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You are on page 1of 157

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S

FACHHOCHSCHULE REGENSBURG

UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES

HOCHSCHULE FÜR

TECHNIK

WIRTSCHAFT

SOZIALES

LECTURE NOTES

Prof. Dr. Georg Rill

© October 2006

download: http://homepages.fh-regensburg.de/%7Erig39165/

Contents

Contents I

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.1 Vehicle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.2 Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.3 Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.4 Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.1.5 Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2.1 Reference frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2.2 Toe-in, Toe-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2.3 Wheel Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2.4 Design Position of Wheel Rotation Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2.5 Steering Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2.5.1 Kingpin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2.5.2 Caster and Kingpin Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.2.5.3 Caster, Steering Offset and Disturbing Force Lever . . . . . . 8

2 Road 10

2.1 Modeling Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2 Deterministic Proﬁles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2.1 Bumps and Potholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2.2 Sine Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3 Random Proﬁles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3.1 Statistical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3.2 Classiﬁcation of Random Road Proﬁles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.3 Realizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.3.3.1 Sinusoidal Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.3.3.2 Shaping Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.3.3.3 Two-Dimensional Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3 Tire 19

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.1.1 Tire Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.1.2 Tire Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

I

Contents

3.1.3 Tire Forces and Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1.4 Measuring Tire Forces and Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.1.5 Modeling Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.2 Contact Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2.1 Basic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2.2 Tire Deﬂection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.2.3 Length of Contact Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.2.4 Static Contact Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.2.5 Contact Point Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2.6 Dynamic Rolling Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.3 Forces and Torques caused by Pressure Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.3.1 Wheel Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.3.2 Tipping Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.3.3 Rolling Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.4.1 Longitudinal Force and Longitudinal Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.4.2 Lateral Slip, Lateral Force and Self Aligning Torque . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.4.3 Wheel Load Inﬂuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.4.4 Different Friction Coefﬁcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.4.5 Typical Tire Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.4.6 Combined Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.4.7 Camber Inﬂuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3.4.8 Bore Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.4.8.1 Modeling Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.4.8.2 Maximum Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.4.8.3 Bore Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.4.8.4 Model Realisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3.5 First Order Tire Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4 Suspension System 50

4.1 Purpose and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.2 Some Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.2.1 Multi Purpose Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.2.2 Speciﬁc Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.3 Steering Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.3.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.3.2 Rack and Pinion Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.3.3 Lever Arm Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.3.4 Drag Link Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.3.5 Bus Steer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.4 Standard Force Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.4.1 Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.4.2 Anti-Roll Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

4.4.3 Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

II

Contents

4.4.4 Rubber Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.5.1 Testing and Evaluating Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.5.2 Simple Spring Damper Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.5.3 General Dynamic Force Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.5.3.1 Hydro-Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5 Vertical Dynamics 70

5.1 Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

5.2 Basic Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

5.2.1 From complex to simple models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

5.2.2 Natural Frequency and Damping Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

5.2.3 Spring Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5.2.3.1 Minimum Spring Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5.2.3.2 Nonlinear Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

5.2.4 Inﬂuence of Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

5.2.5 Optimal Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

5.2.5.1 Avoiding Overshoots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

5.2.5.2 Disturbance Reaction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

5.3 Sky Hook Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

5.3.1 Modelling Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

5.3.2 Eigenfrequencies and Damping Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

5.3.3 Technical Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

5.4 Nonlinear Force Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.4.1 Quarter Car Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.4.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

6 Longitudinal Dynamics 92

6.1 Dynamic Wheel Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

6.1.1 Simple Vehicle Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

6.1.2 Inﬂuence of Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

6.1.3 Aerodynamic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

6.2 Maximum Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

6.2.1 Tilting Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

6.2.2 Friction Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

6.3 Driving and Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

6.3.1 Single Axle Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

6.3.2 Braking at Single Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

6.3.3 Braking Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

6.3.4 Optimal Distribution of Drive and Brake Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

6.3.5 Different Distributions of Brake Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6.3.6 Anti-Lock-Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6.4 Drive and Brake Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

6.4.1 Vehicle Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

III

Contents

6.4.2 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

6.4.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

6.4.4 Driving and Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

6.4.5 Brake Pitch Pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7 Lateral Dynamics 108

7.1 Kinematic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

7.1.1 Kinematic Tire Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

7.1.2 Ackermann Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

7.1.3 Space Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

7.1.4 Vehicle Model with Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

7.1.4.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

7.1.4.2 Vehicle Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.1.4.3 Entering a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

7.1.4.4 Trailer Motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

7.1.4.5 Course Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

7.2 Steady State Cornering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

7.2.1 Cornering Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

7.2.2 Overturning Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

7.2.3 Roll Support and Camber Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.2.4 Roll Center and Roll Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.2.5 Wheel Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.3 Simple Handling Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

7.3.1 Modeling Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

7.3.2 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

7.3.3 Tire Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7.3.4 Lateral Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7.3.5 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

7.3.6 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.3.6.1 Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.3.6.2 Low Speed Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

7.3.6.3 High Speed Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

7.3.6.4 Critical Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

7.3.7 Steady State Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

7.3.7.1 Steering Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

7.3.7.2 Side Slip Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

7.3.7.3 Slip Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

7.3.8 Inﬂuence of Wheel Load on Cornering Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles 136

8.1 Standard Driving Maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

8.1.1 Steady State Cornering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

8.1.2 Step Steer Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

8.1.3 Driving Straight Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

IV

Contents

8.1.3.1 Random Road Proﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

8.1.3.2 Steering Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.2 Coach with different Loading Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.2.1 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.2.2 Roll Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.2.3 Steady State Cornering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.2.4 Step Steer Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

8.3 Different Rear Axle Concepts for a Passenger Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

V

1 Introduction

1.1 Terminology

1.1.1 Vehicle Dynamics

Vehicle dynamics is a part of engineering primarily based on classical mechanics but it may

also involve physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, communications, psychology etc. Here,

the focus will be laid on ground vehicles supported by wheels and tires. Vehicle dynamics

encompasses the interaction of:

• driver

• vehicle

• load

• environment

Vehicle dynamics mainly deals with:

• the improvement of active safety and driving comfort

• the reduction of road destruction

In vehicle dynamics are employed:

• computer calculations

• test rig measurements

• ﬁeld tests

In the following the interactions between the single systems and the problems with computer

calculations and/or measurements shall be discussed.

1

1 Introduction

1.1.2 Driver

By various means the driver can interfere with the vehicle:

driver

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

steering wheel lateral dynamics

accelerator pedal

brake pedal

clutch

gear shift

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

longitudinal dynamics

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

−→vehicle

The vehicle provides the driver with these information:

vehicle

_

_

_

vibrations: longitudinal, lateral, vertical

sounds: motor, aerodynamics, tires

instruments: velocity, external temperature, ...

_

_

_

−→driver

The environment also inﬂuences the driver:

environment

_

_

_

climate

trafﬁc density

track

_

_

_

−→driver

The driver’s reaction is very complex. To achieve objective results, an ‘ideal’ driver is used in

computer simulations, and in driving experiments automated drivers (e.g. steering machines)

are employed.

Transferring results to normal drivers is often difﬁcult, if ﬁeld tests are made with test drivers.

Field tests with normal drivers have to be evaluated statistically. Of course, the driver’s security

must have absolute priority in all tests.

Driving simulators provide an excellent means of analyzing the behavior of drivers even in limit

situations without danger.

It has been tried to analyze the interaction between driver and vehicle with complex driver

models for some years.

1.1.3 Vehicle

The following vehicles are listed in the ISO 3833 directive:

• motorcycles

• passenger cars

• busses

• trucks

2

1.1 Terminology

• agricultural tractors

• passenger cars with trailer

• truck trailer / semitrailer

• road trains

For computer calculations these vehicles have to be depicted in mathematically describable

substitute systems. The generation of the equations of motion, the numeric solution, as well

as the acquisition of data require great expenses. In times of PCs and workstations computing

costs hardly matter anymore.

At an early stage of development, often only prototypes are available for ﬁeld and/or laboratory

tests. Results can be falsiﬁed by safety devices, e.g. jockey wheels on trucks.

1.1.4 Load

Trucks are conceived for taking up load. Thus, their driving behavior changes.

Load

_

mass, inertia, center of gravity

dynamic behaviour (liquid load)

_

−→vehicle

In computer calculations problems occur at the determination of the inertias and the modeling

of liquid loads.

Even the loading and unloading process of experimental vehicles takes some effort. When car-

rying out experiments with tank trucks, ﬂammable liquids have to be substituted with water.

Thus, the results achieved cannot be simply transferred to real loads.

1.1.5 Environment

The environment inﬂuences primarily the vehicle:

Environment

_

road: irregularities, coefﬁcient of friction

air: resistance, cross wind

_

−→vehicle

but also affects the driver:

environment

_

climate

visibility

_

−→driver

Through the interactions between vehicle and road, roads can quickly be destroyed.

The greatest difﬁculty with ﬁeld tests and laboratory experiments is the virtual impossibility of

reproducing environmental inﬂuences.

The main problems with computer simulation are the description of random road irregularities

and the interaction of tires and road as well as the calculation of aerodynamic forces and torques.

3

1 Introduction

1.2 Deﬁnitions

1.2.1 Reference frames

A reference frame ﬁxed to the vehicle and a ground-ﬁxed reference frame are used to describe

the overall motions of the vehicle, Figure 1.1. The ground-ﬁxed reference frame with the axis

x

0

y

0

z

0

x

F

y

F

z

F

y

C

z

C

x

C

e

yR

e

n

Figure 1.1: Frames used in vehicle dynamics

x

0

, y

0

, z

0

serves as an inertial reference frame. Within the vehicle-ﬁxed reference frame the

x

F

-axis points forward, the y

F

-axis to the left, and the z

F

-axis upward.

The wheel rotates around an axis which is ﬁxed to the wheel carrier. The reference frame C is

ﬁxed to the wheel carrier. In design position its axes x

C

, y

C

and z

C

are parallel to the corre-

sponding axis of vehicle-ﬁxed reference frame F.

The momentary position of the wheel is ﬁxed by the wheel center and the orientation of the

wheel rim center plane which is deﬁned by the unit vector e

yR

into the direction of the wheel

rotation axis.

Finally, the normal vector e

n

describes the inclination of the local track plane.

1.2.2 Toe-in, Toe-out

Wheel toe-in is an angle formed by the center line of the wheel and the longitudinal axis of the

vehicle, looking at the vehicle from above, Figure 1.2. When the extensions of the wheel center

lines tend to meet in front of the direction of travel of the vehicle, this is known as toe-in. If,

however the lines tend to meet behind the direction of travel of the vehicle, this is known as

toe-out. The amount of toe can be expressed in degrees as the angle δ to which the wheels are

out of parallel, or, as the difference between the track widths as measured at the leading and

trailing edges of the tires or wheels.

Toe settings affect three major areas of performance: tire wear, straight-line stability and corner

entry handling characteristics.

4

1.2 Deﬁnitions

toe-in toe-out

+δ

+δ

−δ

−δ

y

F

x

F

y

F

x

F

Figure 1.2: Toe-in and Toe-out

For minimum tire wear and power loss, the wheels on a given axle of a car should point directly

ahead when the car is running in a straight line. Excessive toe-in or toe-out causes the tires to

scrub, since they are always turned relative to the direction of travel.

Toe-in improves the directional stability of a car and reduces the tendency of the wheels to

shimmy.

1.2.3 Wheel Camber

Wheel camber is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical, as viewed from the front or the rear

of the car, Fig. 1.3. If the wheel leans away from the car, it has positive camber; if it leans in

+γ +γ

y

F

z

F

e

n

−γ −γ

y

F

z

F

e

n

positive camber negative camber

Figure 1.3: Positive camber angle

towards the chassis, it has negative camber. The wheel camber angle must not be mixed up with

the tire camber angle which is deﬁned as the angle between the wheel center plane and the local

track normal e

n

. Excessive camber angles cause a non symmetric tire wear.

A tire can generate the maximum lateral force during cornering if it is operated with a slightly

negative tire camber angle. As the chassis rolls in corner the suspension must be designed such

that the wheels performs camber changes as the suspension moves up and down. An ideal sus-

pension will generate an increasingly negative wheel camber as the suspension deﬂects upward.

1.2.4 Design Position of Wheel Rotation Axis

The unit vector e

yR

describes the wheel rotation axis. Its orientation with respect to the wheel

carrier ﬁxed reference frame can be deﬁned by the angles δ

0

and γ

0

or δ

0

and γ

∗

0

, Fig. 1.4. In

5

1 Introduction

γ

0

e

yR

z

C

= z

F

δ

0

x

C

= x

F

y

C

= y

F

γ

0

*

Figure 1.4: Design position of wheel rotation axis

design position the corresponding axes of the frames C and F are parallel. Then, for the left

wheel we get

e

yR,F

= e

yR,C

=

1

_

tan

2

δ

0

+ 1 + tan

2

γ

∗

0

_

_

tan δ

0

1

−tan γ

∗

0

_

_

(1.1)

or

e

yR,F

= e

yR,C

=

_

_

sin δ

0

cos γ

0

cos δ

0

cos γ

0

−sin γ

0

_

_

, (1.2)

where δ

0

is the angle between the y

F

-axis and the projection line of the wheel rotation axis into

the x

F

- y

F

-plane, the angle γ

∗

0

describes the angle between the y

F

-axis and the projection line of

the wheel rotation axis into the y

F

- z

F

-plane, whereas γ

0

0

is the angle between the wheel rotation

axis e

yR

and its projection into the x

F

- y

F

-plane. Kinematics and compliance test machines

usually measure the angle γ

∗

0

. That is why, the automotive industry mostly uses this angle instead

of γ

0

.

On a ﬂat and horizontal road where the track normal e

n

points into the direction of the vertical

axes z

C

= z

F

the angles δ

0

and γ

0

correspond with the toe angle δ and the camber angle γ

0

. To

specify the difference between γ

0

and γ

∗

0

the ratio between the third and second component of

the unit vector e

yR

is considered. The Equations 1.1 and 1.2 deliver

−tan γ

∗

0

1

=

−sin γ

0

cos δ

0

cos γ

0

or tan γ

∗

0

=

tan γ

0

cos δ

0

. (1.3)

Hence, for small angles δ

0

¸1 the difference between the angles γ

0

and γ

∗

0

is hardly noticeable.

6

1.2 Deﬁnitions

1.2.5 Steering Geometry

1.2.5.1 Kingpin

At steered front axles, the McPherson-damper strut axis, the double wishbone axis, and the

multi-link wheel suspension or the enhanced double wishbone axis are mostly used in passenger

cars, Figs. 1.5 and 1.6.

C

A

B

e

S

z

C

x

C

z

C

Figure 1.5: Double wishbone wheel suspension

z

C

y

C

C

x

C

e

S

T

A

rotation axis

z

C

y

C

x

C

e

S

C

Figure 1.6: McPherson and multi-link wheel suspensions

The wheel body rotates around the kingpin line at steering motions. At the double wishbone

axis the ball joints A and B, which determine the kingpin line, are both ﬁxed to the wheel

body. Whereas the ball joint A is still ﬁxed to the wheel body at the standard McPherson wheel

suspension, the top mount T is now ﬁxed to the vehicle body. At a multi-link axle the kingpin

line is no longer deﬁned by real joints. Here, as well as with an enhanced McPherson wheel

suspension, where the A-arm is resolved into two links, the momentary rotation axis serves as

7

1 Introduction

kingpin line. In general the momentary momentary rotation axis is neither ﬁxed to the wheel

body nor to the chassis and, it will change its position at wheel travel and steering motions.

1.2.5.2 Caster and Kingpin Angle

The unit vector e

S

describes the direction of the kingpin line. Within the vehicle ﬁxed reference

frame F it can be ﬁxed by two angles. The caster angle ν denotes the angle between the z

F

-axis

and the projection line of e

S

into the x

F

-, z

F

-plane. In a similar way the projection of e

S

into

the y

F

-, z

F

-plane results in the kingpin inclination angle σ, Fig. 1.7.

ν

σ

x

F

y

F

z

F

e

S

z

F

Figure 1.7: Kingpin and caster angle

At many axles the kingpin and caster angle can no longer be determined directly. Here, the

current rotation axis at steering motions, which can be taken from kinematic calculations will

yield a virtual kingpin line. The current values of the caster angle ν and the kingpin inclination

angle σ can be calculated from the components of the unit vector e

S

in the direction of the

kingpin line, described in the vehicle ﬁxed reference frame

tan ν =

−e

(1)

S,F

e

(3)

S,F

and tan σ =

−e

(2)

S,F

e

(3)

S,F

, (1.4)

where e

(1)

S,F

, e

(2)

S,F

, e

(3)

S,F

are the components of the unit vector e

S,F

expressed in the vehicle ﬁxed

reference frame F.

1.2.5.3 Caster, Steering Offset and Disturbing Force Lever

The contact point P, the local track normal e

n

and the unit vectors e

x

and e

y

which point into

the direction of the longitudinal and lateral tire force result from the contact geometry. The axle

kinematics deﬁnes the kingpin line. In general, the point S where an extension oft the kingpin

line meets the road surface does not coincide with the contact point P, Fig. 1.8. As both points

are located on the local track plane, for the left wheel the vector from S to P can be written as

r

SP

= −c e

x

+ s e

y

, (1.5)

8

1.2 Deﬁnitions

S

P

C

d

e

x

e

y

s

c

e

n

kingpin

line

e

S

local track

plane

e

yR

wheel

rotation

axis

Figure 1.8: Caster and Steering offset

where c names the caster and s is the steering offset. Caster and steering offset will be positive,

if S is located in front of and inwards of P.

The distance d between the wheel center C and the king pin line represents the disturbing force

lever. It is an important quantity in evaluating the overall steering behavior, [24].

9

2 Road

2.1 Modeling Aspects

Sophisticated road models provide the road height z

R

and the local friction coefﬁcient µ

L

at

each point x, y, Fig. 2.1.

z(x,y)

x

0

y

0

z

0

µ(x,y)

Center Line L(s)

Friction

Segments

Road profile

Obstacle

Figure 2.1: Sophisticated road model

The tire model is then responsible to calculate the local road inclination. By separating the

horizontal course description from the vertical layout and the surface properties of the roadway

almost arbitrary road layouts are possible, [4].

Besides single obstacles or track grooves the irregularities of a road are of stochastic nature. A

vehicle driving over a random road proﬁle mainly performs hub, pitch and roll motions. The

local inclination of the road proﬁle also induces longitudinal and lateral motions as well as yaw

motions. On normal roads the latter motions have less inﬂuence on ride comfort and ride safety.

To limit the effort of the stochastic description usually simpler road models are used.

If the vehicle drives along a given path its momentary position can be described by the path

variable s = s(t). Hence, a fully two-dimensional road model can be reduced to a parallel track

model, Fig. 2.2.

10

2.2 Deterministic Proﬁles

z

1

(s)

s

x

y

z

z

R

(x,y)

z

1

z

2

Figure 2.2: Parallel track road model

Now, the road heights on the left and right track are provided by two one-dimensional functions

z

1

= z

1

(s) and z

2

= z

2

(s). Within the parallel track model no information about the local

lateral road inclination is available. If this information is not provided by additional functions

the impact of a local lateral road inclination to vehicle motions is not taken into account.

For basic studies the irregularities at the left and the right track can considered to be approxi-

mately the same, z

1

(s) ≈ z

2

(s). Then, a single track road model with z

R

(s) = z

1

(x) = z

2

(x)

can be used. Now, the roll excitation of the vehicle is neglected too.

2.2 Deterministic Proﬁles

2.2.1 Bumps and Potholes

Bumps and Potholes on the road are single obstacles of nearly arbitrary shape. Already with

simple rectangular cleats the dynamic reaction of a vehicle or a single tire to a sudden impact

can be investigated. If the shape of the obstacle is approximated by a smooth function, like a

cosine wave, then, discontinuities will be avoided. Usually the obstacles are described in local

reference frames, Fig. 2.3.

L

H

B B

x

y

z

H

L

x

y

z

Figure 2.3: Rectangular cleat and cosine-shaped bump

Then, the rectangular cleat is simply deﬁned by

z(x, y) =

_

H if 0 < x < L and −

1

2

B < y <

1

2

B

0 else

(2.1)

11

2 Road

and the cosine-shaped bump is given by

z(x, y) =

_

_

_

1

2

H

_

1 −cos

_

2π

x

L

__

if 0 < x < L and −

1

2

B < y <

1

2

B

0 else

(2.2)

where H, B and L denote height, width and length of the obstacle. Potholes are obtained if

negative values for the height (H < 0) are used.

In a similar way track grooves can be modeled too, [48]. By appropriate coordinate transforma-

tions the obstacles can then be integrated into the global road description.

2.2.2 Sine Waves

Using the parallel track road model, a periodic excitation can be realized by

z

1

(s) = A sin (Ωs) , z

2

(s) = A sin (Ωs −Ψ) , (2.3)

where s is the path variable, A denotes the amplitude, Ω the wave number, and the angle Ψ

describes a phase lag between the left and the right track. The special cases Ψ = 0 and Ψ = π

represent the in-phase excitation with z

1

= z

2

and the out of phase excitation with z

1

= −z

2

.

If the vehicle runs with constant velocity ds/dt = v

0

, the momentary position of the vehicle is

given by s = v

0

t, where the initial position s = 0 at t = 0 was assumed. By introducing the

wavelength

L =

2π

Ω

(2.4)

the term Ωs can be written as

Ωs =

2π

L

s =

2π

L

v

0

t = 2π

v

0

L

t = ω t . (2.5)

Hence, in the time domain the excitation frequency is given by f = ω/(2π) = v

0

/L.

For most of the vehicles the rigid body vibrations are in between 0.5 Hz to 15 Hz. This range

is covered by waves which satisfy the conditions v

0

/L ≥ 0.5 Hz and v

0

/L ≤ 15 Hz.

For a given wavelength, lets say L = 4 m, the rigid body vibration of a vehicle are excited if

the velocity of the vehicle will be varied from v

min

0

= 0.5 Hz ∗ 4 m = 2 m/s = 7.2 km/h to

v

max

0

= 15 Hz ∗ 4 m = 60 m/s = 216 km/h. Hence, to achieve an excitation in the whole

frequency range with moderate vehicle velocities proﬁles with different varying wavelengths

are needed.

2.3 Random Proﬁles

2.3.1 Statistical Properties

Road proﬁles ﬁt the category of stationary Gaussian random processes, [6]. Hence, the irreg-

ularities of a road can be described either by the proﬁle itself z

R

= z

R

(s) or by its statistical

properties, Fig. 2.4.

12

2.3 Random Proﬁles

Histogram

Realization

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Gaussian

density

function

m

+σ

−σ

[m]

[m]

z

R

s

Figure 2.4: Road proﬁle and statistical properties

By choosing an appropriate reference frame, a vanishing mean value

m = E ¦z

R

(s)¦ = lim

X→∞

1

X

X/2

_

−X/2

z

R

(s) ds = 0 (2.6)

can be achieved, where E ¦¦ denotes the expectation operator. Then, the Gaussian density func-

tion which corresponds with the histogram is given by

p(z

R

) =

1

σ

√

2π

e

−

z

2

R

2σ

2

, (2.7)

where the deviation or the effective value σ is obtained from the variance of the process z

R

=

z

R

(s)

σ

2

= E

_

z

2

R

(s)

_

= lim

X→∞

1

X

X/2

_

−X/2

z

R

(s)

2

ds . (2.8)

Alteration of σ effects the shape of the density function. In particular, the points of inﬂexion

occur at ±σ. The probability of a value [z[ < ζ is given by

P(±ζ) =

1

σ

√

2π

+ζ

_

−ζ

e

−

z

2

2σ

2

dz . (2.9)

In particular, one gets the values: P(±σ) = 0.683, P(±2σ) = 0.955, and P(±3σ) = 0.997.

Hence, the probability of a value [z[ ≥ 3σ is 0.3%.

In extension to the variance of a random process the auto-correlation function is deﬁned by

R(ξ) = E ¦z

R

(s) z

R

(s+ξ)¦ = lim

X→∞

1

X

X/2

_

−X/2

z

R

(s) z

R

(s+ξ) ds . (2.10)

13

2 Road

The auto-correlation function is symmetric, R(ξ) = R(−ξ), and it plays an important part in

the stochastic analysis. In any normal random process, as ξ increases the link between z

R

(s)

and z

R

(s+ξ) diminishes. For large values of ξ the two values are practically unrelated. Hence,

R(ξ → ∞) will tend to 0. In fact, R(ξ) is always less R(0), which coincides with the variance

σ

2

of the process. If a periodic term is present in the process it will show up in R(ξ).

Usually, road proﬁles are characterized in the frequency domain. Here, the auto-correlation

function R(ξ) is replaced by the power spectral density (psd) S(Ω). In general, R(ξ) and S(Ω)

are related to each other by the Fourier transformation

S(Ω) =

1

2π

∞

_

−∞

R(ξ) e

−iΩξ

dξ and R(ξ) =

∞

_

−∞

S(Ω) e

iΩξ

dΩ , (2.11)

where i is the imaginary unit, and Ω in rad/m denotes the wave number. To avoid negative

wave numbers, usually a one-sided psd is deﬁned. With

Φ(Ω) = 2 S(Ω) , if Ω ≥ 0 and Φ(Ω) = 0 , if Ω < 0 , (2.12)

the relationship e

±iΩξ

= cos(Ωξ) ± i sin(Ωξ), and the symmetry property R(ξ) = R(−ξ)

Eq. (2.11) results in

Φ(Ω) =

2

π

∞

_

0

R(ξ) cos (Ωξ) dξ and R(ξ) =

∞

_

0

Φ(Ω) cos (Ωξ) dΩ . (2.13)

Now, the variance is obtained from

σ

2

= R(ξ =0) =

∞

_

0

Φ(Ω) dΩ . (2.14)

In reality the psd Φ(Ω) will be given in a ﬁnite interval Ω

1

≤ Ω ≤ Ω

N

, Fig. 2.5. Then, Eq. (2.14)

Ω

N

Ω

1

N ∆Ω

∆Ω

Ω

i

Φ(Ω

i

)

Φ

Ω

Figure 2.5: Power spectral density in a ﬁnite interval

can be approximated by a sum, which for N equal intervals will result in

σ

2

≈

N

i=1

Φ(Ω

i

) ´Ω with ´Ω =

Ω

N

−Ω

1

N

. (2.15)

14

2.3 Random Proﬁles

2.3.2 Classiﬁcation of Random Road Proﬁles

Road elevation proﬁles can be measured point by point or by high-speed proﬁlometers. The

power spectral densities of roads show a characteristic drop in magnitude with the wave number,

Fig. 2.6a. This simply reﬂects the fact that the irregularities of the road may amount to several

meters over the length of hundreds of meters, whereas those measured over the length of one

meter are normally only some centimeter in amplitude.

Random road proﬁles can be approximated by a psd in the form of

Φ(Ω) = Φ(Ω

0

)

_

Ω

Ω

0

_

−w

, (2.16)

where, Ω = 2π/L in rad/m denotes the wave number and Φ

0

= Φ(Ω

0

) in m

2

/(rad/m)

describes the value of the psd at a the reference wave number Ω

0

= 1 rad/m. The drop in

magnitude is modeled by the waviness w.

10

-2

10

-1

10

2

10

1

10

0

Wave number Ω [rad/m]

10

-2

10

-1

10

2

10

1

10

0

10

-4

10

-3

10

-5

10

-6

10

-7

10

-8

10

-9 P

o

w

e

r

s

p

e

c

t

r

a

l

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

Φ

[

m

2

/

(

r

a

d

/

m

)

]

Wave number Ω [rad/m]

a) Measurements (country road) b) Range of road classes (ISO 8608)

Class A

Class E

Φ

0

=256∗10

−6

Φ

0

=1∗10

−6

Figure 2.6: Road power spectral densities: a) Measurements [3], b) Classiﬁcation

According to the international directive ISO 8608, [13] typical road proﬁles can be grouped

into classes from A to E. By setting the waviness to w = 2 each class is simply deﬁned by

its reference value Φ

0

. Class A with Φ

0

= 1 ∗ 10

−6

m

2

/(rad/m) characterizes very smooth

highways, whereas Class E with Φ

0

= 256 ∗ 10

−6

m

2

/(rad/m) represents rather rough roads,

Fig. 2.6b.

15

2 Road

2.3.3 Realizations

2.3.3.1 Sinusoidal Approximation

A random proﬁle of a single track can be approximated by a superposition of N → ∞ sine

waves

z

R

(s) =

N

i=1

A

i

sin (Ω

i

s −Ψ

i

) , (2.17)

where each sine wave is determined by its amplitude A

i

and its wave number Ω

i

. By different

sets of uniformly distributed phase angles Ψ

i

, i = 1(1)N in the range between 0 and 2π different

proﬁles can be generated which are similar in the general appearance but different in details.

The variance of the sinusoidal representation is then given by

σ

2

= lim

X→∞

1

X

X/2

_

−X/2

_

N

i=1

A

i

sin (Ω

i

s −Ψ

i

)

__

N

j=1

A

j

sin (Ω

j

s −Ψ

j

)

_

ds . (2.18)

For i = j and for i ,= j different types of integrals are obtained. The ones for i = j can be

solved immediately

J

ii

=

_

A

2

i

sin

2

(Ω

i

s−Ψ

i

) ds =

A

2

i

2Ω

i

_

Ω

i

s−Ψ

i

−

1

2

sin

_

2 (Ω

i

s−Ψ

i

)

_

_

. (2.19)

Using the trigonometric relationship

sin x sin y =

1

2

cos(x−y) −

1

2

cos(x+y) (2.20)

the integrals for i ,= j can be solved too

J

ij

=

_

A

i

sin (Ω

i

s−Ψ

i

) A

j

sin (Ω

j

s−Ψ

j

) ds

=

1

2

A

i

A

j

_

cos (Ω

i−j

s −Ψ

i−j

) ds −

1

2

A

i

A

j

_

cos (Ω

i+j

s −Ψ

i+j

) ds

= −

1

2

A

i

A

j

Ω

i−j

sin (Ω

i−j

s −Ψ

i−j

) +

1

2

A

i

A

j

Ω

i+j

sin (Ω

i+j

s −Ψ

i+j

)

(2.21)

where the abbreviations Ω

i±j

= Ω

i

±Ω

j

and Ψ

i±j

= Ψ

i

±Ψ

j

were used. The sine and cosine

terms in Eqs. (2.19) and (2.21) are limited to values of ±1. Hence, Eq. (2.18) simply results in

σ

2

= lim

X→∞

1

X

N

i=1

_

J

ii

¸

X/2

−X/2

. ¸¸ .

N

i=1

A

2

i

2Ω

i

Ω

i

+ lim

X→∞

1

X

N

i,j=1

_

J

ij

¸

X/2

−X/2

. ¸¸ .

0

=

1

2

N

i=1

A

2

i

. (2.22)

16

2.3 Random Proﬁles

On the other hand, the variance of a sinusoidal approximation to a random road proﬁle is given

by Eq. (2.15). So, a road proﬁle z

R

= z

R

(s) described by Eq. (2.17) will have a given psd Φ(Ω)

if the amplitudes are generated according to

A

i

=

_

2 Φ(Ω

i

) ´Ω , i = 1(1)N , (2.23)

and the wave numbers Ω

i

are chosen to lie at N equal intervals ´Ω.

0.10

0.05

-0.10

-0.05

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

[m]

[m]

Road profile z=z(s)

Figure 2.7: Realization of a country road

A realization of the country road with a psd of Φ

0

= 10 ∗ 10

−6

m

2

/(rad/m) is shown in

Fig. 2.7. According to Eq. (2.17) the proﬁle z = z(s) was generated by N = 200 sine waves

in the frequency range from Ω

1

= 0.0628 rad/m to Ω

N

= 62.83 rad/m. The amplitudes A

i

,

i = 1(1)N were calculated by Eq. (2.23) and the MATLAB

**function rand was used to
**

produce uniformly distributed random phase angles in the range between 0 and 2π.

2.3.3.2 Shaping Filter

The white noise process produced by random number generators has a uniform spectral density,

and is therefore not suitable to describe real road proﬁles. But, if the white noise process is used

as input to a shaping ﬁlter more appropriate spectral densities will be obtained, [29]. A simple

ﬁrst order shaping ﬁlter for the road proﬁle z

R

reads as

d

ds

z

R

(s) = −γ z

R

(s) +w(s) , (2.24)

where γ is a constant, and w(s) is a white noise process with the spectral density Φ

w

. Then, the

spectral density of the road proﬁle is obtained from

Φ

R

= H(Ω) Φ

W

H

T

(−Ω) =

1

γ +i Ω

Φ

W

1

γ −i Ω

=

Φ

W

γ

2

+ Ω

2

, (2.25)

where Ω is the wave number, and H(Ω) is the frequency response function of the shaping ﬁlter.

By setting Φ

W

= 10 ∗ 10

−6

m

2

/(rad/m) and γ = 0.01 rad/m the measured psd of a typical

country road can be approximated very well, Fig. 2.8.

The shape ﬁlter approach is also suitable for modeling parallel tracks, [34]. Here, the cross-

correlation between the irregularities of the left and right track have to be taken into account

too.

17

2 Road

10

-2

10

-1

10

2

10

1

10

0

10

-4

10

-3

10

-5

10

-6

10

-7

10

-8

10

-9 P

o

w

e

r

s

p

e

c

t

r

a

l

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

Φ

[

m

2

/

(

r

a

d

/

m

)

]

Wave number Ω [rad/m]

Measurements

Shaping filter

Figure 2.8: Shaping ﬁlter as approximation to measured psd

2.3.3.3 Two-Dimensional Model

The generation of fully two-dimensional road proﬁles z

R

= z

R

(x, y) via a sinusoidal approxi-

mation is very laborious. Because a shaping ﬁlter is a dynamic system, the resulting road proﬁle

realizations are not reproducible. By adding band-limited white noise processes and taking the

momentary position x, y as seed for the random number generator a reproducible road proﬁle

can be generated, [36].

-4

-2

0

2

4

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

-1

0

1

m

z

x

y

Figure 2.9: Two-dimensional road proﬁle

By assuming the same statistical properties in longitudinal and lateral direction two-dimensional

proﬁles, like the one in Fig. 2.9, can be obtained.

18

3 Tire

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Tire Development

Some important mile stones in the development of pneumatic tires are shown in Table 3.1.

1839 Charles Goodyear: vulcanization

1845 Robert William Thompson: ﬁrst pneumatic tire

(several thin inﬂated tubes inside a leather cover)

1888 John Boyd Dunlop: patent for bicycle (pneumatic) tires

1893 The Dunlop Pneumatic and Tyre Co. GmbH, Hanau, Germany

1895 André and Edouard Michelin: pneumatic tires for Peugeot

Paris-Bordeaux-Paris (720 Miles):

50 tire deﬂations,

22 complete inner tube changes

1899 Continental: ”long-lived” tires (approx. 500 Kilometer)

1904 Carbon added: black tires.

1908 Frank Seiberling: grooved tires with improved road traction

1922 Dunlop: steel cord thread in the tire bead

1943 Continental: patent for tubeless tires

1946 Radial Tire

Table 3.1: Milestones in tire development

Of course the tire development did not stop in 1946, but modern tires are still based on this

achievements.

3.1.2 Tire Composites

Tires are very complex. They combine dozens of components that must be formed, assembled

and cured together. And their ultimate success depends on their ability to blend all of the sep-

arate components into a cohesive product that satisﬁes the driver’s needs. A modern tire is a

mixture of steel, fabric, and rubber. The main composites of a passenger car tire with an overall

mass of 8.5 kg are listed in Table 3.2.

19

3 Tire

Reinforcements: steel, rayon, nylon 16%

Rubber: natural/synthetic 38%

Compounds: carbon, silica, chalk, ... 30%

Softener: oil, resin 10%

Vulcanization: sulfur, zinc oxide, ... 4%

Miscellaneous 2%

Table 3.2: Tire composites: 195/65 R 15 ContiEcoContact, data from www.felge.de

3.1.3 Tire Forces and Torques

In any point of contact between the tire and the road surface normal and friction forces are

transmitted. According to the tire’s proﬁle design the contact patch forms a not necessarily

coherent area, Fig. 3.1.

180 mm

1

4

0

m

m

Figure 3.1: Tire footprint of a passenger car at normal loading condition: Continental 205/55

R16 90 H, 2.5 bar, F

z

= 4700 N

The effect of the contact forces can be fully described by a resulting force vector applied at a

speciﬁc point of the contact patch and a torque vector. The vectors are described in a track-ﬁxed

reference frame. The z-axis is normal to the track, the x-axis is perpendicular to the z-axis and

perpendicular to the wheel rotation axis e

yR

. Then, the demand for a right-handed reference

frame also ﬁxes the y-axis.

The components of the contact force vector are named according to the direction of the axes,

Fig. 3.2.

Anon symmetric distribution of the forces in the contact patch causes torques around the x and y

axes. A cambered tire generates a tilting torque T

x

. The torque T

y

includes the rolling resistance

of the tire. In particular, the torque around the z-axis is important in vehicle dynamics. It consists

of two parts,

T

z

= T

B

+T

S

. (3.1)

20

3.1 Introduction

F

x

longitudinal force

F

y

lateral force

F

z

vertical force or wheel load

T

x

tilting torque

T

y

rolling resistance torque

T

z

self aligning and bore torque

F

x

F

y

F

z

T

x

T

y

T

z

e

yR

Figure 3.2: Contact forces and torques

The rotation of the tire around the z-axis causes the bore torque T

B

. The self aligning torque

T

S

takes into account that ,in general, the resulting lateral force is not acting in the center of the

contact patch.

3.1.4 Measuring Tire Forces and Torques

To measure tire forces and torques on the road a special test trailer is needed, Fig. 3.4. Here, the

tire

test wheel

compensation wheel

real road

exact contact

Test trailer

Figure 3.3: Layout of a tire test trailer

measurements are performed under real operating conditions. Arbitrary surfaces like asphalt or

concrete and different environmental conditions like dry, wet or icy are possible. Measurements

with test trailers are quite cumbersome and in general they are restricted to passenger car tires.

Indoor measurements of tire forces and torques can be performed on drums or on a ﬂat bed,

Fig. 3.4.

21

3 Tire

tire

tire

safety walk

coating

rotation

drum

too small

contact area

too large contact area

tire

safety walk coating perfect contact

Figure 3.4: Drum and ﬂat bed tire test rig

On drum test rigs the tire is placed either inside or outside of the drum. In both cases the shape

of the contact area between tire and drum is not correct. That is why, one can not rely on the

measured self aligning torque. Due its simple and robust design, wide applications including

measurements of truck tires are possible.

The ﬂat bed tire test rig is more sophisticated. Here, the contact patch is as ﬂat as on the road.

But, the safety walk coating which is attached to the steel bed does not generate the same friction

conditions as on a real road surface.

-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Longitudinal slip [%]

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

L

o

n

g

i

t

u

d

f

o

r

c

e

F

x

[

N

]

Radial 205/50 R15, F

N

= 3500 N, dry asphalt

Driving

Braking

Figure 3.5: Typical results of tire measurements

22

3.1 Introduction

Tire forces and torques are measured in quasi-static operating conditions. Hence, the measure-

ments for increasing and decreasing the sliding conditions usually result in different graphs,

Fig. 3.5. In general, the mean values are taken as steady state results.

3.1.5 Modeling Aspects

For the dynamic simulation of on-road vehicles, the model-element “tire/road” is of special im-

portance, according to its inﬂuence on the achievable results. It can be said that the sufﬁcient

description of the interactions between tire and road is one of the most important tasks of vehicle

modeling, because all the other components of the chassis inﬂuence the vehicle dynamic prop-

erties via the tire contact forces and torques. Therefore, in the interest of balanced modeling, the

precision of the complete vehicle model should stand in reasonable relation to the performance

of the applied tire model. At present, two groups of models can be identiﬁed, handling models

and structural or high frequency models, [18].

Structural tire models are very complex. Within RMOD-K [25] the tire is modeled by four

circular rings with mass points that are also coupled in lateral direction. Multi-track contact and

the pressure distribution across the belt width are taken into account. The tire model FTire [9]

consists of an extensible and ﬂexible ring which is mounted to the rim by distributed stiffnesses

in radial, tangential and lateral direction. The ring is approximated by a ﬁnite number of belt

elements to which a number of mass-less tread blocks are assigned, Fig. 3.6.

c

long.

c

bend. in-plane

c

bend. out-of- plane

c

torsion

F

Frict.

c

Frict.

c

dyn.

d

dyn.

d

rad.

c

rad.

belt node

rim

Model

Structure

Radial

Force

Element

µ(v,p,T)

x, v

x

B

, v

B

Contact

Element

Figure 3.6: Complex tire model (FTire)

Complex tire models are computer time consuming and they need a lot a data. Usually, they are

used for stochastic vehicle vibrations occurring during rough road rides and causing strength-

relevant component loads, [32].

Comparatively lean tire models are suitable for vehicle dynamics simulations, while, with the

exception of some elastic partial structures such as twist-beam axles in cars or the vehicle frame

23

3 Tire

in trucks, the elements of the vehicle structure can be seen as rigid. On the tire’s side, “semi-

physical” tire models prevail, where the description of forces and torques relies, in contrast

to purely physical tire models, also on measured and observed force-slip characteristics. This

class of tire models is characterized by an useful compromise between user-friendliness, model-

complexity and efﬁciency in computation time on the one hand, and precision in representation

on the other hand.

In vehicle dynamic practice often there exists the problem of data provision for a special type of

tire for the examined vehicle. Considerable amounts of experimental data for car tires has been

published or can be obtained from the tire manufacturers. If one cannot ﬁnd data for a special

tire, its characteristics can be guessed at least by an engineer’s interpolation of similar tire types,

Fig. 3.7. In the ﬁeld of truck tires there is still a considerable backlog in data provision. These

circumstances must be respected in conceiving a user-friendly tire model.

F

y

sx

s

s

y

S

ϕ

F

S

M

F

M

dF

0

F(s)

dF

S

y

F

y

F

y

M

S

s

y

M

s

y

0

F

y

s

y

dFx

0

F

x

M

F

x

S

F

x

s

x

M

s

x

S

s

x

F

x

s

s

d

y

c

y

F

y

v

y

Q P

y

e

Dynamic Forces

Combined Forces

Figure 3.7: Handling tire model: TMeasy [11]

For a special type of tire, usually the following sets of experimental data are provided:

• longitudinal force versus longitudinal slip (mostly just brake-force),

• lateral force versus slip angle,

• aligning torque versus slip angle,

• radial and axial compliance characteristics,

whereas additional measurement data under camber and low road adhesion are favorable special

cases.

Any other correlations, especially the combined forces and torques, effective under operating

conditions, often have to be generated by appropriate assumptions with the model itself, due to

the lack of appropriate measurements. Another problem is the evaluation of measurement data

from different sources (i.e. measuring techniques) for a special tire, [12]. It is a known fact that

24

3.2 Contact Geometry

different measuring techniques result in widely spread results. Here the experience of the user

is needed to assemble a “probably best” set of data as a basis for the tire model from these sets

of data, and to verify it eventually with own experimental results.

3.2 Contact Geometry

3.2.1 Basic Approach

The current position of a wheel in relation to the ﬁxed x

0

-, y

0

- z

0

-system is given by the wheel

center M and the unit vector e

yR

in the direction of the wheel rotation axis, Fig. 3.8.

road: z = z ( x , y )

e

yR

M

e

n

0

P

tire

x

0

0

y

0

z

0

*

P

P

x

0

0

y

0

z

0

e

yR

M

e

n

e

x

γ

e

y

rim

centre

plane

local road plane

e

zR

r

MP

wheel

carrier

0

P

a

b

Figure 3.8: Contact geometry

The irregularities of the track can be described by an arbitrary function of two spatial coordi-

nates

z = z(x, y). (3.2)

At an uneven track the contact point P can not be calculated directly. At ﬁrst, one can get an

estimated value with the vector r

MP

∗ = −r

0

e

zB

, where r

0

is the undeformed tire radius, and

e

zB

is the unit vector in the z-direction of the body ﬁxed reference frame. Usually, the point P

∗

does not lie on the track. The corresponding track point P

0

can be calculated via Eq. (3.2). In the

point P

0

the track normal e

n

is calculated, now. Then the unit vectors in the tire’s circumferential

direction and lateral direction can be determined.

The tire camber angle

γ = arcsin

_

e

T

yR

e

n

_

(3.3)

25

3 Tire

describes the inclination of the wheel rotation axis against the track normal.

The vector from the rim center M to the track point P

0

is split into three parts now

r

MP

0

= −r

S

e

zR

+a e

x

+b e

y

, (3.4)

where r

S

denotes the loaded or static tire radius, a, b are distances measured in circumferential

and lateral direction, and the radial direction is given by the unit vector

e

zR

= e

x

e

yR

(3.5)

which is perpendicular to e

x

and e

yR

. A scalar multiplication of Eq. (3.4) with e

n

results in

e

T

n

r

MP

0

= −r

S

e

T

n

e

zR

+a e

T

n

e

x

+b e

T

n

e

y

. (3.6)

As the unit vectors e

x

and e

y

are perpendicular to e

n

Eq. (3.6) simpliﬁes to

e

T

n

r

MP

0

= −r

S

e

T

n

e

zR

. (3.7)

Hence, the static tire radius is given by

r

S

= −

e

T

n

r

MP

0

e

T

n

e

zR

. (3.8)

The contact point P given by the vector

r

MP

= −r

S

e

zR

(3.9)

lies within the rim center plane. The transition from the point P

0

to the contact point P takes

place according to Eq. (3.4) by the terms a e

x

and b e

y

perpendicular to the track normal e

n

. The

track normal, however, was calculated in the point P

0

. With an uneven track the point P no

longer lies on the track and can therefor no longer considered exactly as contact point.

With the newly estimated value P

∗

= P the calculations may be repeated until the difference

between P and P

0

is sufﬁciently small. Tire models which can be simulated within acceptable

time assume that the contact patch is sufﬁciently ﬂat. At an ordinary passenger car tire, the

contact area has at normal load approximately the size of 1520 cm. Hence, it makes no sense

to calculate a ﬁctitious contact point to fractions of millimeters, when later on the real track

will be approximated by a plane in the range of centimeters. If the track in the contact area is

replaced by a local plane, no further iterative improvements will be necessary for the contact

point calculation.

3.2.2 Tire Deﬂection

For a vanishing camber angle γ = 0 the deﬂected zone has a rectangular shape, Fig. 3.9. Its area

is given by

A

0

= ´z b , (3.10)

26

3.2 Contact Geometry

r

S

r

0

e

yR

e

n

P

∆z

w

C

= b

r

SL

r

0

e

yR

e

n

P

b

r

SR

γ

r

0

e

yR

e

n

P

b*

r

SR

γ

full contact partial contact

γ = 0

γ = 0

w

C

w

C

/

r

S

r

S

Figure 3.9: Tire deﬂection

where b is the width of the tire, and the tire deﬂection is obtained by

´z = r

0

−r

S

. (3.11)

Here, the width of the tire simply equals the width of the contact zone, w

C

= b.

On a cambered tire the deﬂected zone of the tire cross section depends on the contact situation.

The magnitude of the tire ﬂank radii

r

SL

= r

s

+

b

2

tan γ and r

SR

= r

s

−

b

2

tan γ (3.12)

determines the shape of the deﬂected zone.

The tire will be in full contact to the road if r

SL

≤ r

0

and r

SR

≤ r

0

hold. Then, the deﬂected

zone has a trapezoidal shape with an area of

A

γ

=

1

2

(r

0

−r

SR

+r

0

−r

SL

) b = (r

0

−r

S

) b . (3.13)

Equalizing the cross sections A

0

= A

γ

results in

´z = r

0

−r

S

. (3.14)

Hence, at full contact the tire camber angle γ has no inﬂuence on the vertical tire force. But,

due to

w

C

=

b

cos γ

(3.15)

the width of the contact area increases with the tire camber angle.

27

3 Tire

The deﬂected zone will change to a triangular shape if one of the ﬂank radii exceeds the unde-

ﬂected tire radius. Assuming r

SL

> r

0

and r

SR

< r

0

the area of the deﬂected zone is obtained

by

A

γ

=

1

2

(r

0

−r

SR

) b

∗

, (3.16)

where the width of the deﬂected zone follows from

b

∗

=

r

0

−r

SR

tan γ

. (3.17)

Now, Eq. (3.16) reads as

A

γ

=

1

2

(r

0

−r

SR

)

2

tan γ

. (3.18)

Equalizing the cross sections A

0

= A

γ

results in

´z =

1

2

_

r

0

−r

S

+

b

2

tan γ

_

2

b tan γ

. (3.19)

where Eq. (3.12) was used to express the ﬂank radius r

SR

by the static tire radius r

S

, the tire

width b and the camber angle γ. Now, the width of the contact area is given by

w

C

=

b

∗

cos γ

=

r

0

−r

SR

tan γ cos γ

=

r

0

−r

S

+

b

2

tan γ

sin γ

, (3.20)

where the Eqs. (3.17) and (3.12) where used to simplify the expression. If tan γ and sin γ

are replaced by [ tan γ [ and [ sin γ [ then, the Eqs. (3.19) and (3.20) will hold for positive and

negative camber angles.

3.2.3 Length of Contact Patch

To approximate the length of the contact patch the tire deformation is split into two parts,

Fig. 3.10. By ´z

F

and ´z

B

the average tire ﬂank and the belt deformation are measured. Hence,

for a tire with full contact to the road

´z = ´z

F

+´z

B

= r

0

−r

S

(3.21)

will hold.

Assuming both deﬂections being equal will lead to

´z

F

≈ ´z

B

≈

1

2

´z . (3.22)

Approximating the belt deﬂection by truncating a circle with the radius of the undeformed tire

results in

_

L

2

_

2

+ (r

0

−´z

B

)

2

= r

2

0

. (3.23)

28

3.2 Contact Geometry

F

z

L

r

0

r

S

Belt

Rim

L/2

r

0

∆z

F

∆z

B

∆z

B

undeformed

belt

Figure 3.10: Length of contact patch

In normal driving situations the belt deﬂections are small, ´z

B

¸r

0

. Hence, Eq. (3.23) can be

simpliﬁed and ﬁnally results in

L

2

4

= 2 r

0

´z

B

or L =

_

8 r

0

´z

B

. (3.24)

Inspecting the passenger car tire footprint in Fig. 3.1 leads to a contact patch length of

L ≈ 140 mm. For this tire the radial stiffness and the inﬂated radius are speciﬁed with c

R

=

265 000N/mand r

0

= 316.9mm. The overall tire deﬂection can be estimated by ´z = F

z

/c

R

.

At the load of F

z

= 4700N the deﬂection amounts to ´z = 4700N / 265 000N/m = 0.0177m.

Then, by approximating the belt deformation by the half of the tire deﬂection, the length of the

contact patch will become L =

_

8 ∗ 0.3169 m ∗ 0.0177/2 m = 0.1498 m ≈ 150 mm which

corresponds quite well with the length of the tire footprint.

3.2.4 Static Contact Point

Assuming that the pressure distribution on a cambered tire with full road contact corresponds

with the trapezoidal shape of the deﬂected tire area, the acting point of the resulting vertical

tire force F

Z

will be shifted from the geometric contact point P to the static contact point

Q, Fig. 3.11. If the cambered tire has only a partial contact to the road then, according to the

deﬂection area a triangular pressure distribution will be assumed.

The center of the trapezoidal area or, in the case of a partial contact the center of the triangle,

determines the lateral deviation y

Q

. The static contact point Q described by the vector

r

0Q

= r

0P

+ y

Q

e

y

(3.25)

represents the contact patch much better than the geometric contact point P.

29

3 Tire

e

n

P

γ

w

C

r

S

Q

F

z

r

0

-r

SL

r

0

-r

SR

y

e

y

A

A

e

n

γ

P

w

C

Q

F

z

y

e

y

b/2

Figure 3.11: Lateral deviation of contact point at full and partial contact

3.2.5 Contact Point Velocity

To calculate the tire forces and torques which are generated by friction the contact point velocity

will be needed. The static contact point Q given by Eq. (3.25) can be expressed as follows

r

0Q

= r

0M

+ r

MQ

, (3.26)

where M denotes the wheel center and hence, the vector r

MQ

describes the position of static

contact point Q relative to the wheel center M. The absolute velocity of the contact point will

be obtained from

v

0Q,0

= ˙ r

0Q,0

= ˙ r

0M,0

+ ˙ r

MQ,0

, (3.27)

where ˙ r

0M,0

= v

0M,0

denotes the absolute velocity of the wheel center. The vector r

MQ

takes

part on all those motions of the wheel carrier which do not contain elements of the wheel

rotation and it In addition, it contains the tire deﬂection ´z normal to the road. Hence, its time

derivative can be calculated from

˙ r

MQ,0

= ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

+ ´˙ z e

n,0

, (3.28)

where ω

∗

0R

is the angular velocity of the wheel rim without any component in the direction of

the wheel rotation axis, ´˙ z denotes the change of the tire deﬂection, and e

n

describes the road

normal. Now, Eq. (3.27) reads as

v

0Q,0

= v

0M,0

+ ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

+ ´˙ z e

n,0

. (3.29)

As the point Q lies on the track, v

0Q,0

must not contain any component normal to the track

e

T

n,0

v

0P,0

= 0 or e

T

n,0

_

v

0M,0

+ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

_

+ ´˙ z e

T

n,0

e

n,0

= 0 . (3.30)

As e

n,0

is a unit vector, e

T

n,0

e

n,0

= 1 will hold, and then, the time derivative of the tire deforma-

tion is simply given by

´˙ z = −e

T

n,0

_

v

0M,0

+ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

_

. (3.31)

30

3.2 Contact Geometry

Finally, the components of the contact point velocity in longitudinal and lateral direction are

obtained from

v

x

= e

T

x,0

v

0Q,0

= e

T

x,0

_

v

0M,0

+ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

_

(3.32)

and

v

y

= e

T

y,0

v

0P,0

= e

T

y,0

_

v

0M,0

+ω

∗

0R,0

r

MQ,0

_

, (3.33)

where the relationships e

T

x,0

e

n,0

= 0 and e

T

y,0

e

n,0

= 0 were used to simplify the expressions.

3.2.6 Dynamic Rolling Radius

At an angular rotation of ´ϕ, assuming the tread particles stick to the track, the deﬂected tire

moves on a distance of x, Fig. 3.12.

x

r

0

r

S

ϕ ∆

r

x

ϕ ∆

D

deflected tire rigid wheel

Ω

Ω

v

t

Figure 3.12: Dynamic rolling radius

With r

0

as unloaded and r

S

= r

0

−´r as loaded or static tire radius

r

0

sin ´ϕ = x (3.34)

and

r

0

cos ´ϕ = r

S

(3.35)

hold.

If the motion of a tire is compared to the rolling of a rigid wheel, then, its radius r

D

will have

to be chosen so that at an angular rotation of ´ϕ the tire moves the distance

r

0

sin ´ϕ = x = r

D

´ϕ . (3.36)

Hence, the dynamic tire radius is given by

r

D

=

r

0

sin ´ϕ

´ϕ

. (3.37)

For ´ϕ →0 one obtains the trivial solution r

D

= r

0

.

31

3 Tire

At small, yet ﬁnite angular rotations the sine-function can be approximated by the ﬁrst terms of

its Taylor-Expansion. Then, Eq. (3.37) reads as

r

D

= r

0

´ϕ −

1

6

´ϕ

3

´ϕ

= r

0

_

1 −

1

6

´ϕ

2

_

. (3.38)

With the according approximation for the cosine-function

r

S

r

0

= cos ´ϕ = 1 −

1

2

´ϕ

2

or ´ϕ

2

= 2

_

1 −

r

S

r

0

_

(3.39)

one ﬁnally gets

r

D

= r

0

_

1 −

1

3

_

1 −

r

S

r

0

__

=

2

3

r

0

+

1

3

r

S

. (3.40)

Due to r

S

= r

S

(F

z

) the ﬁctive radius r

D

depends on the wheel load F

z

. Therefore, it is called

dynamic tire radius. If the tire rotates with the angular velocity Ω, then

v

t

= r

D

Ω (3.41)

will denote the average velocity at which the tread particles are transported through the contact

patch.

3.3 Forces and Torques caused by Pressure

Distribution

3.3.1 Wheel Load

The vertical tire force F

z

can be calculated as a function of the normal tire deﬂection ´z and

the deﬂection velocity ´˙ z

F

z

= F

z

(´z, ´˙ z) . (3.42)

Because the tire can only apply pressure forces to the road the normal force is restricted to

F

z

≥ 0. In a ﬁrst approximation F

z

is separated into a static and a dynamic part

F

z

= F

S

z

+F

D

z

. (3.43)

The static part is described as a nonlinear function of the normal tire deﬂection

F

S

z

= a

1

´z + a

2

(´z)

2

. (3.44)

The constants a

1

and a

2

may be calculated from the radial stiffness at nominal and double

payload.

Results for a passenger car and a truck tire are shown in Fig. 3.13. The parabolic approximation

in Eq. (3.44) ﬁts very well to the measurements. The radial tire stiffness of the passenger car

32

3.3 Forces and Torques caused by Pressure Distribution

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

2

4

6

8

10

Passenger Car Tire: 205/50 R15

F

z

[

k

N

]

0 20 40 60 80

0

20

40

60

80

100

Truck Tire: X31580 R22.5

F

z

[

k

N

]

∆z [mm]

∆z [mm]

Figure 3.13: Tire radial stiffness: ◦ Measurements, — Approximation

tire at the payload of F

z

= 3 200 N can be speciﬁed with c

0

= 190 000N/m. The Payload

F

z

= 35 000 N and the stiffness c

0

= 1 250 000N/m of a truck tire are signiﬁcantly larger.

The dynamic part is roughly approximated by

F

D

z

= d

R

´˙ z , (3.45)

where d

R

is a constant describing the radial tire damping, and the derivative of the tire defor-

mation ´˙ z is given by Eq. (3.31).

3.3.2 Tipping Torque

The lateral shift of the vertical tire force F

z

from the geometric contact point P to the static

contact point Q is equivalent to a force applied in P and the tipping torque

M

x

= F

z

y

Q

(3.46)

acting around a longitudinal axis in P, Fig. 3.14.

e

n

γ

P Q

F

z

y

e

y

e

n

γ

P

F

z

e

y

T

x

∼

Figure 3.14: Tipping torque at full contact

Note: Fig. 3.14 shows a negative tipping torque. Because a positive camber angle moves the

contact point into the negative y-direction and hence, will generate a negative tipping torque.

33

3 Tire

e

n

γ

P

Q

F

z

y

e

y

Figure 3.15: Cambered tire with partial contact

The use of the tipping torque instead of shifting the contact point is limited to those cases where

the tire has full or nearly full contact to the road. If the cambered tire has only partly contact to

the road, the geometric contact point P may even be located outside the contact area whereas

the static contact point Q is still a real contact point, Fig. 3.15.

3.3.3 Rolling Resistance

If a non-rotating tire has contact to a ﬂat ground the pressure distribution in the contact patch

will be symmetric from the front to the rear, Fig. 3.16. The resulting vertical force F

z

is applied

in the center C of the contact patch and hence, will not generate a torque around the y-axis.

F

z

C

F

z

C

e

x

e

n

rotating

e

x

e

n

non-rotating

x

R

Figure 3.16: Pressure distribution at a non-rotation and rotation tire

If the tire rotates tread particles will be stuffed into the front of the contact area which causes

a slight pressure increase, Fig. 3.16. Now, the resulting vertical force is applied in front of the

contact point and generates the rolling resistance torque

T

y

= −F

z

x

R

sign(Ω) , (3.47)

where sign(Ω) assures that T

y

always acts against the wheel angular velocity Ω. The distance

x

R

from C to the working point of F

z

usually is related to the unloaded tire radius r

0

f

R

=

x

R

r

0

. (3.48)

According to [20] the dimensionless rolling resistance coefﬁcient slightly increases with the

traveling velocity v of the vehicle

f

R

= f

R

(v) . (3.49)

34

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

Under normal operating conditions, 20km/h < v < 200km/h, the rolling resistance coefﬁcient

for typical passenger car tires is in the range of 0.01 < f

R

< 0.02.

The rolling resistance hardly inﬂuences the handling properties of a vehicle. But it plays a major

part in fuel consumption.

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

3.4.1 Longitudinal Force and Longitudinal Slip

To get a certain insight into the mechanism generating tire forces in longitudinal direction, we

consider a tire on a ﬂat bed test rig. The rim rotates with the angular velocity Ω and the ﬂat bed

runs with the velocity v

x

. The distance between the rim center and the ﬂat bed is controlled to

the loaded tire radius corresponding to the wheel load F

z

, Fig. 3.17.

A tread particle enters at the time t = 0 the contact patch. If we assume adhesion between

the particle and the track, then the top of the particle will run with the bed velocity v

x

and the

bottom with the average transport velocity v

t

= r

D

Ω. Depending on the velocity difference

´v = r

D

Ω −v

x

the tread particle is deﬂected in longitudinal direction

u = (r

D

Ω −v

x

) t . (3.50)

v

x

Ω

L

r

D

u

u

max

Ω r

D

v

x

Figure 3.17: Tire on ﬂat bed test rig

The time a particle spends in the contact patch can be calculated by

T =

L

r

D

[Ω[

, (3.51)

where L denotes the contact length, and T > 0 is assured by [Ω[.

35

3 Tire

The maximum deﬂection occurs when the tread particle leaves the contact patch at the time

t = T

u

max

= (r

D

Ω −v

x

) T = (r

D

Ω −v

x

)

L

r

D

[Ω[

. (3.52)

The deﬂected tread particle applies a force to the tire. In a ﬁrst approximation we get

F

t

x

= c

t

x

u , (3.53)

where c

t

x

represents the stiffness of one tread particle in longitudinal direction.

On normal wheel loads more than one tread particle is in contact with the track, Fig. 3.18a. The

number p of the tread particles can be estimated by

p =

L

s +a

, (3.54)

where s is the length of one particle and a denotes the distance between the particles.

c u

b)

L

max

t

x

*

c u

t

u

*

a)

L

s

a

Figure 3.18: a) Particles, b) Force distribution,

Particles entering the contact patch are undeformed, whereas the ones leaving have the max-

imum deﬂection. According to Eq. (3.53), this results in a linear force distribution versus the

contact length, Fig. 3.18b. The resulting force in longitudinal direction for p particles is given

by

F

x

=

1

2

p c

t

x

u

max

. (3.55)

Using the Eqs. (3.54) and (3.52) this results in

F

x

=

1

2

L

s +a

c

t

x

(r

D

Ω −v

x

)

L

r

D

[Ω[

. (3.56)

A ﬁrst approximation of the contact length L was calculated in Eq. (3.24). Approximating the

belt deformation by ´z

B

≈

1

2

F

z

/c

R

results in

L

2

≈ 4 r

0

F

z

c

R

, (3.57)

where c

R

denotes the radial tire stiffness, and nonlinearities and dynamic parts in the tire defor-

mation were neglected. Now, Eq. (3.55) can be written as

F

x

= 2

r

0

s +a

c

t

x

c

R

F

z

r

D

Ω −v

x

r

D

[Ω[

. (3.58)

36

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

The nondimensional relation between the sliding velocity of the tread particles in longitudinal

direction v

S

x

= v

x

−r

D

Ω and the average transport velocity r

D

[Ω[ form the longitudinal slip

s

x

=

−(v

x

−r

D

Ω)

r

D

[Ω[

. (3.59)

The longitudinal force F

x

is proportional to the wheel load F

z

and the longitudinal slip s

x

in

this ﬁrst approximation

F

x

= k F

z

s

x

, (3.60)

where the constant k summarizes the tire properties r

0

, s, a, c

t

x

and c

R

.

Equation (3.60) holds only as long as all particles stick to the track. At moderate slip values the

particles at the end of the contact patch start sliding, and at high slip values only the parts at the

beginning of the contact patch still stick to the road, Fig. 3.19.

L

adhesion

F

x

t

<

=

F

H

t

small slip values

F = k F s

x

* * x F = F f ( s )

x * x F = F

x G

z z

L

adhesion

F

x

t

F

H

t

moderate slip values

L

sliding

F

x

t

F

G

high slip values

=

sliding

=

Figure 3.19: Longitudinal force distribution for different slip values

The resulting nonlinear function of the longitudinal force F

x

versus the longitudinal slip s

x

can be deﬁned by the parameters initial inclination (driving stiffness) dF

0

x

, location s

M

x

and

magnitude of the maximum F

M

x

, start of full sliding s

S

x

and the sliding force F

S

x

, Fig. 3.20.

F

x

x

M

x

S

dF

x

0

s

x

s

x

s

x

M S

F

F

adhesion

sliding

Figure 3.20: Typical longitudinal force characteristics

37

3 Tire

3.4.2 Lateral Slip, Lateral Force and Self Aligning Torque

Similar to the longitudinal slip s

x

, given by Eq. (3.59), the lateral slip can be deﬁned by

s

y

=

−v

S

y

r

D

[Ω[

, (3.61)

where the sliding velocity in lateral direction is given by

v

S

y

= v

y

(3.62)

and the lateral component of the contact point velocity v

y

follows from Eq. (3.33).

As long as the tread particles stick to the road (small amounts of slip), an almost linear distri-

bution of the forces along the length L of the contact patch appears. At moderate slip values the

particles at the end of the contact patch start sliding, and at high slip values only the parts at the

beginning of the contact patch stick to the road, Fig. 3.21.

L

a

d

h

e

s

i

o

n

F

y

small slip values

L

a

d

h

e

s

i

o

n

F

y

s

l

i

d

i

n

g

moderate slip values

L

s

l

i

d

i

n

g

F

y

large slip values

n

F = k F s

y * * y F = F f ( s )

y

* y F = F

y G

z

z

Figure 3.21: Lateral force distribution over contact patch

The nonlinear characteristics of the lateral force versus the lateral slip can be described by

the initial inclination (cornering stiffness) dF

0

y

, the location s

M

y

and the magnitude F

M

y

of the

maximum, the beginning of full sliding s

S

y

, and the magnitude F

S

y

of the sliding force.

The distribution of the lateral forces over the contact patch length also deﬁnes the point of

application of the resulting lateral force. At small slip values this point lies behind the center

of the contact patch (contact point P). With increasing slip values it moves forward, sometimes

even before the center of the contact patch. At extreme slip values, when practically all particles

are sliding, the resulting force is applied at the center of the contact patch.

The resulting lateral force F

y

with the dynamic tire offset or pneumatic trail n as a lever gener-

ates the self aligning torque

T

S

= −nF

y

. (3.63)

The lateral force F

y

as well as the dynamic tire offset are functions of the lateral slip s

y

.

Typical plots of these quantities are shown in Fig. 3.22. Characteristic parameters of the lateral

38

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

F

y

y

M

y

S

dF

y

0

s

y s

y

s

y

M S

F

F

adhesion

adhesion/

sliding

full sliding

adhesion

adhesion/sliding

n/L

0

s

y

s

y

S

s

y

0

(n/L)

adhesion

adhesion/sliding

M

s

y

s

y

S

s

y

0

S

full sliding

full sliding

Figure 3.22: Typical plot of lateral force, tire offset and self aligning torque

force graph are initial inclination (cornering stiffness) dF

0

y

, location s

M

y

and magnitude of the

maximum F

M

y

, begin of full sliding s

S

y

, and the sliding force F

S

y

.

The dynamic tire offset has been normalized by the length of the contact patch L. The initial

value (n/L)

0

as well as the slip values s

0

y

and s

S

y

sufﬁciently characterize the graph.

The normalized dynamic tire offset starts at s

y

= 0 with an initial value (n/L)

0

> 0 and, it

tends to zero, n/L → 0 at large slip values, s

y

≥ s

S

y

. Sometimes the normalized dynamic tire

offset overshoots to negative values before it reaches zero again.

The value of (n/L)

0

can be estimated very well. At small values of lateral slip s

y

≈ 0 one gets

in a ﬁrst approximation a triangular distribution of lateral forces over the contact area length cf.

Fig. 3.21. The working point of the resulting force (dynamic tire offset) is then given by

n(F

z

→0, s

y

=0) =

1

6

L . (3.64)

The value n =

1

6

L can only serve as reference point, for the uneven distribution of pressure

in longitudinal direction of the contact area results in a change of the deﬂexion proﬁle and the

dynamic tire offset.

3.4.3 Wheel Load Inﬂuence

The resistance of a real tire against deformations has the effect that with increasing wheel load

the distribution of pressure over the contact area becomes more and more uneven. The tread

particles are deﬂected just as they are transported through the contact area. The pressure peak

in the front of the contact area cannot be used, for these tread particles are far away from the

adhesion limit because of their small deﬂection. In the rear of the contact area the pressure drop

leads to a reduction of the maximally transmittable friction force. With rising imperfection of

the pressure distribution over the contact area, the ability to transmit forces of friction between

tire and road lessens.

39

3 Tire

-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

-20 -10 0 10 20

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

F

x

[

k

N

]

s

x

[-]

F

y

[

k

N

]

α [deg]

Figure 3.23: Longitudinal and lateral force characteristics: F

z

= 1.8, 3.2, 4.6, 5.4, 6.0 kN

In practice, this leads to a digressive inﬂuence of the wheel load on the characteristic curves of

the longitudinal force and in particular of the lateral force, Fig. 3.23.

3.4.4 Different Friction Coefﬁcients

The tire characteristics are valid for one speciﬁc tire road combination only.

-0.5 0

0.5

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

µ

F

s

y

[-]

F

y

[

N

]

µ

L

/µ

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

F

z

= 3.2 kN

Figure 3.24: Lateral force characteristics for different friction coefﬁcients

A reduced or changed friction coefﬁcient mainly inﬂuences the maximum force and the sliding

force, whereas the initial inclination will remain unchanged, Fig. 3.24.

If the road model provides not only the roughness information z = f

R

(x, y) but also the local

friction coefﬁcient [z, µ

L

] = f

R

(x, y) then, braking on µ-split maneuvers can easily be simu-

lated, [40].

40

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

3.4.5 Typical Tire Characteristics

The tire model TMeasy [11] can be used for passenger car tires as well as for truck tires. It

-40 -20 0 20 40

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

F

x

[

k

N

]

1.8 kN

3.2 kN

4.6 kN

5.4 kN

-40 -20 0 20 40

-40

-20

0

20

40

F

x

[

k

N

]

10 kN

20 kN

30 kN

40 kN

50 kN

Passenger car tire

Truck tire

s

x

[%]

s

x

[%]

Figure 3.25: Longitudinal force: ◦ Meas., − TMeasy

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

F

y

[

k

N

]

1.8 kN

3.2 kN

4.6 kN

6.0 kN

-20 -10 0 10 20

α

[

o

]

-40

-20

0

20

40

F

y

[

k

N

]

10 kN

20 kN

30 kN

40 kN

-20 -10 0 10 20

α

[

o

]

Passenger car tire

Truck tire

Figure 3.26: Lateral force: ◦ Meas., − TMeasy

approximates the characteristic curves F

x

= F

x

(s

x

), F

y

= F

y

(α) and M

z

= M

z

(α) quite well

– even for different wheel loads F

z

, Figs. 3.25 and ??.

When experimental tire values are missing, the model parameters can be pragmatically esti-

mated by adjustment of the data of similar tire types. Furthermore, due to their physical sig-

niﬁcance, the parameters can subsequently be improved by means of comparisons between the

simulation and vehicle testing results as far as they are available.

41

3 Tire

-20 -10 0 10 20

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

α

[

o

]

1.8 kN

3.2 kN

4.6 kN

6.0 kN

-20 -10 0 10 20

-1500

-1000

-500

0

500

1000

1500

α

18.4 kN

36.8 kN

55.2 kN

[

o

]

Passenger car tire

Truck tire

T

z

[

N

m

]

T

z

[

N

m

]

Figure 3.27: Self aligning torque: ◦ Meas., − TMeasy

3.4.6 Combined Slip

The longitudinal force as a function of the longitudinal slip F

x

= F

x

(s

x

) and the lateral force

depending on the lateral slip F

y

= F

y

(s

y

) can be deﬁned by their characteristic parameters

initial inclination dF

0

x

, dF

0

y

, location s

M

x

, s

M

y

and magnitude of the maximum F

M

x

, F

M

y

as well

as sliding limit s

S

x

, s

S

y

and sliding force F

S

x

, F

S

y

, Fig. 3.28. During general driving situations, e.g.

acceleration or deceleration in curves, longitudinal s

x

and lateral slip s

y

appear simultaneously.

F

y

s

x

s

s

y

S

ϕ

F

S

M

F

M

dF

0

F(s)

dF

S

y

F

y

F

y

M

S

s

y

M

s

y

0

F

y

s

y

dF

x

0

F

x

M

F

x

S

F

x

s

x

M

s

x

S

s

x

F

x

s

s

Figure 3.28: Generalized tire characteristics

42

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

The longitudinal slip s

x

and the lateral slip s

y

can vectorially be added to a generalized slip.

Similar to the graphs of the longitudinal and lateral forces the graph F = F(s) of the gen-

eralized tire force can be deﬁned by the characteristic parameters dF

0

, s

M

, F

M

, s

S

and F

S

.

These parameters can be calculated from the corresponding values of the longitudinal and lat-

eral force characteristics. The longitudinal and the lateral forces follow then from the according

projections in longitudinal and lateral direction.

Passenger car tire: F

z

= 3.2 kN Truck tire: F

z

= 35 kN

-4 -2 0 2 4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

F

x

[kN]

F

y

[

k

N

]

-20 0 20

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

F

x

[kN]

F

y

[

k

N

]

[s

x

[ = 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15 %; [α[ = 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 14

◦

Figure 3.29: Two-dimensional tire characteristics

Within the TMeasy model approach one-dimensional characteristics are automatically con-

verted to two-dimensional combined-slip characteristics, Fig. 3.29.

3.4.7 Camber Inﬂuence

At a cambered tire, Fig. 3.30, the angular velocity of the wheel Ω has a component normal to

the road

Ω

n

= Ω sin γ . (3.65)

Now, the tread particles in the contact patch possess a lateral velocity which depends on their

position ξ and is provided by

v

γ

(ξ) = −Ω

n

L

2

ξ

L/2

, = −Ω sin γ ξ , −L/2 ≤ ξ ≤ L/2 . (3.66)

At the contact point it vanishes whereas at the end of the contact patch it takes on the same

value as at the beginning, however, pointing into the opposite direction. Assuming that the tread

particles stick to the track, the deﬂection proﬁle is deﬁned by

˙ y

γ

(ξ) = v

γ

(ξ) . (3.67)

43

3 Tire

e

yR

vγ(ξ)

rim

centre

plane

Ω

γ

yγ(ξ)

Ω

n

ξ

r

D

|Ω| e

x

e

y

e

n F = F

y y

(s

y

): Parameter γ

γ

-0.5 0

0.5

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Figure 3.30: Cambered tire F

y

(γ) at F

z

= 3.2 kN and γ = 0

◦

, 2

◦

, 4

◦

, 6

◦

, 8

◦

The time derivative can be transformed to a space derivative

˙ y

γ

(ξ) =

d y

γ

(ξ)

d ξ

d ξ

d t

=

d y

γ

(ξ)

d ξ

r

D

[Ω[ (3.68)

where r

D

[Ω[ denotes the average transport velocity. Now, Eq. (3.67) can be written as

d y

γ

(ξ)

d ξ

r

D

[Ω[ = −Ω sin γ ξ or

d y

γ

(ξ)

d ξ

= −

Ω sin γ

r

D

[Ω[

L

2

ξ

L/2

, (3.69)

where L/2 was used to achieve dimensionless terms. Similar to the lateral slip s

y

which is

deﬁned by Eq. (3.61) we can introduce a camber slip now

s

γ

=

−Ω sin γ

r

D

[Ω[

L

2

. (3.70)

Then, Eq. (3.69) simpliﬁes to

d y

γ

(ξ)

d ξ

= s

γ

ξ

L/2

. (3.71)

The shape of the lateral displacement proﬁle is obtained by integration

y

γ

= s

γ

1

2

L

2

_

ξ

L/2

_

2

+ C . (3.72)

The boundary condition y

_

ξ =

1

2

L

_

= 0 can be used to determine the integration constant C.

One gets

C = −s

γ

1

2

L

2

. (3.73)

44

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

Then, Eq. (3.72) reads as

y

γ

(ξ) = −s

γ

1

2

L

2

_

1 −

_

ξ

L/2

_

2

_

. (3.74)

The lateral displacements of the tread particles caused by a camber slip are compared now with

the ones caused by pure lateral slip, Fig. 3.31. At a tire with pure lateral slip each tread particle

yγ(ξ)

ξ

y

-L/2 0 L/2

y

y

(ξ)

ξ

y

-L/2 0 L/2

a) camber slip b) lateral slip

y

y

_

yγ

_

Figure 3.31: Displacement proﬁles of tread particles

in the contact patch possesses the same lateral velocity which results in dy

y

/dξ r

D

[Ω[ = v

y

,

where according to Eq. (3.68) the time derivative ˙ y

y

was transformed to the space derivative

dy

y

/dξ . Hence, the deﬂection proﬁle is linear, and reads as y

y

= v

y

/(r

D

[Ω[) ξ = −s

y

ξ , where

the deﬁnition in Eq. (3.61) was used to introduce the lateral slip s

y

. Then, the average deﬂection

of the tread particles under pure lateral slip is given by

¯ y

y

= −s

y

L

2

. (3.75)

The average deﬂection of the tread particles under pure camber slip is obtained from

¯ y

γ

= −s

γ

1

2

L

2

1

L

L/2

_

−L/2

_

1 −

_

x

L/2

_

2

_

dξ = −

1

3

s

γ

L

2

. (3.76)

A comparison of Eq. (3.75) with Eq. (3.76) shows, that by using

s

γ

y

=

1

3

s

γ

(3.77)

the lateral camber slip s

γ

can be converted to an equivalent lateral slip s

γ

y

.

In normal driving conditions, the camber angle and thus, the lateral camber slip are limited to

small values, s

γ

y

¸1. So, the lateral camber force can be modeled by

F

γ

y

=

∂dF

y

∂s

y

¸

¸

¸

¸

s

y

=0

s

γ

y

, (3.78)

where

¸

¸

F

γ

y

¸

¸

≤ F

M

(3.79)

45

3 Tire

limits the camber force to the maximum tire force. By replacing the partial derivative of the

lateral tire force at a vanishing lateral slip by the global derivative of the generalized tire force

∂dF

y

∂s

y

¸

¸

¸

¸

s

y

=0

−→

F

s

(3.80)

the camber force will be automatically reduced on increasing slip, Fig. 3.30.

The camber angle inﬂuences the distribution of pressure in the lateral direction of the contact

patch, and changes the shape of the contact patch from rectangular to trapezoidal. Thus, it is

extremely difﬁcult, if not impossible, to quantify the camber inﬂuence with the aid of such

simple models. But, it turns out that this approach is quit a good approximation.

3.4.8 Bore Torque

3.4.8.1 Modeling Aspects

The angular velocity of the wheel consists of two components

ω

0W

= ω

∗

0R

+ Ωe

yR

. (3.81)

The wheel rotation itself is represented by Ωe

yR

, whereas ω

∗

0R

describes the motions of the

knuckle without any parts into the direction of the wheel rotation axis. In particular during

steering motions the angular velocity of the wheel has a component in direction of the track

normal e

n

ω

n

= e

T

n

ω

0W

,= 0 (3.82)

which will cause a bore motion. If the wheel moves in longitudinal and lateral direction too

then, a very complicated deﬂection proﬁle of the tread particles in the contact patch will occur.

However, by a simple approach the resulting bore torque can be approximated quite good by

the parameter of the generalized tire force characteristics.

At ﬁrst, the complex shape of a tire’s contact patch is approximated by a circle, Fig. 3.32.

By setting

R

P

=

1

2

_

L

2

+

B

2

_

=

1

4

(L +B) (3.83)

the radius of the circle can be adjusted to the length L and the width B of the actual contact

patch. During pure bore motions circumferential forces F are generated at each patch element

dA at the radius r. The integration over the contact area A

T

B

=

1

A

_

A

F r dA (3.84)

will then produce the resulting bore torque.

46

3.4 Friction Forces and Torques

normal shape of contact patch

circular

approximation

ϕ

dϕ

F

R

P

r

dr

ω

n

B

L

e

x

e

y

Figure 3.32: Bore torque approximation

3.4.8.2 Maximum Torque

At large bore motions all particles in the contact patch are sliding. Then, F = F

S

= const. will

hold and Eq. (3.84) simpliﬁes to

T

max

B

=

1

A

F

S

_

A

r dA . (3.85)

With dA = r dϕdr and A = R

2

P

π one gets

T

max

B

=

1

R

2

P

π

F

S

R

P

_

0

2π

_

0

r rdϕdr =

2

R

2

P

F

S

R

P

_

0

r

2

dr =

2

3

R

P

F

S

= R

B

F

S

, (3.86)

where

R

B

=

2

3

R

P

(3.87)

can be considered as the bore radius of the contact patch.

3.4.8.3 Bore Slip

For small slip values the force transmitted in the patch element can be approximated by

F = F(s) ≈ dF

0

s (3.88)

where s denotes the slip of the patch element, and dF

0

is the initial inclination of the generalized

tire force characteristics. Similar to Eqs. (3.59) and (3.61) we deﬁne

s =

−r ω

n

r

D

[Ω[

(3.89)

47

3 Tire

where r ω

n

describes the sliding velocity in the patch element and the term r

D

[Ω[ consisting

of the dynamic tire radius r

D

and the angular velocity of the wheel Ω represents the average

transport velocity of the tread particles. By setting r = R

B

we can deﬁne a bore slip now

s

B

=

−R

B

ω

n

r

D

[Ω[

. (3.90)

Then, Eq. (3.92) simpliﬁes to

s =

r

R

B

s

B

. (3.91)

Inserting Eqs. (3.88) and (3.91) into Eq. (3.84) results in

T

B

= =

1

R

2

P

π

R

P

_

0

2π

_

0

dF

0

r

R

B

s

B

r rdϕdr . (3.92)

As the bore slip s

B

does not depend on r Eq. (3.92) simpliﬁes to

T

B

=

2

R

2

P

dF

0

s

B

R

B

R

P

_

0

r

3

dr =

2

R

2

P

dF

0

s

B

R

B

R

4

P

4

=

1

2

R

P

dF

0

R

P

R

B

s

B

. (3.93)

With R

P

=

3

2

R

B

one ﬁnally gets

T

B

=

9

8

R

B

dF

0

s

B

. (3.94)

Via the initial inclination dF

0

and the bore radius R

B

the bore torque T

B

automatically takes

the actual tire properties into account.

To avoid numerical problems at a locked wheel, where Ω = 0 will hold, the modiﬁed bore slip

s

B

=

−R

B

ω

n

r

D

[Ω[ +v

N

(3.95)

can be used for practical applications. Where the small positive velocity v

N

> 0 is added in the

denominator.

3.4.8.4 Model Realisation

With regard to the overall model assumptions Eq. (3.94) can be simpliﬁed to

T

B

=

9

8

R

B

dF

0

s

B

≈ R

B

dF

0

s

B

. (3.96)

But, it is limited by Eq. (3.86) for large bore motions. Hence, the simple, but nonlinear bore

torque model ﬁnally is given by

T

B

= R

B

dF

0

s

B

with [ T

B

[ ≤ R

B

F

S

, (3.97)

where the bore radius R

B

and the bore slip s

B

are deﬁned by Eqs. (3.87) and (3.90) and dF

0

and

F

S

are the initial inclination and the sliding value of the generalized tire force characteristics.

48

3.5 First Order Tire Dynamics

3.5 First Order Tire Dynamics

Measurements show that the dynamic reaction of the tire forces and torques to disturbances can

be approximated quite well by ﬁrst order systems. Then, the dynamic tire forces F

D

x

, F

D

y

and

the dynamic tire torque T

D

z

can be modeled by ﬁrst order differential equations

τ

x

˙

F

D

x

+ F

D

x

= F

S

x

τ

y

˙

F

D

y

+ F

D

y

= F

S

y

τ

ψ

˙

T

D

z

+ T

D

z

= T

S

z

(3.98)

which are driven by the steady values F

S

x

, F

S

y

and T

S

z

. The tread particles of a rolling tire move

with the transport velocity r

D

[Ω[ through the contact patch, where r

D

and Ω denote the dynamic

rolling radius and the angular velocity of the wheel.

Now, time constants τ

i

, can be derived from so called relaxation lengths r

i

τ

i

=

r

i

r

D

[Ω[

i = x, y, ψ . (3.99)

But it turned out that these relaxation lengths are functions of the longitudinal and lateral slip

s

x

, s

y

and the wheel load F

z

, Fig. 3.33. Therefore, constant relaxation lengths will approximate

1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 7 10 0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

F

z

= 6 kN

F

z

= 4 kN

F

z

= 2 kN

slip angle [

o

]

r

y

[m]

Figure 3.33: Measured lateral force relaxation length for a typical passenger car tire, [14]

the real tire behavior in zero order approximation only. An appropriate model for the dynamic

tire performance would be of great advantage because then, the cumbersome task of deriving

the relaxation lengths from measurements can be avoided.

A ﬁrst order expansion from the steady state characteristics to dynamic tire forces and torques

can be found in [42]. This model approach leads to relaxation lengths which are automatically

adapted to the tire parameter.

49

4 Suspension System

4.1 Purpose and Components

The automotive industry uses different kinds of wheel/axle suspension systems. Important cri-

teria are costs, space requirements, kinematic properties, and compliance attributes.

The main purposes of a vehicle suspension system are

• carry the car and its weight,

• maintain correct wheel alignment,

• control the vehicleŠs direction of travel,

• keep the tires in contact with the road,

• reduce the effect of shock forces.

Vehicle suspension systems consist of

• guiding elements

control arms, links

struts

leaf springs

• force elements

coil spring, torsion bar, air spring, leaf spring

anti-roll bar, anti-sway bar or stabilizer

damper

bushings, hydro-mounts

• tires.

Tires are air springs that support the total weight of the vehicle. The air spring action of the tire

is very important to the ride quality and safe handling of the vehicle.

50

4.2 Some Examples

4.2 Some Examples

4.2.1 Multi Purpose Systems

The double wishbone suspension, the McPherson suspension and the multi-link suspension are

multi purpose wheel suspension systems, Fig. 4.1.

Figure 4.1: Double wishbone, McPherson and multi-link suspension

They are used as steered front or non steered rear axle suspension systems. These suspension

systems are also suitable for driven axles.

In a McPherson suspension the spring is mounted with an inclination to the strut axis. Thus,

bending torques at the strut, which cause high friction forces, can be reduced.

leaf springs

links

Figure 4.2: Solid axles guided by leaf springs and links

At pickups, trucks, and busses solid axles are used often. They are guided either by leaf springs

or by rigid links, Fig. 4.2. Solid axles tend to tramp on rough roads.

Leaf-spring-guided solid axle suspension systems are very robust. Dry friction between the leafs

leads to locking effects in the suspension. Although the leaf springs provide axle guidance on

some solid axle suspension systems, additional links in longitudinal and lateral direction are

used. Thus, the typical wind-up effect on braking can be avoided.

Solid axles suspended by air springs need at least four links for guidance. In addition to a good

driving comfort air springs allow level control too.

51

4 Suspension System

4.2.2 Speciﬁc Systems

The semi-trailing arm, the short-long-arm axle (SLA), and the twist beam axle suspension are

suitable only for non-steered axles, Fig. 4.3.

Figure 4.3: Speciﬁc wheel/axles suspension systems

The semi-trailing arm is a simple and cheap design which requires only few space. It is mostly

used for driven rear axles.

The short-long-arm axle design allows a nearly independent layout of longitudinal and lateral

axle motions. It is similar to the central control arm axle suspension, where the trailing arm is

completely rigid and hence, only two lateral links are needed.

The twist beam axle suspension exhibits either a trailing arm or a semi-trailing arm character-

istic. It is used for non driven rear axles only. The twist beam axle provides enough space for

spare tire and fuel tank.

4.3 Steering Systems

4.3.1 Requirements

The steering system must guarantee easy and safe steering of the vehicle. The entirety of the

mechanical transmission devices must be able to cope with all loads and stresses occurring in

operation.

52

4.3 Steering Systems

In order to achieve a good maneuverability a maximum steering angle of approx. 30

◦

must be

provided at the front wheels of passenger cars. Depending on the wheel base, busses and trucks

need maximum steering angles up to 55

◦

at the front wheels.

Recently some companies have started investigations on ‘steer by wire’ techniques.

4.3.2 Rack and Pinion Steering

Rack-and-pinion is the most common steering system of passenger cars, Fig. 4.4. The rack may

be located either in front of or behind the axle. Firstly, the rotations of the steering wheel δ

S

steering

box

rack

d

ra

g

lin

k

wheel

and

wheel

body

u

R

δ

1

δ

2

pinion

δ

S

Figure 4.4: Rack and pinion steering

are transformed by the steering box to the rack travel u

R

= u

R

(δ

S

) and then via the drag links

transmitted to the wheel rotations δ

1

= δ

1

(u

R

), δ

2

= δ

2

(u

R

). Hence, the overall steering ratio

depends on the ratio of the steering box and on the kinematics of the steering linkage.

4.3.3 Lever Arm Steering System

steering box

drag link 1

δ

2

δ

1

δ

L drag link 2

s

te

e

rin

g

le

v

e

r 2

s

t

e

e

r

in

g

le

v

e

r

1

wheel and

wheel body

Figure 4.5: Lever arm steering system

Using a lever arm steering system Fig. 4.5, large steering angles at the wheels are possible. This

steering system is used on trucks with large wheel bases and independent wheel suspension at

the front axle. Here, the steering box can be placed outside of the axle center.

53

4 Suspension System

Firstly, the rotations of the steering wheel δ

S

are transformed by the steering box to the ro-

tation of the steer levers δ

L

= δ

L

(δ

S

). The drag links transmit this rotation to the wheel

δ

1

= δ

1

(δ

L

), δ

2

= δ

2

(δ

L

). Hence, the overall steering ratio again depends on the ratio of the

steering box and on the kinematics of the steering linkage.

4.3.4 Drag Link Steering System

At solid axles the drag link steering system is used, Fig. 4.6. The rotations of the steering wheel

steer box

(90

o

rotated)

drag link

steering link

ste

e

rin

g

le

ve

r

O

δ

L

δ

1

δ

2

wheel

and

wheel

body

Figure 4.6: Drag link steering system

δ

S

are transformed by the steering box to the rotation of the steering lever arm δ

L

= δ

L

(δ

S

) and

further on to the rotation of the left wheel, δ

1

= δ

1

(δ

L

). The drag link transmits the rotation of

the left wheel to the right wheel, δ

2

= δ

2

(δ

1

). The steering ratio is deﬁned by the ratio of the

steering box and the kinematics of the steering link. Here, the ratio δ

2

= δ

2

(δ

1

) given by the

kinematics of the drag link can be changed separately.

4.3.5 Bus Steer System

In busses the driver sits more than 2 m in front of the front axle. In addition, large steering

angles at the front wheels are needed to achieve a good manoeuvrability. That is why, more

sophisticated steering systems are needed, Fig. 4.7. The rotations of the steering wheel δ

S

are

transformed by the steering box to the rotation of the steering lever arm δ

L

= δ

L

(δ

S

). The left

lever arm is moved via the steering link δ

A

= δ

A

(δ

L

). This motion is transferred by a coupling

link to the right lever arm. Finally, the left and right wheels are rotated via the drag links,

δ

1

= δ

1

(δ

A

) and δ

2

= δ

2

(δ

A

).

54

4.4 Standard Force Elements

steering box

steering link

δ

2

δ

1

drag link

coupl.

link

le

ft

le

ve

r

a

rm

s

te

e

rin

g

le

v

e

r

δ

A

wheel and

wheel body

δ

L

Figure 4.7: Typical bus steering system

4.4 Standard Force Elements

4.4.1 Springs

Springs support the weight of the vehicle. In vehicle suspensions coil springs, air springs, torsion

bars, and leaf springs are used, Fig. 4.8.

Coil spring

Leaf spring

Torsion bar u

u

u

Air spring

u

F

S

F

S

F

S

F

S

Figure 4.8: Vehicle suspension springs

Coil springs, torsion bars, and leaf springs absorb additional load by compressing. Thus, the ride

height depends on the loading condition. Air springs are rubber cylinders ﬁlled with compressed

air. They are becoming more popular on passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy trucks because

here the correct vehicle ride height can be maintained regardless of the loading condition by

adjusting the air pressure.

55

4 Suspension System

c

L

F

S

L

F

∆L

u

F

S

c

L

0

u

F

S

F

S

0

Figure 4.9: Linear coil spring and general spring characteristics

Alinear coil spring may be characterized by its free length L

F

and the spring stiffness c, Fig. 4.9.

The force acting on the spring is then given by

F

S

= c

_

L

F

−L

_

, (4.1)

where L denotes the actual length of the spring. Mounted in a vehicle suspension the spring

has to support the corresponding chassis weight. Hence, the spring will be compressed to the

conﬁguration length L

0

< L

F

. Now, Eq. (4.1) can be written as

F

S

= c

_

L

F

−(L

0

−u)

_

= c

_

L

F

−L

0

_

+c u = F

0

S

+c u , (4.2)

where F

0

S

is the spring preload and u describes the spring displacement measured from the

spring’s conﬁguration length.

In general the spring force F

S

can be deﬁned by a nonlinear function of the spring displacement

u

F

S

= F

S

(u) . (4.3)

Now, arbitrary spring characteristics can be approximated by elementary functions, like poly-

nomials, or by tables which are then inter- and extrapolated by linear functions or cubic splines.

The complex behavior of leaf springs and air springs can only be approximated by simple

nonlinear spring characteristics, F

S

= F

S

(u). For detailed investigations sophisticated, [44] or

even dynamic spring models, [8] have to be used.

4.4.2 Anti-Roll Bar

The anti-roll or anti-sway bar or stabilizer is used to reduce the roll angle during cornering and

to provide additional stability. Usually, it is simply a U-shaped metal rod connected to both

of the lower control arms, Fig. 4.10. Thus, the two wheels of an axle are interconnected by a

torsion bar spring. This affects each one-sided bouncing. The axle with the stronger stabilizer

is rather inclined to breaking out, in order to reduce the roll angle.

56

4.4 Standard Force Elements

lo

w

e

r

c

o

n

tr

o

l a

r

m

u

p

p

e

r

c

o

n

tr

o

l a

r

m

s

te

e

r

in

g

b

o

x

a

n

ti-

r

o

ll b

a

r

b

e

a

r

in

g

s

to

c

h

a

s

s

is

lin

k

to

lo

w

e

r

c

o

n

tr

o

l a

r

m

s

2

s

1

Figure 4.10: Axle with anti-roll bar attached to lower control arms

When the suspension at one wheel moves up and on the other down the anti-roll bar generates a

force acting in opposite direction at each wheel. In a good approximation this force is given by

F

arb

= ±c

arb

(s

1

−s

2

) , (4.4)

where s

1

, s

2

denote the vertical suspension motion of the left and right wheel center, and c

W

arb

in

[N/m] names the stiffness of the anti-roll bar with respect to the vertical suspension motions of

the wheel centers.

F

F

∆z

a

d

b

Fa

Fa

∆ϕ

z

1

-z

2

Figure 4.11: Anti-roll bar loaded by vertical forces

Assuming a simple U-shaped anti-roll bar the stiffness of the anti-roll bar is deﬁned by the

geometry and material properties. Vertical forces with the magnitude F applied in opposite di-

rection at both ends to the anti-roll bar, result in the vertical displacement ´z measured between

both ends of the anti-roll bar, Fig. 4.11. The stiffness of the anti-roll bar itself is then deﬁned by

c =

F

´z

. (4.5)

57

4 Suspension System

Neglecting all bending effects one gets

´z = a ´ϕ = a

Fa b

G

π

32

D

4

, (4.6)

where G denotes the modulus of shear and the distances a and b are deﬁned in Fig. 4.11. Hence,

the stiffness of the anti-roll bar is given by

c =

π

32

G D

4

a

2

b

. (4.7)

Depending on the axle design the ends of the ant-roll bar are attached via links to the knuckle

or, as shown in Fig. refFig:susp Axle with anti-roll bar, to the lower control arm. In both cases

the displacement of the anti-roll bar end is given as a function of the vertical suspension motion

of the wheel center. For small displacements one gets

z

1

= i

arb

s

1

and z

2

= i

arb

s

2

, (4.8)

where i

arb

denotes the ratio of the vertical motions of the wheel centers s

1

, s

2

and the anti-roll

bar ends z

1

, z

2

. Now, the the stiffness of the anti-roll bar with respect to the vertical suspension

motions of the wheel centers is given by

c

arb

= i

2

arb

π

32

G D

4

a

2

b

. (4.9)

The stiffness strongly depends (forth power) on the diameter of the anti-roll bar.

For a typical passenger car the following data will hold: a = 230mm, b = 725mm, D = 20mm

and i

arb

= 2/3. The shear modulus of steel is given by G = 85 000 N/mm

2

. Then, one gets

c

arb

=

_

2

3

_

2

π

32

85 000 N/mm

2

(20 mm)

4

(230 mm)

2

725 mm

= 15.5 N/mm = 15 500 N/m. (4.10)

This simple calculation will produce the real stiffness not exactly, because bending effects and

compliancies in the anti-roll bar bearings will reduce the the stiffness of the anti-roll bar.

4.4.3 Damper

Dampers are basically oil pumps, Fig. 4.12. As the suspension travels up and down, the hy-

draulic ﬂuid is forced by a piston through tiny holes, called oriﬁces. This slows down the sus-

pension motion.

Today twin-tube and mono-tube dampers are used in vehicle suspension systems. Dynamic

damper model, like the one in [1], compute the damper force via the ﬂuid pressure applied to

each side of the piston. The change in ﬂuid pressures in the compression and rebound chambers

are calculated by applying the conservation of mass.

58

4.4 Standard Force Elements

Remote Oil Ch.

Rebound Ch.

Remote Gas Chamber

Compression

Chamber

Piston

F

D

v

F

D

Piston orifice

Remote orifice

Figure 4.12: Principle of a mono-tube damper

In standard vehicle dynamics applications simple characteristics

F

D

= F

D

(v) (4.11)

are used to describe the damper force F

D

as a function of the damper velocity v. To obtain this

characteristics the damper is excited with a sinusoidal displacement signal u = u

0

sin 2πft. By

varying the frequency in several steps from f = f

0

to f = f

E

different force displacement

curves F

D

= F

D

(u) are obtained, Fig. 4.13. By taking the peak values of the damper force at

the displacement u = u

0

which corresponds with the velocity v = ±2πfu

0

the characteristics

F

D

= F

D

(v) is generated now. Here, the rebound cycle is associated with negative damper

velocities.

1000

0 -0.04 0

-1000

-2000

-3000

-0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 -0.02 0.02 0.04

0

-4000

-0.06 0.06 0.8 1.6 1.2 0.4

F

D

= F

D

(u) F

D

= F

D

(v)

Rebound

Compression

F

D

[

N

]

u [m]

v [m/s]

f

E

f

0

Figure 4.13: Damper characteristics generated from measurements, [14]

Typical passenger car or truck dampers will have more resistance during its rebound cycle then

its compression cycle.

4.4.4 Rubber Elements

Force elements made of natural rubber or urethane compounds are used in many locations on

the vehicle suspension system, Fig. 4.14. Those elements require no lubrication, isolate minor

59

4 Suspension System

vibration, reduce transmitted road shock, operate noise free, offer high load carrying capabili-

ties, and are very durable.

Control arm

bushings

Subframe mounts

Topmount

Stop

Figure 4.14: Rubber elements in vehicle suspension

During suspension travel, the control arm bushings provide a pivot point for the control arm.

They also maintain the exact wheel alignment by ﬁxing the lateral and vertical location of the

control arm pivot points. During suspension travel the rubber portion of the bushing must twist

to allow control arm motion. Thus, an additional resistance to suspension motion is generated.

Bump and rebound stops limit the suspension travel. The compliance of the topmount avoids

the transfer of large shock forces to the chassis. The subframe mounts isolate the suspension

system from the chassis and allow elasto-kinematic steering effects of the whole axle.

It turns out, that those elastic elements can hardly be described by simple spring and damper

characteristics, F

S

= F

S

(u) and F

D

= F

D

(v), because their stiffness and damping properties

change with the frequency of the motion. Here, more sophisticated dynamic models are needed.

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

4.5.1 Testing and Evaluating Procedures

The effect of dynamic force elements is usually evaluated in the frequency domain. For this, on

test rigs or in simulation the force element is excited by sine waves

x

e

(t) = A sin(2π f t) , (4.12)

with different frequencies f

0

≤ f ≤ f

E

and amplitudes A

min

≤ A ≤ A

max

. Starting at t = 0,

the system will usually be in a steady state condition after several periods t ≥ nT, where T =

1/f and n = 2, 3, . . . have to be chosen appropriately. Due to the nonlinear system behavior the

system response is periodic, F(t +T) = F(T), where T = 1/f, yet not harmonic. That is why,

60

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

the measured or calculated force F will be approximated within one period nT ≤ t ≤ (n+1)T,

by harmonic functions as good as possible

F(t)

.¸¸.

measured/

calculated

≈ α sin(2π f t) +β cos(2π f t)

. ¸¸ .

ﬁrst harmonic approximation

. (4.13)

The coefﬁcients α and β can be calculated from the demand for a minimal overall error

1

2

(n+1)T

_

nT

_

α sin(2π f t)+β cos(2π f t) −F(t)

_

2

dt −→ Minimum . (4.14)

The differentiation of Eq. (4.14) with respect to α and β yields two linear equations as necessary

conditions

(n+1)T

_

nT

_

α sin(2π f t)+β cos(2π f t) −F(t)

_

sin(2π f t) dt = 0

(n+1)T

_

nT

_

α sin(2π f t)+β cos(2π f t) −F(t)

_

cos(2π f t) dt = 0

(4.15)

with the solutions

α =

_

F sin dt

_

cos

2

dt −

_

F cos dt

_

sin cos dt

_

sin

2

dt

_

cos

2

dt −2

_

sin cos dt

β =

_

F cos dt

_

sin

2

dt −

_

F sin dt

_

sin cos dt

_

sin

2

dt

_

cos

2

dt −2

_

sin cos dt

, (4.16)

where the integral limits and arguments of sine and cosine no longer have been written. Because

it is integrated exactly over one period nT ≤ t ≤ (n + 1)T, for the integrals in Eq. (4.16)

_

sin cos dt = 0 ;

_

sin

2

dt =

T

2

;

_

cos

2

dt =

T

2

(4.17)

hold, and as solution

α =

2

T

_

F sin dt , β =

2

T

_

F cos dt (4.18)

remains. However, these are exactly the ﬁrst two coefﬁcients of a Fourier-"-Approximation.

The ﬁrst order harmonic approximation in Eq. (4.13) can now be written as

F(t) =

ˆ

F sin (2π f t + Ψ) (4.19)

where amplitude

ˆ

F and phase angle Ψ are given by

ˆ

F =

_

α

2

+β

2

and tan Ψ =

β

α

. (4.20)

61

4 Suspension System

A simple force element consisting of a linear spring with the stiffness c and a linear damper

with the constant d in parallel would respond with

F(t) = c x

e

+ d ˙ x

e

= c A sin 2πft + d 2πf A cos 2πft . (4.21)

Here, amplitude and phase angle are given by

ˆ

F = A

_

c

2

+ (2πfd)

2

and tan Ψ =

d 2πf A

c A

= 2πf

d

c

. (4.22)

Hence, the response of a pure spring, c ,= 0 and d = 0 is characterized by

ˆ

F = Ac and

tan Ψ = 0 or Ψ = 0, whereas a pure damper response with c = 0 and d ,= 0 results in

ˆ

F = 2πfdA and tan Ψ → ∞ or Ψ = 90

◦

. Hence, the phase angle Ψ which is also called

the dissipation angle can be used to evaluate the damping properties of the force element. The

dynamic stiffness, deﬁned by

c

dyn

=

ˆ

F

A

(4.23)

is used to evaluate the stiffness of the element.

In practice the frequency response of a system is not determined punctually, but continuously.

For this, the system is excited by a sweep-sine. In analogy to the simple sine-function

x

e

(t) = A sin(2π f t) , (4.24)

where the period T = 1/f appears as pre-factor at differentiation

˙ x

e

(t) = A2π f cos(2π f t) =

2π

T

A cos(2π f t) . (4.25)

A generalized sine-function can be constructed, now. Starting with

x

e

(t) = A sin(2π h(t)) , (4.26)

the time derivative results in

˙ x

e

(t) = A2π

˙

h(t) cos(2π h(t)) . (4.27)

In the following we demand that the function h(t) generates periods fading linearly in time, i.e:

˙

h(t) =

1

T(t)

=

1

p −q t

, (4.28)

where p > 0 and q > 0 are constants yet to determine. Eq. (4.28) yields

h(t) = −

1

q

ln(p −q t) + C . (4.29)

The initial condition h(t = 0) = 0 ﬁxes the integration constant

C =

1

q

ln p . (4.30)

62

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

With Eqs. (4.30) and (4.29) Eq. (4.26) results in a sine-like function

x

e

(t) = A sin

_

2π

q

ln

p

p −q t

_

, (4.31)

which is characterized by linear fading periods.

The important zero values for determining the period duration lie at

1

q

ln

p

p −q t

n

= 0, 1, 2, or

p

p −q t

n

= e

nq

, mit n = 0, 1, 2, (4.32)

and

t

n

=

p

q

_

1 −e

−nq

_

, n = 0, 1, 2, . (4.33)

The time difference between two zero values yields the period

T

n

= t

n+1

−t

n

=

p

q

_

1−e

−(n+1) q

−1+e

−nq

_

T

n

=

p

q

e

−nq

_

1 −e

−q

_

, n = 0, 1, 2, . (4.34)

For the ﬁrst (n = 0) and last (n = N) period one ﬁnds

T

0

=

p

q

_

1 −e

−q

_

T

N

=

p

q

_

1 −e

−q

_

e

−N q

= T

0

e

−N q

. (4.35)

With the frequency range to investigate, given by the initial f

0

and ﬁnal frequency f

E

, the

parameters q and the ratio q/p can be calculated from Eq. (4.35)

q =

1

N

ln

f

E

f

0

,

q

p

= f

0

_

1 −

_

f

E

f

0

_ 1

N

_

, (4.36)

with N ﬁxing the number of frequency intervals. The passing of the whole frequency range then

takes the time

t

N+1

=

1 −e

−(N+1) q

q/p

. (4.37)

Hence, to test or simulate a force element in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to f = 100 Hz

with N = 500 intervals will only take 728 s or 12min.

4.5.2 Simple Spring Damper Combination

Fig. 4.15 shows a simple dynamic force element where a linear spring with the stiffness c and a

linear damper with the damping constant d are arranged in series.

The displacements of the force element and the spring itself are described by u and s. Then, the

the forces acting in the spring and damper are given by

F

S

= c s and F

D

= d ( ˙ u − ˙ s) . (4.38)

63

4 Suspension System

s u

c d

Figure 4.15: Spring and damper in series

The force balance F

D

= F

S

results in a linear ﬁrst order differential equation for the spring

displacement s

d ( ˙ u − ˙ s) = c s or

d

c

˙ s = −s +

d

c

˙ u , (4.39)

where the ratio between the damping coefﬁcient d and the spring stiffness c acts as time con-

stant, T = d/c. Hence, this force element will responds dynamically to any excitation.

The steady state response to a harmonic excitation

u(t) = u

0

sin Ωt respectively ˙ u = u

0

Ωcos Ωt (4.40)

can be calculated easily. The steady state response will be of the same type as the excitation.

Inserting

s

∞

(t) = u

0

(a sin Ωt +b cos Ωt) (4.41)

into Eq. (4.39) results in

d

c

u

0

(aΩcos Ωt −bΩsin Ωt)

. ¸¸ .

˙ s

∞

= − u

0

(a sin Ωt +b cos Ωt)

. ¸¸ .

s

∞

+

d

c

u

0

Ωcos Ωt

. ¸¸ .

˙ u

. (4.42)

Collecting all sine and cosine terms we obtain two equations

−

d

c

u

0

bΩ = −u

0

a and

d

c

u

0

a Ω = −u

0

b +

d

c

u

0

Ω (4.43)

which can be solved for the two unknown parameter

a =

Ω

2

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

and b =

c

d

Ω

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

. (4.44)

Hence, the steady state force response reads as

F

S

= c s

∞

= c u

0

Ω

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

_

Ω sin Ωt +

c

d

cos Ωt

_

(4.45)

which can be transformed to

F

S

=

ˆ

F

S

sin (Ωt + Ψ) (4.46)

where the force magnitude

ˆ

F

S

and the phase angle Ψ are given by

ˆ

F

S

=

c u

0

Ω

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

_

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

=

c u

0

Ω

_

Ω

2

+ (c/d)

2

and Ψ = arctan

c/d

Ω

. (4.47)

64

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

0

100

200

300

400

0 20 40 60 80 100

0

50

100

c

dyn

[N/mm]

[

o

]

Ψ

f [Hz]

c = 400 N/mm

d

1

= 1000 N/(m/s)

d

2

= 2000 N/(m/s)

d

1

= 3000 N/(m/s)

d

2

= 4000 N/(m/s)

1

1

2

3

4

2

3

4

c

d

Figure 4.16: Frequency response of a spring damper combination

The dynamic stiffness c

dyn

=

ˆ

F

S

/u

0

and the phase angle Ψ are plotted in Fig. 4.16 for different

damping values.

With increasing frequency the spring damper combination changes from a pure damper perfor-

mance, c

dyn

→ 0 and Ψ ≈ 90

◦

to a pure spring behavior, c

dyn

≈ c and Ψ → 0. The frequency

range, where the element provides stiffness and damping is controlled by the value for the

damping constant d.

4.5.3 General Dynamic Force Model

To approximate the complex dynamic behavior of bushings and elastic mounts different spring

damper models can be combined. A general dynamic force model is constructed by N parallel

force elements, Fig. 4.17. The static load is carried by a single spring with the stiffness c

0

or an

arbitrary nonlinear force characteristics F

0

= F

0

(u).

Within each force element the spring acts in serial to parallel combination of a damper and a

dry friction element. Now, even hysteresis effects and the stress history of the force element can

be taken into account.

The forces acting in the spring and damper of force element i are given by

F

Si

= −c

i

s

i

and F

Di

= d

i

( ˙ s

i

− ˙ u) , (4.48)

were u and s

i

describe the overall element and the spring displacement.

65

4 Suspension System

c

1 c

2

c

N

d

1

s

1

d

2

s

2

d

N

s

N

u

F

F1

F

M

F

F2

F

M

F

FN

F

M

c

0

Figure 4.17: Dynamic force model

As long as the absolute value of the spring force F

Si

is lower than the maximum friction force

F

M

Fi

the damper friction combination will not move at all

˙ u − ˙ s

i

= 0 for [F

Si

[ ≤ F

M

Fi

. (4.49)

In all other cases the force balance

F

Si

= F

Di

± F

M

Fi

(4.50)

holds. Using Eq. 4.48 the force balance results in

d

i

( ˙ s

i

− ˙ u) = F

Si

∓ F

M

Fi

(4.51)

which can be combined with Eq. 4.49 to

d

i

˙ s

i

=

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

F

Si

+ F

M

Fi

F

Si

<−F

M

Fi

d

i

˙ u for −F

M

Fi

≤F

Si

≤+F

M

Fi

F

Si

− F

M

Fi

+F

M

Fi

<F

Si

(4.52)

where according to Eq. 4.48 the spring force is given by F

Si

= −c

i

s

i

.

In extension to this linear approach nonlinear springs and dampers may be used. To derive all

the parameters an extensive set of static and dynamic measurements is needed.

4.5.3.1 Hydro-Mount

For the elastic suspension of engines in vehicles very often specially developed hydro-mounts

are used. The dynamic nonlinear behavior of these components guarantees a good acoustic

decoupling but simultaneously provides sufﬁcient damping.

Fig. 4.18 shows the principle and mathematical model of a hydro-mount. At small deformations

the change of volume in chamber 1 is compensated by displacements of the membrane. When

66

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

main spring

chamber 1

membrane

ring channel

x

e

c

2

T

c

F

M

F

u

F

__ c

2

T __

d

2

F __

d

2

F __

chamber 2

Figure 4.18: Hydro-mount

the membrane reaches the stop, the liquid in chamber 1 is pressed through a ring channel into

chamber 2. The ratio of the chamber cross section to the ring channel cross section is very large.

Thus the ﬂuid is moved through the ring channel at very high speed. This results in remarkable

inertia and resistance forces (damping forces).

The force effect of a hydro-mount is combined from the elasticity of the main spring and the

volume change in chamber 1.

With u

F

labeling the displacement of the generalized ﬂuid mass M

F

,

F

H

= c

T

x

e

+ F

F

(x

e

−u

F

) (4.53)

holds, where the force effect of the main spring has been approximated by a linear spring with

the constant c

T

.

With M

FR

as the actual mass in the ring channel and the cross sections A

K

, A

R

of chamber and

ring channel the generalized ﬂuid mass is given by

M

F

=

_

A

K

A

R

_

2

M

FR

. (4.54)

The ﬂuid in chamber 1 is not being compressed, unless the membrane can evade no longer. With

the ﬂuid stiffness c

F

and the membrane clearance s

F

, one gets

F

F

(x

e

−u

F

) =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

c

F

_

(x

e

−u

F

) + s

F

_

(x

e

−u

F

) < −s

F

0 for [x

e

−u

f

[ ≤ s

F

c

F

_

(x

e

−u

F

) − s

F

_

(x

e

−u

f

) > +s

F

(4.55)

The hard transition from clearance F

F

= 0 and ﬂuid compression resp. chamber deformation

with F

F

,= 0 is not realistic and leads to problems, even with the numeric solution. Therefore,

the function (4.55) is smoothed by a parabola in the range [x

e

−u

f

[ ≤ 2 ∗ s

F

.

67

4 Suspension System

The motions of the ﬂuid mass cause friction losses in the ring channel, which are as a ﬁrst

approximation proportional to the speed,

F

D

= d

F

˙ u

F

. (4.56)

Then, the equation of motion for the ﬂuid mass reads as

M

F

¨ u

F

= −F

F

−F

D

. (4.57)

The membrane clearance makes Eq. (4.57) nonlinear and only solvable by numerical integra-

tion. The nonlinearity also affects the overall force in the hydro-mount, Eq. (4.53).

The dynamic stiffness and the dissipation angle of a hydro-mount are displayed in Fig. 4.19

versus the frequency.

0

100

200

300

400

10

0

10

1

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Dissipation Angle [deg] at Excitation Amplitudes A = 2.5/0.5/0.1 mm

Excitation Frequency [Hz]

Dynamic Stiffness [N/m] at Excitation Amplitudes A = 2.5/0.5/0.1 mm

Figure 4.19: Dynamic Stiffness [N/mm] and Dissipation Angle [deg] for a Hydro-Mount

The simulation is based on the following system parameters

68

4.5 Dynamic Force Elements

m

F

= 25 kg generalized ﬂuid mass

c

T

= 125 000 N/m stiffness of main spring

d

F

= 750 N/(m/s) damping constant

c

F

= 100 000 N/m ﬂuid stiffness

s

F

= 0.0002 mm clearance in membrane bearing

By the nonlinear and dynamic behavior a very good compromise can be achieved between noise

isolation and vibration damping.

69

5 Vertical Dynamics

5.1 Goals

The aim of vertical dynamics is the tuning of body suspension and damping to guarantee good

ride comfort, resp. a minimal stress of the load at sufﬁcient safety.

The stress of the load can be judged fairly well by maximal or integral values of the body

accelerations.

The wheel load F

z

is linked to the longitudinal F

x

and lateral force F

y

by the coefﬁcient of

friction. The digressive inﬂuence of F

z

on F

x

and F

y

as well as non-stationary processes at the

increase of F

x

and F

y

in the average lead to lower longitudinal and lateral forces at wheel load

variations.

Maximal driving safety can therefore be achieved with minimal variations of the wheel load.

Small variations of the wheel load also reduce the stress on the track.

The comfort of a vehicle is subjectively judged by the driver. In literature, i.e. [20], different

approaches of describing the human sense of vibrations by different metrics can be found.

Transferred to vehicle vertical dynamics, the driver primarily registers the amplitudes and ac-

celerations of the body vibrations. These values are thus used as objective criteria in practice.

5.2 Basic Tuning

5.2.1 From complex to simple models

For detailed investigations of ride comfort and ride safety sophisticated road and vehicle models

are needed, [45]. The three-dimensional vehicle model, shown in Fig. 5.1, includes an elastically

suspended engine, and dynamic seat models. The elasto-kinematics of the wheel suspension was

described fully nonlinear. In addition, dynamic force elements for the damper elements and the

hydro-mounts are used. Such sophisticated models not only provide simulation results which

are in good conformity to measurements but also make it possible to investigate the vehicle

dynamic attitude in an early design stage.

Much simpler models can be used, however, for basic studies on ride comfort and ride safety.

A two-dimensional vehicle model, for instance, suits perfectly with a single track road model,

Fig. 5.2. Neglecting longitudinal accelerations, the vehicle chassis only performs hub and pitch

motions. Here, the chassis is considered as one rigid body. Then, mass and inertia properties

70

5.2 Basic Tuning

XXXXX X XXX

YYYYY Y YYY

ZZZZZ Z ZZZ

Time = 0.000000

Thilo Seibert Ext. 37598

Vehicle Dynamics, Ford Research Center Aachen

/export/ford/dffa089/u/tseiber1/vedyna/work/results/mview.mvw 07/02/98

AA/FFA

Ford

Figure 5.1: Full Vehicle Model

C

a

1

a

2

M*

M

1

M

2

m

1

m

2

z

A1

z

C1

z

R

(s-a

2

)

z

C2

z

R

(s+a

1

)

z

B

x

B

y

B

C

hub

M, Θ

z

A2

pitch

z

R

(s)

s

Figure 5.2: Vehicle Model for Basic Comfort and Safety Analysis

can be represented by three point masses which are located in the chassis center of gravity and

on top of the front and the rear axle. The lumped mass model has 4 degrees of freedom. The

hub and pitch motion of the chassis are represented by the vertical motions of the chassis in the

front z

C1

and in the rear z

C2

. The coordinates z

A1

and z

A2

describe the vertical motions of the

front and rear axle. The function z

R

(s) provides road irregularities in the space domain, where s

denotes the distance covered by the vehicle and measured at the chassis center of gravity. Then,

the irregularities at the front and rear axle are given by z

R

(s +a

1

) and z

R

(s −a

2

) respectively,

where a

1

and a

2

locate the position of the chassis center of gravity C.

The point masses must add up to the chassis mass

M

1

+M

∗

+M

2

= M (5.1)

and they have to provide the same inertia around an axis located in the chassis center C and

pointing into the lateral direction

a

2

1

M

1

+a

2

2

M

2

= Θ. (5.2)

71

5 Vertical Dynamics

The correct location of the center of gravity is assured by

a

1

M

1

= a

2

M

2

. (5.3)

Now, Eqs. (5.2) and (5.3) yield the main masses

M

1

=

Θ

a

1

(a

1

+a

2

)

and M

2

=

Θ

a

2

(a

1

+a

2

)

, (5.4)

and the coupling mass

M

∗

= M

_

1 −

Θ

Ma

1

a

2

_

(5.5)

follows from Eq. (5.1).

If the mass and the inertia properties of a real vehicle happen to result in Θ = Ma

1

a

2

then,

the coupling mass vanishes M

∗

= 0, and the vehicle can be represented by two uncoupled two

mass systems describing the vertical motion of the axle and the hub motion of the chassis mass

on top of each axle.

vehicles

properties

mid

size

car

full

size

car

sports

utility

vehicle

commercial

vehicle

heavy

truck

front axle

mass

m

1

[kg] 80 100 125 120 600

rear axle

mass

m

2

[kg] 80 100 125 180 1100

center

of

gravity

a

1

[m]

a

2

[m]

1.10

1.40

1.40

1.40

1.45

1.38

1.90

1.40

2.90

1.90

chassis

mass

M [kg] 1100 1400 1950 3200 14300

chassis

inertia

Θ [kg m

2

] 1500 2350 3750 5800 50000

lumped

mass

model

M

1

M

∗

M

2

[kg]

545

126

429

600

200

600

914

76

960

925

1020

1255

3592

5225

5483

Table 5.1: Mass and Inertia Properties of different Vehicles

Depending on the actual mass and inertia properties the vertical dynamics of a vehicle can be

investigated by two simple decoupled mass models describing the vibrations of the front and

rear axle and the corresponding chassis masses. By using half of the chassis and half of the axle

mass we ﬁnally end up in quarter car models.

The data in Table 5.1 show that for a wide range of passenger cars the coupling mass is smaller

than the corresponding chassis masses, M

∗

< M

1

and M

∗

< M

2

. Here, the two mass model

or the quarter car model represent a quite good approximation to the lumped mass model. For

72

5.2 Basic Tuning

commercial vehicles and trucks, where the coupling mass has the same magnitude as the corre-

sponding chassis masses, the quarter car model serves for basic studies only.

At most vehicles, c.f. Table 5.1, the axle mass is much smaller than the corresponding chassis

mass, m

i

¸M

i

, i = 1, 2. Hence, for a ﬁrst basic study axle and chassis motions can be in-

vestigated independently. The quarter car model is now further simpliﬁed to two single mass

models, Fig. 5.3.

z

R

6

c

c

S

`

`

`

`

`

`

M

d

S

z

C

6

z

R

6

c

T

c

`

`

`

`

`

`

z

W

6 m

c

S

`

`

`

`

`

`

d

S

Figure 5.3: Simple Vertical Vehicle Models

The chassis model neglects the tire deﬂection and the inertia forces of the wheel. For the high

frequent wheel motions the chassis can be considered as ﬁxed to the inertia frame.

The equations of motion for the models read as

M ¨ z

C

+ d

S

˙ z

C

+ c

S

z

C

= d

S

˙ z

R

+ c

S

z

R

(5.6)

and

m ¨ z

W

+ d

S

˙ z

W

+ (c

S

+c

T

) z

W

= c

T

z

R

, (5.7)

where z

C

and z

W

label the vertical motions of the corresponding chassis mass and the wheel

mass with respect to the steady state position. The constants c

S

, d

S

describe the suspension

stiffness and damping. The dynamic wheel load is calculated by

F

D

T

= c

T

(z

R

−z

W

) (5.8)

where c

T

is the vertical or radial stiffness of the tire and z

R

denotes the road irregularities. In

this simple approach the damping effects in the tire are not taken into account.

5.2.2 Natural Frequency and Damping Rate

At an ideally even track the right side of the equations of motion (5.6), (5.7) vanishes because

of z

R

=0 and ˙ z

R

=0. The remaining homogeneous second order differential equations can be

written in a more general form as

¨ z + 2 ζ ω

0

˙ z + ω

2

0

z = 0 , (5.9)

73

5 Vertical Dynamics

where ω

0

represents the undamped natural frequency, and ζ is a dimensionless parameter called

viscous damping ratio. For the chassis and the wheel model the new parameter are given by

Chassis: z →z

C

, ζ → ζ

C

=

d

S

2

√

c

S

M

, ω

2

0

→ ω

2

0C

=

c

S

M

;

Wheel: z →z

W

, ζ → ζ

W

=

d

S

2

_

(c

S

+c

T

)m

, ω

2

0

→ ω

2

0W

=

c

S

+c

T

m

.

(5.10)

The solution of Eq. (5.9) is of the type

z(t) = z

0

e

λt

, (5.11)

where z

0

and λ are constants. Inserting Eq. (5.11) into Eq. (5.9) results in

(λ

2

+ 2 ζ ω

0

λ +ω

2

0

) z

0

e

λt

= 0 . (5.12)

Non-trivial solutions z

0

,= 0 are possible, if

λ

2

+ 2 ζ ω

0

λ +ω

2

0

= 0 (5.13)

will hold. The roots of the characteristic equation (5.13) depend on the value of ζ

ζ < 1 : λ

1,2

= −ζ ω

0

± i ω

0

_

1−ζ

2

,

ζ ≥ 1 : λ

1,2

= −ω

0

_

ζ ∓

_

ζ

2

−1

_

.

(5.14)

Figure 5.4 shows the root locus of the eigenvalues for different values of the viscous damping

rate ζ.

-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5

-1

-0.5

-1.0

-0.5

0

0.5

1.0

Re(λ)

/ω

0

Im(λ)

/ω

0

ζ=1

ζ=1.25 ζ=1.25 ζ=1.5

ζ=1.5

ζ=0

ζ=0

ζ=0.2

ζ=0.2

ζ=0.5

ζ=0.5

ζ=0.7

ζ=0.7

ζ=0.9

ζ=0.9

Figure 5.4: Eigenvalues λ

1

and λ

2

for different values of ζ

74

5.2 Basic Tuning

For ζ ≥ 1 the eigenvalues λ

1,2

are both real and negative. Hence, Eq. (5.11) will produce a

exponentially decaying solution. If ζ < 1 holds, the eigenvalues λ

1,2

will become complex,

where λ

2

is the complex conjugate of λ

1

. Now, the solution can be written as

z(t) = Ae

−ζω

0

t

sin

_

ω

0

_

1−ζ

2

t −Ψ

_

, (5.15)

where Aand Ψ are constants which have to be adjusted to given initial conditions z(0) = z

0

and

˙ z(0) = ˙ z

0

. The real part Re (λ

1,2

) = −ζω

0

is negative and determines the decay of the solution.

The imaginary Im(λ

1,2

) = ω

0

_

1−ζ

2

part deﬁnes the actual frequency of the vibration. The

actual frequency

ω = ω

0

_

1−ζ

2

(5.16)

tends to zero, ω →0, if the viscous damping ratio will approach the value one, ζ →1.

In a more general way the relative damping may be judged by the ratio

D

λ

=

−Re(λ

1,2

)

[ λ

1,2

[

. (5.17)

For complex eigenvalues which characterize vibrations

D

λ

= ζ (5.18)

holds, because the absolute value of the complex eigenvalues is given by

[ λ

1,2

[ =

_

Re(λ

1,2

)

2

+Im(λ

1,2

)

2

=

_

(−ζ ω

0

)

2

+

_

ω

0

_

1−ζ

2

_

2

= ω

0

, (5.19)

and hence, Eq. (5.17) results in

D

λ

=

+ζ ω

0

ω

0

= ζ . (5.20)

For ζ ≥ 1 the eigenvalues become real and negative. Then, Eq. (5.17) will always produce the

relative damping value D

λ

= 1. In this case the viscous damping rate ζ is more sensitive.

5.2.3 Spring Rates

5.2.3.1 Minimum Spring Rates

The suspension spring is loaded with the corresponding vehicle weight. At linear spring char-

acteristics the steady state spring deﬂection is calculated from

u

0

=

M g

c

S

. (5.21)

At a conventional suspension without niveau regulation a load variation M →M +´M leads

to changed spring deﬂections u

0

→ u

0

+ ´u. In analogy to (5.21) the additional deﬂection

follows from

´u =

´M g

c

S

. (5.22)

75

5 Vertical Dynamics

If for the maximum load variation ´M the additional spring deﬂection is limited to ´u the

suspension spring rate can be estimated by a lower bound

c

S

≥

´M g

´u

. (5.23)

In the standard design of a passenger car the engine is located in the front and the trunk in the

rear part of the vehicle. Hence, most of the load is supported by the rear axle suspension.

For an example we assume that 150 kg of the permissible load of 500 kg are going to the front

axle. Then, each front wheel is loaded by ´M

F

= 150 kg/2 = 75 kg and each rear wheel by

´M

R

= (500 −150) kg/2 = 175 kg.

The maximum wheel travel is limited, u ≤ u

max

. At standard passenger cars it is in the range

of u

max

≈ 0.8 m to u

max

≈ 0.10 m. By setting ´u = u

max

/2 we demand that the spring

deﬂection caused by the load should not exceed half of the maximum value. Then, according to

Eq. (5.23) a lower bound of the spring rate at the front axle can be estimated by

c

min

S

= ( 75 kg ∗ 9.81 m/s

2

)/(0.08/2) m = 18400 N/m. (5.24)

The maximum load over one rear wheel was estimated here by ´M

R

= 175 kg. Assuming that

the suspension travel at the rear axle is slightly larger, u

max

≈ 0.10 m the minimum spring rate

at the rear axle can be estimated by

c

min

S

= ( 175 kg ∗ 9.81 m/s

2

)/(0.10/2) m = 34300 N/m, (5.25)

which is nearly two times the minimum value of the spring rate at the front axle. In order to

reduce this difference we will choose a spring rate of c

S

= 20 000 N/m at the front axle.

In Tab. 5.1 the lumped mass chassis model of a full size passenger car is described by M

1

=

M

2

= 600 kg and M

∗

= 200. To approximate the lumped mass model by two decoupled two

mass models we have to neglect the coupling mass or, in order to achieve the same chassis

mass, to distribute M

∗

equally to the front and the rear. Then, the corresponding cassis mass of

a quarter car model is given here by

M =

_

M

1

+M

∗

/2

_

/2 = (600 kg + 200/2 kg)/2 = 350 kg . (5.26)

According to Eq. 5.10 the undamped natural eigen frequency of the simple chassis model is

then given by ω

2

0C

= c

S

/M. Hence, for a spring rate of c

S

= 20000 N/m the undamped natural

frequency of the unloaded car amounts to

f

0C

=

_

20000 N/m∗ 350 kg/(2 π) = 1.2 Hz , (5.27)

which is a typical value for most of all passenger cars. Due to the small amount of load the

undamped natural frequency for the loaded car does not change very much,

f

0C

=

_

20000 N/m∗ (350 + 75) kg/(2 π) = 1.1 Hz . (5.28)

The corresponding cassis mass over the rear axle is given here by

M =

_

M

2

+M

∗

/2

_

/2 = (600 kg + 200/2 kg)/2 = 350 kg . (5.29)

76

5.2 Basic Tuning

Now the undamped natural frequencies for the unloaded

f

0

0C

=

_

34300 N/m/350 kg/(2 π) = 1.6 Hz (5.30)

and the loaded car

f

L

0C

=

_

34300 N/m/(350 + 175) kg/(2 π) = 1.3 Hz (5.31)

are larger and differ more.

5.2.3.2 Nonlinear Springs

In order to reduce the spring rate at the rear axle and to avoid too large spring deﬂections when

loaded nonlinear spring characteristics are used, Fig. 5.5. Adding soft bump stops the overall

spring force in the compression mode u ≥ 0 can be modeled by the nonlinear function

F

S

= F

0

S

+ c

0

u

_

1 +k

_

u

´u

_

2

_

, (5.32)

where F

0

S

is the spring preload, c

S

describes the spring rate at u = 0, and k > 0 characterizes the

intensity of the nonlinearity. The linear characteristic provides at u = ´u the value F

lin

S

(´u) =

F

0

S

+c

S

´u. To achieve the same value with the nonlinear spring

F

0

S

+c

0

´u (1 +k) = F

0

S

+c

S

´u or c

0

(1 +k) = c

S

(5.33)

must hold, where c

S

describes the spring rate of the corresponding linear characteristics. The

local spring rate is determined by the derivative

dF

S

du

= c

0

_

1 + 3 k

_

u

´u

_

2

_

. (5.34)

Hence, the spring rate for the loaded car at u = ´u is given by

c

L

= c

0

(1 + 3 k) . (5.35)

The intensity of the nonlinearity k can be ﬁxed, for instance, by choosing an appropriate spring

rate for the unloaded vehicle. With c

0

= 20000 N/m the spring rates on the front and rear axle

will be the same for the unloaded vehicle. With c

S

= 34300 N/m Eq. (5.33) yields

k =

c

S

c

0

−1 =

34300

20000

−1 = 0.715 . (5.36)

The solid line in Fig. 5.5 shows the resulting nonlinear spring characteristics which is charac-

terized by the spring rates c

0

= 20 000 N/m and c

L

= c

0

(1 +3k) = 20 000 ∗ (1 +3 ∗ 0.715) =

62 900 N/m for the unloaded and the loaded vehicle. Again, the undamped natural frequencies

f

0

0C

=

¸

20000 N/m

350 kg

1

2 π

= 1.20 Hz or f

L

0C

=

¸

92000 N/m

(350+175) kg

1

2 π

= 1.74 Hz (5.37)

77

5 Vertical Dynamics

F

S

u

F

S

0

∆u

∆M g

dF

S

du

u=∆u

dF

S

du

u=0

c

S

F

S

[

N

]

u

[

m

]

63 kN/m

44 kN/m

20 kN/m

29 kN/m

0 0.05 0.1

2000

4000

6000

8000

Figure 5.5: Principle and realizations of nonlinear spring characteristics

for the unloaded and the loaded vehicle differ quite a lot.

The unloaded and the loaded vehicle have the same undamped natural frequencies if

c

0

M

=

c

L

M +´M

or

c

L

c

0

=

M +´M

M

(5.38)

will hold. Combing this relationship with Eq. (5.35) one obtains

1 + 3 k =

M

M +´M

or k =

1

3

_

M +´M

M

−1

_

=

1

3

´M

M

. (5.39)

Hence, for the quarter car model with M = 350kg and ´M = 175 the intensity of the nonlinear

spring amounts to k = 1/3 ∗ 175/350 = 0.1667. This value and c

S

= 34300 N/m will produce

the dotted line in Fig. 5.5. The spring rates c

0

= c

S

/(1 + k) = 34 300 N/m/ (1 + 0.1667) =

29 400N/mfor the unloaded and c

L

= c

0

(1+3k) = 29 400N/m∗(1+3∗0.1667) = 44 100N/m

for the loaded vehicle follow from Eqs. (5.34) and (5.35). Now, the undamped natural frequency

for the unloaded f

0

0C

=

_

c

0

/M = 1.46 Hz and the loaded vehicle f

0

0C

=

_

c

L

/(M +´M) =

1.46 Hz are in deed the same.

5.2.4 Inﬂuence of Damping

To investigate the inﬂuence of the suspension damping to the chassis and wheel motion the

simple vehicle models are exposed to initial disturbances. Fig. 5.6 shows the time response of

the chassis z

C

(t) and wheel displacement z

W

(t) as well as the chassis acceleration ¨ z

C

and the

wheel load F

T

= F

0

T

+ F

D

T

for different damping rates ζ

C

and ζ

W

. The dynamic wheel load

follows from Eq. (5.8), and the static wheel load is given by F

0

T

= (M + m) g, where g labels

the constant of gravity.

To achieve the same damping rates for the chassis and the wheel model different values for the

damping parameter d

S

were needed.

78

5.2 Basic Tuning

0 0.5 1 1.5

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

displacement [mm]

t [s]

ζ

C

[ - ] d

S

[Ns/m]

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1323

2646

3969

5292

6614

0 0.05 0.1 0.15

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

50 kg

20000 N/m

220000 N/m

d

S

wheel load [N]

t [s]

20000 N/m

350 kg

d

S

ζ

W

[ - ] d

S

[Ns/m]

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1732

3464

5196

6928

8660

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0 0.5 1 1.5

t [s]

acceleration [g]

0 0.05 0.1 0.15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

chassis model wheel model

displacement [mm]

t [s]

ζ

C

ζ

W

ζ

C

ζ

W

Figure 5.6: Time response of simple vehicle models to initial disturbances

With increased damping the overshoot effect in the time history of the chassis displacement and

the wheel load becomes smaller and smaller till it vanishes completely at ζ

C

= 1 and ζ

W

= 1.

The viscous damping rate ζ = 1

5.2.5 Optimal Damping

5.2.5.1 Avoiding Overshoots

If avoiding overshoot effects is the design goal then, ζ = 1 will be the optimal damping ratio.

For ζ = 1 the eigenvalues of the single mass oscillator change from complex to real. Thus,

producing a non oscillating solution without any sine and cosine terms.

79

5 Vertical Dynamics

According to Eq. (5.10) ζ

C

= 1 and ζ

W

= 1 results in the optimal damping parameter

d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

C

=1

Comfort

= 2

_

c

S

M , and d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

W

=1

Safety

= 2

_

(c

S

+c

T

)m . (5.40)

So, the damping values

d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

C

=1

Comfort

= 5292

N

m/s

and d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

W

=1

Safety

= 6928

N

m/s

(5.41)

will avoid an overshoot effect in the time history of the chassis displacement z

C

(t) or in the in

the time history of the wheel load F

T

(t). Usually, as it is here, the damping values for optimal

comfort and optimal ride safety will be different. Hence, a simple linear damper can either avoid

overshoots in the chassis motions or in the wheel loads.

The overshot in the time history of the chassis accelerations ¨ z

C

(t) will only vanish for ζ

C

→∞

which surely is not a desirable conﬁguration, because then, it takes a very long time till the

initial chassis displacement has fully disappeared.

5.2.5.2 Disturbance Reaction Problem

Instead of avoiding overshoot effects we better demand that the time history of the system

response will approach the steady state value as fast as possible. Fig. 5.7 shows the typical

time response of a damped single-mass oscillator to the initial disturbance z(t = 0) = z

0

and

˙ z(t =0) = 0.

z(t)

t

z

0

t

E

z

S

Figure 5.7: Evaluating a damped vibration

Counting the differences of the system response z(t) from the steady state value z

S

= 0 as

errors allows to judge the attenuation. If the overall quadratic error becomes a minimum

2

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

z(t)

2

dt → Min , (5.42)

the system approaches the steady state position as fast as possible. In theory t

E

→∞holds, for

practical applications a ﬁnite t

E

have to be chosen appropriately.

To judge ride comfort and ride safety the hub motion of the chassis z

C

, its acceleration ¨ z

C

and

the variations of the dynamic wheel load F

D

T

can be used. In the absence of road irregularities

80

5.2 Basic Tuning

z

R

= 0 the dynamic wheel load from Eq. (5.8) simpliﬁes to F

D

T

= −c

T

z

W

. Hence, the demands

2

C

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

_

_

g

1

¨ z

C

_

2

+

_

g

2

z

C

_

2

_

dt → Min (5.43)

and

2

S

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

_

−c

T

z

W

_

2

dt → Min (5.44)

will guarantee optimal ride comfort and optimal ride safety. By the factors g

1

and g

2

the accel-

eration and the hub motion can be weighted differently.

The equation of motion for the chassis model can be resolved for the acceleration

¨ z

C

= −

_

ω

2

0C

z

C

+ 2δ

C

˙ z

C

_

, (5.45)

where, the system parameter M, d

S

and c

S

were substituted by the damping rate δ

C

= ζ

C

ω

0C

=

d

S

/(2M) and by the undamped natural frequency ω

0C

= c

S

/M. Then, the problemin Eq. (5.43)

can be written as

2

C

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

_

g

2

1

_

ω

2

0C

z

C

+ 2δ

C

˙ z

C

_

2

+ g

2

2

z

2

C

_

dt

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

_

z

C

˙ z

C

¸

_

_

g

2

1

(ω

2

0C

)

2

+g

2

2

g

2

1

ω

2

0C

2δ

C

g

2

1

ω

2

0C

2δ

C

g

2

1

(2δ

C

)

2

_

_

_

_

z

C

˙ z

C

_

_

→ Min ,

(5.46)

where x

T

C

=

_

z

C

˙ z

C

¸

is the state vector of the chassis model. In a similar way Eq. (5.44) can

be transformed to

2

S

=

t=t

E

_

t=0

c

2

T

z

2

W

dt =

t=t

E

_

t=0

_

z

W

˙ z

W

¸

_

c

2

T

0

0 0

__

z

W

˙ z

W

_

→ Min , (5.47)

where x

T

W

=

_

z

W

˙ z

W

¸

denotes the state vector of the wheel model.

The problems given in Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47) are called disturbance-reaction problems, [7].

They can be written in a more general form

t=t

E

_

t=0

x

T

(t) Qx(t) dt → Min (5.48)

where x(t) denotes the state vector and Q = Q

T

is a symmetric weighting matrix. For single

mass oscillators described by Eq. (5.9) the state equation reads as

_

˙ z

¨ z

_

. ¸¸ .

˙ x

=

_

0 1

−ω

2

0

−2δ

_

. ¸¸ .

A

_

z

˙ z

_

. ¸¸ .

x

. (5.49)

81

5 Vertical Dynamics

For t

E

→ ∞the time response of the system exposed to the initial disturbance x(t =0) = x

0

vanishes x(t →∞) = 0, and the integral in Eq.(5.48) can be solved by

t=t

E

_

t=0

x

T

(t) Qx(t) dt = x

T

0

Rx

0

, (5.50)

where the symmetric matrix R = R

T

is given by the Ljapunov equation

A

T

R + RA + Q = 0 . (5.51)

For the single mass oscillator the Ljapunov equation

_

0 −ω

2

0

1 −2δ

_ _

R

11

R

12

R

12

R

22

_

+

_

R

11

R

12

R

12

R

22

_ _

0 1

−ω

2

0

−2δ

_

+

_

Q

11

Q

12

Q

12

Q

22

_

. (5.52)

results in 3 linear equations

−ω

2

0

R

12

−ω

2

0

R

12

+ Q

11

= 0

−ω

2

0

R

22

+R

11

−2δ R

12

+ Q

12

= 0

R

12

−2δ R

22

+R

12

−2δ R

22

+ Q

22

= 0

(5.53)

which easily can be solved for the elements of R

R

11

=

_

δ

ω

2

0

+

1

4δ

_

Q

11

−Q

12

+

ω

2

0

4δ

Q

22

, R

12

=

Q

11

2ω

2

0

, R

22

=

Q

11

4δ ω

2

0

+

Q

22

4δ

. (5.54)

For the initial disturbance x

0

= [ z

0

0 ]

T

Eq. (5.50) ﬁnally results in

t=t

E

_

t=0

x

T

(t) Qx(t) dt = z

2

0

R

11

= z

2

0

__

δ

ω

2

0

+

1

4δ

_

Q

11

−Q

12

+

ω

2

0

4δ

Q

22

_

. (5.55)

Now, the integral in Eq. (5.46) evaluating the ride comfort is solved by

2

C

= z

2

0C

__

δ

C

ω

2

0C

+

1

4δ

C

_

_

g

2

1

_

ω

2

0C

_

2

+g

2

2

_

−g

2

1

ω

2

0C

2 δ

C

+

ω

2

0C

4δ

C

g

2

1

(2δ

C

)

2

_

= z

2

0C

ω

2

0C

_

ω

0C

4ζ

C

_

g

2

1

+

_

g

2

ω

2

0C

_

2

_

+

_

g

2

ω

2

0C

_

2

ζ

C

ω

0C

_

.

(5.56)

where the abbreviation δ

C

was ﬁnally replaced by ζ

C

ω

0C

.

By setting g

1

= 1 and g

2

= 0 the time history of the chassis acceleration ¨ z

C

is weighted only.

Eq. (5.56) then simpliﬁes to

2

C

¸

¸

¨ z

C

= z

2

0C

ω

2

0C

ω

0C

4ζ

C

(5.57)

82

5.2 Basic Tuning

which will become a minimum for ω

0C

→ 0 or ζ

C

→ ∞. As mentioned before, ζ

C

→ ∞

surely is not a desirable conﬁguration. A low undamped natural frequency ω

0C

→0 is achieved

by a soft suspension spring c

S

→ 0 or a large chassis mass M → ∞. However, a large chas-

sis mass is uneconomic and the suspension stiffness is limited by the the loading conditions.

Hence, weighting the chassis accelerations only does not lead to a speciﬁc result for the system

parameter.

The combination of g

1

= 0 and g

2

= 1 weights the time history of the chassis displacement

only. Then, Eq. (5.56) results in

2

C

¸

¸

z

C

=

z

2

0C

ω

0C

_

1

4ζ

C

+ζ

C

_

(5.58)

which will become a minimum for ω

0C

→∞or

d

2

C

[

z

C

d ζ

C

=

z

2

0C

ω

0C

_

−1

4ζ

2

C

+ 1

_

= 0 . (5.59)

A high undamped natural frequency ω

0C

→ ∞ contradicts the demand for rapidly vanishing

accelerations. The viscous damping ratio ζ

C

=

1

2

solves Eq. (5.59) and minimizes the merit

function in Eq. (5.58). But again, this value does not correspond with ζ

C

→∞which minimizes

the merit function in Eq. (5.57).

Hence, practical results can be achieved only if the chassis displacements and the chassis ac-

celerations will be evaluated simultaneously. To do so, appropriate weighting factors have to

be chosen. In the equation of motion for the chassis (5.6) the terms M ¨ z

C

and c

S

z

C

are added.

Hence, g

1

= M and g

2

= c

S

or

g

1

= 1 and g

2

=

c

S

M

= ω

2

0C

(5.60)

provide system-ﬁtted weighting factors. Now, Eq. (5.56) reads as

2

C

= z

2

0C

ω

2

0C

_

ω

0C

2ζ

C

+ζ

C

ω

0C

_

. (5.61)

Again, a good ride comfort will be achieved by ω

0C

→0. For ﬁnite undamped natural frequen-

cies Eq. (5.61) becomes a minimum, if the viscous damping rate ζ

C

will satisfy

d

2

C

[

z

C

d ζ

C

= z

2

0C

ω

2

0C

_

−ω

0C

2ζ

2

C

+ω

0C

_

= 0 . (5.62)

Hence, a viscous damping rate of

ζ

C

=

1

2

√

2 (5.63)

or a damping parameter of

d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

C

=

1

2

√

2

Comfort

=

_

2 c

S

M , (5.64)

will provide optimal comfort by minimizing the merit function in Eq. (5.61).

83

5 Vertical Dynamics

For the passenger car with M = 350 kg and c

S

= 20 000 N/m the optimal damping parameter

will amount to

d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

C

=

1

2

√

2

Comfort

= 3742

N

m/s

(5.65)

which is 70% of the value needed to avoid overshot effects in the chassis displacements.

The integral in Eq. (5.47) evaluating the ride safety is solved by

2

S

=

z

2

0W

ω

0W

_

ζ

W

+

1

4ζ

W

_

c

2

T

(5.66)

where the model parameter m, c

S

, d

S

and c

T

where replaced by the undamped natural frequency

ω

2

0W

= (c

S

+c

T

)/m and by the damping ratio δ

W

= ζ

W

ω

0W

= d

S

/(2m).

A soft tire c

T

→ 0 make the safety criteria Eq. (5.66) small

2

S

→ 0 and thus, reduces the

dynamic wheel load variations. However, the tire spring stiffness can not be reduced to arbitrary

low values, because this would cause too large tire deformations. Small wheel masses m → 0

and/or a hard body suspension c

S

→ ∞will increase ω

0W

and thus, reduce the safety criteria

Eq. (5.66). The use of light metal rims improves, because of wheel weight reduction, the ride

safety of a car. Hard body suspensions contradict a good driving comfort.

With ﬁxed values for c

T

and ω

0W

the merit function in Eq. (5.66) will become a minimum if

∂

2

S

∂ζ

W

=

z

2

0W

ω

0W

_

1 +

−1

4ζ

2

W

_

c

2

T

= 0 (5.67)

will hold. Hence, a viscous damping rate of

ζ

W

=

1

2

(5.68)

or the damping parameter

d

opt

S

¸

¸

Safety

=

_

(c

S

+c

T

) m (5.69)

will guarantee optimal ride safety by minimizing the merit function in Eq. (5.66).

For the passenger car with M = 350 kg and c

S

= 20 000 N/m the optimal damping parameter

will now amount to

d

opt

S

¸

¸

ζ

W

=

1

2

Safety

= 3464

N

m/s

(5.70)

which is 50% of the value needed to avoid overshot effects in the wheel loads.

5.3 Sky Hook Damper

5.3.1 Modelling Aspects

In standard vehicle suspension systems the damper is mounted between the wheel and the body.

Hence, the damper affects body and wheel/axle motions simultaneously.

84

5.3 Sky Hook Damper

d

S

c

S

c

T

M

m

z

C

z

W

z

R

sky

d

W

d

B

c

S

c

T

M

m

z

C

z

W

z

R

F

D

a) Standard Damper b) Sky Hook Damper

Figure 5.8: Quarter Car Model with Standard and Sky Hook Damper

To take this situation into account the simple quarter car models of section 5.2.1 must be com-

bined to a more enhanced model, Fig. 5.8a.

Assuming a linear characteristics the suspension damper force is given by

F

D

= d

S

( ˙ z

W

− ˙ z

C

) , (5.71)

where d

S

denotes the damping constant, and ˙ z

C

, ˙ z

W

are the time derivatives of the absolute

vertical body and wheel displacements.

The sky hook damping concept starts with two independent dampers for the body and the

wheel/axle mass, Fig. 5.8b. A practical realization in form of a controllable damper will then

provide the damping force

F

D

= d

W

˙ z

W

− d

C

˙ z

C

, (5.72)

where instead of the single damping constant d

S

now two design parameter d

W

and d

C

are

available.

The equations of motion for the quarter car model are given by

M ¨ z

C

= F

S

+F

D

−M g ,

m ¨ z

W

= F

T

−F

S

−F

D

−mg ,

(5.73)

where M, m are the sprung and unsprung mass, z

C

, z

W

denote their vertical displacements, and

g is the constant of gravity.

The suspension spring force is modeled by

F

S

= F

0

S

+ c

S

(z

W

−z

C

) , (5.74)

where F

0

S

= m

C

g is the spring preload, and c

S

the spring stiffness.

85

5 Vertical Dynamics

Finally, the vertical tire force is given by

F

T

= F

0

T

+ c

T

(z

R

−z

W

) , (5.75)

where F

0

T

= (M + m) g is the tire preload, c

S

the vertical tire stiffness, and z

R

describes the

road roughness. The condition F

T

≥ 0 takes the tire lift off into account.

5.3.2 Eigenfrequencies and Damping Ratios

Using the force deﬁnitions in Eqs. (5.72), (5.74) and (5.75) the equations of motion in Eq. (5.73)

can be transformed to the state equation

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

˙ z

C

˙ z

W

¨ z

C

¨ z

W

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

˙ x

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

−

c

S

M

c

S

M

−

d

C

M

d

W

M

c

S

m

−

c

S

+c

T

m

d

C

m

−

d

W

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

A

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

z

C

z

W

˙ z

C

˙ z

W

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

x

+

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0

0

0

c

T

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

B

_

z

R

_

. ¸¸ .

u

, (5.76)

where the weight forces Mg, mg were compensated by the preloads F

0

S

, F

0

T

, the term Bu

describes the excitation, x denotes the state vector, and A is the state matrix. In this linear

approach the tire lift off is no longer taken into consideration.

The eigenvalues λ of the state matrix A will characterize the eigen dynamics of the quarter car

model. In case of complex eigenvalues the damped natural eigenfrequencies are given by the

imaginary parts, ω = Im(λ), and according to Eq. (vdyn-eq: relative damping ratio lambda)

ζ = D

λ

= −Re(λ)/ [λ[. evaluates the damping ratio.

By setting d

C

= d

S

and d

W

= d

S

Eq. (5.76) represents a quarter car model with the standard

damper described by Eq. (5.71). Fig. 5.9 shows the eigenfrequencies f = ω/(2π) and the

damping ratios ζ = D

λ

for different values of the damping parameter d

S

.

Optimal ride comfort with a damping ratio of ζ

C

=

1

2

√

2 ≈ 0.7 for the chassis motion could

be achieved with the damping parameter d

S

= 3880 N/(m/s), and the damping parameter

d

S

= 3220 N/(m/s) would provide for the wheel motion a damping ratio of ζ

W

= 0.5 which

correspond to minimal wheel load variations. This damping parameter are very close to the val-

ues 3742 N/(m/s) and 3464 N/(m/s) which very calculated in Eqs. (5.65) and (5.70) with the

single mass models. Hence, the very simple single mass models can be used for a ﬁrst damper

layout. Usually, as it is here, optimal ride comfort and optimal ride safety cannot achieved both

by a standard linear damper.

The sky-hook damper, modeled by Eq. (5.72), provides with d

W

and d

S

two design parameter.

Their inﬂuence to the eigenfrequencies f and the damping ratios ζ is shown in Fig. 5.10.

The the sky-hook damping parameter d

C

, d

W

have a nearly independent inﬂuence on the damp-

ing ratios. The chassis damping ratio ζ

C

mainly depends on d

C

, and the wheel damping ratio

ζ

W

mainly depends on d

W

. Hence, the damping of the chassis and the wheel motion can be

adjusted to nearly each design goal. Here, a sky-hook damper with d

C

= 3900 N/(m/s) and

d

W

= 3200 N/(m/s) would generate the damping ratios d

C

= 0.7 and d

W

= 0.5 hence,

combining ride comfort and ride safety within one damper layout.

86

5.3 Sky Hook Damper

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Damping ratio ζ = D

λ Frequencies [Hz]

d

S

[N/(m/s)] d

S

[N/(m/s)]

Chassis

Wheel

0.7

0.5

3220

3880

350 kg

50 kg

d

S

220000 N/m

20000 N/m

Figure 5.9: Quarter car model with standard damper

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

350 kg

50 kg

d

C

220000 N/m

20000 N/m

d

W

d

C

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

d

C

[N/(m/s)]

d

W

[N/(m/s)] d

W

[N/(m/s)]

Damping ratios ζ

C

, ζ

W

Frequencies [Hz]

0.7

0.5

ζ

W

ζ

C

Figure 5.10: Quarter car model with sky-hook damper

5.3.3 Technical Realization

By modifying the damper law in Eq. (5.72) to

F

D

= d

W

˙ z

W

− d

C

˙ z

C

+ =

d

W

˙ z

W

−d

C

˙ z

C

˙ z

W

− ˙ z

C

. ¸¸ .

d

∗

S

( ˙ z

W

− ˙ z

C

) = d

∗

S

( ˙ z

W

− ˙ z

C

) (5.77)

the sky-hook damper can be realized by a standard damper in the form of Eq. (5.71). The

new damping parameter d

∗

S

now nonlinearly depends on the absolute vertical velocities of the

chassis and the wheel d

∗

S

= d

∗

S

( ˙ z

C

, ˙ z

W

). As, a standard damper operates in a dissipative mode

only the damping parameter will be restricted to positive values, d

∗

S

> 0. Hence, the passive

realization of a sky-hook damper will only match with some properties of the ideal damper law

in Eq. (5.72). But, compared with the standard damper it still can provide a better ride comfort

combined with an increased ride safety.

87

5 Vertical Dynamics

5.4 Nonlinear Force Elements

5.4.1 Quarter Car Model

The principal inﬂuence of nonlinear characteristics on driving comfort and safety can already

be studied on a quarter car model Fig. 5.11.

c

T

m

M

nonlinear damper nonlinear spring

z

C

z

W

z

R

F

D

v

u

F

S

F

S

F

D

Figure 5.11: Quarter car model with nonlinear spring and damper characteristics

The equations of motion read as

M ¨ z

C

= F

S

+F

D

− M g

m ¨ z

W

= F

T

−F

S

−F

D

− mg ,

(5.78)

where g = 9.81 m/s

2

labels the constant of gravity, M, m are the masses of the chassis and the

wheel, F

S

, F

D

, F

T

describe the spring, the damper, and the vertical tire force, and the vertical

displacements of the chassis z

C

and the wheel z

W

are measured from the equilibrium position.

In extension to Eq. (5.32) the spring characteristics is modeled by

F

S

= F

0

S

+

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

c

0

u

_

1 +k

r

_

u

´u

r

_

2

_

u < 0

c

0

u

_

1 +k

c

_

u

´u

c

_

2

_

u ≥ 0

(5.79)

where F

0

S

= M g is the spring preload, and

u = z

W

−z

C

(5.80)

describes the spring travel. Here, u < 0 marks tension (rebound), and u ≥ 0 compression. Two

sets of k

r

, u

r

and k

c

, u

c

deﬁne the spring nonlinearity during rebound and compression. For

k

r

= 0 and k

c

= 0 a linear spring characteristics is obtained.

88

5.4 Nonlinear Force Elements

A degressive damper characteristics can be modeled by

F

D

(v) =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

d

0

v

1 − p

r

v

v < 0 ,

d

0

v

1 + p

c

v

v ≥ 0 ,

(5.81)

where d

0

denotes the damping constant at v = 0, and the damper velocity is deﬁned by

v = ˙ z

W

− ˙ z

C

. (5.82)

The sign convention of the damper velocity was chosen consistent to the spring travel. Hence,

rebound is characterized by v < 0 and compression by v ≥ 0. The parameter p

r

and p

c

make it

possible to model the damper nonlinearity differently in the rebound and compression mode. A

linear damper characteristics is obtained with p

r

= 0 and p

c

= 0.

The nonlinear spring design in Section 5.2.3 holds for the compression mode. Hence, using

the same data we obtain: c

0

= 29 400 N/m, u

c

= ´u = u

max

/2 = 0.10/2 = 0.05 and

k

c

= k = 0.1667. By setting u

r

= u

c

and k

r

= 0 a simple linear is used in the rebound mode,

Fig. 5.12a.

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

-5000

-2500

0

2500

5000

-0.05 -0.1 0.05 0 0.1 -0.5 -1 0.5 0 1

c

S

= 34300 N/m

c

0

= 29400 N/m

u

r

= 0.05 m

k

r

= 0

u

c

= 0.05 m

k

c

= 0.1667

u [m]

F

S

[

N

/

m

]

compression

u > 0

rebound

u < 0

compression

v > 0

rebound

v < 0

d

0

= 4200 N/(m/s)

p

r

= 0.4 1/(m/s)

p

c

= 1.2 1/(m/s)

v [m/s]

F

D

[

N

/

m

]

a) Spring b) Damper

Figure 5.12: Spring and damper characteristics: - - - linear, — nonlinear

According to Section 5.2.5 damping coefﬁcients optimizing the ride comfort and the ride safety

can be calculated from

Eqs. (5.64) and (5.69). For c

S

= 34 300 N/m which is the equivalent linear spring rate, M =

350 kg, m = 50 kg and c

T

= 220 000 N/m we obtain

(d

S

)

C

opt

=

√

2 c

S

M =

√

2 34 300 350 = 4900 N/(m/s) ,

(d

S

)

S

opt

=

_

(c

S

+c

T

) m =

_

(18 000 + 220 000) 50 = 3570 N/(m/s) .

(5.83)

89

5 Vertical Dynamics

The mean value d

0

= 4200 N/(m/s) may serve as compromise. With p

r

= 0.4 (m/s)

−1

and p

c

= 1.2 (m/s)

−1

the nonlinearity becomes more intensive in compression than rebound,

Fig. 5.12b.

5.4.2 Results

The quarter car model is driven with constant velocity over a single obstacle. Here, a cosine

shaped bump with a height of H = 0.08 m and a length of L = 2.0 m was used. The results are

plotted in Fig. 5.13.

0 0.5 1 1.5

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

0 0.5 1 1.5

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

0 0.5 1 1.5

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0

0.02

0.04

Chassis acceleration [m/s

2

] Wheel load [N]

Suspension travel [m]

time [s] time [s]

time [s]

linear

nonlinear

6660

6160

7.1

6.0

Figure 5.13: Quarter car model driving with v = 20 kmh over a single obstacle

0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

Chassis acceleration [m/s

2

] Wheel load [N]

Suspension travel [m]

time [s] time [s]

time [s]

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0

0.02

0.04

linear,

low damping

nonlinear

Figure 5.14: Results for low damping compared to nonlinear model

Compared to the linear model the nonlinear spring and damper characteristics result in signiﬁ-

cantly reduced peak values for the chassis acceleration (6.0 m/s

2

instead of 7.1 m/s

2

) and for

90

5.4 Nonlinear Force Elements

the wheel load (6160 N instead of 6660 N). Even the tire lift off at t ≈ 0.25 s can be avoided.

While crossing the bump large damper velocities occur. Here, the degressive damper charac-

teristics provides less damping compared to the linear damper which increases the suspension

travel.

A linear damper with a lower damping coefﬁcient, d

0

= 3000 N/m for instance, also reduces

the peaks in the chassis acceleration and in the wheel load, but then the attenuation of the

disturbances will take more time. Fig. 5.14. Which surely is not optimal.

91

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

6.1 Dynamic Wheel Loads

6.1.1 Simple Vehicle Model

The vehicle is considered as one rigid body which moves along an ideally even and horizontal

road. At each axle the forces in the wheel contact points are combined in one normal and one

longitudinal force.

S

h

1

a

2

a

mg

v

F

x1

F

x2

F

z2

F

z1

Figure 6.1: Simple vehicle model

If aerodynamic forces (drag, positive and negative lift) are neglected at ﬁrst, the equations of

motions in the x-, z-plane will read as

m ˙ v = F

x1

+F

x2

, (6.1)

0 = F

z1

+F

z2

−mg , (6.2)

0 = F

z1

a

1

−F

z2

a

2

+ (F

x1

+F

x2

) h , (6.3)

where ˙ v indicates the vehicle’s acceleration, m is the mass of the vehicle, a

1

+a

2

is the wheel

base, and h is the height of the center of gravity.

These are only three equations for the four unknown forces F

x1

, F

x2

, F

z1

, F

z2

. But, if we insert

Eq. (6.1) in Eq. (6.3), we can eliminate two unknowns at a stroke

0 = F

z1

a

1

−F

z2

a

2

+m ˙ v h . (6.4)

92

6.1 Dynamic Wheel Loads

The equations Eqs. (6.2) and (6.4) can be resolved for the axle loads now

F

z1

= mg

a

2

a

1

+a

2

−

h

a

1

+a

2

m ˙ v , (6.5)

F

z2

= mg

a

1

a

1

+a

2

+

h

a

1

+a

2

m ˙ v . (6.6)

The static parts

F

st

z1

= mg

a

2

a

1

+a

2

, F

st

z2

= mg

a

1

a

1

+a

2

(6.7)

describe the weight distribution according to the horizontal position of the center of gravity. The

height of the center of gravity only inﬂuences the dynamic part of the axle loads,

F

dyn

z1

= −mg

h

a

1

+a

2

˙ v

g

, F

dyn

z2

= +mg

h

a

1

+a

2

˙ v

g

. (6.8)

When accelerating ˙ v >0, the front axle is relieved as the rear axle is when decelerating ˙ v <0.

6.1.2 Inﬂuence of Grade

mg

a

1

a

2

F

x

1

F

z

1

F

x

2

F

z

2

h

α

v

z

x

Figure 6.2: Vehicle on grade

For a vehicle on a grade, Fig.6.2, the equations of motion Eq. (6.1) to Eq. (6.3) can easily be

extended to

m ˙ v = F

x1

+F

x2

−mg sin α ,

0 = F

z1

+F

z2

−mg cos α ,

0 = F

z1

a

1

−F

z2

a

2

+ (F

x1

+F

x2

) h ,

(6.9)

93

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

where α denotes the grade angle. Now, the axle loads are given by

F

z1

= mg cos α

a

2

−htan α

a

1

+a

2

−

h

a

1

+a

2

m ˙ v , (6.10)

F

z2

= mg cos α

a

1

+htan α

a

1

+a

2

+

h

a

1

+a

2

m ˙ v , (6.11)

where the dynamic parts remain unchanged, whereas now the static parts also depend on the

grade angle and the height of the center of gravity.

6.1.3 Aerodynamic Forces

The shape of most vehicles or speciﬁc wings mounted at the vehicle produce aerodynamic

forces and torques. The effect of these aerodynamic forces and torques can be represented by

a resistant force applied at the center of gravity and ”down forces” acting at the front and rear

axle, Fig. 6.3.

mg

a

1

h

a

2

F

D1

F

AR

F

D2

F

x1

F

x2

F

z1 F

z2

Figure 6.3: Vehicle with aerodynamic forces

If we assume a positive driving speed, v > 0, the equations of motion will read as

m ˙ v = F

x1

+F

x2

−F

AR

,

0 = F

z1

−F

D1

+F

z2

−F

D2

−mg ,

0 = (F

z1

−F

D1

) a

1

−(F

z2

−F

D2

) a

2

+ (F

x1

+F

x2

) h ,

(6.12)

where F

AR

and F

D1

, F

D2

describe the air resistance and the down forces. For the dynamic axle

loads we get

F

z1

= F

D1

+mg

a

2

a

1

+a

2

−

h

a

1

+a

2

(m ˙ v +F

AR

) , (6.13)

F

z2

= F

D2

+mg

a

1

a

1

+a

2

+

h

a

1

+a

2

(m ˙ v +F

AR

) . (6.14)

The down forces F

D1

, F

D2

increase the static axle loads, and the air resistance F

AR

generates

an additional dynamic term.

94

6.2 Maximum Acceleration

6.2 Maximum Acceleration

6.2.1 Tilting Limits

Ordinary automotive vehicles can only apply pressure forces to the road. If we take the demands

F

z1

≥ 0 and F

z2

≥ 0 into account, Eqs. (6.10) and (6.11) will result in

˙ v

g

≤

a

2

h

cos α −sin α and

˙ v

g

≥ −

a

1

h

cos α −sin α . (6.15)

These two conditions can be combined in one

−

a

1

h

cos α ≤

˙ v

g

+ sin α ≤

a

2

h

cos α . (6.16)

Hence, the maximum achievable accelerations ( ˙ v > 0) and decelerations ( ˙ v < 0) are limited

by the grade angle α and the position a

1

, a

2

, h of the center of gravity. For ˙ v → 0 the tilting

condition Eq. (6.16) results in

−

a

1

h

≤ tan α ≤

a

2

h

(6.17)

which describes the climbing and downhill capacity of a vehicle.

The presence of aerodynamic forces complicates the tilting condition. Aerodynamic forces be-

come important only at high speeds. Here, the vehicle acceleration is normally limited by the

engine power.

6.2.2 Friction Limits

The maximum acceleration is also restricted by the friction conditions

[F

x1

[ ≤ µF

z1

and [F

x2

[ ≤ µF

z2

(6.18)

where the same friction coefﬁcient µ has been assumed at front and rear axle. In the limit case

F

x1

= ±µF

z1

and F

x2

= ±µF

z2

(6.19)

the linear momentum in Eq. (6.9) can be written as

m ˙ v

max

= ±µ (F

z1

+F

z2

) −mg sin α . (6.20)

Using Eqs. (6.10) and (6.11) one obtains

_

˙ v

g

_

max

= ±µ cos α − sin α . (6.21)

That means climbing ( ˙ v > 0, α > 0) or downhill stopping ( ˙ v < 0, α < 0) requires at least a

friction coefﬁcient µ ≥ tan [α[.

95

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

According to the vehicle dimensions and the friction values the maximal acceleration or decel-

eration is restricted either by Eq. (6.16) or by Eq. (6.21).

If we take aerodynamic forces into account, the maximum acceleration and deceleration on a

horizontal road will be limited by

− µ

_

1 +

F

D1

mg

+

F

D2

mg

_

−

F

AR

mg

≤

˙ v

g

≤ µ

_

1 +

F

D1

mg

+

F

D2

mg

_

−

F

AR

mg

. (6.22)

In particular the aerodynamic forces enhance the braking performance of the vehicle.

6.3 Driving and Braking

6.3.1 Single Axle Drive

With the rear axle driven in limit situations, F

x1

=0 and F

x2

=µF

z2

hold. Then, using Eq. (6.6)

the linear momentum Eq. (6.1) results in

m ˙ v

RWD

= µmg

_

a

1

a

1

+a

2

+

h

a

1

+a

2

˙ v

RWD

g

_

, (6.23)

where the subscript

RWD

indicates the rear wheel drive. Hence, the maximum acceleration for

a rear wheel driven vehicle is given by

˙ v

RWD

g

=

µ

1 −µ

h

a

1

+a

2

a

1

a

1

+a

2

. (6.24)

By setting F

x1

=µF

z1

and F

x2

=0, the maximum acceleration for a front wheel driven vehicle

can be calculated in a similar way. One gets

˙ v

F WD

g

=

µ

1 +µ

h

a

1

+a

2

a

2

a

1

+a

2

, (6.25)

where the subscript

F WD

denotes front wheel drive. Depending on the parameter µ, a

1

, a

2

and

h the accelerations may be limited by the tilting condition

˙ v

g

≤

a

2

h

.

The maximum accelerations of a single axle driven vehicle are plotted in Fig. 6.4. For rear

wheel driven passenger cars, the parameter a

2

/(a

1

+a

2

) which describes the static axle load

distribution is in the range of 0.4 ≤ a

2

/(a

1

+a

2

) ≤ 0.5. For µ = 1 and h = 0.55 this results

in maximum accelerations in between 0.77 ≥ ˙ v/g ≥ 0.64. Front wheel driven passenger cars

usually cover the range 0.55 ≤ a

2

/(a

1

+a

2

) ≤ 0.60 which produces accelerations in the range

of 0.45 ≤ ˙ v/g ≥ 0.49. Hence, rear wheel driven vehicles can accelerate much faster than front

wheel driven vehicles.

96

6.3 Driving and Braking

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

a

2 /

(a

1

+a

2

)

RWD

FWD

range of load distribution

v

/

g

.

F

W

D

R

W

D

Figure 6.4: Single axle driven passenger car: µ = 1, h = 0.55 m, a

1

+a

2

= 2.5 m

6.3.2 Braking at Single Axle

If only the front axle is braked, in the limit case F

x1

= −µF

z1

and F

x2

= 0 will hold. With

Eq. (6.5) one gets from Eq. (6.1)

m ˙ v

F WB

= −µmg

_

a

2

a

1

+a

2

−

h

a

1

+a

2

˙ v

F WB

g

_

, (6.26)

where the subscript

F WB

indicates front wheel braking. Then, the maximum deceleration is

given by

˙ v

F WB

g

= −

µ

1 −µ

h

a

1

+a

2

a

2

a

1

+a

2

. (6.27)

If only the rear axle is braked (F

x1

=0, F

x2

=−µF

z2

), one will obtain the maximum decelera-

tion

˙ v

RWB

g

= −

µ

1 +µ

h

a

1

+a

2

a

1

a

1

+a

2

, (6.28)

where the subscript

RWB

denotes a braked rear axle. Depending on the parameters µ, a

1

, a

2

,

and h, the decelerations may be limited by the tilting condition

˙ v

g

≥ −

a

1

h

.

The maximumdecelerations of a single axle braked vehicle are plotted in Fig. 6.5. For passenger

cars the load distribution parameter a

2

/(a

1

+a

2

) usually covers the range of 0.4 to 0.6. If only

the front axle is braked, decelerations from ˙ v/g = −0.51 to ˙ v/g = −0.77 will be achieved.

This is a quite large value compared to the deceleration range of a braked rear axle which is in

the range of ˙ v/g = −0.49 to ˙ v/g = −0.33. Therefore, the braking system at the front axle has

a redundant design.

97

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

a

2 /

(a

1

+a

2

)

range of

load

distribution

v

/

g

.

FWB

RWB

Figure 6.5: Single axle braked passenger car: µ = 1, h = 0.55 m, a

1

+a

2

= 2.5 m

6.3.3 Braking Stability

On a locked wheel the tire friction force points into the opposite direction of sliding velocity.

Hence, no lateral guidance is provided. That is why a braked vehicle with locked front wheels

will remain stable whereas a braked vehicle with locked rear wheels will become unstable.

v

v

β

v

F

1

F

2

M

34

locked front wheels

F

3

r

D

Ω

3

F

4 r

D

Ω

4

v

v

M

12

Ω

2

=0

Ω

1

=0

Figure 6.6: Locked front wheels

A small yaw disturbance of the vehicle will cause slip angles at the wheels. If the front wheels

are locked and the rear wheels are still rotating, lateral forces can be generated at this axle which

will produce a stabilizing torque, Fig. 6.6. However, a de-stabilizing torque will be generated,

if the rear wheels are locked and the front wheels are still rotating, Fig. 6.7.

98

6.3 Driving and Braking

v

∆γ

v

4

F

4

locked rear wheels

yaw

disturbance

de-stabilizing

torque

v

x1

F

x1

v

y1

F

y1

v

3

F

3

v

x2

F

x2

v

y2

F

y2

T

12

Figure 6.7: Locked rear wheels

6.3.4 Optimal Distribution of Drive and Brake Forces

The sum of the longitudinal forces accelerates or decelerates the vehicle. In dimensionless style

Eq. (6.1) reads as

˙ v

g

=

F

x1

mg

+

F

x2

mg

. (6.29)

A certain acceleration or deceleration can only be achieved by different combinations of the

longitudinal forces F

x1

and F

x2

. According to Eq. (6.19) the longitudinal forces are limited by

wheel load and friction.

The optimal combination of F

x1

and F

x2

will be achieved, when front and rear axle have the

same skid resistance.

F

x1

= ±ν µF

z1

and F

x2

= ±ν µF

z2

. (6.30)

With Eq. (6.5) and Eq. (6.6) one obtains

F

x1

mg

= ±ν µ

_

a

2

h

−

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

(6.31)

and

F

x2

mg

= ±ν µ

_

a

1

h

+

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

. (6.32)

With Eq. (6.31) and Eq. (6.32) one gets from Eq. (6.29)

˙ v

g

= ±ν µ , (6.33)

where it has been assumed that F

x1

and F

x2

have the same sign. Finally, if Eq. (6.33 is inserted

in Eqs. (6.31) and (6.32) one will obtain

F

x1

mg

=

˙ v

g

_

a

2

h

−

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

(6.34)

99

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

and

F

x2

mg

=

˙ v

g

_

a

1

h

+

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

. (6.35)

Depending on the desired acceleration ˙ v > 0 or deceleration ˙ v < 0, the longitudinal forces that

grant the same skid resistance at both axles can be calculated now.

h=0.55 1

2

-2

-1 0

dF

x2

0

a

1

=1.15

a

2

=1.35

µ=1.20

a

2

/

h

-a

1

/h

F

x1

/mg

braking

tilting limits

d

r

i

v

i

n

g

dF

x1

F

x

2

/

m

g

B

1

/mg

B

2

/

m

g

Figure 6.8: Optimal distribution of driving and braking forces

Fig. 6.8 shows the curve of optimal drive and brake forces for typical passenger car values. At

the tilting limits ˙ v/g = −a

1

/h and ˙ v/g = +a

2

/h, no longitudinal forces can be applied at the

lifting axle. The initial gradient only depends on the steady state distribution of the wheel loads.

From Eqs. (6.34) and (6.35) it follows

d

F

x1

mg

d

˙ v

g

=

_

a

2

h

− 2

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

(6.36)

and

d

F

x2

mg

d

˙ v

g

=

_

a

1

h

+ 2

˙ v

g

_

h

a

1

+a

2

. (6.37)

100

6.3 Driving and Braking

For ˙ v/g = 0 the initial gradient remains as

d F

x2

d F

x1

¸

¸

¸

¸

0

=

a

1

a

2

. (6.38)

6.3.5 Different Distributions of Brake Forces

Practical applications aim at approximating the optimal distribution of brake forces by constant

distribution, limitation, or reduction of brake forces as good as possible. Fig. 6.9.

F

x1

/mg

F

x

2

/

m

g

constant

distribution

F

x1

/mg

F

x

2

/

m

g

limitation

reduction

F

x1

/mg

F

x

2

/

m

g

Figure 6.9: Different Distributions of Brake Forces

When braking, the stability of a vehicle depends on the potential of generating a lateral force at

the rear axle. Thus, a greater skid (locking) resistance is realized at the rear axle than at the front

axle. Therefore, the brake force distribution are all below the optimal curve in the physically

relevant area. This restricts the achievable deceleration, specially at low friction values.

Because the optimal curve depends on the center of gravity of the vehicle an additional safety

margin have to be installed when designing real brake force distributions. The distribution of

brake forces is often ﬁtted to the axle loads. There, the inﬂuence of the height of the cen-

ter of gravity, which may also vary much on trucks, is not taken into account and has to be

compensated by a safety margin from the optimal curve. Only the control of brake pressure in

anti-lock-systems provides an optimal distribution of brake forces independently from loading

conditions.

6.3.6 Anti-Lock-Systems

On hard braking maneuvers large longitudinal slip values occur. Then, the stability and/or steer-

ability is no longer given because nearly no lateral forces can be generated. By controlling the

brake torque or brake pressure respectively, the longitudinal slip can be restricted to values that

allow considerable lateral forces.

Here, the angular wheel acceleration

˙

Ω is used as a control variable. Angular accelerations of

the wheel are derived from the measured angular speeds of the wheel by differentiation. The

rolling condition is fulﬁlled with a longitudinal slip of s

L

= 0. Then

r

D

˙

Ω = ¨ x (6.39)

holds, where r

D

labels the dynamic tire radius and ¨ x names the longitudinal acceleration of the

vehicle. According to Eq. (6.21), the maximum acceleration/deceleration of a vehicle depends

101

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

on the friction coefﬁcient, [¨ x[ = µg. For a given friction coefﬁcient µ a simple control law can

be realized for each wheel

[

˙

Ω[ ≤

1

r

D

[¨ x[ . (6.40)

Because no reliable possibility to determine the local friction coefﬁcient between tire and road

has been found until today, useful information can only be gained from Eq. (6.40) at optimal

conditions on dry road. Therefore, the longitudinal slip is used as a second control variable.

In order to calculate longitudinal slips, a reference speed is estimated from all measured wheel

speeds which is used for the calculation of slip at all wheels, then. This method is too imprecise

at low speeds. Therefore, no control is applied below a limit velocity. Problems also arise when

all wheels lock simultaneously for example which may happen on icy roads.

The control of the brake torque is done via the brake pressure which can be increased, held, or

decreased by a three-way valve. To prevent vibrations, the decrement is usually made slower

than the increment.

To prevent a strong yaw reaction, the select low principle is often used with µ-split braking

at the rear axle. Here, the break pressure at both wheels is controlled by the wheel running on

lower friction. Thus, at least the brake forces at the rear axle cause no yaw torque. However, the

maximum achievable deceleration is reduced by this.

6.4 Drive and Brake Pitch

6.4.1 Vehicle Model

The vehicle model in Fig. 6.10 consists of ﬁve rigid bodies. The body has three degrees of

freedom: Longitudinal motion x

A

, vertical motion z

A

and pitch β

A

. The coordinates z

1

and z

2

describe the vertical motions of wheel and axle bodies relative to the body. The longitudinal

and rotational motions of the wheel bodies relative to the body can be described via suspension

kinematics as functions of the vertical wheel motion:

x

1

= x

1

(z

1

) , β

1

= β

1

(z

1

) ;

x

2

= x

2

(z

2

) , β

2

= β

2

(z

2

) .

(6.41)

The rotation angles ϕ

R1

and ϕ

R2

describe the wheel rotations relative to the wheel bodies.

The forces between wheel body and vehicle body are labeled F

F1

and F

F2

. At the wheels drive

torques M

A1

, M

A2

and brake torques M

B1

, M

B2

, longitudinal forces F

x1

, F

x2

and the wheel

loads F

z1

, F

z2

apply. The brake torques are directly supported by the wheel bodies, whereas the

drive torques are transmitted by the drive shafts to the vehicle body. The forces and torques that

apply to the single bodies are listed in the last column of the tables 6.1 and 6.2.

The velocity of the vehicle body and its angular velocity are given by

v

0A,0

=

_

_

˙ x

A

0

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

0

˙ z

A

_

_

; ω

0A,0

=

_

_

0

˙

β

A

0

_

_

. (6.42)

102

6.4 Drive and Brake Pitch

ϕ

R2

ϕ

R1

M

B1

M

A1

M

B2

M

A2

β

A

x

A

z

A

M

B1

M

B2

M

A1

M

A2

z

2

z

1

F

F2

F

F1

F

z1

F

x1

F

z2

F

x2

a

1

R

a

2

h

R

Figure 6.10: Plane Vehicle Model

At small rotational motions of the body one gets for the velocities of the wheel bodies and

wheels

v

0RK

1

,0

= v

0R

1

,0

=

_

_

˙ x

A

0

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

0

˙ z

A

_

_

+

_

_

−h

R

˙

β

A

0

−a

1

˙

β

A

_

_

+

_

_

∂x

1

∂z

1

˙ z

1

0

˙ z

1

_

_

; (6.43)

v

0RK

2

,0

= v

0R

2

,0

=

_

_

˙ x

A

0

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

0

˙ z

A

_

_

+

_

_

−h

R

˙

β

A

0

+a

2

˙

β

A

_

_

+

_

_

∂x

2

∂z

2

˙ z

2

0

˙ z

2

_

_

. (6.44)

The angular velocities of the wheel bodies and wheels are obtained from

ω

0RK

1

,0

=

_

_

0

˙

β

A

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙

β

1

0

_

_

and ω

0R

1

,0

=

_

_

0

˙

β

A

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙

β

1

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙ ϕ

R1

0

_

_

(6.45)

as well as

ω

0RK

2

,0

=

_

_

0

˙

β

A

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙

β

2

0

_

_

and ω

0R

2

,0

=

_

_

0

˙

β

A

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙

β

2

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

˙ ϕ

R2

0

_

_

(6.46)

Introducing a vector of generalized velocities

z =

_

˙ x

A

˙ z

A

˙

β

A

˙

β

1

˙ ϕ

R1

˙

β

2

˙ ϕ

R2

¸

T

, (6.47)

103

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

the velocities and angular velocities given by Eqs. (6.42), (6.43), (6.44), (6.45), and (6.46) can

be written as

v

0i

=

7

j=1

∂v

0i

∂z

j

z

j

and ω

0i

=

7

j=1

∂ω

0i

∂z

j

z

j

(6.48)

6.4.2 Equations of Motion

The partial velocities

∂v

0i

∂z

j

and partial angular velocities

∂ω

0i

∂z

j

for the ﬁve bodies i =1(1)5 and for

the seven generalized speeds j =1(1)7 are arranged in the tables 6.1 and 6.2.

partial velocities ∂v

0i

/∂z

j

applied forces

bodies ˙ x

A

˙ z

A

˙

β

A

˙ z

1

˙ ϕ

R1

˙ z

2

˙ ϕ

R2

F

e

i

chassis

m

A

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

F

F1

+F

F2

−m

A

g

wheel body

front

m

RK1

1

0

0

0

0

1

−h

R

0

−a

1

∂x

1

∂z

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

−F

F1

−m

RK1

g

wheel

front

m

R1

1

0

0

0

0

1

−h

R

0

−a

1

∂x

1

∂z

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

F

x1

0

F

z1

−m

R1

g

wheel body

rear

m

RK2

1

0

0

0

0

1

−h

R

0

a

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

∂x

2

∂z

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

−F

F2

−m

RK2

g

wheel

rear

m

R2

1

0

0

0

0

1

−h

R

0

a

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

∂x

2

∂z

2

0

1

0

0

0

F

x2

0

F

z2

−m

R2

g

Table 6.1: Partial velocities and applied forces

With the aid of the partial velocities and partial angular velocities the elements of the mass ma-

trix M and the components of the vector of generalized forces and torques Q can be calculated.

M(i, j) =

5

k=1

_

∂v

0k

∂z

i

_

T

m

k

∂v

0k

∂z

j

+

5

k=1

_

∂ω

0k

∂z

i

_

T

Θ

k

∂ω

0k

∂z

j

; i, j = 1(1)7 ; (6.49)

Q(i) =

5

k=1

_

∂v

0k

∂z

i

_

T

F

e

k

+

5

k=1

_

∂ω

0k

∂z

i

_

T

M

e

k

; i = 1(1)7 . (6.50)

Then, the equations of motion for the plane vehicle model are given by

M ˙ z = Q. (6.51)

104

6.4 Drive and Brake Pitch

partial angular velocities ∂ω

0i

/∂z

j

applied torques

bodies ˙ x

A

˙ z

A

˙

β

A

˙ z

1

˙ ϕ

R1

˙ z

2

˙ ϕ

R2

M

e

i

chassis

Θ

A

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

−M

A1

−M

A2

−a

1

F

F1

+a

2

F

F2

0

wheel body

front

Θ

RK1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

∂β

1

∂z

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

M

B1

0

wheel

front

Θ

R1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

∂β

1

∂z

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

M

A1

−M

B1

−RF

x1

0

wheel body

rear

Θ

RK2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

∂β

2

∂z

2

0

0

0

0

0

M

B2

0

wheel

rear

Θ

R2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

∂β

2

∂z

2

0

0

1

0

0

M

A2

−M

B2

−RF

x2

0

Table 6.2: Partial angular velocities and applied torques

6.4.3 Equilibrium

With the abbreviations

m

1

= m

RK1

+m

R1

; m

2

= m

RK2

+m

R2

; m

G

= m

A

+m

1

+m

2

(6.52)

and

h = h

R

+ R (6.53)

The components of the vector of generalized forces and torques read as

Q(1) = F

x1

+F

x2

;

Q(2) = F

z1

+F

z2

−m

G

g ;

Q(3) = −a

1

F

z1

+a

2

F

z2

−h(F

x1

+F

x2

) +a

1

m

1

g −a

2

m

2

g ;

(6.54)

Q(4) = F

z1

−F

F1

+

∂x

1

∂z

1

F

x1

−m

1

g +

∂β

1

∂z

1

(M

A1

−RF

x1

) ;

Q(5) = M

A1

−M

B1

−RF

x1

;

(6.55)

Q(6) = F

z2

−F

F2

+

∂x

2

∂z

2

F

x2

−m

2

g +

∂β

2

∂z

2

(M

A

2

−RF

x2

) ;

Q(7) = M

A

2

−M

B

2

−RF

x2

.

(6.56)

Without drive and brake forces

M

A1

= 0 ; M

A2

= 0 ; M

B1

= 0 ; M

B2

= 0 (6.57)

105

6 Longitudinal Dynamics

from Eqs. (6.54), (6.55) and (6.56) one gets the steady state longitudinal forces, the spring

preloads, and the wheel loads

F

0

x1

= 0 ; F

0

x2

= 0 ;

F

0

F1

=

b

a+b

m

A

g ; F

0

F2

=

a

a+b

m

A

g ;

F

0

z1

= m

1

g +

a

2

a

1

+a

2

m

A

g ; F

0

z2

= m

2

g +

a

1

a

1

+a

2

m

A

g .

(6.58)

6.4.4 Driving and Braking

Assuming that on accelerating or decelerating the vehicle the wheels neither slip nor lock,

R ˙ ϕ

R1

= ˙ x

A

−h

R

˙

β

A

+

∂x

1

∂z

1

˙ z

1

;

R ˙ ϕ

R2

= ˙ x

A

−h

R

˙

β

A

+

∂x

2

∂z

2

˙ z

2

(6.59)

hold. In steady state the pitch motion of the body and the vertical motion of the wheels reach

constant values

β

A

= β

st

A

= const. , z

1

= z

st

1

= const. , z

2

= z

st

2

= const. (6.60)

and Eq. (6.59) simpliﬁes to

R ˙ ϕ

R1

= ˙ x

A

; R ˙ ϕ

R2

= ˙ x

A

. (6.61)

With Eqs. (6.60), (6.61) and (6.53) the equation of motion (6.51) results in

m

G

¨ x

A

= F

a

x1

+F

a

x2

;

0 = F

a

z1

+F

a

z2

;

−h

R

(m

1

+m

2

) ¨ x

A

+ Θ

R1

¨ x

A

R

+ Θ

R2

¨ x

A

R

= −a F

a

z1

+b F

a

z2

−(h

R

+R)(F

a

x1

+F

a

x2

) ;

(6.62)

∂x

1

∂z

1

m

1

¨ x

A

+

∂β

1

∂z

1

Θ

R1

¨ x

A

R

= F

a

z1

−F

a

F1

+

∂x

1

∂z

1

F

a

x1

+

∂β

1

∂z

1

(M

A1

−RF

a

x1

) ;

Θ

R1

¨ x

A

R

= M

A1

−M

B1

−RF

a

x1

;

(6.63)

∂x

2

∂z

2

m

2

¨ x

A

+

∂β

2

∂z

2

Θ

R2

¨ x

A

R

= F

a

z2

−F

a

F2

+

∂x

2

∂z

2

F

a

x2

+

∂β

2

∂z

2

(M

A

2

−RF

a

x2

) ;

Θ

R2

¨ x

A

R

= M

A

2

−M

B

2

−RF

a

x2

;

(6.64)

where the steady state spring forces, longitudinal forces, and wheel loads have been separated

into initial and acceleration-dependent terms

F

st

xi

= F

0

xi

+F

a

xi

; F

st

zi

= F

0

zi

+F

a

zi

; F

st

Fi

= F

0

Fi

+F

a

Fi

; i =1, 2 . (6.65)

With given torques of drive and brake the vehicle acceleration ¨ x

A

, the wheel forces F

a

x1

, F

a

x2

,

F

a

z1

, F

a

z2

and the spring forces F

a

F1

, F

a

F2

can be calculated from Eqs. (6.62), (6.63) and (6.64).

106

6.4 Drive and Brake Pitch

Via the spring characteristics which have been assumed as linear the acceleration-dependent

forces also cause a vertical displacement and pitch motion of the body besides the vertical

motions of the wheels,

F

a

F1

= c

A1

z

a

1

,

F

a

F2

= c

A2

z

a

2

,

F

a

z1

= −c

R1

(z

a

A

−a β

a

A

+z

a

1

) ,

F

a

z2

= −c

R2

(z

a

A

+b β

a

A

+z

a

2

) .

(6.66)

Especially the pitch of the vehicle β

a

A

,=0, caused by drive or brake will be felt as annoying, if

too distinct.

By an axle kinematics with ’anti dive’ and/or ’anti squat’ properties, the drive and/or brake pitch

angle can be reduced by rotating the wheel body and moving the wheel center in longitudinal

direction during the suspension travel.

6.4.5 Brake Pitch Pole

For real suspension systems the brake pitch pole can be calculated from the motions of the

wheel contact points in the x-, z-plane, Fig. 6.11.

x-, z- motion of the contact points

during compression and rebound

pitch pole

Figure 6.11: Brake Pitch Pole

Increasing the pitch pole height above the track level means a decrease in the brake pitch angle.

However, the pitch pole is not set above the height of the center of gravity in practice, because

the front of the vehicle would rise at braking then.

107

7 Lateral Dynamics

7.1 Kinematic Approach

7.1.1 Kinematic Tire Model

When a vehicle drives through a curve at low lateral acceleration, small lateral forces will be

needed for course holding. Then, hardly lateral slip occurs at the wheels. In the ideal case at van-

ishing lateral slip the wheels only move in circumferential direction. The velocity component

of the contact point in the lateral direction of the tire vanishes then

v

y

= e

T

y

v

0P

= 0 . (7.1)

This constraint equation can be used as ’kinematic tire model’ for course calculation of vehicles

moving in the low lateral acceleration range.

7.1.2 Ackermann Geometry

Within the validity limits of the kinematic tire model the necessary steering angle of the front

wheels can be constructed via the given momentary pivot pole M, Fig. 7.1.

At slowly moving vehicles the lay out of the steering linkage is usually done according to the

Ackermann geometry. Then, the following relations apply

tan δ

1

=

a

R

and tan δ

2

=

a

R +s

, (7.2)

where s labels the track width and a denotes the wheel base. Eliminating the curve radius R,

we get

tan δ

2

=

a

a

tan δ

1

+s

or tan δ

2

=

a tan δ

1

a +s tan δ

1

. (7.3)

The deviations ´δ

2

= δ

a

2

− δ

A

2

of the actual steering angle δ

a

2

from the Ackermann steering

angle δ

A

2

, which follows from Eq. (7.3), are used, especially on commercial vehicles, to judge

the quality of a steering system.

At a rotation around the momentary pole M, the direction of the velocity is ﬁxed for every point

of the vehicle. The angle β between the velocity vector v and the longitudinal axis of the vehicle

is called side slip angle. The side slip angle at point P is given by

tan β

P

=

x

R

or tan β

P

=

x

a

tan δ

1

, (7.4)

where x deﬁnes the distance of P to the inner rear wheel.

108

7.1 Kinematic Approach

M

v

β

P

δ

1

δ

2

R

a

s

δ

1

δ

2

x

P

β

P

Figure 7.1: Ackermann steering geometry at a two-axled vehicle

7.1.3 Space Requirement

The Ackermann approach can also be used to calculate the space requirement of a vehicle

during cornering, Fig. 7.2. If the front wheels of a two-axled vehicle are steered according to

the Ackermann geometry, the outer point of the vehicle front will run on the maximum radius

R

max

, whereas a point on the inner side of the vehicle at the location of the rear axle will run

on the minimum radius R

min

. Hence, it holds

R

2

max

= (R

min

+b)

2

+ (a +f)

2

, (7.5)

where a, b are the wheel base and the width of the vehicle, and f speciﬁes the distance from the

front of the vehicle to the front axle. Then, the space requirement ´R = R

max

− R

min

can be

speciﬁed as a function of the cornering radius R

min

for a given vehicle dimension

´R = R

max

−R

min

=

_

(R

min

+b)

2

+ (a +f)

2

− R

min

. (7.6)

The space requirement ´R of a typical passenger car and a bus is plotted in Fig. 7.3 versus the

minimum cornering radius. In narrow curves R

min

= 5.0 m, a bus requires a space of 2.5 times

the width, whereas a passenger car needs only 1.5 times the width.

109

7 Lateral Dynamics

M

R

min

a

b

R

m

a

x

f

Figure 7.2: Space requirement

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

R

min

[m]

∆

R

[

m

]

car: a=2.50 m, b=1.60 m, f=1.00 m

bus: a=6.25 m, b=2.50 m, f=2.25 m

Figure 7.3: Space requirement of a typical passenger car and bus

110

7.1 Kinematic Approach

7.1.4 Vehicle Model with Trailer

7.1.4.1 Kinematics

Fig. 7.4 shows a simple lateral dynamics model for a two-axled vehicle with a single-axled

trailer. Vehicle and trailer move on a horizontal track. The position and the orientation of the

vehicle relative to the track ﬁxed frame x

0

, y

0

, z

0

is deﬁned by the position vector to the rear

axle center

r

02,0

=

_

¸

_

x

y

R

_

¸

_

(7.7)

and the rotation matrix

A

02

=

_

_

cos γ −sin γ 0

sin γ cos γ 0

0 0 1

_

_

. (7.8)

Here, the tire radius R is considered to be constant, and x, y as well as the yaw angle γ are

generalized coordinates.

K

A

1

A

2

A

3

x

1

y 1

x 2

x

3

y2

y

3

c

a

b

γ

δ

κ

x

0

y

0

Figure 7.4: Kinematic model with trailer

The position vector

r

01,0

= r

02,0

+ A

02

r

21,2

with r

21,2

=

_

_

a

0

0

_

_

(7.9)

111

7 Lateral Dynamics

and the rotation matrix

A

01

= A

02

A

21

with A

21

=

_

_

cos δ −sin δ 0

sin δ cos δ 0

0 0 1

_

_

(7.10)

describe the position and the orientation of the front axle, where a = const labels the wheel

base and δ the steering angle.

The position vector

r

03,0

= r

02,0

+A

02

_

r

2K,2

+A

23

r

K3,3

_

(7.11)

with

r

2K,2

=

_

_

−b

0

0

_

_

and r

K3,2

=

_

_

−c

0

0

_

_

(7.12)

and the rotation matrix

A

03

= A

02

A

23

with A

23

=

_

_

cos κ −sin κ 0

sin κ cos κ 0

0 0 1

_

_

(7.13)

deﬁne the position and the orientation of the trailer axis, with κ labeling the bend angle between

vehicle and trailer, and b, c marking the distances from the rear axle 2 to the coupling point K

and from the coupling point K to the trailer axis 3.

7.1.4.2 Vehicle Motion

According to the kinematic tire model, cf. section 7.1.1, the velocity at the rear axle can only

have a component in the longitudinal direction of the tire which here corresponds with the

longitudinal direction of the vehicle

v

02,2

=

_

_

v

x2

0

0

_

_

. (7.14)

The time derivative of Eq. (7.7) results in

v

02,0

= ˙ r

02,0

=

_

_

˙ x

˙ y

0

_

_

. (7.15)

The transformation of Eq. (7.14) into the system 0

v

02,0

= A

02

v

02,2

= A

02

_

_

v

x2

0

0

_

_

=

_

_

cos γ v

x2

sin γ v

x2

0

_

_

(7.16)

112

7.1 Kinematic Approach

compared to Eq. (7.15) results in two ﬁrst order differential equations for the position coordi-

nates x and y

˙ x = v

x2

cos γ , ˙ y = v

x2

sin γ . (7.17)

The velocity at the front axle follows from Eq. (7.9)

v

01,0

= ˙ r

01,0

= ˙ r

02,0

+ ω

02,0

A

02

r

21,2

. (7.18)

Transformed into the vehicle ﬁxed system x

2

, y

2

, z

2

we obtain

v

01,2

=

_

_

v

x2

0

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

v

02,2

+

_

_

0

0

˙ γ

_

_

. ¸¸ .

ω

02,2

_

_

a

0

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

r

21,2

=

_

_

v

x2

a ˙ γ

0

_

_

. (7.19)

The unit vectors

e

x1,2

=

_

_

cos δ

sin δ

0

_

_

and e

y1,2

=

_

_

−sin δ

cos δ

0

_

_

(7.20)

deﬁne the longitudinal and lateral direction at the front axle. According to Eq. (7.1) the velocity

component lateral to the wheel must vanish,

e

T

y1,2

v

01,2

= −sin δ v

x2

+ cos δ a ˙ γ = 0 . (7.21)

Whereas in longitudinal direction the velocity

e

T

x1,2

v

01,2

= cos δ v

x2

+ sin δ a ˙ γ = v

x1

(7.22)

remains. From Eq. (7.21) a ﬁrst order differential equation follows for the yaw angle

˙ γ =

v

x2

a

tan δ .

(7.23)

7.1.4.3 Entering a Curve

In analogy to Eq. (7.2) the steering angle δ can be related to the current track radius R or with

k = 1/R to the current track curvature

tan δ =

a

R

= a k . (7.24)

Then, the differential equation for the yaw angle reads as

˙ γ = v

x2

k . (7.25)

With the curvature gradient

k = k(t) = k

C

t

T

, (7.26)

113

7 Lateral Dynamics

the entering of a curve is described as a continuous transition from a straight line with the

curvature k = 0 into a circle with the curvature k = k

C

.

The yaw angle of the vehicle can be calculated by simple integration now

γ(t) =

v

x2

k

C

T

t

2

2

, (7.27)

where at time t = 0 a vanishing yaw angle, γ(t =0) = 0, has been assumed. Then, the position

of the vehicle follows with Eq. (7.27) from the differential equations Eq. (7.17)

x = v

x2

t=T

_

t=0

cos

_

v

x2

k

C

T

t

2

2

_

dt , y = v

x2

t=T

_

t=0

sin

_

v

x2

k

C

T

t

2

2

_

dt . (7.28)

At constant vehicle speed, v

x2

= const., Eq. (7.28) is the parameterized form of a clothoide.

From Eq. (7.24) the necessary steering angle can be calculated, too. If only small steering an-

gles are necessary for driving through the curve, the tan-function can be approximated by its

argument, and

δ = δ(t) ≈ a k = a k

C

t

T

(7.29)

holds, i.e. the driving through a clothoide is manageable by a continuous steer motion.

7.1.4.4 Trailer Motions

The velocity of the trailer axis can be obtained by differentiation of the position vector Eq. (7.11)

v

03,0

= ˙ r

03,0

= ˙ r

02,0

+ ω

02,0

A

02

r

23,2

+ A

02

˙ r

23,2

. (7.30)

The velocity ˙ r

02,0

= v

02,0

and the angular velocity ω

02,0

of the vehicle are deﬁned in Eqs. (7.16)

and (7.19). The position vector from the rear axle to the axle of the trailer is given by

r

23,2

= r

2K,2

+ A

23

r

K3,3

=

_

_

−b −c cos κ

−c sin κ

0

_

_

, (7.31)

where r

2K,2

and r

K3,3

are deﬁned in Eq. (7.12). The time derivative of Eq. (7.31) results in

˙ r

23,2

=

_

_

0

0

˙ κ

_

_

. ¸¸ .

ω

23,2

_

_

−c cos κ

−c sin κ

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

A

23

r

K3,3

=

_

_

c sin κ ˙ κ

−c cos κ ˙ κ

0

_

_

. (7.32)

Eq. (7.30) is transformed into the vehicle ﬁxed frame x

2

, y

2

, z

2

now

v

03,2

=

_

_

v

x2

0

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

v

02,2

+

_

_

0

0

˙ γ

_

_

. ¸¸ .

ω

02,2

_

_

−b −c cos κ

−c sin κ

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

r

23,2

+

_

_

c sin κ ˙ κ

−c cos κ ˙ κ

0

_

_

. ¸¸ .

˙ r

23,2

=

_

_

v

x2

+c sin κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

−b ˙ γ −c cos κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

0

_

_

.

(7.33)

114

7.1 Kinematic Approach

The longitudinal and lateral direction at the trailer axle are deﬁned by the unit vectors

e

x3,2

=

_

_

cos κ

sin κ

0

_

_

and e

y3,2

=

_

_

−sin κ

cos κ

0

_

_

. (7.34)

At the trailer axis the lateral velocity must also vanish

e

T

y3,2

v

03,2

= −sin κ

_

v

x2

+c sin κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

_

+ cos κ

_

−b ˙ γ −c cos κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

_

= 0 , (7.35)

whereas in longitudinal direction the velocity

e

T

x3,2

v

03,2

= cos κ

_

v

x2

+c sin κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

_

+ sin κ

_

−b ˙ γ −c cos κ( ˙ κ+ ˙ γ)

_

= v

x3

(7.36)

remains. If Eq. (7.23) is inserted into Eq. (7.35) now, one will get a ﬁrst order differential

equation for the bend angle

˙ κ = −

v

x2

a

_

a

c

sin κ +

_

b

c

cos κ + 1

_

tan δ

_

. (7.37)

The differential equations Eq. (7.17) and Eq. (7.23) describe position and orientation within the

x

0

, y

0

plane. The position of the trailer relative to the vehicle follows from Eq. (7.37).

7.1.4.5 Course Calculations

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0

10

20

30

[s]

front axle steering angle δ

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

0

10

20

[m]

[m]

front axle

rear axle

trailer axle

[

o

]

Figure 7.5: Entering a curve

For a given set of vehicle parameters a, b, c, and predeﬁned time functions of the vehicle ve-

locity, v

x2

= v

x2

(t) and the steering angle, δ = δ(t), the course of vehicle and trailer can be

calculated by numerical integration of the differential equations Eqs. (7.17), (7.23) and (7.37).

If the steering angle is slowly increased at constant driving speed, the vehicle drives a ﬁgure

which will be similar to a clothoide, Fig. 7.5.

115

7 Lateral Dynamics

7.2 Steady State Cornering

7.2.1 Cornering Resistance

In a body ﬁxed reference frame B, Fig. 7.6, the velocity state of the vehicle can be described by

v

0C,B

=

_

_

v cos β

v sin β

0

_

_

and ω

0F,B

=

_

_

0

0

ω

_

_

, (7.38)

where β denotes the side slip angle of the vehicle measured at the center of gravity. The angular

velocity of a vehicle cornering with constant velocity v on an ﬂat horizontal road is given by

ω =

v

R

, (7.39)

where R denotes the radius of curvature.

C

v

y

B

x

B

β

ω

F

x1 F

y1

F

x2

F

y2

δ

a

1

a

2

R

Figure 7.6: Cornering resistance

In the body ﬁxed reference frame, linear and angular momentum result in

m

_

−

v

2

R

sin β

_

= F

x1

cos δ −F

y1

sin δ +F

x2

, (7.40)

m

_

v

2

R

cos β

_

= F

x1

sin δ +F

y1

cos δ +F

y2

, (7.41)

0 = a

1

(F

x1

sin δ +F

y1

cos δ) −a

2

F

y2

, (7.42)

116

7.2 Steady State Cornering

where m denotes the mass of the vehicle, F

x1

, F

x2

, F

y1

, F

y2

are the resulting forces in longitu-

dinal and vertical direction applied at the front and rear axle, and δ speciﬁes the average steer

angle at the front axle.

The engine torque is distributed by the center differential to the front and rear axle. Then, in

steady state condition we obtain

F

x1

= k F

D

and F

x2

= (1 −k) F

D

, (7.43)

where F

D

is the driving force and by k different driving conditions can be modeled:

k = 0 rear wheel drive F

x1

= 0, F

x2

= F

D

0 < k < 1 all wheel drive

F

x1

F

x2

=

k

1 −k

k = 1 front wheel drive F

x1

= F

D

, F

x2

= 0

If we insert Eq. (7.43) into Eq. (7.40) we will get

_

k cos δ + (1−k)

_

F

D

− sin δ F

y1

= −

mv

2

R

sin β ,

k sin δ F

D

+ cos δ F

y1

+ F

y2

=

mv

2

R

cos β ,

a

1

k sin δ F

D

+ a

1

cos δ F

y1

− a

2

F

y2

= 0 .

(7.44)

These equations can be resolved for the driving force

F

D

=

a

2

a

1

+a

2

cosβ sin δ −sin β cosδ

k + (1 −k) cos δ

mv

2

R

. (7.45)

The driving force will vanish, if

a

2

a

1

+a

2

cosβ sin δ = sin β cosδ or

a

2

a

1

+a

2

tan δ = tan β (7.46)

holds. This fully corresponds with the Ackermann geometry. But, the Ackermann geometry

applies only for small lateral accelerations. In real driving situations, the side slip angle of a

vehicle at the center of gravity is always smaller than the Ackermann side slip angle. Then, due

to tan β <

a

2

a

1

+a

2

tan δ a driving force F

D

> 0 is needed to overcome the ’cornering resistance’

of the vehicle.

7.2.2 Overturning Limit

The overturning hazard of a vehicle is primarily determined by the track width and the height

of the center of gravity. With trucks however, also the tire deﬂection and the body roll have to

be respected., Fig. 7.7.

117

7 Lateral Dynamics

m g

m a

y

α

α 1

2

h

2

h

1

s/2

s/2

F

zL

F

zR

F

yL

F

yR

Figure 7.7: Overturning hazard on trucks

The balance of torques at the height of the track plane applied at the already inclined vehicle

results in

(F

zL

−F

zR

)

s

2

= ma

y

(h

1

+h

2

) + mg [(h

1

+h

2

)α

1

+h

2

α

2

] , (7.47)

where a

y

describes the lateral acceleration, m is the sprung mass, and small roll angles of the

axle and the body were assumed, α

1

¸1, α

2

¸1.

On a left-hand tilt, the right tire raises

F

T

zR

= 0 , (7.48)

whereas the left tire carries the complete vehicle weight

F

T

zL

= mg . (7.49)

Using Eqs. (7.48) and (7.49) one gets from Eq. (7.47)

a

T

y

g

=

s

2

h

1

+h

2

− α

T

1

−

h

2

h

1

+h

2

α

T

2

. (7.50)

The vehicle will turn over, when the lateral acceleration a

y

rises above the limit a

T

y

. Roll of axle

and body reduce the overturning limit. The angles α

T

1

and α

T

2

can be calculated from the tire

stiffness c

R

and the roll stiffness of the axle suspension.

118

7.2 Steady State Cornering

If the vehicle drives straight ahead, the weight of the vehicle will be equally distributed to both

sides

F

stat

zR

= F

stat

zL

=

1

2

mg . (7.51)

With

F

T

zL

= F

stat

zL

+ ´F

z

(7.52)

and Eqs. (7.49), (7.51), one obtains for the increase of the wheel load at the overturning limit

´F

z

=

1

2

mg . (7.53)

Then, the resulting tire deﬂection follows from

´F

z

= c

R

´r , (7.54)

where c

R

is the radial tire stiffness.

Because the right tire simultaneously rebounds with the same amount, for the roll angle of the

axle

2 ´r = s α

T

1

or α

T

1

=

2 ´r

s

=

mg

s c

R

(7.55)

holds. In analogy to Eq. (7.47) the balance of torques at the body applied at the roll center of

the body yields

c

W

∗ α

2

= ma

y

h

2

+ mg h

2

(α

1

+α

2

) , (7.56)

where c

W

names the roll stiffness of the body suspension. In particular, at the overturning limit

a

y

= a

T

y

α

T

2

=

a

T

y

g

mgh

2

c

W

−mgh

2

+

mgh

2

c

W

−mgh

2

α

T

1

(7.57)

applies. Not allowing the vehicle to overturn already at a

T

y

= 0 demands a minimum of roll

stiffness c

W

> c

min

W

= mgh

2

. With Eqs. (7.55) and (7.57) the overturning condition Eq. (7.50)

reads as

(h

1

+h

2

)

a

T

y

g

=

s

2

− (h

1

+h

2

)

1

c

∗

R

− h

2

a

T

y

g

1

c

∗

W

−1

− h

2

1

c

∗

W

−1

1

c

R

∗

, (7.58)

where, for abbreviation purposes, the dimensionless stiffnesses

c

∗

R

=

c

R

mg

s

and c

∗

W

=

c

W

mg h

2

(7.59)

have been used. Resolved for the normalized lateral acceleration

a

T

y

g

=

s

2

h

1

+h

2

+

h

2

c

∗

W

−1

−

1

c

∗

R

(7.60)

119

7 Lateral Dynamics

0 10 20

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

normalized roll stiffness c

W

*

0 10 20

0

5

10

15

20

T

T

normalized roll stiffness c

W

*

overturning limit a

y

roll angle α=α

1

+α

2

Figure 7.8: Tilting limit for a typical truck at steady state cornering

remains.

At heavy trucks, a twin tire axle may be loaded with m = 13 000 kg. The radial stiffness of one

tire is c

R

= 800 000N/m, and the track width can be set to s = 2m. The values h

1

= 0.8mand

h

2

= 1.0mhold at maximal load. These values produce the results shown in Fig. 7.8. Even with

a rigid body suspension c

∗

W

→∞, the vehicle turns over at a lateral acceleration of a

y

≈ 0.5 g.

Then, the roll angle of the vehicle solely results from the tire deﬂection.

At a normalized roll stiffness of c

∗

W

= 5, the overturning limit lies at a

y

≈ 0.45g and so reaches

already 90% of the maximum. The vehicle will turn over at a roll angle of α = α

1

+ α

2

≈ 10

◦

then.

7.2.3 Roll Support and Camber Compensation

When a vehicle drives through a curve with the lateral acceleration a

y

, centrifugal forces will

be applied to the single masses. At the simple roll model in Fig. 7.9, these are the forces m

A

a

y

and m

R

a

y

, where m

A

names the body mass and m

R

the wheel mass.

Through the centrifugal force m

A

a

y

applied to the body at the center of gravity, a torque is

generated, which rolls the body with the angle α

A

and leads to an opposite deﬂection of the

tires z

1

= −z

2

.

At steady state cornering, the vehicle forces are balanced. With the principle of virtual work

δW = 0 , (7.61)

the equilibrium position can be calculated.

At the simple vehicle model in Fig. 7.9 the suspension forces F

F1

, F

F2

and tire forces F

y1

, F

z1

,

F

y2

, F

z2

, are approximated by linear spring elements with the constants c

A

and c

Q

, c

R

. The work

120

7.2 Steady State Cornering

F

F

1

z

1

α

1

y

1

F

y1

F

z1

S

1

Q

1

z

A α

A

y

A

b/2 b/2

h

0

r

0

S

A

F

F

2

z

2

α

2

y

2

F

y2

F

y2

S

2

Q

2

m

A

a

y

m

R

a

y

m

R

a

y

Figure 7.9: Simple vehicle roll model

W of these forces can be calculated directly or using W = −V via the potential V . At small

deﬂections with linearized kinematics one gets

W = −m

A

a

y

y

A

−m

R

a

y

(y

A

+h

R

α

A

+y

1

)

2

− m

R

a

y

(y

A

+h

R

α

A

+y

2

)

2

−

1

2

c

A

z

2

1

−

1

2

c

A

z

2

2

−

1

2

c

S

(z

1

−z

2

)

2

−

1

2

c

Q

(y

A

+h

0

α

A

+y

1

+r

0

α

1

)

2

−

1

2

c

Q

(y

A

+h

0

α

A

+y

2

+r

0

α

2

)

2

−

1

2

c

R

_

z

A

+

b

2

α

A

+z

1

_

2

−

1

2

c

R

_

z

A

−

b

2

α

A

+z

2

_

2

,

(7.62)

where the abbreviation h

R

= h

0

−r

0

has been used, and c

S

describes the spring constant of the

anti roll bar, converted to the vertical displacement of the wheel centers.

The kinematics of the wheel suspension are symmetrical. With the linear approaches

y

1

=

∂y

∂z

z

1

, α

1

=

∂α

∂z

α

1

and y

2

= −

∂y

∂z

z

2

, α

2

= −

∂α

∂z

α

2

(7.63)

the work W can be described as a function of the position vector

y = [ y

A

, z

A

, α

A

, z

1

, z

2

]

T

. (7.64)

Due to

W = W(y) (7.65)

the principle of virtual work Eq. (7.61) leads to

δW =

∂W

∂y

δy = 0 . (7.66)

121

7 Lateral Dynamics

Because of δy ,= 0, a system of linear equations in the form of

K y = b (7.67)

results from Eq. (7.66). The matrix K and the vector b are given by

K =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2 c

Q

0 2 c

Q

h

0

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

−

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

0 2 c

R

0 c

R

c

R

2 c

Q

h

0

0 c

α

b

2

c

R

+h

0

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

−

b

2

c

R

−h

0

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

c

R

b

2

c

R

+h

0

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

c

∗

A

+c

S

+c

R

−c

S

−

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

c

R

−

b

2

c

R

−h

0

∂y

Q

∂z

c

Q

−c

S

c

∗

A

+c

S

+c

R

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(7.68)

and

b = −

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

m

A

+ 2 m

R

0

(m

1

+m

2

) h

R

m

R

∂y/∂z

−m

R

∂y/∂z

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

a

y

. (7.69)

The following abbreviations have been used:

∂y

Q

∂z

=

∂y

∂z

+r

0

∂α

∂z

, c

∗

A

= c

A

+c

Q

_

∂y

∂z

_

2

, c

α

= 2 c

Q

h

2

0

+ 2 c

R

_

b

2

_

2

. (7.70)

The system of linear equations Eq. (7.67) can be solved numerically, e.g. with MATLAB. Thus,

the inﬂuence of axle suspension and axle kinematics on the roll behavior of the vehicle can be

investigated.

A

α

1

γ

2

γ

a)

roll center

roll center

A

α

1

γ

2

γ

0

b)

0

Figure 7.10: Roll behavior at cornering: a) without and b) with camber compensation

If the wheels only move vertically to the body at jounce and rebound, at fast cornering the

wheels will be no longer perpendicular to the track Fig. 7.10 a. The camber angles γ

1

> 0

and γ

2

> 0 result in an unfavorable pressure distribution in the contact area, which leads to

a reduction of the maximally transmittable lateral forces. Thus, at more sportive vehicles axle

122

7.2 Steady State Cornering

kinematics are employed, where the wheels are rotated around the longitudinal axis at jounce

and rebound, α

1

= α

1

(z

1

) and α

2

= α

2

(z

2

). Hereby, a ”camber compensation” can be achieved

with γ

1

≈ 0 and γ

2

≈ 0. Fig. 7.10 b. By the rotation of the wheels around the longitudinal

axis on jounce and rebound, the wheel contact points are moved outwards, i.e against the lateral

force. By this, a ’roll support’ is achieved that reduces the body roll.

7.2.4 Roll Center and Roll Axis

roll center rear

roll axis

roll center front

Figure 7.11: Roll axis

The ’roll center’ can be constructed from the lateral motion of the wheel contact points Q

1

and

Q

2

, Fig. 7.10. The line through the roll center at the front and rear axle is called ’roll axis’,

Fig. 7.11.

7.2.5 Wheel Loads

P

F0

-∆P

P

F0

+∆P

P

R0

-∆P

P

R0

+∆P

P

F0

-∆P

F

P

F0

+∆P

F

P

R0

-∆P

R

P

R0

+∆P

R

-T

T

+T

T

Figure 7.12: Wheel loads for a ﬂexible and a rigid chassis

The roll angle of a vehicle during cornering depends on the roll stiffness of the axle and on the

position of the roll center. Different axle layouts at the front and rear axle may result in different

roll angles of the front and rear part of the chassis, Fig. 7.12.

123

7 Lateral Dynamics

On most passenger cars the chassis is rather stiff. Hence, front and rear part of the chassis are

forced by an internal torque to an overall chassis roll angle. This torque affects the wheel loads

and generates different wheel load differences at the front and rear axle. Due to the degressive

inﬂuence of the wheel load to longitudinal and lateral tire forces the steering tendency of a

vehicle can be affected.

7.3 Simple Handling Model

7.3.1 Modeling Concept

x

0

y

0

a

1

a

2

x

B

y

B

C

δ

β

γ

F

y1

F

y2

x

2

y

2

x

1

y

1

v

Figure 7.13: Simple handling model

The main vehicle motions take place in a horizontal plane deﬁned by the earth-ﬁxed frame 0,

Fig. 7.13. The tire forces at the wheels of one axle are combined to one resulting force. Tire

torques, rolling resistance, and aerodynamic forces and torques, applied at the vehicle, are not

taken into consideration.

7.3.2 Kinematics

The vehicle velocity at the center of gravity can be expressed easily in the body ﬁxed frame x

B

,

y

B

, z

B

v

C,B

=

_

_

v cos β

v sin β

0

_

_

, (7.71)

where β denotes the side slip angle, and v is the magnitude of the velocity.

124

7.3 Simple Handling Model

The velocity vectors and the unit vectors in longitudinal and lateral direction of the axles are

needed for the computation of the lateral slips. One gets

e

x

1

,B

=

_

_

cos δ

sin δ

0

_

_

, e

y

1

,B

=

_

_

−sin δ

cos δ

0

_

_

, v

01,B

=

_

_

v cos β

v sin β +a

1

˙ γ

0

_

_

(7.72)

and

e

x

2

,B

=

_

_

1

0

0

_

_

, e

y

2

,B

=

_

_

0

1

0

_

_

, v

02,B

=

_

_

v cos β

v sin β −a

2

˙ γ

0

_

_

, (7.73)

where a

1

and a

2

are the distances from the center of gravity to the front and rear axle, and ˙ γ

denotes the yaw angular velocity of the vehicle.

7.3.3 Tire Forces

Unlike with the kinematic tire model, now small lateral motions in the contact points are per-

mitted. At small lateral slips, the lateral force can be approximated by a linear approach

F

y

= c

S

s

y

, (7.74)

where c

S

is a constant depending on the wheel load F

z

, and the lateral slip s

y

is deﬁned by

Eq. (3.61). Because the vehicle is neither accelerated nor decelerated, the rolling condition is

fulﬁlled at each wheel

r

D

Ω = e

T

x

v

0P

. (7.75)

Here, r

D

is the dynamic tire radius, v

0P

the contact point velocity, and e

x

the unit vector in

longitudinal direction. With the lateral tire velocity

v

y

= e

T

y

v

0P

(7.76)

and the rolling condition Eq. (7.75), the lateral slip can be calculated from

s

y

=

−e

T

y

v

0P

[ e

T

x

v

0P

[

, (7.77)

with e

y

labeling the unit vector in the lateral direction direction of the tire. So, the lateral forces

are given by

F

y1

= c

S1

s

y1

; F

y2

= c

S2

s

y2

. (7.78)

7.3.4 Lateral Slips

With Eq. (7.73), the lateral slip at the front axle follows from Eq. (7.77):

s

y1

=

+sin δ (v cos β) −cos δ (v sin β +a

1

˙ γ)

[ cos δ (v cos β) + sin δ (v sin β +a

1

˙ γ) [

. (7.79)

125

7 Lateral Dynamics

The lateral slip at the rear axle is given by

s

y2

= −

v sin β −a

2

˙ γ

[ v cos β [

. (7.80)

The yaw velocity of the vehicle ˙ γ, the side slip angle β and the steering angle δ are considered

to be small

[ a

1

˙ γ [ ¸[v[ ; [ a

2

˙ γ [ ¸[v[ (7.81)

[ β [ ¸1 and [ δ [ ¸1 . (7.82)

Because the side slip angle always labels the smaller angle between the velocity vector and the

vehicle longitudinal axis, instead of v sin β ≈ v β the approximation

v sin β ≈ [v[ β (7.83)

has to be used. Now, Eqs. (7.79) and (7.80) result in

s

y1

= −β −

a

1

[v[

˙ γ +

v

[v[

δ (7.84)

and

s

y2

= −β +

a

2

[v[

˙ γ , (7.85)

where the consequences of Eqs. (7.81), (7.82), and (7.83) were already taken into consideration.

7.3.5 Equations of Motion

The velocities, angular velocities, and the accelerations are needed to derive the equations of

motion, For small side slip angles β ¸1, Eq. (7.71) can be approximated by

v

C,B

=

_

_

v

[v[ β

0

_

_

. (7.86)

The angular velocity is given by

ω

0F,B

=

_

_

0

0

˙ γ

_

_

. (7.87)

If the vehicle accelerations are also expressed in the vehicle ﬁxed frame x

F

, y

F

, z

F

, one will

ﬁnd at constant vehicle speed v = const and with neglecting small higher-order terms

a

C,B

= ω

0F,B

v

C,B

+ ˙ v

C,B

=

_

_

0

v ˙ γ +[v[

˙

β

0

_

_

. (7.88)

126

7.3 Simple Handling Model

The angular acceleration is given by

˙ ω

0F,B

=

_

_

0

0

˙ ω

_

_

, (7.89)

where the substitution

˙ γ = ω (7.90)

was used. The linear momentum in the lateral direction of the vehicle reads as

m(v ω +[v[

˙

β) = F

y1

+F

y2

, (7.91)

where, due to the small steering angle, the term F

y1

cos δ has been approximated by F

y1

, and

m describes the vehicle mass. With Eq. (7.90) the angular momentum yields

Θ ˙ ω = a

1

F

y1

−a

2

F

y2

, (7.92)

where Θ names the inertia of vehicle around the vertical axis. With the linear description of the

lateral forces Eq. (7.78) and the lateral slips Eqs. (7.84), (7.85), one gets from Eqs. (7.91) and

(7.92) two coupled, but linear ﬁrst order differential equations

˙

β =

c

S1

m[v[

_

−β −

a

1

[v[

ω +

v

[v[

δ

_

+

c

S2

m[v[

_

−β +

a

2

[v[

ω

_

−

v

[v[

ω (7.93)

˙ ω =

a

1

c

S1

Θ

_

−β −

a

1

[v[

ω +

v

[v[

δ

_

−

a

2

c

S2

Θ

_

−β +

a

2

[v[

ω

_

, (7.94)

which can be written in the form of a state equation

_

˙

β

˙ ω

_

. ¸¸ .

˙ x

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

−

c

S1

+c

S2

m[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

m[v[[v[

−

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

Θ

−

a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

Θ[v[

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

A

_

β

ω

_

. ¸¸ .

x

+

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

v

[v[

c

S1

m[v[

v

[v[

a

1

c

S1

Θ

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

. ¸¸ .

B

_

δ

¸

.¸¸.

u

. (7.95)

If a system can be at least approximatively described by a linear state equation, stability, steady

state solutions, transient response, and optimal controlling can be calculated with classic meth-

ods of system dynamics.

7.3.6 Stability

7.3.6.1 Eigenvalues

The homogeneous state equation

˙ x = Ax (7.96)

127

7 Lateral Dynamics

describes the eigen-dynamics. If the approach

x

h

(t) = x

0

e

λt

(7.97)

is inserted into Eq. (7.96), the homogeneous equation will remain

(λE − A) x

0

= 0 . (7.98)

One gets non-trivial solutions x

0

,= 0 for

det [λE − A[ = 0 . (7.99)

The eigenvalues λ provide information concerning the stability of the system.

7.3.6.2 Low Speed Approximation

The state matrix

A

v→0

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

−

c

S1

+c

S2

m[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

m[v[[v[

−

v

[v[

0 −

a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

Θ[v[

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(7.100)

approximates the eigen-dynamics of vehicles at low speeds, v → 0. The matrix in Eq. (7.100)

has the eigenvalues

λ

1

v→0

= −

c

S1

+c

S2

m[v[

and λ

2

v→0

= −

a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

Θ[v[

. (7.101)

The eigenvalues are real and always negative independent from the driving direction. Thus,

vehicles possess an asymptotically stable driving behavior at low speed!

7.3.6.3 High Speed Approximation

At high driving velocities, v →∞, the state matrix can be approximated by

A

v→∞

=

_

¸

¸

_

0 −

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

Θ

0

_

¸

¸

_

. (7.102)

Using Eq. (7.102) one receives from Eq. (7.99) the relation

λ

2

v→∞

+

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

Θ

= 0 (7.103)

128

7.3 Simple Handling Model

with the solutions

λ

1,2

v→∞

= ±

_

−

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

Θ

. (7.104)

When driving forward with v > 0, the root argument will be positive, if

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

< 0 (7.105)

holds. Then however, one eigenvalue is positive, and the system is unstable. Two zero-

eigenvalues λ

1

= 0 and λ

2

= 0 are obtained for

a

1

c

S1

= a

2

c

S2

. (7.106)

The driving behavior is indifferent then. Slight parameter variations, however, can lead to an

unstable behavior. With

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

> 0 or a

1

c

S1

< a

2

c

S2

(7.107)

and v > 0 the root argument in Eq. (7.104) becomes negative. Then, the eigenvalues are imag-

inary, and disturbances lead to undamped vibrations. To avoid instability, high-speed vehicles

have to satisfy the condition Eq. (7.107). The root argument in Eq. (7.104) changes at backward

driving its sign. Hence, a vehicle showing stable driving behavior at forward driving becomes

unstable at fast backward driving!

7.3.6.4 Critical Speed

The condition for non-trivial solutions (7.99) results here in a quadratic equation for the eigen-

values λ

det [λE − A[ = λ

2

+k

1

λ +k

2

= 0 (7.108)

which is solved by

λ

1,2

= −

k

1

2

±

¸

_

k

1

2

_

2

−k

2

. (7.109)

Hence, asymptotically stable solutions demand for

k

1

> 0 and k

2

> 0 (7.110)

which corresponds with the stability criteria of Stodola and Hurwitz [23].

According to Eq. (7.95) the coefﬁcients in Eq. (7.108) can be derived from the vehicle data

k

1

=

c

S1

+c

S2

m[v[

+

a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

Θ[v[

, (7.111)

k

2

=

c

S1

+c

S2

m[v[

a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

Θ[v[

−

(a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

)

2

Θm[v[[v[

+

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

Θ

=

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

mΘv

2

_

1 +

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

mv

2

_

.

(7.112)

129

7 Lateral Dynamics

The coefﬁcient k

1

is always positive, whereas k

2

> 0 is fulﬁlled only if

1 +

v

[v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

mv

2

> 0 (7.113)

will hold. Hence, a vehicle designed stable for arbitrary velocities in forward direction becomes

unstable, when it drives too fast backwards. Because, k

2

> 0 for a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

> 0 and v < 0

demands for v > −v

−

C

, where according to Eq. (7.113) the critical backwards velocity is given

by

v

−

C

=

¸

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

m(a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

)

. (7.114)

On the other hand, vehicle layouts with a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

< 0 or are only stable while driving

forward as long as v < v

+

C

will hold. Here, Eq. (7.113) yields the critical forward velocity of

v

+

C

=

¸

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

m(a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

)

. (7.115)

Most vehicles are designed stable for fast forward drive. Then, the backwards velocity must be

limited in order to avoid stability problems. That is why, fast driving vehicles have four or more

gears for forward drive but, only one or two reverse gears.

7.3.7 Steady State Solution

7.3.7.1 Steering Tendency

At a given steering angle δ =δ

0

, a stable system reaches steady state after a certain time. Then,

the vehicle will drive on a circle with the radius R

st

which is determined by

ω

st

=

v

R

st

(7.116)

where v is the velocity of the vehicle and ω

st

denotes its steady state angular velocity.

With x

st

= const. or ˙ x

st

= 0, the state equation Eq. (7.95) is reduced to a system of linear

equations

Ax

st

= −Bu . (7.117)

Using Eq. (7.116) the state vector can be described in steady state by

x

st

=

_

β

st

v/R

st

_

, (7.118)

where β

st

denotes the steady state side slip angle. With u = [δ

0

], and the elements of the state

matrix Aand the vector B which are deﬁned in Eq. (7.95) the system of linear equations (7.117)

yields

(c

S1

+c

S2

) β

st

+ (mv [v[ +a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

)

v

[v[

1

R

st

=

v

[v[

c

S1

δ

0

, (7.119)

130

7.3 Simple Handling Model

(a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

) β

st

+ (a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

)

v

[v[

1

R

st

=

v

[v[

a

1

c

S1

δ

0

, (7.120)

where the ﬁrst equation has been multiplied by −m[v[ and the second with −Θ. Eliminating

the steady state side slip angle β

st

leads to

_

mv[v[(a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

) + (a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

)

2

−(c

S1

+c

S2

)(a

2

1

c

S1

+a

2

2

c

S2

)

¸

v

[v[

1

R

st

=

[a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

−a

1

(c

S1

+c

S2

)]

v

[v[

c

S1

δ

0

,

(7.121)

which can be simpliﬁed to

_

mv[v[(a

1

c

S1

−a

2

c

S2

) −c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

2

¸

v

[v[

1

R

st

= −

v

[v[

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)δ

0

. (7.122)

Hence, driving the vehicle at a certain radius requires a steering angle of

δ

0

=

a

1

+a

2

R

st

+ m

v[v[

R

st

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

. (7.123)

The ﬁrst term is the Ackermann steering angle which follows from Eq. (7.2) with the wheel

base a = a

1

+a

2

and the approximation for small steering angles tan δ

0

≈δ

0

. The Ackermann-

steering angle provides a good approximation for slowly moving vehicles, because the second

expression in Eq. (7.123) becomes very small at v → 0. Depending on the value of a

2

c

S2

−

a

1

c

S1

and the driving direction, forward v > 0 or backward v < 0, the necessary steering angle

differs from the Ackermann-steering angle at higher speeds. The difference is proportional to

the lateral acceleration

a

y

=

v[v[

R

st

= ±

v

2

R

st

. (7.124)

Hence, Eq. (7.123) can be written as

δ

0

= δ

A

+ k

v

2

R

st

, (7.125)

where δ

A

=

a

1

+a

2

R

st

is the Ackermann steering angle, and k summarizes the relevant vehicle

parameter. In a diagram where the steering angle δ

0

is plotted versus the lateral acceleration

a

y

= v

2

/R

st

Eq. (7.125) represents a straight line , Fig. 7.14.

On forward drive, v > 0, the inclination of the line is given by

k =

m (a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

)

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

. (7.126)

At steady state cornering the amount of the steering angle δ

0

<

=

>

δ

A

and hence, the steering

tendency depends at increasing velocity on the stability condition a

2

c

S2

− a

1

c

S1

<

=

>

0. The

various steering tendencies are also arranged in Tab. 7.1.

131

7 Lateral Dynamics

a

y

= v

2

/R

st

δ

0

δ

A

oversteering: δ

0

<δ

A

or a

1

c

S1

> a

2

c

S2

0

neutral: δ

0

=δ

A

or a

1

c

S1

= a

2

c

S2

understeering: δ

0

>δ

A

or a

1

c

S1

< a

2

c

S2

Figure 7.14: Steering angle versus lateral acceleration

• understeering δ

0

> δ

A

0

or a

1

c

S1

< a

2

c

S2

or a

1

c

S1

/ a

2

c

S2

< 1

• neutral δ

0

= δ

A

0

or a

1

c

S1

= a

2

c

S2

or a

1

c

S1

/ a

2

c

S2

= 1

• oversteering δ

0

< δ

A

0

or a

1

c

S1

> a

2

c

S2

or a

1

c

S1

/ a

2

c

S2

> 1

Table 7.1: Steering tendencies of a vehicle at forward driving

7.3.7.2 Side Slip Angle

Equations (7.119) and (7.120) can also be resolved for the steady state side slip angle. One gets

β

st

=

v

[v[

a

2

− mv [v[

a

1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

a

1

+a

2

+ mv [v[

a

2

c

S2

−a

1

c

S1

c

S1

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

δ

0

, (7.127)

The steady state side slip angle starts with the kinematic value

β

v→0

st

=

v

[v[

a

2

a

1

+a

2

δ

0

. (7.128)

On forward drive v > 0 it decreases with increasing speed till the side slip angle changes the

sign at

v

β

st

=0

=

¸

a

2

c

S2

(a

1

+a

2

)

a

1

m

. (7.129)

In Fig. 7.15 the side slip angle β, and the driven curve radius R are plotted versus the driving

speed v. The steering angle has been set to δ

0

= 1.4321

◦

, in order to let the vehicle drive a circle

with the radius R

0

= 100 m at v → 0. The actually driven circle radius r = R

st

(δ

0

) has been

calculated from Eq. (7.123).

132

7.3 Simple Handling Model

0 10 20 30 40

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

v [m/s]

β

[

d

e

g

]

steady state side slip angle

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 0.66667

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 1

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 1.3333

0 10 20 30 40

0

50

100

150

200

v [m/s]

r

[

m

]

radius of curvrature

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 0.66667

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 1

a

1

*

c

S1

/a

2

*

c

S2

= 1.3333

m=700 kg;

Θ=1000 kg m

2

;

a

1

=1.2 m;

a

2

=1.3 m;

c

S1

= 80 000 Nm; c

S2

=

110 770 Nm

73 846 Nm

55 385 Nm

Figure 7.15: Side slip angle at steady state cornering

Some concepts for an additional steering of the rear axle were trying to keep the side slip

angle of the vehicle, measured at the center of the vehicle to zero by an appropriate steering or

controlling. Due to numerous problems, production stage could not yet be reached.

7.3.7.3 Slip Angles

With the conditions for a steady state solution

˙

β

st

= 0, ˙ ω

st

= 0 and Eq. (7.116), the equations

of motion Eq. (7.91) and Eq. (7.92) can be resolved for the lateral forces

F

y1

st

=

a

2

a

1

+a

2

m

v

2

R

st

,

F

y2

st

=

a

1

a

1

+a

2

m

v

2

R

st

or

a

1

a

2

=

F

y2

st

F

y1

st

. (7.130)

With the linear tire model in Eq. (7.74) one gets in addition

F

st

y1

= c

S1

s

st

y1

and F

st

y2

= c

S2

s

st

y2

, (7.131)

where s

st

y

A1

and s

st

y

A2

label the steady state lateral slips at the front and rear axle. Now, from

Eqs. (7.130) and (7.131) it follows

a

1

a

2

=

F

st

y2

F

st

y1

=

c

S2

s

st

y2

c

S1

s

st

y1

or

a

1

c

S1

a

2

c

S2

=

s

st

y2

s

st

y1

. (7.132)

That means, at a vehicle with a tendency to understeer (a

1

c

S1

< a

2

c

S2

) during steady state

cornering the slip angles at the front axle are larger than the slip angles at the rear axle, s

st

y1

>

s

st

y2

. So, the steering tendency can also be determined from the slip angle at the axles.

133

7 Lateral Dynamics

7.3.8 Inﬂuence of Wheel Load on Cornering Stiffness

With identical tires at the front and rear axle, given a linear inﬂuence of wheel load on the raise

of the lateral force over the lateral slip,

c

lin

S1

= c

S

F

z1

and c

lin

S2

= c

S

F

z2

. (7.133)

holds. The weight of the vehicle G = mg is distributed over the axles according to the position

of the center of gravity

F

z1

=

a

2

a

1

+a

2

G and .F

z2

=

a

1

a

1

+a

2

G (7.134)

With Eq. (7.133) and Eq. (7.134) one obtains

a

1

c

lin

S1

= a

1

c

S

a

2

a

1

+a

2

G (7.135)

and

a

2

c

lin

S2

= a

2

c

S

a

1

a

1

+a

2

G . (7.136)

Thus, a vehicle with identical tires would be steering neutrally at a linear inﬂuence of the wheel

load on the cornering stiffness, because of

a

1

c

lin

S1

= a

2

c

lin

S2

(7.137)

The lateral force is applied behind the center of the contact patch at the caster offset distance.

Hence, the lever arms of the lateral forces change to a

1

→ a

1

−

v

|v|

n

L

1

and a

2

→ a

2

+

v

|v|

n

L

1

,

which will stabilize the vehicle, independently from the driving direction.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

α

F

z

[kN]

F

y

[

k

N

]

F

z

[N] F

y

[N]

0 0

1000 758

2000 1438

3000 2043

4000 2576

5000 3039

6000 3434

7000 3762

8000 4025

Figure 7.16: Lateral force F

y

over wheel load F

z

at different slip angles

At a real tire, a degressive inﬂuence of the wheel load on the tire forces is observed, Fig. 7.16.

According to Eq. (7.92) the rotation of the vehicle is stable, if the torque from the lateral forces

F

y1

and F

y2

is aligning, i.e.

a

1

F

y1

−a

2

F

y2

< 0 (7.138)

134

7.3 Simple Handling Model

holds. At a vehicle with the wheel base a = 2.45 m the axle loads F

z1

= 4000 N and F

z2

=

3000 N yield the position of the center of gravity a

1

= 1.05 m and a

2

= 1.40 m. At equal slip

on front and rear axle one gets from the table in 7.16 F

y1

= 2576 N and F

y2

= 2043 N. With

this, the condition in Eq. (7.138) yields 1.05 ∗ 2576 − 1.45 ∗ 2043 = −257.55 . The value is

signiﬁcantly negative and thus stabilizing.

Vehicles with a

1

< a

2

have a stable, i.e. understeering driving behavior. If the axle load at the

rear axle is larger than at the front axle (a

1

> a

2

), generally a stable driving behavior can only

be achieved with different tires.

At increasing lateral acceleration the vehicle is more and more supported by the outer wheels.

The wheel load differences can differ at a sufﬁciently rigid vehicle body, because of different

kinematics (roll support) or different roll stiffness. Due to the degressive inﬂuence of wheel

load, the lateral force at an axle decreases with increasing wheel load difference. If the wheel

load is split more strongly at the front axle than at the rear axle, the lateral force potential at the

front axle will decrease more than at the rear axle and the vehicle will become more stable with

an increasing lateral force, i.e. more understeering.

135

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles

8.1 Standard Driving Maneuvers

8.1.1 Steady State Cornering

The steering tendency of a real vehicle is determined by the driving maneuver called steady

state cornering. The maneuver is performed quasi-static. The driver tries to keep the vehicle on

a circle with the given radius R. He slowly increases the driving speed v and, with this also

the lateral acceleration due a

y

=

v

2

R

until reaching the limit. Typical results are displayed in

Fig. 8.1.

0

20

40

60

80

lateral acceleration [g]

s

t

e

e

r

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

-4

-2

0

2

4

s

i

d

e

s

l

i

p

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

1

2

3

4

r

o

l

l

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

w

h

e

e

l

l

o

a

d

s

[

k

N

]

lateral acceleration [g]

Figure 8.1: Steady state cornering: rear-wheel-driven car on R = 100 m

In forward drive the vehicle is understeering and thus stable for any velocity. The inclination

in the diagram steering angle versus lateral velocity decides about the steering tendency and

stability behavior.

136

8.1 Standard Driving Maneuvers

The nonlinear inﬂuence of the wheel load on the tire performance is here used to design a vehicle

that is weakly stable, but sensitive to steer input in the lower range of lateral acceleration, and

is very stable but less sensitive to steer input in limit conditions.

With the increase of the lateral acceleration the roll angle becomes larger. The overturning

torque is intercepted by according wheel load differences between the outer and inner wheels.

With a sufﬁciently rigid frame the use of an anti roll bar at the front axle allows to increase the

wheel load difference there and to decrease it at the rear axle accordingly.

Thus, the digressive inﬂuence of the wheel load on the tire properties, cornering stiffness and

maximum possible lateral force, is stressed more strongly at the front axle, and the vehicle

becomes more under-steering and stable at increasing lateral acceleration, until it drifts out of

the curve over the front axle in the limit situation.

Problems occur at front driven vehicles, because due to the demand for traction, the front axle

cannot be relieved at will.

Having a sufﬁciently large test site, the steady state cornering maneuver can also be carried out

at constant speed. There, the steering wheel is slowly turned until the vehicle reaches the limit

range. That way also weakly motorized vehicles can be tested at high lateral accelerations.

8.1.2 Step Steer Input

The dynamic response of a vehicle is often tested with a step steer input. Methods for the

calculation and evaluation of an ideal response, as used in system theory or control technics,

can not be used with a real car, for a step input at the steering wheel is not possible in practice.

A real steering angle gradient is displayed in Fig. 8.2.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

10

20

30

40

time [s]

s

t

e

e

r

i

n

g

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

Figure 8.2: Step Steer Input

Not the angle at the steering wheel is the decisive factor for the driving behavior, but the steering

angle at the wheels, which can differ from the steering wheel angle because of elasticities,

friction inﬂuences, and a servo-support. At very fast steering movements, also the dynamics of

the tire forces plays an important role.

In practice, a step steer input is usually only used to judge vehicles subjectively. Exceeds in yaw

velocity, roll angle, and especially sideslip angle are felt as annoying.

137

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

l

a

t

e

r

a

l

a

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

[

g

]

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

y

a

w

v

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

[

d

e

g

/

s

]

0 2 4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

r

o

l

l

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

0 2 4

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

[t]

s

i

d

e

s

l

i

p

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

Figure 8.3: Step Steer: Passenger Car at v = 100 km/h

The vehicle under consideration behaves dynamically very well, Fig. 8.3. Almost no overshoots

occur in the time history of the roll angle and the lateral acceleration. However, small overshoots

can be noticed at yaw the velocity and the sideslip angle.

8.1.3 Driving Straight Ahead

8.1.3.1 Random Road Proﬁle

The irregularities of a track are of stochastic nature. Fig. 8.4 shows a country road proﬁle in

different scalings. To limit the effort of the stochastic description of a track, one usually employs

simplifying models. Instead of a fully two-dimensional description either two parallel tracks are

evaluated

z = z(x, y) → z

1

= z

1

(s

1

) , and z

2

= z

2

(s

2

) (8.1)

or one uses an isotropic track. The statistic properties are direction-independent at an isotropic

track. Then, a two-dimensional track can be approximated by a single random process

z = z(x, y) → z = z(s) ; (8.2)

138

8.1 Standard Driving Maneuvers

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

1

2

3

4

5

-0.05

-0.04

-0.03

-0.02

-0.01

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Figure 8.4: Track Irregularities

A normally distributed, stationary and ergodic random process z = z(s) is completely charac-

terized by the ﬁrst two expectation values, the mean value

m

z

= lim

s→∞

1

2s

s

_

−s

z(s) ds (8.3)

and the correlation function

R

zz

(δ) = lim

s→∞

1

2s

s

_

−s

z(s) z(s −δ) ds . (8.4)

A vanishing mean value m

z

= 0 can always be achieved by an appropriate coordinate transfor-

mation. The correlation function is symmetric,

R

zz

(δ) = R

zz

(−δ) , (8.5)

and

R

zz

(0) = lim

s→∞

1

2s

s

_

−s

_

z(s)

_

2

ds (8.6)

describes the variance of z

s

.

Stochastic track irregularities are mostly described by power spectral densities (abbreviated by

psd). Correlating function and the one-sided power spectral density are linked by the Fourier-

transformation

R

zz

(δ) =

∞

_

0

S

zz

(Ω) cos(Ωδ) dΩ (8.7)

where Ω denotes the space circular frequency. With Eq. (8.7) follows from Eq. (8.6)

R

zz

(0) =

∞

_

0

S

zz

(Ω) dΩ . (8.8)

139

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles

Thus, the psd gives information, how the variance is compiled from the single frequency shares.

The power spectral densities of real tracks can be approximated by the relation

S

zz

(Ω) = S

0

_

Ω

Ω

0

_

−w

, (8.9)

where the reference frequency is ﬁxed to Ω

0

= 1 m

−1

. The reference psd S

0

= S

zz

(Ω

0

) acts

as a measurement for unevennes and the waviness w indicates, whether the track has notable

irregularities in the short or long wave spectrum. At real tracks, the reference-psd S

0

lies within

the range from 1 ∗ 10

−6

m

3

to 100 ∗ 10

−6

m

3

and the waviness can be approximated by w = 2.

8.1.3.2 Steering Activity

-2 0 2

0

500

1000

highway: S

0

=1*10

-6

m

3

; w=2

-2 0 2

0

500

1000

country road: S

0

=2*10

-5

m

3

; w=2

[deg]

[deg]

Figure 8.5: Steering activity on different roads

A straightforward drive upon an uneven track makes continuous steering corrections necessary.

The histograms of the steering angle at a driving speed of v = 90km/h are displayed in Fig. 8.5.

The track quality is reﬂected in the amount of steering actions. The steering activity is often used

to judge a vehicle in practice.

8.2 Coach with different Loading Conditions

8.2.1 Data

The difference between empty and laden is sometimes very large at trucks and coaches. In the

table 8.1 all relevant data of a travel coach in fully laden and empty condition are listed.

The coach has a wheel base of a = 6.25 m. The front axle with the track width s

v

= 2.046 m

has a double wishbone single wheel suspension. The twin-tire rear axle with the track widths

s

o

h

= 2.152 m and s

i

h

= 1.492 m is guided by two longitudinal links and an a-arm. The air-

springs are ﬁtted to load variations via a niveau-control.

140

8.2 Coach with different Loading Conditions

vehicle mass [kg] center of gravity [m] inertias [kg m

2

]

empty 12 500 −3.800 [ 0.000 [ 1.500

12 500 0 0

0 155 000 0

0 0 155 000

fully laden 18 000 −3.860 [ 0.000 [ 1.600

15 400 0 250

0 200 550 0

250 0 202 160

Table 8.1: Data for a laden and empty coach

-1 0 1

-10

-5

0

5

10

s

u

s

p

e

n

s

i

o

n

t

r

a

v

e

l

[

c

m

]

steer angle [deg]

Figure 8.6: Roll steer: - - front, — rear

8.2.2 Roll Steering

While the kinematics at the front axle hardly cause steering movements at roll motions, the

kinematics at the rear axle are tuned in a way to cause a notable roll steering effect, Fig. 8.6.

8.2.3 Steady State Cornering

Fig. 8.7 shows the results of a steady state cornering on a 100 m-Radius. The fully occupied

vehicle is slightly more understeering than the empty one. The higher wheel loads cause greater

tire aligning torques and increase the degressive wheel load inﬂuence on the increase of the

lateral forces. Additionally roll steering at the rear axle occurs.

Both vehicles can not be kept on the given radius in the limit range. Due to the high position of

the center of gravity the maximal lateral acceleration is limited by the overturning hazard. At

the empty vehicle, the inner front wheel lift off at a lateral acceleration of a

y

≈ 0.4 g . If the

vehicle is fully occupied, this effect will occur already at a

y

≈ 0.35 g.

141

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

50

100

150

200

250

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

steer angle δ

LW

[deg]

-100 0 100

0

50

100

150

200

[m]

[

m

]

vehicle course

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0

50

100

wheel loads [kN]

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0

50

100

wheel loads [kN]

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

Figure 8.7: Steady State Cornering: Coach - - empty, — fully occupied

0 2 4 6 8

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

0 2 4 6 8

0

2

4

6

8

10

yaw velocity ω

Z

[deg/s]

0 2 4 6 8

0

2

4

6

8

[s]

roll angle α [deg]

0 2 4 6 8

-2

-1

0

1

2

[s]

side slip angle β [deg]

Figure 8.8: Step steer input: - - coach empty, — coach fully occupied

142

8.3 Different Rear Axle Concepts for a Passenger Car

8.2.4 Step Steer Input

The results of a step steer input at the driving speed of v = 80 km/h can be seen in Fig. 8.8. To

achieve comparable acceleration values in steady state condition, the step steer input was done

at the empty vehicle with δ = 90

◦

and at the fully occupied one with δ = 135

◦

. The steady state

roll angle is 50% larger at the fully occupied bus than at the empty one. By the niveau-control,

the air spring stiffness increases with the load. Because the damper effect remains unchanged,

the fully laden vehicle is not damped as well as the empty one. This results in larger overshoots

in the time histories of the lateral acceleration, the yaw angular velocity, and the sideslip angle.

8.3 Different Rear Axle Concepts for a Passenger Car

A medium-sized passenger car is equipped in standard design with a semi-trailing rear axle.

By accordingly changed data this axle can easily be transformed into a trailing arm or a single

wishbone axis. According to the roll support, the semi-trailing axle realized in serial production

represents a compromise between the trailing arm and the single wishbone, Fig. 8.9, .

-5 0 5

-10

-5

0

5

10

lateral motion [cm]

v

e

r

t

i

c

a

l

m

o

t

i

o

n

[

c

m

]

Figure 8.9: Rear axle: — semi-trailing arm, - - single wishbone, trailing arm

The inﬂuences on the driving behavior at steady state cornering on a 100 m radius are shown in

Fig. 8.10.

Substituting the semi-trailing arm at the standard car by a single wishbone, one gets, without

adaption of the other system parameters a vehicle oversteering in the limit range. Compared to

the semi-trailing arm the single wishbone causes a notably higher roll support. This increases

the wheel load difference at the rear axle, Fig. 8.10. Because the wheel load difference is simul-

taneously reduced at the front axle, the understeering tendency is reduced. In the limit range,

this even leads to an oversteering behavior.

The vehicle with a trailing arm rear axle is, compared to the serial car, more understeering. The

lack of roll support at the rear axle also causes a larger roll angle.

143

8 Driving Behavior of Single Vehicles

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

50

100

steer angle δ

LW

[deg]

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

1

2

3

4

5

roll angle α [Grad]

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

2

4

6

wheel loads front [kN]

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

2

4

6

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

wheel loads rear [kN]

lateral acceleration a

y

[g]

Figure 8.10: Steady state cornering, — semi-trailing arm, - - single wishbone, trailing arm

144

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148

Index

Ackermann Geometry, 135

Ackermann Steering Angle, 135, 158

Aerodynamic Forces, 121

Air Resistance, 121

Air spring, 83

All Wheel Drive, 144

Anti Dive, 134

Anti Roll Bar, 148

Anti Squat, 134

Anti-Lock-Systems, 128

Anti-roll bar, 83

Axle Kinematics, 134

Axle kinematics

Double wishbone, 7

McPherson, 7

Multi-link, 7

Axle Load, 120

Axle suspension

Solid axle, 78

Twist beam, 79

Bend Angle, 142

Bend angle, 139

Brake Pitch Angle, 129

Brake Pitch Pole, 134

Camber angle, 5, 17

Camber Compensation, 147, 150

Camber slip, 44

Caster, 8, 9

Climbing Capacity, 122

Coil spring, 82

Comfort, 97

Contact point, 18

Cornering Resistance, 143, 144

Cornering stiffness, 34

Critical velocity, 157

Curvature Gradient, 140

Damping rate, 101

Disturbance-reaction problems, 108

Disturbing force lever, 8

Down Forces, 121

Downhill Capacity, 122

Drag link, 80, 81

Drive Pitch Angle, 129

Driver, 2

Driving

Maximum Acceleration, 123

Driving safety, 97

Dynamic Axle Load, 120

Dynamic force elements, 87

Dynamic Wheel Loads, 119

Eigenvalues, 154

Environment, 3

First harmonic oscillation, 87

Fourier-approximation, 88

Frequency domain, 87

Friction, 122

Front Wheel Drive, 123, 144

Generalized ﬂuid mass, 94

Grade, 120

Hydro-mount, 93

Kingpin, 7

Kingpin Angle, 8

Lateral Acceleration, 147, 158

Lateral Force, 152

Lateral Slip, 152

Leaf spring, 82, 83

i

Index

Ljapunov equation, 109

Load, 3

Maximum Acceleration, 122, 123

Maximum Deceleration, 122, 124

Natural frequency, 101

Optimal Brake Force Distribution, 126

Optimal damping, 106, 111

Chassis, 107

Wheel, 107

Optimal Drive Force Distribution, 126

Oversteer, 158

Overturning Limit, 144

Parallel Tracks, 165

Pinion, 80

Pivot pole, 135

Power Spectral Density, 166

Quarter car model, 112, 115

Rack, 80

Random Road Proﬁle, 165

Rear Wheel Drive, 123, 144

Reference frames

Ground ﬁxed, 4

Inertial, 4

Vehicle ﬁxed, 4

Relative damping rate, 102

Ride comfort, 108

Ride safety, 108

Road, 16

Roll Axis, 150

Roll Center, 150

Roll Steer, 168

Roll Stiffness, 146

Roll Support, 147, 150

Rolling Condition, 152

Safety, 97

Side Slip Angle, 135, 159

Sky hook damper, 111

Space Requirement, 136

Spring rate, 103

Stability, 154

Stabilizer, 83

State Equation, 154

State matrix, 113

State vector, 113

Steady State Cornering, 143, 163, 168

Steer box, 80

Steering Activity, 167

Steering Angle, 140

Steering box, 81

Steering lever, 81

Steering offset, 8, 9

Steering system

Drag link steering system, 81

Lever arm, 80

Rack and pinion, 80

Steering Tendency, 151, 157

Step Steer Input, 164, 170

Suspension model, 97

Suspension spring rate, 103

System response, 87

Tilting Condition, 122

Tire

Bore torque, 11, 46

Camber angle, 17

Camber inﬂuence, 43

Characteristics, 39

Circumferential direction, 17

Composites, 10

Contact forces, 11

Contact patch, 11

Contact point, 16

Contact point velocity, 24

Contact torques, 11

Deﬂection, 20

Deformation velocity, 25

Development, 10

Dynamic offset, 34

Dynamic radius, 26

Dynamics, 49

Friction coefﬁcient, 37

Lateral direction, 17

Lateral force, 11

Lateral force characteristics, 34

ii

Index

Lateral force distribution, 34

Lateral slip, 33

Lateral velocity, 25

Lift off, 113

Linear Model, 152

Loaded radius, 17, 25

Longitudinal force, 11, 32

Longitudinal force characteristics, 33

Longitudinal force distribution, 33

Longitudinal slip, 32

Longitudinal velocity, 25

Model, 39

Normal force, 11

Pneumatic trail, 34

Radial damping, 28

Radial direction, 17

Radial Stiffness, 147

Radial stiffness, 28

Rolling resistance, 11, 30

Rolling resistance coefﬁcient, 30

Self aligning torque, 11, 34

Sliding velocity, 34

Static radius, 17, 25, 27

Tilting torque, 11

Track normal, 17, 19

Transport velocity, 26

Tread deﬂection, 31

Tread particles, 31

Unloaded radius, 25

Vertical force, 27

Wheel load inﬂuence, 36

Tire Model

Kinematic, 135

Linear, 160

TMeasy, 39

Toe angle, 4

Toe-in, 4

Toe-out, 4

Torsion bar, 82

Track, 16

Track Curvature, 140

Track Radius, 140

Track Width, 135, 147

Tracknormal, 4

Trailer, 138, 141

Understeer, 158

Vehicle, 2

Vehicle comfort, 97

Vehicle dynamics, 1

Vehicle Model, 119, 129, 138, 147, 151

Vehicle model, 97, 115

Vertical dynamics, 97

Virtual Work, 147

Waviness, 167

Wheel Base, 135

Wheel camber, 5

Wheel load, 11

Wheel Loads, 119

Wheel rotation axis, 4

Wheel Suspension

Semi-Trailing Arm, 170

Single Wishbone, 170

Trailing Arm, 170

Wheel suspension

Central control arm, 79

Double wishbone, 78

McPherson, 78

Multi-Link, 78

Semi-trailing arm, 79

SLA, 79

Yaw Angle, 141

Yaw angle, 138

Yaw Velocity, 152

iii

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