. producing xk = [xk (1). This can be maintained by giving different interleaving pattern for different users. after spreaded by Orthogonal codes.e. which is user specified.. b. the elements in xk are called “chips”.

rj Figure 2.16 and 32) by using the following equation.. The ESE performs chip-by chip estimation.5 consists of an elementary signal estimator (ESE) and a bank of K single-user a posteriori probability decoders for the despreading operation (DES) working in a turbo-type manner. and n j zero-mean additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with variance σ2 = N0/2.2.J (2.5.……….3) .2)  r j  h ( k ) xj ( k ) represents a distortion term with respect to xj ( k ) . 2.1 The First Iteration: The iterative chip-by-chip receiver in Fig. 2.5. K E ( rj )   h ( k ) E ( xj ( k ) ) k 1 (2.1) k 1 where xj (k )  { 1. rj  h ( k ) xj ( k )  j ( k ) where j (k ) (2.K rj   h ( k ) xj ( k )  nj j=1. During the first iteration ESE allocates equal energy to every bit of every user xj (k ) which is the mean energy obtained by dividing the received bit to number of users (8. h ( k ) the channel coefficient for user k. 1} denotes the transmitted chip from user-k at time instant j.5 Receiver structure of an IDMA scheme with K simultaneous users 2. as shown in Fig.

. 2. 2. The Decoder. we focus on the chips related to d 1 chips is similar. During first iteration the mean of random variable and the mean of received bit would be same because every user has the same amount of distributed energy. . Output of every Deinterleaver works as input to the decoder. . j 1.5. The {L(cj )} (k ) in fig 2.5. This information is then sent to Random Deinterleaver.Each xj (k ) as a random variable with mean E ( xj (k ) ) and variance Var ( xj (k ) ) (initialized to 0 and 1 respectively).. The treatment for other is spread into a chip sequence by using spreading code.5 is uncorrelated which is approximately true due to interleaving.2. The DES performs a soft-in/soft-out chip-by-chip de-spreading operation as detailed below.. j} (k ) are de- and delivered to the DES for user-k. the corresponding ESE outputs interleaved to form {L(cj ). Recall that d 1 (k ) (k ) the first bit of user-k. .2 Random Deinterleaver: For user-k. This despreaded data is then respreaded in a similar way as . . For simplicity. j 1. . The Despreader (DES) and.2. Every user deinterleaver is distinguished by different and unique initial seed provided to it.3 The Decoder: The IDMA decoder has two distinct parts. Using the A posteriori probability (APP) each received bit is despreaded by multiplying it with the spreading code in bitwise manner and then divides it by the length of spreading code. j} (k ) {L(xj ).

5) 2.5. j (k ) in (2) can be approximated by a Gaussian random variable with E (j ( k ) )  E ( r j )  h ( k ) Exj ( k ) Var ( j (k ) )  Var ( r j )  h ( k ) Var ( xj ( k ) ) (2.7) as L( xj ( k ) )  2h ( k ) (r j  E (j ( k ) )) Var (j ( k ) ) (2.6a) k 1 K Var ( rj )   h ( k ) Var ( xj ( k ) )   2 (2. The a posteriori LLR for d 1 (k ) can be computed using {L(cj )} (k ) as s L(d 1( k ) )   sj ( k ) L(cj ( k ) ) (2.7a) (2.did in the transmitter.8) (k ) } . This output for every user passes through unique Random interleaver (which is same as used in transmitter for every user) before entering ESE.5. The output from Decoder Ext (cj ) (extrinsic LLRs) is now fed back to ESE for the (k ) second iteration.4 Random Interleaver: Let the interleaving for user-k be expressed as  (k ) ( j)  j ' i.4) j 1 The extrinsic LLR for a chip (cj ) within d 1( k ) s ( k ) for only first iteration is (k ) defined by Ext {( cj (k ) )}= d 1( k ) s ( k ) (2.e cj (k ) = xj (k ) .5 The Second Iteration: For this and onward iteration the previously initialized mean and variance (as 0 and 1 respectively) are updated to new values calculated as follows K E ( rj )   h ( k ) E ( xj ( k ) ) (2.6b) k 1 Using the central limit theorem. 2.7b) The ESE outputs are the logarithm likelihood ratios (LLRs) about { xj computed based on (2.

s L(d 1( k ) )   sj ( k ) L(cj ( k ) ) (2.5. It allows very low-cost multiuser detection. The detection algorithm does not rely on coding unlike other methods used in CDMA. The basic principle is to use interleavers for user separation. notice that (2. The related cost is only two additions and two multiplications per chip per user per iteration. . Complexity is not a serious concern for multiuser detection.9c) Difference between 1st and 2nd Iteration Decoder: In the 1st iteration take the mean of individual bit i. In the final iteration the DES produces hard decisions d 1( k ) on information bits d 1( k ) based on (2.5).9a) j 1 Ext (cj (k) Pr(cj ( k )  1 | r ) )  log  L(cj ( k ) ) (k) Pr(cj  1 | r ) This is the decision making point and cj (k ) (2. A very large number of users can be processed with modest computing power.e E(xj) and respread it.3) involves summations over all of the users. but introducing coding can further enhance performance (details omitted here). While in the 2nd iteration we take the difference sj L( dj (k ) (k ) ) (respreaded data) and L(cj ( k ) ) (input to the decoder).9b) =+1 if sj (k ) = d1 (k ) and cj (k ) =-1 otherwise Therefore. Ext (cj ( k ) )  sj ( k ) L( dj ( k ) )  L(cj ( k ) ) (2.6 Decoder for 2nd Iteration: The decoder implements the following equations to calculate Ext (cj ) for (k ) next iterations. This iterative process is repeated a preset number of  times. For complexity. 2. Near Shannon capacity performance is observed for multiple access channels.2. but the results (and so the cost) are shared by all of the users. The principle can be generalized to situations with multipath fading.6 Conclusion A new multi user scheme named IDMA has been studied.

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