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Chung-Sung-Gok (청성곡

)
Initially created for voice, Chung-Sung-Gok has long since evolved into a solo piece for
bamboo flutes (danso, short bamboo flute, or dae-geum, long bamboo flute). hroughout the
song are contrasting phrases bet!een long sustained notes and clusters of grace notes that
accentuate the clear, tonal "uality of the bamboo flute.
he follo!ing are e#cerpts of an article by $rofessor %meritus &soc Shur ($rofessor
%meritus, Seoul 'ational &niversity College of (usic) )*iscourse +nalysis of ChungSung-Gok
(청성곡의 담론적 분석),
http-..usoc.snu.ac.kr.report-site.usoc-surh.yo-chun-all.htm
Abstract:
In music, as in linguistic te#t, the smallest unit is a tone, a single tone by one finger on
piano. +nd largest unit is discourse, the !hole musical piece to say movement. his paper
purposed to prove that the very lo!er level of musical structure could decide the content of most
higher level of music. In case of Chung-Sung-Gok (청성곡), grace notes at the end of a long
note, have a function of erasing the memory of long note/s pitch perception in our memory
system, so the follo!ing long note could not make interval perception !ith preceding note.
I made melodic line of Chung-Sung-Gok (청성곡) into graph and addressed by letter
name. 0hen you listen, you can feel easily the group of grace notes erasing your perception of
pitch sense of the note and could not make a interval perception bet!een t!o notes, before
graces and after graces.
Excerpt of his articles:
his is the original notation of Chung-Sung-Gok. he blue highlighted theme from the
first 1ang (phrase- 2-1ang), measures 3-24, is repeated in the second line (the second line of the
first 1ang), measures 25-26, !ith omission of beats marked as or (in blue). It appears that ˅ ˄
long notes on the first line are shortened in the second line as the melody repeats. Green
highlights are repeated in the endings of the first, second, and fifth 1ang. 7ecause of repeating the
motif !ith variation and insertion of ne! parts the entire piece becomes interesting.
Graphic Notation of Chung-Sung-Gok
Since it is not easy to appreciate thematic repetition by listening to the recording the
follo!ing graph !as constructed using the $8++ soft!are. hen the graph !as modified to
include the names of long notes. 8ed bo#es !ere added to indicate grace notes bet!een said long
notes. his graph illustrates the melodic progression visually.
he long notes in the first and second parts of the second 1ang (4 장2 and 4 장4) are
nearly identical, !ith the only differences coming from the grace notes decorating the beginning
part of each section. 7ecause of these variations in grace notes, it is difficult to hear such
similarities bet!een the first and second 1ang. he grace notes before 林 in the first line of first
1ang (2 장2) interferes !ith the flo! of notes to 潢. +nother big grace note after 潢 again
interferes flo! into the ne#t note 㳞. I !ill call this the )adhesive articulator,, though it may be
considered a )separator, or )preventor, 9sic:. hese articulators appear before or after long
notes, similar to prefi#es or suffi#es. ;o!ever, in the second part of the second 1ang (4 장4), the
articulators bet!een notes 潢-潕are more than prefi#es.suffi#es< rather, these are independent
articulators or interpolated separators. +s a result the audience may not recogni=e the repetition
of the melody and cannot predict the coming melodic progression.
he first parts of the second and third 1ang (4 장2 and > 장2) are identical !ith the
e#ception of a short separator before and after 潕. +lso there is a slight variation in the separator
in the first part of third 1ang (> 장2). Such slight variation in seperators prevents audience
recogni=ing the repetition of the melody. he latter parts of the second and third line of third 1ang
(> 장4 and > 장>) are made entirely of separators, in contrast to the preceding parts in !hich the
long notes !ere the main body and separators !ere used only to break such notes. he
succession of separators evokes a feeling of escalating emotional turmoil, !hich is then follo!ed
by the interme==o (중여음)< the interme==o?s long notes provide a calm respite from the building
tension.
he first and second parts of the fifth 1ang (6 장2 and 6 장4) are identical to the first and
second parts of the second 1ang (4 장2 and 4 장4). he fourth 1ang (3 장) is almost entirely
comprised of separators. he third part of the fifth 1ang (6 장>) is again filled !ith separators
and high notes that leads to a clima# that is follo!ed by an ending dispersed !ith separators.
Appendix:
his song uses a pentatonic scale comprised of the follo!ing notes. 0e measured the
cents bet!een notes after finding !avelengths through $8++. he follo!ing notation is one
octave lo!er than the actual scale.
'ame of note
(음명)
8ange of min @ ma# !avelength ( 진
동수최저-최고 )
Chosen 0avelengthA (선
택진동수)

25B>-25C4 25C5
潕 C44 - C>4 C>5

B>C - B65 B36

D2E - D46 D45

363 - 3D2 3D5
AChosen !avelength is based on the most fre"uently used !avelength.
AA*etermination of the cents for each note !as calculated by the follo!ing formula-
y=log(a/b)x1200/log2
yFcents bet!een t!o notes (!avelength)
aF !ave length of the first note
bF !ave length of the second note