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Hurricane Katrina

This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. For other storms of the same name, see
Tropical Storm Katrina.
Hurricane Katrina
Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)
Hurricane Katrina at peak strength on August 28,
2005
Formed August 2, 2005
Dissipated August 0, 2005
Highest
winds
1-minute sustained:
!"5 mph #280 km$h%
Lowest
pressure
&02 mbar #h'a%( 2).)* inHg
Fatalities !,8 confirme+
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Damage
.!08 billion #2005 /S0%
#1ostliest hurricane in /S histor2
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%
Areas
affected
3ahamas, South Flori+a, 1uba, 4ouisiana
#especiall2 5reater 6e7 8rleans%,
9ississippi, Alabama, Flori+a 'anhan+le,
most of eastern 6orth America
'art of the !!5 Atlantic hurricane season
Hurricane Katrina 7as the +ea+liest an+ most +estructi:e Atlantic hurricane of the 2005
Atlantic hurricane season. ;t 7as the costliest natural +isaster, as 7ell as one of the fi:e +ea+liest
hurricanes, in the histor2 of the /nite+ States. Among recor+e+ Atlantic hurricanes, it 7as the
si<th strongest o:erall. At least !,8 people +ie+ in the hurricane an+ subse=uent floo+s, making
it the +ea+liest /.S. hurricane since the !&28 8keechobee hurricane( total propert2 +amage 7as
estimate+ at .8! billion #2005 /S0%, nearl2 triple the +amage brought b2 Hurricane An+re7 in
!&&2.
Hurricane Katrina forme+ o:er the 3ahamas on August 2, 2005 an+ crosse+ southern Flori+a as
a mo+erate 1ategor2 ! hurricane, causing some +eaths an+ floo+ing there before strengthening
rapi+l2 in the 5ulf of 9e<ico. The hurricane strengthene+ to a 1ategor2 5 hurricane o:er the
7arm 5ulf 7ater, but 7eakene+ before making its secon+ lan+fall as a 1ategor2 hurricane on
the morning of 9on+a2, August 2& in southeast 4ouisiana. ;t cause+ se:ere +estruction along the
5ulf coast from central Flori+a to Te<as, much of it +ue to the storm surge. The most significant
number of +eaths occurre+ in 6e7 8rleans, 4ouisiana, 7hich floo+e+ as the le:ee s2stem
catastrophicall2 faile+, in man2 cases hours after the storm ha+ mo:e+ inlan+. >:entuall2 80? of
the cit2 an+ large tracts of neighboring parishes became floo+e+, an+ the floo+7aters lingere+ for
7eeks. Ho7e:er, the 7orst propert2 +amage occurre+ in coastal areas, such as all 9ississippi
beachfront to7ns, 7hich 7ere floo+e+ o:er &0? in hours, as boats an+ casino barges ramme+
buil+ings, pushing cars an+ houses inlan+, 7ith 7aters reaching )@!2 miles #!0@!& km% from the
beach.
The hurricane surge protection failures in 6e7 8rleans are consi+ere+ the 7orst ci:il
engineering +isaster in /.S. histor2 an+ prompte+ a la7suit against the /.S. Arm2 1orps of
>ngineers #/SA1>%, the +esigners an+ buil+ers of the le:ee s2stem as man+ate+ b2 the Floo+
1ontrol Act of !&)5. Aesponsibilit2 for the failures an+ floo+ing 7as lai+ s=uarel2 on the Arm2
1orps in Banuar2 2008 b2 Bu+ge Stan7oo+ 0u:al, /.S. 0istrict 1ourt, but the fe+eral agenc2
coul+ not be hel+ financiall2 liable +ue to so:ereign immunit2 in the Floo+ 1ontrol Act of !&28.
There 7as also an in:estigation of the responses from fe+eral, state an+ local go:ernments,
resulting in the resignation of Fe+eral >mergenc2 9anagement Agenc2 #F>9A% +irector
9ichael 0. 3ro7n, an+ of 6e7 8rleans 'olice 0epartment #68'0% Superinten+ent >++ie
1ompass.
Se:eral agencies inclu+ing the /nite+ States 1oast 5uar+ #/S15%, 6ational Hurricane 1enter
#6H1%, an+ 6ational Ceather Ser:ice #6CS% 7ere commen+e+ for their actions. The2 pro:i+e+
accurate hurricane 7eather tracking forecasts 7ith sufficient lea+ time. /nfortunatel2, e:en the
most insistent appeals from national, state an+ local public officials to resi+ents to e:acuate
before the storm +i+ not 7arn that the le:ees coul+ breach an+ fail.
"eteorological history
9ain articleD 9eteorological histor2 of Hurricane Katrina
Storm path
Hurricane Katrina forme+ as Tropical 0epression T7el:e o:er the southeastern 3ahamas on
August 2, 2005 as the result of an interaction of a tropical 7a:e an+ the remains of Tropical
0epression Ten. The s2stem 7as upgra+e+ to tropical storm status on the morning of August 2*
an+ at this point, the storm 7as gi:en the name Katrina. The tropical storm continue+ to mo:e
to7ar+s Flori+a, an+ became a hurricane onl2 t7o hours before it ma+e lan+fall bet7een
Hallan+ale 3each an+ A:entura on the morning of August 25. The storm 7eakene+ o:er lan+,
but it regaine+ hurricane status about one hour after entering the 5ulf of 9e<ico.
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Katrina near Flori+a lan+fall.
The storm rapi+l2 intensifie+ after entering the 5ulf, gro7ing from a 1ategor2 hurricane to a
1ategor2 5 hurricane in Eust nine hours. This rapi+ gro7th 7as +ue to the stormFs mo:ement o:er
the Gunusuall2 7armG 7aters of the 4oop 1urrent, 7hich increase+ 7in+ spee+s.
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8n Satur+a2,
August 2", the storm reache+ 1ategor2 intensit2 on the SaffirHSimpson Hurricane Scale,
becoming the thir+ maEor hurricane of the season. An e2e7all replacement c2cle +isrupte+ the
intensification, but cause+ the storm to nearl2 +ouble in siIe. Katrina again rapi+l2 intensifie+,
attaining 1ategor2 5 status on the morning of August 28 an+ reache+ its peak strength at !800
/T1 that +a2, 7ith ma<imum sustaine+ 7in+s of !"5 mph #280 km$h% an+ a minimum central
pressure of &02 mbar #2).) inHg%. The pressure measurement ma+e Katrina the fourth most
intense Atlantic hurricane on recor+ at the time, onl2 to be surpasse+ b2 Hurricanes Aita an+
Cilma later in the season( it 7as also the strongest hurricane e:er recor+e+ in the 5ulf of 9e<ico
at the time. Ho7e:er, this recor+ 7as later broken b2 Hurricane Aita.
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Katrina on August 28, nearing the 5ulf 1oast.
Katrina ma+e its secon+ lan+fall at !!!0 /T1 #)D!0 a.m. 10T% on 9on+a2, August 2& as a
1ategor2 hurricane 7ith sustaine+ 7in+s of !25 mph #205 km$h% near 3urasHTriumph,
4ouisiana. At lan+fall, hurricaneHforce 7in+s e<ten+e+ out7ar+ !20 miles #!&0 km% from the
center an+ the stormFs central pressure 7as &20 mbar #2" inHg%. After mo:ing o:er southeastern
4ouisiana an+ 3reton Soun+, it ma+e its thir+ lan+fall near the 4ouisiana$9ississippi bor+er 7ith
!20 mph #!&5 km$h% sustaine+ 7in+s, still at 1ategor2 intensit2. Katrina maintaine+ strength
7ell into 9ississippi, finall2 losing hurricane strength more than !50 miles #2*0 km% inlan+ near
9eri+ian, 9ississippi. ;t 7as +o7ngra+e+ to a tropical +epression near 1larks:ille, Tennessee,
but its remnants 7ere last +istinguishable in the eastern 5reat 4akes region on August !, 7hen
it 7as absorbe+ b2 a frontal boun+ar2. The resulting e<tratropical storm mo:e+ rapi+l2 to the
northeast an+ affecte+ eastern 1ana+a.
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8n August 2&, KatrinaFs storm surge cause+ 5 +ifferent
le:ee breaches in greater 6e7 8rleans, submerging eight2 percent of the cit2. A Bune 200" report
b2 the American Societ2 of 1i:il >ngineers in+icate+ that t7oHthir+s of the floo+ing 7ere cause+
b2 the multiple failures of the cit2Fs floo+7alls.
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6ot mentione+ 7ere the floo+ gates that 7ere
not close+.
,citation needed-
The storm surge also +e:astate+ the coasts of 9ississippi an+ Alabama,
making Katrina the most +estructi:e an+ costliest natural +isaster in the histor2 of the /nite+
States, an+ the +ea+liest hurricane since the !&28 8keechobee Hurricane. The total +amage from
Katrina is estimate+ at .8!.2 billion #2005 /.S. +ollars%, nearl2 +ouble the cost of the pre:iousl2
most e<pensi:e storm, Hurricane An+re7, 7hen a+Euste+ for inflation.
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The confirme+ +eath toll #total of +irect an+ in+irect +eaths% is !,8), mainl2 from 4ouisiana
#!,5""% an+ 9ississippi #28%.
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Ho7e:er, !5 people remain categoriIe+ as missing in
4ouisiana,
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an+ man2 of the +eaths are in+irect, but it is almost impossible to +etermine the
e<act cause of some of the fatalities.
Fe+eral +isaster +eclarations co:ere+ &0,000 s=uare miles #2,000 km
2
% of the /nite+ States, an
area almost as large as the /nite+ King+om. The hurricane left an estimate+ three million people
7ithout electricit2. 8n September , 2005, Homelan+ Securit2 Secretar2 9ichael 1hertoff
+escribe+ the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as Gprobabl2 the 7orst catastrophe, or set of
catastrophes,G in the countr2Fs histor2, referring to the hurricane itself plus the floo+ing of 6e7
8rleans.
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>:en in 20!0, +ebris remaine+ in some coastal communities.
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South Florida and Cu#a
0amage to a mobile home in 0a:ie, Flori+a follo7ing Hurricane Katrina
9ain articleD >ffects of Hurricane Katrina in Flori+a
Hurricane Katrina first ma+e lan+fall on August 25, 2005 in South Flori+a 7here it hit as a
1ategor2 ! hurricane, 7ith 80 mph #!0 km$h% 7in+s. Aainfall 7as hea:2 in places an+ e<cee+e+
!* inches #50 mm% in Homestea+, Flori+a,
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an+ a storm surge of @ 5 feet #!.5 m% 7as
measure+ in parts of 9onroe 1ount2.
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9ore than ! million customers 7ere left 7ithout
electricit2, an+ +amage in Flori+a 7as estimate+ from .! @ .2 billion, 7ith most of the +amage
coming from floo+ing an+ o:erturne+ trees. There 7ere !* fatalities reporte+ in Flori+a as a
result of Hurricane Katrina.
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9ost of the Flori+a Ke2s e<perience+ tropicalHstorm force 7in+s from Katrina as the stormFs
center passe+ to the north, 7ith hurricane force 7in+s reporte+ in the 0r2 Tortugas. Aainfall 7as
also high in the islan+s, 7ith !0 inches #250 mm% falling on Ke2 Cest. 8n August 2), a strong
F! torna+o forme+ from an outer rain ban+ of Katrina an+ struck 9arathon. The torna+o
+amage+ a hangar at the airport there an+ cause+ an estimate+ .5 million in +amage.
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Although Hurricane Katrina sta2e+ 7ell to the north of 1uba, on August 2& it brought tropicalH
storm force 7in+s an+ rainfall of o:er 8 inches #200 mm% to 7estern regions of the islan+.
Telephone an+ po7er lines 7ere +amage+ an+ aroun+ 8,000 people 7ere e:acuate+ in the 'inar
+el AJo 'ro:ince. Accor+ing to 1uban tele:ision reports the coastal cit2 of Surgi+ero +e
3atabano 7as &0? un+er7ater.
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Louisiana
Floo+ing in Kenice, 4ouisiana
8n August 2&, Hurricane Katrina ma+e lan+fall near 3urasHTriumph, 4ouisiana 7ith !25 mph
#205 km$h% 7in+s, as a strong 1ategor2 storm. Ho7e:er, as it ha+ onl2 Eust 7eakene+ from
1ategor2 * strength an+ the ra+ius of ma<imum 7in+s 7as large, it is possible that sustaine+
7in+s of 1ategor2 * strength briefl2 impacte+ e<treme southeastern 4ouisiana. Although the
storm surge to the east of the path of the e2e in 9ississippi 7as higher, a :er2 significant surge
affecte+ the 4ouisiana coast. The height of the surge is uncertain because of a lack of +ata,
although a ti+e gauge in 'la=uemines 'arish in+icate+ a storm ti+e in e<cess of !* feet #*. m%
an+ a !2Hfoot # m% storm surge 7as recor+e+ in 5ran+ ;sle. Hurricane Katrina ma+e final
lan+fall near the mouth of the 'earl Ai:er, 7ith the e2e stra++ling St. Tamman2 'arish,
4ouisiana an+ Hancock 1ount2, 9ississippi, on the morning of August 2& at about &D*59 1ST.
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Hurricane Katrina also brought hea:2 rain to 4ouisiana, 7ith 8 @ !0 inches #200 @ 250 mm%
falling on a 7i+e s7ath of the eastern part of the state. ;n the area aroun+ Sli+ell, the rainfall 7as
e:en higher, an+ the highest rainfall recor+e+ in the state 7as appro<imatel2 !5 inches
#80 mm%. As a result of the rainfall an+ storm surge the le:el of 4ake 'ontchartrain rose an+
cause+ significant floo+ing along its northeastern shore, affecting communities from Sli+ell to
9an+e:ille. Se:eral bri+ges 7ere +estro2e+, inclu+ing the ;H!0 T7in Span 3ri+ge connecting
Sli+ell to 6e7 8rleans.
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Almost &00,000 people in 4ouisiana lost po7er as a result of Hurricane
Katrina.
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KatrinaLs storm surge inun+ate+ all parishes surroun+ing 4ake 'ontchartrain, inclu+ing St.
Tamman2, Tangipahoa, St. Bohn the 3aptist an+ St. 1harles 'arishes. St. Tamman2 'arish
recei:e+ a t7oHpart storm surge. The first surge came as 4ake 'ontchartrain rose an+ the storm
ble7 7ater from the 5ulf of 9e<ico into the lake. The secon+ came as the e2e of Katrina passe+,
7esterl2 7in+s pushe+ 7ater into a bottleneck at the Aigolets 'ass, forcing it farther inlan+. The
range of surge le:els in eastern St. Tamman2 'arish is estimate+ at ! to !) feet #*.& m%, not
inclu+ing 7a:e action.
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Har+Hhit St. 3ernar+ 'arish 7as floo+e+ +ue to breaching of the le:ees that containe+ a
na:igation channel calle+ the 9ississippi Ai:er 5ulf 8utlet #9AH58% an+ the breach of the
4e:ee 3oar+ +esigne+ an+ built *0 Arpent canal le:ee. The search for the missing 7as
un+ertaken b2 the St. 3ernar+ Fire 0epartment +ue to the assets of the /nite+ States 1oast
5uar+ being +i:erte+ to 6e7 8rleans. 9an2 of the missing in the months after the storm 7ere
tracke+ +o7n b2 searching floo+e+ homes, tracking cre+it car+ recor+s, an+ :isiting homes of
famil2 an+ relati:es.
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Hurricane Katrina making lan+fall in 6e7 8rleans, 4ouisiana.
Accor+ing to the /.S. 0ept. of Housing an+ /rban 0e:elopment, in St. 3ernar+ 'arish, 8!?
#20,22&% of the housing units 7ere +amage+. ;n St. Tamman2 'arish, "0? #*8,"&2% 7ere
+amage+ an+ in 'lac=uemines 'arish 80? #",2!2% 7ere +amage+.
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;n a++ition, the combine+ effect of Hurricanes Katrina an+ Aita 7as the +estruction of an
estimate+ 5)2 s=uare kilometres #2!" s= mi% of coastal 7etlan+s in 4ouisiana.
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$ew %rleans
9ain articlesD >ffects of Hurricane Katrina in 6e7 8rleans an+ 2005 le:ee failures in 5reater
6e7 8rleans
Floo+e+ ;H!0$;H)!0$Cest >n+ 3l:+ interchange an+ surroun+ing area of north7est 6e7 8rleans
an+ 9etairie, 4ouisiana
As the e2e of Hurricane Katrina s7ept to the northeast, it subEecte+ the cit2 to hurricane
con+itions for hours. Although po7er failures pre:ente+ accurate measurement of 7in+ spee+s in
6e7 8rleans, there 7ere a fe7 measurements of hurricaneHforce 7in+s. From this the 6H1
conclu+e+ that it is likel2 that much of the cit2 e<perience+ sustaine+ 7in+s of 1ategor2 ! or
1ategor2 2 strength.
KatrinaFs storm surge le+ to 5 le:ee breaches in the fe+erall2 built le:ee s2stem protecting
metro 6e7 8rleans an+ the failure of the *0 Arpent 1anal le:ee. 6earl2 e:er2 le:ee in metro
6e7 8rleans 7as breache+ as Hurricane Katrina passe+ Eust east of the cit2 limits. Failures
occurre+ in 6e7 8rleans an+ surroun+ing communities, especiall2 St. 3ernar+ 'arish. The
9ississippi Ai:er 5ulf 8utlet #9AH58% breache+ its le:ees in appro<imatel2 20 places, floo+ing
much of east 6e7 8rleans, most of Saint 3ernar+ 'arish an+ the >ast 3ank of 'la=uemines
'arish. The maEor le:ee breaches in the cit2 inclu+e+ breaches at the !"th Street 1anal le:ee, the
4on+on A:enue 1anal, an+ the 7i+e, na:igable ;n+ustrial 1anal, 7hich left appro<imatel2 80?
of the cit2 floo+e+.
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9ost of the maEor roa+s tra:eling into an+ out of the cit2 7ere +amage+. The onl2 routes out of
the cit2 7ere the 7estboun+ 1rescent 1it2 1onnection an+ the Hue2 '. 4ong 3ri+ge, as large
portions of the ;H!0 T7in Span 3ri+ge tra:eling eastboun+ to7ar+s Sli+ell, 4ouisiana ha+
collapse+. 3oth the 4ake 'ontchartrain 1ause7a2 an+ the 1rescent 1it2 1onnection onl2 carrie+
emergenc2 traffic.
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8n August 2&, at "D*0 am 10T, it 7as reporte+ that most of the 7in+o7s on the north si+e of the
H2att Aegenc2 6e7 8rleans ha+ been blo7n out, an+ man2 other high rise buil+ings ha+
e<tensi:e 7in+o7 +amage.
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The H2att 7as the most se:erel2 +amage+ hotel in the cit2, 7ith
be+s reporte+ to be fl2ing out of the 7in+o7s. ;nsulation tubes 7ere e<pose+ as the hotelFs glass
e<terior 7as completel2 sheare+ off.
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A /.S. 1oast 5uar+sman searches for sur:i:ors in 6e7 8rleans in the aftermath of Katrina
The Super+ome, 7hich 7as sheltering man2 people 7ho ha+ not e:acuate+, sustaine+ significant
+amage.
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T7o sections of the Super+omeFs roof 7ere compromise+ an+ the +omeFs 7aterproof
membrane ha+ essentiall2 been peele+ off. 4ouis Armstrong 6e7 8rleans ;nternational Airport
7as close+ before the storm but +i+ not floo+. 8n August 0, it 7as reopene+ to humanitarian
an+ rescue operations. 4imite+ commercial passenger ser:ice resume+ at the airport on
September ! an+ regular carrier operations resume+ in earl2 8ctober.
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4e:ee breaches in 6e7 8rleans also cause+ a significant amount of +eaths, 7ith o:er "00 bo+ies
reco:ere+ in 6e7 8rleans b2 8ctober 2, 2005.
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Some sur:i:ors an+ e:acuees reporte+ seeing
+ea+ bo+ies l2ing in cit2 streets an+ floating in stillHfloo+e+ sections, especiall2 in the east of the
cit2. The a+:ance+ state of +ecomposition of man2 corpses, some of 7hich 7ere left in the 7ater
or sun for +a2s before being collecte+, hin+ere+ efforts b2 coroners to i+entif2 man2 of the +ea+.
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The first +eaths reporte+ from the cit2 7ere reporte+ shortl2 before mi+night on August 28, as
three nursing home patients +ie+ +uring an e:acuation to 3aton Aouge, most likel2 from
+eh2+ration. Chile there 7ere also earl2 reports of fatalities ami+ ma2hem at the Super+ome,
onl2 si< +eaths 7ere confirme+ there, 7ith four of these originating from natural causes, one
from a +rug o:er+ose, an+ one a suici+e. At the 1on:ention 1enter, four bo+ies 7ere reco:ere+.
8ne of the four is belie:e+ to be the result of a homici+e.
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There is e:i+ence that man2 prisoners 7ere aban+one+ in their cells +uring the storm, 7hile the
guar+s sought shelter. Hun+re+s of prisoners 7ere later registere+ as Gunaccounte+ forG.
,5&-,)0-,)!-,)2-
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"ississippi
9ain articleD >ffects of Hurricane Katrina in 9ississippi
/.S. Aoute &0Fs 3a2 St. 4ouis 3ri+ge on 'ass 1hristian 7as +estro2e+ as a result of Katrina.
The 5ulf coast of 9ississippi suffere+ massi:e +amage from the impact of Hurricane Katrina on
August 2&, lea:ing 28 people +ea+, )" missing, an+ billions of +ollars in +amageD bri+ges,
barges, boats, piers, houses an+ cars 7ere 7ashe+ inlan+.
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Katrina tra:ele+ up the entire state,
an+ after7ar+s, all 82 counties in 9ississippi 7ere +eclare+ +isaster areas for fe+eral assistance,
*" for full assistance.
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After making a brief initial lan+fall in 4ouisiana, Katrina ha+ ma+e its final lan+fall near the
state line, an+ the e2e7all passe+ o:er the cities of 3a2 St. 4ouis an+ Ca:elan+ as a 1ategor2
hurricane 7ith sustaine+ 7in+s of !20 mph #!&5 km$h%.
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KatrinaFs po7erful rightHfront =ua+rant
passe+ o:er the 7est an+ central 9ississippi coast, causing a po7erful 2"Hfoot #8.2 m% storm
surge, 7hich penetrate+ ) miles #!0 km% inlan+ in man2 areas an+ up to !2 miles #20 km% inlan+
along ba2s an+ ri:ers( in some areas, the surge crosse+ ;nterstate !0 for se:eral miles.
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Hurricane Katrina brought strong 7in+s to 9ississippi, 7hich cause+ significant tree +amage
throughout the state. The highest unofficial reporte+ 7in+ gust recor+e+ from Katrina 7as one of
!5 mph #2!" km$h% in 'oplar:ille, in 'earl Ai:er 1ount2.
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0amage to 4ong 3each, 9ississippi follo7ing Hurricane Katrina
The storm also brought hea:2 rains 7ith 8 @ !0 inches #200 @ 250 mm% falling in south7estern
9ississippi an+ rain in e<cess of * inches #!00 mm% falling throughout the maEorit2 of the state.
Katrina cause+ ele:en torna+oes in 9ississippi on August 2&, some of 7hich +amage+ trees an+
po7er lines.
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3attere+ b2 7in+, rain an+ storm surge, some beachfront neighborhoo+s 7ere completel2
le:ele+. 'reliminar2 estimates b2 9ississippi officials calculate+ that &0? of the structures
7ithin half a mile of the coastline 7ere completel2 +estro2e+,
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an+ that storm surges tra:ele+ as
much as si< miles #!0 km% inlan+ in portions of the stateFs coast.
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8ne apartment comple< 7ith
appro<imatel2 thirt2 resi+ents seeking shelter insi+e collapse+. 9ore than half of the ! casinos
in the state, 7hich 7ere floate+ on barges to compl2 7ith 9ississippi lan+Hbase+ gambling la7s,
7ere 7ashe+ hun+re+s of 2ar+s inlan+ b2 7a:es.
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Storm surge +amage along High7a2 &0 on the 9ississippi 5ulf 1oast #earl2 September 2005%.
A number of streets an+ bri+ges 7ere 7ashe+ a7a2. 8n /.S. High7a2 &0 along the 9ississippi
5ulf 1oast, t7o maEor bri+ges 7ere completel2 +estro2e+D the 3a2 St. 4ouis M 'ass 1hristian
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bri+ge, an+ the 3ilo<i H 8cean Springs bri+ge. ;n a++ition, the eastboun+ span of the ;H!0 bri+ge
o:er the 'ascagoula Ai:er estuar2 7as +amage+. ;n the 7eeks after the storm, 7ith the
connecti:it2 of the coastal /.S. High7a2 &0 shattere+, traffic tra:eling parallel to the coast 7as
re+uce+ first to State Aoa+ !! #parallel to ;H!0% then to t7o lanes on the remaining ;H!0 span
7hen it 7as opene+.
Surge +amage in 'ascagoula, 9ississippi
All three coastal counties of the state 7ere se:erel2 affecte+ b2 the storm. KatrinaFs surge 7as the
most e<tensi:e, as 7ell as the highest, in the +ocumente+ histor2 of the /nite+ States( large
portions of both Hancock, Harrison, an+ Backson 1ounties 7ere inun+ate+ b2 the storm surge, in
all three cases affecting most of the populate+ areas.
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Surge co:ere+ almost the entire lo7er
half of Hancock 1ount2, +estro2ing the coastal communities of 1lermont Harbor an+ Ca:elan+,
much of 3a2 St. 4ouis, an+ flo7e+ up the Bour+an Ai:er, floo+ing 0iamon+hea+ an+ Kiln. ;n
Harrison 1ount2, 'ass 1hristian 7as completel2 inun+ate+, along 7ith a narro7 strip of lan+ to
the east along the coast, 7hich inclu+es the cities of 4ong 3each an+ 5ulfport( the floo+ing 7as
more e<tensi:e in communities such as 0F;ber:ille, 7hich bor+ers 3ack 3a2. 3ilo<i, on a
peninsula bet7een the 3ack 3a2 an+ the coast, 7as particularl2 har+ hit, especiall2 the lo7Hl2ing
'oint 1a+et area. ;n Backson 1ount2, storm surge flo7e+ up the 7i+e ri:er estuar2, 7ith the
combine+ surge an+ fresh7ater floo+ing cutting the count2 in half. Aemarkabl2, o:er &0? of
'ascagoula, the easternmost coastal cit2 in 9ississippi, an+ about "5 miles #!2! km% east of
KatrinaFs lan+fall near the 4ouisianaH9ississippi bor+er, 7as floo+e+ from surge at the height of
the storm. 8ther large Backson 1ount2 neighborhoo+s such as 'orteau< 3a2 an+ 5ulf Hills 7ere
se:erel2 +amage+ 7ith large portions being completel2 +estro2e+, an+ St. 9artin 7as har+ hit(
8cean Springs, 9oss 'oint, 5autier, an+ >scata7pa also suffere+ maEor surge +amage.
9ississippi >mergenc2 9anagement Agenc2 officials also recor+e+ +eaths in Forrest, Hin+s,
Carren, an+ 4eake counties. 8:er &00,000 people throughout the state e<perience+ po7er
outages.
,*5-
Southeast &nited States
Floo+ 7aters come up the steps of 9obileFs fe+eral courthouse.
Although Hurricane Katrina ma+e lan+fall 7ell to the 7est, Alabama an+ the Flori+a 'anhan+le
7ere both affecte+ b2 tropicalHstorm force 7in+s an+ a storm surge :ar2ing from !2 to !) feet
#@5 m% aroun+ 9obile 3a2,
,-
7ith higher 7a:es on top. Sustaine+ 7in+s of )" mph #!0" km$h%
7ere recor+e+ in 9obile, Alabama, an+ the storm surge there 7as appro<imatel2 !2 feet #." m%.
,-
The surge cause+ significant floo+ing se:eral miles inlan+ along 9obile 3a2. Four torna+oes
7ere also reporte+ in Alabama.
,-
Ships, oil rigs, boats an+ fishing piers 7ere 7ashe+ ashore
along 9obile 3a2D the cargo ship 9$K Caribbean Clipper an+ man2 fishing boats 7ere
groun+e+ at 3a2ou 4a 3atre.
An oil rig un+er construction along the 9obile Ai:er broke its moorings an+ floate+ !.5 miles
#2 km% north7ar+s before striking the 1ochrane 3ri+ge Eust outsi+e 9obile. 6o significant
+amage resulte+ to the bri+ge an+ it 7as soon reopene+. The +amage on 0auphin ;slan+ 7as
se:ere, 7ith the surge +estro2ing man2 houses an+ cutting a ne7 canal through the 7estern
portion of the islan+. An offshore oil rig also became groun+e+ on the islan+. As in 9ississippi,
the storm surge cause+ significant beach erosion along the Alabama coastline.
,-
9ore than
)00,000 people lost po7er in Alabama as a result of Hurricane Katrina an+ t7o people +ie+ in a
traffic acci+ent in the state. Aesi+ents in some areas, such as Selma, 7ere 7ithout po7er for
se:eral +a2s.
,*5-
3a2ou 4a 3atreD cargo ship an+ fishing boats 7ere groun+e+
Along the Flori+a 'anhan+le the storm surge 7as t2picall2 about fi:e feet #!.5 m% an+ along the
7estHcentral Flori+a coast there 7as a minor surge of ! @ 2 feet #0. @ 0.) m%. ;n 'ensacola,
Flori+a 5) mph #&0 km$h% 7in+s 7ere recor+e+ on August 2&. The 7in+s cause+ +amage to some
trees an+ structures an+ there 7as some minor floo+ing in the 'anhan+le. There 7ere t7o
in+irect fatalities from Katrina in Calton 1ount2 as a result of a traffic acci+ent.
,-
;n the Flori+a
'anhan+le, "",000 customers lost po7er.
,)"-
6orthern an+ central 5eorgia 7ere affecte+ b2 hea:2 rains an+ strong 7in+s from Hurricane
Katrina as the storm mo:e+ inlan+, 7ith more than inches #"5 mm% of rain falling in se:eral
areas. At least !8 torna+oes forme+ in 5eorgia on August 2&, the most on recor+ in that state for
one +a2 in August. The most serious of these torna+oes 7as an F2 torna+o 7hich affecte+ Hear+
1ount2 an+ 1arroll 1ount2. This torna+o cause+ inEuries an+ one fatalit2 an+ +amage+ se:eral
houses. ;n a++ition this torna+o +estro2e+ se:eral poultr2 barns, killing o:er !*0,000 chicks. The
other torna+oes cause+ significant +amages to buil+ings an+ agricultural facilities. ;n a++ition to
the fatalit2 cause+ b2 the F2 torna+o, there 7as another fatalit2 in a traffic acci+ent.
,)8-
%ther &'S' States and Canada
Total rainfall from Katrina in the /nite+ States. 0ata for the 6e7 8rleans area is not a:ailable.
Hurricane Katrina 7eakene+ as it mo:e+ inlan+, but tropicalHstorm force gusts 7ere recor+e+ as
far north as Fort 1ampbell, Kentuck2 on August 0, an+ the 7in+s +amage+ trees in 6e7 Nork.
The remnants of the storm brought high le:els of rainfall to a 7i+e s7ath of the eastern /nite+
States, an+ rain in e<cess of 2 inches #50 mm% fell in parts of 20 states.
,)&-
A number of torna+oes
associate+ 7ith Katrina forme+ on August 0 an+ August !, 7hich cause+ minor +amages in
se:eral regions. ;n total, )2 torna+oes forme+ in eight states as a result of Katrina.
,&-
>astern Arkansas recei:e+ light rain from the passage of Katrina.
,"0-
5ust2 7in+s +o7ne+ some
trees an+ po7er lines, though +amage 7as minimal.
,"!-
;n Kentuck2, a storm that ha+ mo:e+
through the 7eeken+ before ha+ alrea+2 pro+uce+ floo+ing an+ the rainfall from Katrina a++e+
to this. As a result of the floo+ing, Kentuck2 5o:ernor >rnie Fletcher +eclare+ three counties
+isaster areas an+ a state7i+e state of emergenc2.
,"2-,"-
8ne person 7as kille+ in Hopkins:ille,
Kentuck2 an+ part of a high school collapse+.
,"*-
Floo+ing also prompte+ a number of
e:acuations in Cest Kirginia an+ 8hio, the rainfall in 8hio lea+ing to t7o in+irect +eaths.
Katrina also cause+ a number of po7er outages in man2 areas, 7ith o:er !00,000 customers
affecte+ in Tennessee, primaril2 in the 9emphis an+ 6ash:ille areas.
,"5-
The remnants of Katrina 7ere absorbe+ b2 a ne7 c2clone to its east across 'enns2l:ania. This
secon+ c2clone continue+ north an+ affecte+ 1ana+a on August !. ;n 8ntario there 7ere a fe7
isolate+ reports of rain in e<cess of !00 mm #* inches% an+ there 7ere a fe7 reports of +amage
from fallen trees.
,")-
Floo+ing also occurre+ in both 8ntario an+ Ouebec, cutting off a number of
isolate+ :illages in Ouebec, particularl2 in the 1PteH6or+ region.
,""-
Aftermath
See alsoD Social effects of Hurricane Katrina, 'olitical effects of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane
Katrina +isaster relief, an+ ;0's in the /nite+ States
(conomic effects
9ain articleD >conomic effects of Hurricane Katrina
The economic effects of the storm 7ere farHreaching. The 3ush A+ministration sought
.!05 billion for repairs an+ reconstruction in the region,
,"8-
7hich +i+ not account for +amage to
the econom2 cause+ b2 potential interruption of the oil suppl2, +estruction of the 5ulf 1oastFs
high7a2 infrastructure, an+ e<ports of commo+ities such as grain. Katrina +amage+ or +estro2e+
0 oil platforms an+ cause+ the closure of nine refineries(
,&-
the total shutHin oil pro+uction from
the 5ulf of 9e<ico in the si<Hmonth perio+ follo7ing Katrina 7as appro<imatel2 2*? of the
annual pro+uction an+ the shutHin gas pro+uction for the same perio+ 7as about !8?.
,"&-
The
forestr2 in+ustr2 in 9ississippi 7as also affecte+, as !. million acres #5,00 km
2
% of forest lan+s
7ere +estro2e+.
,80-
The total loss to the forestr2 in+ustr2 from Katrina is calculate+ to rise to
about .5 billion.
,80-
Furthermore, hun+re+s of thousan+s of local resi+ents 7ere left unemplo2e+,
7hich 7ill ha:e a trickleH+o7n effect as fe7er ta<es are pai+ to local go:ernments. 3efore the
hurricane, the region supporte+ appro<imatel2 one million nonHfarm Eobs, 7ith )00,000 of them
in 6e7 8rleans. ;t is estimate+ that the total economic impact in 4ouisiana an+ 9ississippi ma2
e<cee+ .!50 billion.
,8!-
Katrina re+istribute+ o:er one million people from the central 5ulf coast else7here across the
/nite+ States, 7hich became the largest +iaspora in the histor2 of the /nite+ States.
,82-
Houston,
Te<as, ha+ an increase of 5,000 people( 9obile, Alabama, gaine+ o:er 2*,000( 3aton Aouge,
4ouisiana, o:er !5,000( an+ Hammon+, 4ouisiana recei:e+ o:er !0,000, nearl2 +oubling its siIe.
1ostliest /.S. Atlantic hurricanes
1ost refers to total estimate+ propert2 +amage
)an* Hurricane Season Damages
+ Katrina 2005 .!08 billion
San+2 20!2 .50 billion
, ;ke 2008 .2&.5 billion
- An+re7 !&&2 .2).5 billion
5 Cilma 2005 .20.) billion
. ;:an 200* .!8.8 billion
/ ;rene 20!! .!5.) billion
0 1harle2 200* .!5.! billion
1 Aita 2005 .!2 billion
+! Frances 200* .&.5! billion
Source2 $%AA
34
1hicago recei:e+ o:er ),000 people, the most of an2 nonHsouthern cit2.
,8-
32 late Banuar2 200),
about 200,000 people 7ere once again li:ing in 6e7 8rleans, less than half of the preHstorm
population.
,8*-
32 Bul2 !, 200), 7hen ne7 population estimates 7ere calculate+ b2 the /.S.
1ensus 3ureau, the state of 4ouisiana sho7e+ a population +ecline of 2!&,5), or *.8"?.
,85-

A++itionall2, some insurance companies ha:e stoppe+ insuring homeo7ners in the area because
of the high costs from Hurricanes Katrina an+ Aita, or ha:e raise+ homeo7nersF insurance
premiums to co:er their risk.
,8)-
(n5ironmental effects
See alsoD 9urph2 8il /SA refiner2 spill
The 1han+eleur ;slan+s, before Katrina #left% an+ after #right%, sho7ing the impact of the storm
along coastal areas.
Katrina also ha+ a profoun+ impact on the en:ironment. The storm surge cause+ substantial
beach erosion, in some cases completel2 +e:astating coastal areas. ;n 0auphin ;slan+,
appro<imatel2 &0 miles #!50 km% to the east of the point 7here the hurricane ma+e lan+fall, the
san+ that comprise+ the barrier islan+ 7as transporte+ across the islan+ into the 9ississippi
Soun+, pushing the islan+ to7ar+s lan+.
,8"-
The storm surge an+ 7a:es from Katrina also
obliterate+ the 1han+eleur ;slan+s, 7hich ha+ been affecte+ b2 Hurricane ;:an the pre:ious 2ear.
,88-
The /S 5eological Sur:e2 has estimate+ 2!" s=uare miles #5)0 km
2
% of lan+ 7as transforme+
to 7ater b2 the hurricanes Katrina an+ Aita.
,8&-
The lan+s that 7ere lost 7ere bree+ing groun+s for marine mammals, bro7n pelicans, turtles,
an+ fish, as 7ell as migrator2 species such as re+hea+ +ucks.
,80-
8:erall, about 20? of the local
marshes 7ere permanentl2 o:errun b2 7ater as a result of the storm.
,80-
The +amage from Katrina force+ the closure of !) 6ational Cil+life Aefuges. 3reton 6ational
Cil+life Aefuge lost half its area in the storm.
,&0-
As a result, the hurricane affecte+ the habitats of
sea turtles, 9ississippi san+hill cranes, Ae+Hcocka+e+ 7oo+peckers an+ Alabama 3each mice.
,&0-
Large oil spills caused #y Hurricane Katrina
Spills e6ceeding +!7!!! &S gallons (,07!!! L)
31+4
Spill Location
8uantity
(&S gal) (L)
3ass >nterprises #1o< 3a2% ,"80,000 !*,00,000
Shell #'ilot To7n% !,050,000 *,000,000
1he:ron #>mpire% &&!,000 ,"50,000
9urph2 8il #9erau< an+ 1halmette% 8!&,000 ,!00,000
3ass >nterprises #'ointe Q la Hache% *)!,000 !,"50,000
1he:ron #'ort Fourchon% 5,000 200,000
Kenice >nerg2 Ser:ices #Kenice% 25,000 &5,000
Shell 'ipeline 8il #6airn% !,**0 50,&00
Sun+o7n >nerg2 #Cest 'otash% !,000 *&,000
The storm cause+ oil spills from ** facilities throughout southeastern 4ouisiana, 7hich resulte+
in o:er " million /.S. gallons #2) million 4% of oil being leake+. Some spills 7ere as small as a
fe7 hun+re+ gallons( the largest are tabulate+ to the right. Chile most of the spills 7ere
containe+ onHsite, some oil entere+ the ecos2stem, an+ the to7n of 9erau< 7as floo+e+ 7ith a
blen+ of 7ater an+ oil.
,&!-
/nlike Hurricane ;:an no offshore oil spills 7ere officiall2 reporte+
after Hurricane Katrina. Ho7e:er, Sk2truth reporte+ some signs of surface oil in the 5ulf of
9e<ico.
,&!-
Finall2, as part of the cleanup effort, the floo+ 7aters that co:ere+ 6e7 8rleans 7ere pumpe+
into 4ake 'ontchartrain, a process that took * +a2s to complete.
,&-
These resi+ual 7aters
containe+ a mi< of ra7 se7age, bacteria, hea:2 metals, pestici+es, to<ic chemicals, an+ oil,
7hich sparke+ fears in the scientific communit2 of massi:e numbers of fish +2ing.
,80-
'rior to the storm, subsi+ence an+ erosion cause+ erosion in the 4ouisiana 7etlan+s an+ ba2ous.
This, along 7ith the canals built in the area, allo7e+ for Katrina to maintain more of its intensit2
7hen it struck.
,&2-
Looting and 5iolence
Further informationD >ffects of Hurricane Katrina on 6e7 8rleans
A 3or+er 'atrol Special Aesponse Team searches a hotel roomHb2Hroom in 6e7 8rleans in
response to Hurricane Katrina.
Shortl2 after the hurricane mo:e+ a7a2 on August 0, 2005, some resi+ents of 6e7 8rleans 7ho
remaine+ in the cit2 began looting stores. 9an2 7ere in search of foo+ an+ 7ater that 7ere not
a:ailable to them through an2 other means, as 7ell as nonHessential items.
,&-
Aeports of carEacking, mur+ers, thefts, an+ rapes in 6e7 8rleans floo+e+ the ne7s. Some
sources later +etermine+ that man2 of the reports 7ere inaccurate, because of the confusion.
,&*-

Thousan+s of 6ational 5uar+ an+ fe+eral troops 7ere mobiliIe+ #the total 7ent from ",8*! in the
area the +a2 Katrina hit to a ma<imum of *),88 on September !0% an+ sent to 4ouisiana along
7ith numbers of local la7 enforcement agents from across the countr2 7ho 7ere temporaril2
+eputiIe+ b2 the state. GThe2 ha:e 9!)s an+ are locke+ an+ loa+e+. These troops kno7 ho7 to
shoot an+ kill an+ ; e<pect the2 7ill,G 4ouisiana 5o:ernor Kathleen 3lanco sai+. 1ongressman
3ill Befferson #0H4A% tol+ A31 6e7sD GThere 7as shooting going on. There 7as sniping going
on. 8:er the first 7eek of September, la7 an+ or+er 7ere gra+uall2 restore+ to the cit2.G
,&5-

Se:eral shootings occurre+ bet7een police an+ 6e7 8rleans resi+ents, some in:ol:ing police
miscon+uct( inclu+ing a fatal inci+ent at 0anIiger 3ri+ge.
,&)-
A number of arrests 7ere ma+e throughout the affecte+ area, inclu+ing some near the 6e7
8rleans 1on:ention 1enter. A temporar2 Eail 7as constructe+ of chain link cages in the cit2 train
station.
,&"-
;n Te<as, 7here more than 00,000 refugees 7ere locate+, local officials ran 20,000 criminal
backgroun+ checks on the refugees, as 7ell as on the relief 7orkers helping them an+ people
7ho opene+ up their homes. The backgroun+ checks foun+ that *5? of the refugees ha+ a
criminal recor+ of some nature, an+ that 22? ha+ a :iolent criminal recor+.
,&8-
The number of
homici+es in Houston from September 2005 through Februar2 22, 200) 7ent up b2 2? relati:e
to the same perio+ a 2ear before( 2& of the !"0 mur+ers in:ol:e+ +isplace+ 4ouisianans as
:ictims or suspects.
,&&-
9o5ernment response
1hart sho7ing some common uses of the F>9A marking s2stem in 6e7 8rleans after Hurricane
Katrina
'resi+ent 3ush stan+s 7ith Secretar2 of 0efense 0onal+ Aumsfel+, Secretar2 of 4abor >laine
1hao an+ Secretar2 of Health an+ Human Ser:ices 9ike 4ea:itt +uring a press conference from
the Aose 5ar+en, regar+ing the +e:astation along the 5ulf 1oast cause+ b2 Katrina.
'resi+ent 3ush e<amines the floo+e+ areas from Air Force 8ne.
Cithin the /nite+ States an+ as +elineate+ in the 6ational Aesponse 'lan, +isaster response an+
planning is first an+ foremost a local go:ernment responsibilit2. Chen local go:ernment
e<hausts its resources, it then re=uests specific a++itional resources from the count2 le:el. The
re=uest process procee+s similarl2 from the count2 to the state to the fe+eral go:ernment as
a++itional resource nee+s are i+entifie+. 9an2 of the problems that arose +e:elope+ from
ina+e=uate planning an+ backHup communications s2stems at :arious le:els.
,!00-
Some +isaster reco:er2 response to Katrina began before the storm, 7ith Fe+eral >mergenc2
9anagement Agenc2 #F>9A% preparations that range+ from logistical suppl2 +eplo2ments to a
mortuar2 team 7ith refrigerate+ trucks. A net7ork of :olunteers began ren+ering assistance to
local resi+ents an+ resi+ents emerging from 6e7 8rleans an+ surroun+ing parishes as soon as
the storm ma+e lan+fall #e:en though man2 7ere +irecte+ to not enter the area%, an+ continue+
for more than si< months after the storm.
,!00-
8f the )0,000 people stran+e+ in 6e7 8rleans, the 1oast 5uar+ rescue+ more than ,500.
,!0!-

1ongress recogniIe+ the 1oast 5uar+Fs response 7ith an official entr2 in the 1ongressional
Aecor+,
,!02-
an+ the Arme+ Ser:ice 7as a7ar+e+ the 'resi+ential /nit 1itation.
,!0-
The /nite+ States 6orthern 1omman+ establishe+ Boint Task Force #BTF% Katrina base+ out of
1amp Shelb2, 9ississippi, to act as the militar2Fs onHscene response on Sun+a2, August 28, 7ith
/S Arm2 4ieutenant 5eneral Aussel 4. HonorR as comman+er.
,!0*-
Appro<imatel2 58,000
6ational 5uar+ personnel 7ere acti:ate+ to +eal 7ith the stormFs aftermath, 7ith troops coming
from all 50 states.
,!05-
The 0epartment of 0efense also acti:ate+ :olunteer members of the 1i:il
Air 'atrol.
9ichael 1hertoff, Secretar2 of the 0epartment of Homelan+ Securit2, +eci+e+ to take o:er the
fe+eral, state, an+ local operations officiall2 on August 0, 2005, citing the 6ational Aesponse
'lan.
,!0)-
This 7as refuse+ b2 5o:ernor 3lanco 7ho in+icate+ that her 6ational 5uar+ coul+
manage. >arl2 in September, 1ongress authoriIe+ a total of .)2. billion in ai+ for :ictims.
,!0"-

A++itionall2, 'resi+ent 3ush enliste+ the help of former presi+ents 3ill 1linton an+ 5eorge H.C.
3ush to raise a++itional :oluntar2 contributions, much as the2 +i+ after the 200* ;n+ian 8cean
earth=uake an+ tsunami.
,!08-
American flags 7ere also or+ere+ to be halfHstaff from September 2,
2005 to September 20, 2005 in honor of the :ictims.
,!0&-
F>9A pro:i+e+ housing assistance #rental assistance, trailers, etc.% to more than "00,000
applicantsMfamilies an+ in+i:i+uals. Ho7e:er, onl2 oneHfifth of the trailers re=ueste+ in 8rleans
'arish 7ere supplie+, resulting in an enormous housing shortage in the cit2 of 6e7 8rleans.
,!!0-

9an2 local areas :ote+ to not allo7 the trailers, an+ man2 areas ha+ no utilities, a re=uirement
prior to placing the trailers. To pro:i+e for a++itional housing, F>9A has also pai+ for the hotel
costs of !2,000 in+i:i+uals an+ families +isplace+ b2 Katrina through Februar2 ", 200), 7hen a
final +ea+line 7as set for the en+ of hotel cost co:erage. After this +ea+line, e:acuees 7ere still
eligible to recei:e fe+eral assistance, 7hich coul+ be use+ to7ar+s either apartment rent,
a++itional hotel sta2s, or fi<ing their ruine+ homes, although F>9A no longer pai+ for hotels
+irectl2.
,!!!-
As of 9arch 0, 20!0, there 7ere still 2)0 families li:ing in F>9AHpro:i+e+ trailers
in 4ouisiana an+ 9ississippi.
,!!2-
4a7 enforcement an+ public safet2 agencies, from across the /nite+ States, pro:i+e+ a Gmutual
ai+G response to 4ouisiana an+ 6e7 8rleans in the 7eeks follo7ing the +isaster. 9an2 agencies
respon+e+ 7ith manpo7er an+ e=uipment from as far a7a2 as 1alifornia, 9ichigan, 6e:a+a,
6e7 Nork, an+ Te<as. This response 7as 7elcome+ b2 local 4ouisiana authorities as their staff
7ere either becoming fatigue+, stretche+ too thin, or e:en =uitting from the Eob.
,!!-
T7o 7eeks after the storm, more than half of the states 7ere in:ol:e+ in pro:i+ing shelter for
e:acuees. 32 four 7eeks after the storm, e:acuees ha+ been registere+ in all 50 states an+ in
!8,"00 Iip co+esMhalf of the nationFs resi+ential postal Iones. 9ost e:acuees ha+ sta2e+ 7ithin
250 miles #*00 km%, but 2*0,000 househol+s 7ent to Houston an+ other cities o:er 250 miles
#*00 km% a7a2 an+ another )0,000 househol+s 7ent o:er "50 miles #!,200 km% a7a2.
,!!*-
Criticism of go5ernment response
9ain articleD 1riticism of go:ernment response to Hurricane Katrina
/S6S Comfort takes on supplies at 9a2port, Flori+a en route to the 5ulf 1oast.
The criticisms of the go:ernmentFs response to Hurricane Katrina primaril2 consiste+ of criticism
of mismanagement an+ lack of lea+ership in the relief efforts in response to the storm an+ its
aftermath. 9ore specificall2, the criticism focuse+ on the +ela2e+ response to the floo+ing of
6e7 8rleans, an+ the subse=uent state of chaos in the 1rescent 1it2.
,58-
The neologism
Katrinagate 7as coine+ to refer to this contro:ers2, an+ 7as a runnerHup for G2005 7or+ of the
2ear.G
,!!5-
Cithin +a2s of KatrinaFs August 2&, 2005 lan+fall, public +ebate arose about the local, state an+
fe+eral go:ernmentsF role in the preparations for an+ response to the hurricane. 1riticism 7as
initiall2 prompte+ b2 tele:ise+ images of :isibl2 shaken an+ frustrate+ political lea+ers, an+ of
resi+ents 7ho remaine+ stran+e+ b2 floo+ 7aters 7ithout 7ater, foo+ or shelter. 0eaths from
thirst, e<haustion, an+ :iolence, +a2s after the storm ha+ passe+, fuele+ the criticism, as +i+ the
+ilemma of the e:acuees at facilities such as the 4ouisiana Super+ome #+esigne+ to han+le 800,
2et 0,000 arri:e+% an+ the 6e7 8rleans 1i:ic 1enter #not +esigne+ as an e:acuation center, 2et
25,000 arri:e+%. Some allege+ that race, class, an+ other factors coul+ ha:e contribute+ to +ela2s
in go:ernment response.
;n accor+ance 7ith fe+eral la7, 'resi+ent 5eorge C. 3ush +irecte+ the Secretar2 of the
0epartment of Homelan+ Securit2, 9ichael 1hertoff, to coor+inate the Fe+eral response.
1hertoff +esignate+ 9ichael 0. 3ro7n, hea+ of the Fe+eral >mergenc2 9anagement Agenc2, as
the 'rincipal Fe+eral 8fficial to lea+ the +eplo2ment an+ coor+ination of all fe+eral response
resources an+ forces in the 5ulf 1oast region. Ho7e:er, the 'resi+ent an+ Secretar2 1hertoff
initiall2 came un+er harsh criticism for 7hat some percei:e+ as a lack of planning an+
coor+ination. 3ro7n claime+ that 5o:ernor 3lanco resiste+ their efforts an+ 7as unhelpful.
5o:ernor 3lanco an+ her staff +ispute+ this.
,!!)-
>ight +a2s later, 3ro7n 7as recalle+ to
Cashington an+ 1oast 5uar+ Kice A+miral Tha+ C. Allen replace+ him as chief of hurricane
relief operations.
,!!"-
Three +a2s after the recall, 9ichael 0. 3ro7n resigne+ as +irector of F>9A
in spite of ha:ing recei:e+ recent praise from 'resi+ent 3ush.
,!!8-
0uring A Concert for Hurricane Relief, a benefit concert for :ictims of the hurricane, rapper
Kan2e Cest :eere+ off script an+ harshl2 criticiIe+ the go:ernmentFs response to the crisis,
stating that G5eorge 3ush +oesnFt care about black people.G Although the camera =uickl2 cut
a7a2, an+ the scene 7as +elete+ from +ela2e+ broa+casts, CestFs comments still reache+ the >ast
1oast broa+casts, an+ 7ere repla2e+ an+ +iscusse+ after7ar+s.
,!!&-
3ush later calle+ CestFs
remarks Fthe 7orst moment in his presi+enc2F, feeling he 7as unEustl2 accuse+ of racism.
,!20-
1riticism from politicians, acti:ists, pun+its an+ Eournalists of all stripes 7as +irecte+ at the local
an+ state go:ernments hea+e+ b2 9a2or Aa2 6agin of 6e7 8rleans an+ 4ouisiana 5o:ernor
Kathleen 3lanco. 6agin an+ 3lanco 7ere criticiIe+ for failing to implement 6e7 8rleansF
e:acuation plan an+ for or+ering resi+ents to a shelter of last resort 7ithout an2 pro:isions for
foo+, 7ater, securit2, or sanitar2 con+itions. 'erhaps the most important criticism of 6agin 7as
that he +ela2e+ his emergenc2 e:acuation or+er until !& hours before lan+fall, 7hich le+ to
hun+re+s of +eaths of people 7ho #b2 that time% coul+ not fin+ an2 7a2 out of the cit2.
,8-
The +estruction 7rought b2 Hurricane Katrina raise+ other, more general public polic2 issues
about emergenc2 management, en:ironmental polic2, po:ert2, an+ unemplo2ment. The
+iscussion of both the imme+iate response an+ of the broa+er public polic2 issues ma2 ha:e
affecte+ elections an+ legislation enacte+ at :arious le:els of go:ernment. The stormFs
+e:astation also prompte+ a 1ongressional in:estigation, 7hich foun+ that F>9A an+ the Ae+
1ross G+i+ not ha:e a logistics capacit2 sophisticate+ enough to full2 support the massi:e
number of 5ulf coast :ictims.G A++itionall2, it place+ responsibilit2 for the +isaster on all three
le:els of go:ernment.
,8-
An A31 6e7s poll con+ucte+ on September 2, 2005, sho7e+ more blame 7as being +irecte+ at
state an+ local go:ernments #"5?% than at the Fe+eral go:ernment #)"?%, 7ith **? blaming
3ushFs lea+ership +irectl2.
,!2!-
A later 166$/SATo+a2$5allup poll sho7e+ that respon+ents
+isagree+ 7i+el2 on 7ho 7as to blame for the problems in the cit2 follo7ing the hurricane M
!? sai+ 3ush, !8? sai+ fe+eral agencies, 25? blame+ state or local officials an+ 8? sai+ no
one 7as to blame.
,!22-
Fi:e former police officers ha:e plea+e+ guilt2 to charges connecte+ to the 0anIiger 3ri+ge
shootings in the aftermath of the hurricane. Si< other former or current officers appeare+ in court
in Bune 20!!. T7o unarme+ ci:ilians 7ere kille+ an+ four others seriousl2 7oun+e+ 7hen police
opene+ fire on people attempting to cross the bri+ge.
,!2-
:nternational response
9ain articleD ;nternational response to Hurricane Katrina
/nite+ States 6a:2 personnel unloa+ 1ana+ian relief supplies from a 1ana+ian Air Force
transport aircraft in 'ensacola, Flori+a.
8:er se:ent2 countries ple+ge+ monetar2 +onations or other assistance. 6otabl2, 1uba an+
KeneIuela #both consi+ere+ as hostile to /S go:ernment interest% 7ere the first countries to offer
assistance, ple+ging o:er .! million, se:eral mobile hospitals, 7ater treatment plants, canne+
foo+, bottle+ 7ater, heating oil, !,!00 +octors an+ 2).* metric tons of me+icine, though this ai+
7as reEecte+ b2 the /.S. go:ernment.
,!2*-,!25-,!2)-,!2"-
Ku7ait ma+e the largest single ple+ge,
.500 million( other large +onations 7ere ma+e b2 Oatar an+ /nite+ Arab >mirates #each
.!00 million%, South Korea #.0 million%, Australia #.!0 million%, ;n+ia, 1hina #both
.5 million%, 6e7 Sealan+ #.2 million%,
,!28-
'akistan #.!.5 million%,
,!2&-
an+ 3angla+esh
#.! million%.
,!0-
;n+ia sent tarps, blankets an+ h2giene kits. An ;n+ian Air Force ;4H") aircraft +eli:ere+ 25
tonnes of relief supplies for the Hurricane Katrina :ictims at the 4ittle Aock Air Force 3ase,
Arkansas on September !, 2005.
;srael sent an ;0F +elegation to 6e7 8rleans to transport ai+ e=uipment inclu+ing 80 tons of
foo+, +isposable +iapers, be+s, blankets, generators an+ a++itional e=uipment 7hich 7ere
+onate+ from +ifferent go:ernmental institutions, ci:ilian institutions an+ the ;0F.
,!!-
The 3ush
A+ministration announce+ in mi+HSeptember that it +i+ not nee+ ;sraeli +i:ers an+ ph2sicians to
come to the /nite+ States for search an+ rescue missions, but a small team lan+e+ in 6e7
8rleans on September !0 to gi:e assistance to operations alrea+2 un+er 7a2. The team
a+ministere+ first ai+ to sur:i:ors, rescue+ aban+one+ pets an+ +isco:ere+ hurricane :ictims.
,!2-
1ountries like Sri 4anka, 7hich 7as still reco:ering from the ;n+ian 8cean Tsunami, also offere+
to help. 1ountries inclu+ing 1ana+a, 9e<ico, Singapore, an+ 5erman2 sent supplies, relief
personnel #like Technisches Hilfs7erk%, troops, ships an+ 7ater pumps to ai+ in the +isaster
reco:er2. 3elgium sent in a team of relief personnel. 3ritainFs +onation of 50,000 emergenc2
meals +i+ not reach :ictims because of la7s regar+ing ma+ co7 +isease.
,!-
AussiaFs initial offer
of t7o Eets 7as +ecline+ b2 the /.S. State 0epartment but accepte+ later. The French offer 7as
also +ecline+ an+ re=ueste+ later.
,!*-
;n a++ition to recei:ing ai+ from aroun+ the 7orl+, there 7as criticism to go along 7ith it,
inclu+ing accusations of racism. Ouote+ from the /K 9irror, G9an2 things about the /nite+
States are 7on+erful, but it has a :ile un+erbell2 7hich is usuall2 kept 7ell out of sight. 6o7 in
6e7 8rleans it has been e<pose+ to the 7orl+.G
,!5-
$on;go5ernmental organi<ation response
Aesi+ents of 4ouisiana, 7ho ha+ to flee their homes because of Hurricane Katrina, are insi+e the
Houston Astro+ome an+ being helpe+ b2 the Ae+ 1ross an+ other agencies an+ associations.
The American Ae+ 1ross, AmericaFs Secon+ Har:est #no7 kno7n as Fee+ing America%,
Southern 3aptist 1on:ention, Sal:ation Arm2, 8<fam, 1ommon 5roun+ 1ollecti:e, 3urners
Cithout 3or+ers,
,!)-
>mergenc2 1ommunities, Habitat for Humanit2, 1atholic 1harities, Ser:ice
;nternational, GA Ai:er of HopeG, The 1hurch of Besus 1hrist of 4atterH+a2 Saints,
,!"-,!8-,!&-
an+
man2 other charitable organiIations pro:i+e+ help to the :ictims of the storm. The2 7ere not
allo7e+ into 6e7 8rleans proper b2 the 6ational 5uar+ for se:eral +a2s after the storm because
of safet2 concerns. These organiIations raise+ /S.*.25 billion in +onations b2 the public, 7ith
the Ae+ 1ross recei:ing o:er half of the +onations.
,!*0-
Some smaller organiIations an+
in+i:i+uals ignore+ the access restrictions an+ pro:i+e+ earl2 relief. For e<ample, t7o pri:atel2
chartere+ planes from Faster1ures e:acuate+ 200 patents from 1harit2 Hospital in 6e7 8rleans.
,!*!-
Kolunteers from amateur ra+ioFs emergenc2 ser:ice 7ing, the Amateur Aa+io >mergenc2
Ser:ice, pro:i+e+ communications in areas 7here the communications infrastructure ha+ been
+amage+ or totall2 +estro2e+, rela2ing e:er2thing from &!! traffic to messages home.
,!*2-
;n
Hancock 1ount2, 9ississippi, ham ra+io operators pro:i+e+ the onl2 communications into or out
of the area, an+ e:en ser:e+ as &!! +ispatchers.
,!*-
9an2 corporations also contribute+ to relief efforts. 8n September !, 2005, it 7as reporte+ that
corporate +onations to the relief effort 7ere .*0& million, an+ 7ere e<pecte+ to e<cee+
.! billion.
,!**-
0uring an+ after the Hurricanes Katrina, Cilma an+ Aita, the American Ae+ 1ross ha+ opene+
!,*"0 +ifferent shelters across an+ registere+ .8 million o:ernight sta2s. 6one 7ere allo7e+ in
6e7 8rleans ho7e:er. A total of 2**,000 Ae+ 1ross 7orkers #&5? of 7hich 7ere nonHpai+
:olunteers% 7ere utiliIe+ throughout these three hurricanes. ;n a++ition, *),&80 comfort kits
#such as toothpaste, soap, 7ashcloths an+ to2s for chil+ren% an+ 205,)0 cleanup kits #containing
brooms, mops an+ bleach% 7ere +istribute+. For mass care, the organiIation ser:e+ )8 million
snacks an+ meals to :ictims of the +isasters an+ to rescue 7orkers. The Ae+ 1ross also ha+ its
0isaster Health ser:ices meet 5&),8!0 contacts, an+ 0isaster 9ental Health ser:ices met
82),5&0 contacts. Ae+ 1ross emergenc2 financial assistance 7as pro:i+e+ to !.* million
families. Hurricane Katrina 7as the first natural +isaster in the /nite+ States in 7hich the
American Ae+ 1ross utiliIe+ its GSafe an+ CellG famil2 location 7ebsite.
,!*5-,!*)-
;n the 2ear follo7ing KatrinaFs strike on the 5ulf 1oast, The Sal:ation Arm2 allocate+ +onations
of more than .)5 million to ser:e more than !." million people in nearl2 e:er2 state. The
organiIationFs imme+iate response to Hurricane Katrina inclu+e+ more than 5." million hot
meals ser:e+ in an+ aroun+ 6e7 8rleans, 8. million san+7iches, snacks T +rinks. ;ts SAT>A6
net7ork of amateur ra+io operators picke+ up 7here mo+ern communications left off to help
locate more than 25,000 sur:i:ors. Sal:ation Arm2 pastoral care counselors 7ere on han+ to
comfort the emotional an+ spiritual nee+s of 2"",000 in+i:i+uals. As part of the o:erall effort,
Sal:ation Arm2 officers, emplo2ees an+ :olunteers contribute+ more than &00,000 hours of
ser:ice.
,!*"-
Analysis of $ew %rleans le5ee failures
9ain articleD 2005 le:ee failures in 5reater 6e7 8rleans
Kie7 of the e2e7all of Hurricane Katrina taken on August 28, 2005, as seen from a 68AA C'H
0 hurricane hunter aircraft before the storm ma+e lan+fall on the /nite+ States 5ulf 1oast.
A Bune 200" report release+ b2 the American Societ2 of 1i:il >ngineers states that the failures of
the locall2 built an+ fe+erall2 fun+e+ le:ees in 6e7 8rleans 7ere foun+ to be primaril2 the result
of s2stem +esign fla7s.
,8-
The /S Arm2 1orps of >ngineers 7ho b2 fe+eral man+ate is
responsible for the conception, +esign an+ construction of the regionFs floo+Hcontrol s2stem
faile+ to pa2 sufficient attention to public safet2.
Accor+ing to mo+eling an+ fiel+ obser:ations b2 a team from 4ouisiana State /ni:ersit2, the
9ississippi Ai:er 5ulf 8utlet #9A58%, a 200HmeterH7i+e #))0HfootH7i+e% canal +esigne+ to
pro:i+e a shortcut from 6e7 8rleans to the 5ulf of 9e<ico, helpe+ pro:i+e a funnel for the
storm surge, making it 20? higher an+ !00?H200? faster as it crashe+ into the cit2. St. 3ernar+
'arish, one of the more +e:astate+ areas, lies Eust south of the 9A58. The 1orps of >ngineers
+isputes this causalit2 an+ maintains Katrina 7oul+ ha:e o:er7helme+ the le:ees 7ith or
7ithout the contributing effect of the 9A58.
,!*8-
The 7ater flo7ing 7est from the storm surge
7as perpen+icular to 9A58, an+ thus the canal ha+ a negligible effect.
There 7as unfoun+e+ speculation ma+e b2 resi+ents concerning a possible planne+ le:ee breach.
9an2 references are ma+e to the !&2" floo+ in 7hich a le:ee 7as breache+ south of 6e7
8rleans in or+er to +i:ert floo+7ater to the 5ulf of 9e<ico.
,!*&-
Aecentl2,
,when?-
the /.S. Fish an+
Cil+life Ser:ice an+ the 6ature 1onser:anc2 ha:e +e:elope+ a floo+plain reconnection proEect
in 7hich the 8uachita Ai:er 7oul+ be connecte+ to its floo+plain an+ the 5ulf of 9e<ico.
,!50-
A
breach in the le:ee
,vague-
cause+ the 7ater le:el +o7nstream to +rop si< inches #!52 mm% in a
pre:ious e:ent in the earl2 !&&0s. 3oth cases sho7 the man2 benefits of allo7ing the ri:er to run
its course.
,improper snthesis?-
8n April 5, 200), months after in+epen+ent in:estigators ha+ +emonstrate+ that le:ee failures
7ere not cause+ b2 natural forces be2on+ inten+e+ +esign strength, 4ieutenant 5eneral 1arl
Strock, 1hief of >ngineers an+ 1omman+er of the 1orps of >ngineers, testifie+ before the
/nite+ States Senate Subcommittee on >nerg2 an+ Cater that GCe ha:e no7 conclu+e+ 7e ha+
problems 7ith the +esign of the structure.G
,!5!-
He also testifie+ that the /.S. Arm2 1orps of
>ngineers +i+ not kno7 of this mechanism of failure prior to August 2&, 2005. The claim of
ignorance is refute+, ho7e:er, b2 the 6ational Science Foun+ation in:estigators hire+ b2 the
1orps of >ngineers, 7ho point to a !&8) stu+2 b2 the 1orps itself that such separations 7ere
possible in the ;H7all +esign.
,!52-
9an2 of the le:ees ha:e been reconstructe+ since the time of Katrina. ;n reconstructing them,
precautions 7ere taken to bring the le:ees up to mo+ern buil+ing co+e stan+ar+s an+ to ensure
their safet2. For e<ample, in e:er2 situation possible, the 1orps of >ngineers replace+ ;H7alls
7ith TH7alls. TH7alls ha:e a horiIontal concrete base that protects against soil erosion
un+erneath the floo+7alls.
,!5-
Ho7e:er, there are fun+ing battles o:er the remaining le:ee impro:ements. ;n Februar2 2008,
the 3ush a+ministration re=ueste+ that the state of 4ouisiana pa2 about .!.5 billion of an
estimate+ .".2 billion for 1orps of >ngineers le:ee 7ork #in accor+ance 7ith the principles of
local cost sharing re=uire+ b2 1ongress as earl2 as the Floo+ 1ontrol Act of !&28%, a proposal
7hich angere+ man2 4ouisiana lea+ers.
,!5*-
8n 9a2 2, 2008, 4ouisiana 5o:. 3obb2 Bin+al use+ a speech to The 6ational 'ress 1lub to
re=uest that 'resi+ent 3ush free up mone2 to complete 7ork on 4ouisianaFs le:ees. 3ush
promise+ to inclu+e the le:ee fun+ing in his 200& bu+get, but reEecte+ the i+ea of inclu+ing the
fun+ing in a 7ar bill, 7hich 7oul+ pass sooner.
,!55-
"edia in5ol5ement
9ain articleD 9e+ia co:erage of Hurricane Katrina
9an2 representati:es of the ne7s me+ia reporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became
+irectl2 in:ol:e+ in the unfol+ing e:ents, instea+ of simpl2 reporting. 3ecause of the loss of
most means of communication, such as lan+Hbase+ an+ cellular telephone s2stems, fiel+ reporters
in man2 cases became con+uits for information bet7een :ictims an+ authorities.
The authorities, 7ho monitore+ local an+ net7ork ne7s broa+casts, as 7ell as internet sites,
7oul+ then attempt to coor+inate rescue efforts base+ on the reports. 8ne illustration 7as 7hen
5eral+o Ai:era of Fo< 6e7s tearfull2 plea+e+ for authorities to either sen+ help or e:acuate the
thousan+s of e:acuees stran+e+ at the >rnest 6. 9orial 1on:ention 1enter.
,!5)-
The storm also brought a +ramatic rise in the role of ;nternet sitesMespeciall2 blogging an+
communit2 Eournalism. 8ne e<ample 7as the effort of !"#A.com, the 7eb affiliate of 6e7
8rleansF $imes-%icaune. A group of reporters from the paper inclu+ing 0oug 9ac1ash, 9anuel
Torres, Tr2maine 4ee, an+ 9ark Schleifstein 7ere a7ar+e+ the 3reaking 6e7s 'ulitIer 'riIe,
,!5"-
an+ the TimesH'ica2une share+ the 'ublic Ser:ice 'ulitIer 7ith the 3ilo<iHbase+ &un Herald.
,!58-

The ne7spaperFs co:erage 7as carrie+ for +a2s onl2 on 684AFs blogs, as the ne7spaper lost its
presses an+ e:acuate+ its buil+ing as 7ater rose aroun+ it on August 0. The site became an
international focal point for ne7s b2 local me+ia, an+ also became a :ital link for rescue
operations an+ later for reuniting scattere+ resi+ents, as it accepte+ an+ poste+ thousan+s of
in+i:i+ual pleas for rescue on its blogs an+ forums. 684A 7as monitore+ constantl2 b2 an arra2
of rescue teamsMfrom in+i:i+uals to the 1oast 5uar+M7hich use+ information in rescue
efforts. 9uch of this information 7as rela2e+ from trappe+ :ictims :ia the S9S functions of
their cell phones, to frien+s an+ relati:es outsi+e the area, 7ho then rela2e+ the information back
to 684A.com. The aggregation of communit2 Eournalism, user photos an+ the use of the internet
site as a collaborati:e response to the storm attracte+ international attention, an+ 7as calle+ a
7atershe+ moment in Eournalism.
,!5&-
;n the 7ake of these onlineHonl2 efforts, the 'ulitIer
1ommittee for the first time opene+ all its categories to online entries.
,!)0-
The role of A9 ra+io 7as of importance to the hun+re+s of thousan+s of persons 7ith no other
ties to ne7s. A9 ra+io pro:i+e+ emergenc2 information regar+ing access to assistance for
hurricane :ictims. ;mme+iatel2 after Hurricane Katrina, ra+io station CC4HA9 #6e7 8rleans%
7as one of the fe7 area ra+io stations in the area remaining on the air. The 8"0 kHI fre=uenc2
has a clear channel high po7er +esignation an+ the onHgoing nighttime broa+casts continue+ to
be a:ailable up to 500 miles #800 km% a7a2. Announcers continue+ to broa+cast from
impro:ise+ stu+io facilities after the storm +amage+ their main stu+ios.
,!)!-
0uring the perio+ of se:eral 7eeks 7hen most area ra+io stations 7ere off the air, CC4HA9Fs
emergenc2 co:erage 7as simulcast on the fre=uencies of other area ra+io stations. This
emergenc2 ser:ice 7as name+ GThe /nite+ Aa+io 3roa+casters of 6e7 8rleans.G To reach
emergenc2 ra+io operators in stormHra:age+ areas, man2 of 7hom ma+e their :olunteer ser:ices
a:ailable to the Ae+ 1ross an+ go:ernment entities, CC4HA9 7as simulcast on short7a:e
outlet CHA;, o7ne+ b2 Corl+ Har:est Aa+io ;nternational. The cellular phone antenna net7ork
7as se:erel2 +amage+ an+ completel2 inoperable for se:eral months.
As the /.S. militar2 an+ rescue ser:ices regaine+ control o:er the cit2, there 7ere restrictions on
the acti:it2 of the me+ia. 8n September &, the militar2 lea+er of the relief effort announce+ that
reporters 7oul+ ha:e GIero accessG to efforts to reco:er bo+ies in 6e7 8rleans. ;mme+iatel2
follo7ing this announcement, 166 file+ a la7suit an+ obtaine+ a temporar2 restraining or+er
against the ban. The ne<t +a2 the go:ernment backe+ +o7n an+ re:erse+ the ban.
,!)2-
)etirement
See alsoD 4ist of retire+ Atlantic hurricane names
3ecause of the large +eath toll an+ +estruction of propert2 along the 5ulf 1oast, the name
Katrina 7as officiall2 retire+ on April ), 200) b2 the Corl+ 9eteorological 8rganiIation at the
re=uest of the /.S. go:ernment. The name 7ill ne:er again be use+ for another 6orth Atlantic
hurricane. ;t 7as replace+ b2 Katia on 4ist ;;; of the Atlantic hurricane naming lists, 7hich 7as
use+ in the 20!! Atlantic hurricane season.
,!)-
)econstruction
9ain articleD Aeconstruction of 6e7 8rleans
Kolunteers from Ameri1orps in 6e7 8rleans, Banuar2 200)
Aeconstruction of each section of the southern portion of 4ouisiana has been a++resse+ in the
Arm2 1orps 4A1'A #4ouisiana 1oastal 'rotection an+ Aestoration% Final Technical Aeport,
7hich i+entifies areas to not be rebuilt an+ areas 7here buil+ings nee+ to be ele:ate+.
,!)*-
The Technical Aeport inclu+esD
• locations of possible ne7 le:ees to be built
• suggeste+ e<isting le:ee mo+ifications
• G;nun+ation SonesG, GCater +epths less than !* feet, AaiseH;nH'lace of StructuresG,
GCater +epths greater than !* feet, 3u2out of StructuresG, GKelocit2 SonesG an+ G3u2out
of StructuresG areas for fi:e +ifferent scenarios.
The /.S. Arm2 1orps of >ngineers submitte+ the report to the /.S. 1ongress for consi+eration,
planning, an+ response in mi+H200&.