CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM

Introduction
Global success and development have reached inconsiderable growth through
the years. But process by which these gains were produced has also given rise to trends
that are detrimental to the welfare of the planet and its people.
Various energy sources were tapped profusely over the decades without
thoughts on the long-term effects it small present the natural environment. The
visualization of non-renewable sources of energy has dominated the market to an extent
that society became dependent upon their availability. And recently, growing realizations
on the radical threats posed by such practices have had national governments and
multilateral institutions clamouring for immediate employment of counter measures.
The renewable sources of energy as an alternative is continually being develop
to be a profitable kind of energy that shall pave way for a modified economy, well-
established security and a safeguard planet from the onerous effects of climate change.
1

These resources range from biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind energy, solar
energy and ocean energy which can be converted into more useful energy like
electricity. Philippines is one in the vast number of nations that prioritize a
aforementioned renewable energy sources as part of the government thrust in reducing
dependence in fossil fuels and its harmful emissions that affect health and the
environment.
However, developmental studies are not limited thereof within that set of
acclaimed renewable sources of energy. There are still further possible resources which
can be explored within our environment. The waste energy coming from lighting
equipment, temperature differentials, vibrations and radio waves can be reused to
operate low-power electronic devices are known as micro-power energy sources.
2

2

In early 20
th
century, the idea of wireless transmission of electrical power has
been insinuated by Nikola Tesla, a Serbian-American engineer and inventor for he
worked on the project and encountered a number of drawbacks by which he conferred
that the undertaking was not easy cited that the range and signal for radio waves are
very limited. They are also prone to disruption by almost anything.
3
Thus, making the
conversion of radio waves into electrical power arduous.
Radio frequency (RF) energy is released by sources that generate high
electromagnetic fields such as TV signals, wireless radio networks and cell phone
towers. And through the utilization of a power generating circuit linked to a receiving
antenna this free flowing energy can be captured and converted into usable Direct
Current (DC) voltage. The RF energy is accessible through the billions of radio
transmitter located around the world. Moreover in this era of modern technology, over 5
billion cell phones, 44,000 radio stations, thousands of TV station and countless home
Wi-Fi systems are emitting RF energy into the atmosphere.
4

Taking into account the aforementioned details and the fact that in the
Philippines alone there is already a significant increase on devices that releases radio
frequency energy, the researchers considered conducting an experimental study on the
stability of radio wave as a small scale energy source.
A series of tests and dry-runs will be conducted, that shall make use of an
efficient antenna together with a circuit capable of converting alternating-current (AC) in
terms of radio wave into direct-current voltage to be used as low-power source.
Subsequently, in order to have good reception of radio waves, different
fundamental types of antenna can be used. And with the current advancements, new
antenna technologies are being developed that allows an antenna to rapidly change its
pattern to response to changes in direction of arrival of the received signal.
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3

Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this research is to conduct an experimental study on
radio wave’s stability as a small scale energy source.
The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To develop a radio wave receiver that is capable of producing a minimal
amount of energy.
2. To be able to determine the performance of the Radio wave Receiver.
3. To be able to determine which antenna receiver is suitable for use.


Scope and Delimitation

The study will focus on the performance of radio wave as a small scale energy
source. This includes developing a radio wave receiver device that will be used in radio
frequency harvesting. The device will be used for conducting scientific experiments with
reasonable controlled variables like location or site of signal generation and distance
from the transmitter during the measurements.

The testing and experimenting will be held at selected areas in Bicol University
Polangui Campus(BUPC). After series of testing, redevelopment of device will also be
conducted if necessary. On the other hand, measuring instruments used will be limited
to availability and the energy from radio wave is often found in such minute quantities
that it can solely be used in low powered devices or appliances.

The research study on radio wave harvesting will be limited to only one circuitry
design and four different antenna receivers, specifically Yagi-Uda antenna, Groundplane
antenna, Whip antenna and Bi-Quad antenna for reception of ambient and specific
source of radio frequency.





4

Significance of the Study

This research study will be directed in conducting an experimental study on radio
wave’s stability as a small scale energy source which will be beneficial to the following:

Environment. This research can aid the environment through zero waste energy
and have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies.

Community. The community will lessen the amount of their energy consumption
for some small electronic gadgets.

Entrepreneur. This will give an opportunity to uplift the economic affair and
challenge them to innovate more ideas for market and business.

Researcher. This study will aid to the intellectual growth of the researcher.

Future Researchers. Findings of the study will give knowledge, idea and serve
as guide and reference material for future related studies.
















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NOTES


1
BARACK OBAMA, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Feb. 24, 2009,
Modified by July 11, 2013 (Date of Access, July 11, 2013).
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/02/25/us/politics/20090225-OBAMA-
CONGRESS.html?_r=0
2
Bryn Dixon “Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting“, Modified by July 11,
2013(Date of Access, July 11, 2013).
http://rfenergyharvesting.com/

3
Kenneth Brown, Jason Reese, and Jian

Zhen “RF Energy Harvesting”, An
undergraduate thesis of BS-EET University of Cincinnati, Spring 2012. page 6, Modified
by July 11, 2013 (Date of Access July 11, 2013).

4
Carlos Mano “What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of
Electromagnetic Energy Power Sources?”, Modified by July 11, 2013 (Date of Access
July 11, 2013).
http://www.ehow.com/list_6779004_advantages-electromagnetic-energy-power-
sources_.html

5
”Antenna Types”, Modified by July 11, 2013, (Retrieved July 11, 2013, 1:45 pm)
from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/185030b.pdf