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%ra)ilian *ournal of Chemical Engineering

(rint version ISS+ ,-,.//01

%ra)2 *2 Chem2 Eng2 vol211 no21 S3o (aulo Apr24*une 1,,5

http644dx2doi2org4-,2-57,4S,-,.//011,,5,,,1,,,-8

D#9I+: SCIE+CE A+D TECH+"!":9

'odeling and simulation of mil$ emulsion drying in spray dryers

;2 S2 %irchalI< '2 !2 (assosI= II= >

I(rograma de (?s:radua@3o em Engenharia 'ecAnica= Bniversidade Cederal de

'inas :erais= Av2 AntDnio Carlos //1E= 0-1E,7,-= %elo Hori)onte ':= %ra)il E

mail6 vbirchalFmatrix2com2br

IICentro de Secagem= Departamento de Engenharia GuHmica= Bniversidade Cederal de

S3o Carlos= (2"2 %ox /E/= -05/57,5= S3o Carlos S(= %ra)il Email6

merilauFmicroplanet2com2br

A%ST#ACT

This wor$ aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole mil$ emulsion in

spray dryers2 Drops and particles ma$e up the discrete phase and are distributed into

temporal compartments following their residence time in the dryer2 Air is the

continuous and wellmixed phase2 'ass and energy balances are developed for each

phase= ta$ing into account their interactions2 Constitutive eIuations for describing the

drop swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between

particles and hot air are proposed and analy)ed2 A set of algebraicdifferential

eIuations is obtained and solved by specific numerical codes2 #esults from

experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed

and the numerical algorithm2 Comparing the simulated and experimental data= it is

shown that the model predicts well the individual dropparticle history inside the

dryer as well as the overall outlet airparticle temperature and humidity2

Jeywords6 Spray dryer operation< (article distribution< Drying model< +umerical

simulation2

I+T#"DBCTI"+

The industrial process for producing powdered mil$ comprises the basic steps shown

in Cigure -2 #eceipt of raw mil$ from farms or cooperatives involves its inspection

based on legal regulation of chemical= sensorial and bacteriological compositions2

After approval in this initial control= mil$ emulsion is clarified in centrifugal

separators or filters= cooled in heat exchangers and stored in tan$s at .KC2 In the

standardi)ation step= the ratio of mil$ fat to total solids is adLusted= as reIuired for the

final product2 Heat treatment= which includes pasteuri)ation= sterili)ation and

ultrahigh temperature heating= destroys pathogenic microorganisms and produces

physicochemical changes in raw mil$ to improve its shelf life2 The evaporation step=

usually carried out continuously at ., to E,KC in a multieffect evaporator system=

increases the mil$ solids content from -1 M to about 5, M2 The following step

comprises a single= two or multistage drying= in which the concentrated mil$

emulsion is dried and powdered until reaching the residual moisture content reIuired

for storage and4or further application2

Spray drying is a well$nown industrial techniIue used on a large scale for drying and

powdering very thermally sensitive materials2 Cor mil$ emulsion= this techniIue

transforms this emulsion into a large number of small droplets that fall into the spray

chamber concurrently with hot air2 As water is evaporated= these droplets become

solid particles2 In singlestage drying= using a spray dryer with a pneumatic conveying

system= removal of the last fraction of moisture from powdered mil$ occurs slowly

and is costly= and the final product is fine nonagglomerated particles N0,5, OmP that

do not readily disperse in water2 A spray dryer attached to a vibrating fluid bed

system= as shown in Cigure -= comprises the twostage drying2 In this method=

agglomerates are preserved at the exit of the spray chamber and= thus= feed into the

vibrofluidi)ed bed system where they are gently dried and cooled2 +onagglomerated

particles can be recycled into the spray chamber= enhancing the Iuality of powdered

mil$ by control of the particle si)e distribution2 Threestage drying= in which a

stationary fluid bed of powdered mil$ is added at the conical base of the spray

chamber to better control particle agglomeration and drying= is an improvement of

this method2 After drying and cooling= the final powdered mil$ product must be

pac$aged in suitable containers and stored= when necessary= under conditions specific

to its safe preservation2

"f all these steps= drying is the one in which powdered mil$ properties are defined2

As is well$nown in the literature= powdered mil$ and its byproducts have

characteristics crucial to its acceptance and commerciali)ation2 The Iuality of

powdered mil$ is greatly affected by the operational conditions of this process2

Therefore= the $nowledge of the spraydrying technology is essential for controlling

these operational variables in order to obtain a highIuality product NJing et al2= -78.<

+ath and Satpathy= -778P2

%ased on the previous mathematical model presented by Clement et al2 N-77-P= which

focuses on Euler and !agrange approaches for developing mass and energy balances=

this wor$ aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole mil$ emulsion in spray

dryers2

As shown by the results= a more detailed study of the mass transfer model and the

particle residence time distribution has improved the original Clement et al2 model2 A

new and more efficient method for the numerical model solution was implemented2

Simulations allowed evaluation of model applicability= study of operational parameter

sensitivity and prediction of the dryer outlet conditions at several levels of operational

parameters2

'ATHE'ATICA! '"DE! C"# D#9I+: 'I!J E'B!SI"+ I+ S(#A9

D#9E#S

Initial Assumptions

The mathematical formulation is based on the following assumptions NClement et al2=

-77-P6

Qhot gas and mil$ suspension are continuously inLected into the top of the dryer

chamber at uniform rates<

Qthe gas phase= formed of air and vapor= behaves as an ideal mixture and flows inside

the dryer as a perfect mixture<

Qthe suspension is properly atomi)ed forming spherical= homogeneous and uniform

drops= which are well mixed inside the chamber without interacting with one another<

Qheat flows from hot air to drops or particles and temperature gradients inside the

particles are negligible<

Qthe individual drying rate is described by water evaporation transfer from a single

particle to the gas phase<

Qthe overall drying rate is a weight sum of individual rates of all particles that remain

in the dryer<

Qthe drying $inetics is represented by two distinct periods6 the first one= in which free

water is evaporated from drops until a thin semipermeable crust is formed on the

particle surface= and the second one= characteri)ed by the thic$ening of this crust as

predicted by the shrin$ing core model2

'odel Development

The model comprises a set of constitutive algebraic eIuations that describes mass and

heat transfer between gas and single particles= the drying $inetics of a single particle

surrounded by gas and functions of the particle residence time distribution inside the

chamber< a group of differential eIuations that expresses the mass and energy

balances for a single particle and a continuous gas phase and a set of algebraic

eIuations that express the overall distributed balances of particles inside the chamber2

In this wor$= only the main model eIuations are presented< complete information

about the entire model is given by %irchal N1,,0P2 Constitutive algebraic eIuations

concerned with a single particle can be summari)ed as

Heat and mass transfer rates per unit of the particle surface area R

with

'ean particle diameter R dp

'ass of dry solids inside the drop R ms

EIuilibrium moisture content R S>

where particle temperature= Tp= is expressed in J2

EIuations N-P and N1P respectively describe the heat and the mass transfer between a

particle and gas2 Cor estimation of the convective heat and mass transfer coefficients=

h and $= +usselt N+uP and Sherwood NShP numbers are supposed to be eIual to 1=

since the relative velocity between particle and gas is nearly )ero2 The f factor in

EIuation N1P represents the resistance of the crust to water vapor diffusion through it=

and this value arises only in the second drying period NSp T ScP2 #ight at the

beginning of the first drying period= even when the particle temperature= Tp= becomes

greater than the wetbulb temperature= the drying rate is adLusted by an additional

term to ma$e the vapor pressure in the bul$ air= (wg= eIual to the saturated vapor

pressure at wetbulb temperature= (w>NT%BP2 This additional drying rate per particle

area= = is thus included in the modified model= as shown in EIuation N--P2

EIuations N0aP and N0bP describe the particle4drop diameter during drying2 The initial

drop diameter= dp,= a function of atomi)er design parameters and the suspension flow

rate= is estimated by the specific correlation for the rotary disc atomi)er N'asters=

-785P2

According to the model assumptions= in the second drying period this diameter

becomes constant2 The mass of dry solids inside a particle= ms= constant throughout

the process= can be obtained from EIuation N.P2 EIuation N5P describes the particle

eIuilibrium moisture content= S>= as a function of particle temperature= Tp= and

relative humidity of the air= B#2 This sorption curve= specific for the whole powdered

mil$ used in this wor$= was obtained from experiments carried out under dynamic

conditions N%irchal= 1,,0P2 This curve is also used to specify the critical particle

moisture content= Sc= by ma$ing B# close to -2 +ote that Sc depends on Tp because

of the crust formation on the particle surface2

To determine the mass and energy balances of the particle population in the dryer

Ndiscrete phaseP= it is necessary to specify the effective contribution of each particle or

particle group to the overall drying and heat exchange rates2 This contribution is

directly related to the residence time of the particle in the dryer2 Hence= a detailed and

clear description of the residence time distribution function is extremely important2

The residence time distribution function of particles in the dryer is expressed as a

function of the cumulative fraction of particles which leaves the dryer at time t= CcNtP=

or even as a function of the age distribution of these particles= ENt4trpP= in relation to

the mean particle residence time= trp2 In this wor$= the particle residence time

distribution is based on the perfect mixture model< however= different models for the

particle residence time distribution can be easily incorporated into the model program2

%ased on this assumption= particles fed into the chamber at the initial time Nt U ,P are

distributed along different routes in the dryer and are removed at different times= as

predicted by

Since particles ta$e different routes inside the drying chamber= it is necessary to

distinguish= at any operating time t= that particle fraction of ages less than or eIual to

t= which is removed from the dryer and that particle fraction of ages greater than to t=

which is $ept inside the chamber2 It is also necessary to differentiate= in these

fractions= the correct particle age in order to determine the water evaporation rate and

the rate of heat exchanged with the gas phase2 This reIuires combining sameage

particles into n temporal compartments= which can simplify identification during the

operating time= the remaining and removed fractions of particles according to age2

This approach of temporal compartmentali)ation is Lustified= since in the drying

model= particles of the same age have the same diameter= moisture content and

temperature2 +ote that= in the model assumptions= drop coalescence and drop

brea$age are both neglected2 Therefore= particles of the same age= belonging to the

same temporal compartment= can be found in different spatial positions in the drying=

as represented in Cigure 12

Bsing this approach= the disperse phase is thus supposed to be comprised of particles

that are distributed into n temporal compartments by age2 Bnder inlet condition t U ti

V , Ni U 1 to nP= the particle fraction that remains in the chamber at a time t V ti is

expressed by

EIuation NEP allows calculation of the fraction of particles of an age between ti and Nti

W dtP= which remain in the dryer at operating time t2 Cigure 0 illustrates the model

compartments corresponding to the particle age at any time t U i Dt N, T i T nP2 +ote

that at t U Nn-PDt= the n compartments are all filled with particles of ages varying

from , to tn2 'oreover= at this operating time= the remaining fraction of particles fed

in at t U , leaves the dryer2 If there is no perturbation in this dryer system= the

permanent regime is established at t U nDt2 The +p=-=L NU DtC4msP compartment is

composed of particles of age t- U , at t U NL -PDt for - U L U n< +p=1=L NU r- +p=-=L-P

by particles of age t1 U Dt at t U NL -PDt for 1 U L T n< +p=0=L NU r1 +p=1=L-P by those

of age t0 U 1Dt at t U NL -PDt for 0 U L U n and so on consecutively until +p=n=L NU rn-

+p=n-=L-P is reached at t U Nn-PDt2 Cor any i value= ri U exp NDt4trpP is constant2

Crom this matrix scheme in Cigure 0= compartments composed of particles fed into the

dryer at t U , are on the principal diagonal Ni=L U iP corresponding to +p=i=LUi2

Compartments with particles fed into the dryer at t U Dt are located on the diagonal Ni=

L U i W -P= corresponding to +p=i=LUiW- and so on successively2 In each compartment=

there are two outlet currents of particles6 one formed by the particle fraction +p=s U

N-riP+p=i=L that leaves the dryer at NL -PDt U t U L Dt and the other by the particle

fraction +p=r U ri+p=i=L that remains in the dryer and feeds the next time compartment=

+p= iW-=LW-2

'oreover= this scheme= different from the one suggested by Clement et al2 N-77-P=

allows easy identification of the particle fraction that leaves the dryer at t V Dt2 %ased

on this= water evaporation and the heat transfer rates can be determined during the

entire operating time= since the individual mass and heat transfer rates estimated in

each i of the +pi=L compartments in the L column of a given operating time= can be

summed up as follows6

"verall water evaporation rate

"verall heat rate

+p=i=L is the particle fraction in the i=L compartment N- U i U nP with L U constant

corresponding to a given operating time and expressed as

with ti U Ni R -PDt2

%ased on EIuations N8P and N7P= mass and energy balances for both solid and gas

phases were developed as follows6

'ass balance for a single particle Napplied to n compartmentsP

Energy balance for a single particle Napplied to n compartmentsP

'ass balance for the gas phase

Energy balance for the gas phase

This set of balances= from EI2 N--P to N-.P= comprises N1nW1P differential eIuations2

"verall rates of mass and heat transfer between phases= the mean particle moisture

content= and temperature== can thus be calculated at a given operating time= t= as

"verall heat rate supplied by gas

"verall heat rate used for water evaporation

"verall mass transfer rate for the solid phase

'ean particle moisture content in the dryer

'ean particle temperature in the dryer

This modified model has two adLustable parameters= which are Diff= the effective

coefficient of watervapor diffusion through the particle crust= and hwall= the overall

coefficient of heat transfer between dryer walls and the ambient air2 These

coefficients are estimated from experimental data= as discussed later2

+B'E#ICA! 'ETH"D C"# S"!;I+: '"DE! EGBATI"+S

Due to the complexity of the differentialalgebraic eIuation system NDAEP= its

solution reIuires the use of numerical methods2 Transforming this system into one of

ordinary differential eIuations N"DEP would involve a series of algebraic operations=

such as the one used by Clement et al2 N-77-P2 %esides= these authors reported serious

convergence problems while simulating the beginning of the drying process2 These

arguments are sufficient to support the proposal of a new method to solve directly this

DAE system= in which the DASS! code N(et)old= -787P is applied2 %y using the

bac$warddifferential formula in each integration step= the DASS! code transforms

DAE system into a set of algebraic eIuations= whose solution is obtained by +ewton

methods2 The code= developed in the C"#T#A+ language= has been incorporated into

a computational C"#T#A+ program= containing the initial conditions< the seIuential

order of eIuations to be solved with the corresponding code callings and the solution

feedbac$ to the program2 In addition= there are specific subroutines for calculating the

air= vapor= water and drop properties as well as the eIuilibrium data on both phases

lin$ed to the main program2

In this model solution= the convergence problem was solved by using different

discreti)ation times during the simulation2 Since= in the first temporal compartment

N-=-P= values and tendencies of temperature and gas humidity are un$nown= problems

with the DASS! initiali)ation can emerge2 %esides= at the beginning of the drying

process= there are fast and abrupt changes in the particle temperature and moisture

content profiles2 Therefore= it is necessary to implement a large number of

compartments Nn V -,,,P in the first drying period2 However= once convergence is

achieved= this large number becomes unnecessary2 To optimi)e the model solution

algorithm= a time refining in the first temporal compartment is proposed= subdividing

it into nr temporal subcompartments with a time interval of Dt4nr2 Simulations have

shown that setting the number of compartments at n U 5,, and nr U 5, is the

minimum reIuired to guarantee convergence2 In this wor$= n U /,, and nr U 1,, were

adopted2 The results= as shown in Cigure .= are a good description of particle history

inside the dryer2

To estimate the two adLustable model parameters= Diff and hwall= the weighty least

sIuare method was used to represent the residue or error function2 An optimi)ation

subroutine= based on the (S" Nparticle swarm optimi)ationP heuristic method

NJennedy and Eberhart= -775P was implemented= resulting in a rapid convergence to

the overall minimum of this error function2 As a result= Diff was estimated as .2-x-,

7 m14s and hwall as E20 S4m1J2

#ESB!TS A+D DISCBSSI"+

To analy)e and validate results from the model developed= experimental tests were

conducted at IE+4C+E+ in an A(;A+HID#" model (SD 51 pilot spray dryer

made of stainless steel with a - m of diameter and a ,2/ m of height Ncylindrical partP

and a E25 $g4h of evaporation capacity2 Drying air at a rate of ,2,.- $g4s and a

humidity of ,2,-, to ,2,1, and whole mil$ emulsion with a .7M solids concentration

at 5-XC are fed in concurrently= reproducing the industrial conditions of dryer

operation2 The atomi)er is of the rotary disc type2 +ine inlet conditions were tested by

combining low N-P= medium N,P and high NW-P levels of three operational variables6 C=

vatom and Tg,= as shown in Table -2 'ore details of these experiments can found in

the wor$ of %irchal N1,,0P2

#esults obtained with the model by using the computer program developed are

presented in Table 1 together with experimental data= deviation and fitted error

Nmodel fit to experimental dataP2 In figures 5a= 5b and 5c= the agreement between

experimental and simulated data can easily be observed2 In these figures= vertical bars

on the experimental data points represent the experimental error given in Table 12

As shown in Cigure 5a= all values of Tg are predicted well by the model within the

experimental uncertainty range2 This variable is one of the most important in the spray

drying operation= since it is an indirect measurement of solids properties= such as the

outlet powder moisture content and temperature in the industrial production of

powdered mil$2 Crom this= it is also possible to calculate thermal dryer efficiency and

to analy)e particle temperature history and possible alterations in properties of the

powdered mil$2

Cigure 5b indicates a larger deviation between experimental and simulated data=

which is explained by the considerable measurement errors obtained with instruments2

The model predicts satisfactorily nine out of eleven data2 !arger and no predictive Sp

deviations obtained in experiments 0 and E may be related to the severe inlet

conditions imposed on the mil$ drying Nhigher temperature and lower emulsion feed

rateP= which resulted in a burned product with a possible loss of some volatile

components2

In Cigure 5c= 9 is also predicted well= considering the experimental uncertainty

involved in measurement of this variable2

C"+C!BSI"+S

%ased on the results obtained in this study= the following conclusions are drawn6

Qthe modified model satisfactorily describes its response variables= Tg= Sp and 9=

under continuous operation<

Qalthough the particle residence time distribution can be improved by testing other

functions= the perfect mixture approach seems to describe reasonably well particle

motion inside the pilot spray dryer used in the experiments<

QTg= one of the most important process variables= has the lowest model predicted

error<

Q9 is also predicted well< nevertheless= the associated experimental uncertainty is high

due to the time reIuired for getting trusty online results<

QSp is satisfactorily predicted by the model in the usual range of inlet air

temperatures NT -8, XCP< however the model cannot predict the thermal degradation of

powdered mil$= as observed in the experiments= at a high level of inlet air

temperature2

Studies are in progress to improve this modified model by designing control strategies

for safely drying mil$ emulsion in spray dryers2

+"'E+C!ATB#E

#ECE#E+CES

%irchal= ;2S2= 'odelagem e simula@3o da secagem de leite em secadores spray2 (h2D2

diss2= Bniversidade Cederal de 'inas :erais= %elo Hori)onte N1,,0P2 Y !in$s Z

Clement= J2H2= Hallstr[m= A2= Dich= H2C2= !e= C2'2= 'ortensen= *2 and Thomsen=

H2A2= "n the Dynamic %ehavior of Spray Dryers2 Transactions Inst2 of Chemical

Engineers= /7= 1.5 N-77-P2 Y !in$s Z

Jennedy= *2 and Eberhart= #2C2= (article Swarm "ptimi)ation= International

Conference on +eural +etwor$s2 (erth= Australia N-775P2 Y !in$s Z

Jing= C2*2= Jiec$busch= T2:2 and :reenwald= C2:2= CoodGuality Cactors in Spray

Drying= Advances in Drying= 0= E- N-78.P2 Y !in$s Z

'asters= J2= Spray Drying Handboo$2 !ongman Scientific and Technical= +ew 9or$

N-785P2 Y !in$s Z

+ath= S2 and Satpathy= #2= A Systematic Approach for Investigation of Spray Drying

(rocess= Drying Technology= -/= +o2 / --E0 N-778P2 Y !in$s Z

(et)old= !2#2= DASS!6 a Differentialalgebraic System Solver= Computing and

'athematics2 #esearch Division= !awrence !ivermore +ational !aboratory=

!ivermore= California N-787P2 Y !in$s Z

#eceived< "ctober 1,= 1,,.

Accepted6 'arch 0= 1,,5

> To whom correspondence should be addressed

All the contents of this Lournal= except where otherwise noted= is licensed under a

Creative Commons Attribution !icense

Associa@3o %rasileira de Engenharia GuHmica

#ua !Hbero %adar?= -51 = --2 and2

,-,,87,0 S3o (aulo S( %ra)il

Tel26 W55 -- 0-,E8E.E

Cax26 W55 -- 0-,../.7

Cax6 W55 -- 0-,../.7

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