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The region was part of an ocean floor. The cave
has been produced by crystallization of aragonite
coming from dissolved calcium carbonate
solutions. The underground rivers enlarge and
sculpted the caves. Studies of the caves clay has
determined that the cave is approximately 340
million years old.

Jenolan Caves
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Traveling through the following 4 Stops each
representing the atmosphere, lithosphere,
biosphere and hydrosphere.
Fun Facts
Mexico City
*Exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles from the
urban area of the city is one of the major
sources of air pollution.
*During the 16
century an ancient lakebed
valley was drained becoming a large source of
dust, this is where Mexico City is now located.

Altai Sayan Mountains
*50% of the area is located in Russia, 30% is
located in Mongolia, and 10% each in the
northern provinces of China.

Kingdom Reef Remote Islands
*Kingdom Reef remains one of the least
untouched reef ecosystems.

Jenolan Caves
*These caves are one of Australia’s national

Production by Janet Melendez
Field Trip Guide
Earths Systems
Stop #1: Mexico City – A hazy effect on
the Atmosphere
Stop #2: Altai Sayan Mountains-
Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia
Stop #3: Kingdom Reef Remote Island-
Great Lost Wonder of the Biosphere
Stop #4: Jenolan Caves- A treasured

The Altai Sayan Mountains contain geographically
distinct biomes. Tese biomes consist of tundra, forest,
wetlands, high mountain taiga and steppe. All these
geographic distinctions are variables in the
environmental conditions. The mountains stretch into the
valleys meeting glaciers at the higher valleys. The
conditions are varied by the vertical climate change. This
constant distribution of ecosystems is home to many
endangered species.

The Lobe Coral is about 500 years old remaining
unknown till marine ecologist Enric Sala discovered it.
Coral Reef ecosystems in specific the Kingdom Reef
has been seasonally influences by the variable winds,
high precipitation and humid tropical climate. Easterly
trade winds and seas affect the reef during winter
The oceanic temperature has been shown to be
affected by the climate change during the last century.
This global warming change has bled into all of the
Earths systems suggesting change in the ecosystems

Mexico City has been identified as one of the world’s
leading air polluted cities. This metropolis ‘atmospheric
aerosols are viewable to the naked eye
What contributes to the large pollution of Mexico City?
This metropolis is enclosed on three sides by snow-caped
volcanoes and mountains. It lays at an altitude of 2200
meters, atop a high plain. Insufficient variation of incident
seasonal solar radiation, keeps production of photochemical
smog through the year. Though the winter season, the
thermal inversions pollutes air masses close to the surface,
worsening air quality. A low-laying fog and haze are
apparent in the Mexico City and through the Sierra Madre
Altai Sayan Mountains
Hazy Mexico City
Kingdom Reef
South Pacific
Remote Line Islands