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Se utiliza cuando queremos decir que alguien es capaz de algo, que puede.

Can y Could
pueden ser reemplazados en ciertos casos por esta forma verbal.
To be able to - ser capaz de, poder
La expresión "to be able to" posee un significado similar a la de los modales "can" y
"could", sin embargo no es un auxiliar modal dado que puede conjugarse en todos los
tiempos verbales.

To be able to + infinitive: (capacidad, aptitud) saber, poder, ser capaz de
Can + base form: (capacidad, aptitud) poder, saber, a veces no se traduce

El uso de "be able to" en el Presente Simple (am/is/are able to) es poco frecuente aunque
posible. Para este tiempo verbal, el empleo de "can" es más común.

 Helen can speak five languages fluently.
Helen puede hablar cinco idiomas con fluidez.
 Helen is able to speak five languages fluently. (poco común)
Helen puede hablar cinco idiomas con fluidez.
 Can you hear me well?
¿Me puedes oír bien?
 Are you able to hear me well? (poco común)
¿Me puedes oír bien?
"Be able to" se emplea más a menudo en combinación con otros auxiliares.

 You will be able to get tickets to the concert if you arrive at the box office early.
Podrás conseguir entradas para el recital si llegas a la boletería temprano.
 Will you be able to come with us?
¿Podrás venir con nosotros?
 The kids have not been able to study much today.
Los niños no han sido capaces de estudiar mucho hoy.
 Ms. Peterson has been able to contact Mr. Hope this morning.
La Sra. Peterson pudo contactar al Sr. Hope esta mañana.
 The police were finally able to solve the mystery.
La policía pudo finalmente resolver el misterio.
 Jim was not able to meet Richard yesterday.
Jim no pudo encontrarse con Richard ayer.




El verbo 'must' expresa una prohibición u obligación fuerte así como cierta certeza: I must
go. She must be crazy. En español significa debo, debo de.
I must - debo / debo de
Affirmative

 I must go to the library.
Debo ir a la biblioteca.
 You must stay here until I come back.
Debes quedarte aquí hasta que yo vuelva.
 We must be at the airport at three o'clock.
Debemos estar en el aeropuerto a las tres.
 Everybody must wear a uniform.
Todos deben usar uniforme.
 You must be joking!
¡Deben de estar bromeando!
 Julia must be in Paris by now.
Julia ya debe de estar en París.
 It must be noon already.
Ya debe de ser mediodía.
Negative

 You must not talk to strangers.
No debes hablar con extraños.
 We mustn't make noise.
No debemos hacer ruido.
 Mr. Williams must not smoke.
El señor Williams no debe fumar.
Interrogative

 Must we do everything today?
¿Debemos hacer todo hoy?
 Must you go so soon?
¿Debes irte tan pronto?
Must + have

 I must have fallen asleep.
Debo de haberme quedado dormido.
 Sally must have forgotten about the meeting.
Sally debe de haberse olvidado de la reunión.
 They must have sent it already.
Ya deben de haberlo enviado.

































 HAVE TO
 Have to / Has to = it is necessary
Don't have to / Doesn't have to = it isn't necessary
AFFIRMATIVE
SENTENCES
SUBJECT MODAL VERB EXAMPLES
affirmative
sentences
( + )
NECESSITY:
have to/has to
means it is
necessary.
I
you
we
they
have to
clean
get
pick up
have
eat
go
work
I have to clean my room.
You have to get a new book.
We have to pick up the laundry.
They have to have a notebook.
he
she
it
has to
He has to eat dinner now.
She has to go to work now.
It has to work.

NEGATIVE
SENTENCES
SUBJECT MODAL VERB EXAMPLES
negative
sentences
( - )
LACK OF
NECESSITY:
don't have
to/doesn't have
to
means it is not
necessary.
You have a
choice.
I
you
we
they
don't have
to
work
do
clean
eat
work
go
be
I don't have to work on
Saturday.
You don't have to do that.
We don't have to clean the car.
They don't have to eat pizza.
he
she
it
doesn't
have to
He doesn't have to work
tomorrow.
She doesn't have to go today.
It doesn't have to be that way.




QUESTIONS DO SUBJECT MODAL VERB EXAMPLES
questions
( ? )
Do
I
you
we
they
have
to
clean
get
pick
up
have
eat
Do I have to clean my
room?
Do you have to get a
new book?
Do we have to pick
up the laundry?
go
work
Do they have to have
a notebook?
Does
he
she
it
Does he have to eat
dinner now?
Does she have to go to
work now?
Does it have to work?

Section A: Pizza!
1. When you make pizza, you ___ have
some pizza sauce.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
2. You also ___ have some cheese on top
of the pizza.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
3. You ___ have peppers on your pizza, but
you can if you want to.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
4. A good pizza ___ taste good.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
5. So, you ___ choose the pizza toppings
have to
that you like best.
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
6. Personally, I love tomatoes, so I always
___ have tomatoes on my pizza!
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
7. You ___ make your own pizza, you can
buy a pizza from a pizza shop if you want
to.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
8. Pizza tastes best when it's hot, but you
___ eat hot pizza. You can eat it cold too.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to


Section B: Help Wanted:
Help Wanted: Secretary. No experience necessary. Must
type 50 words per minute. Work Monday-Friday, weekends
off. Answer phones, use computer, file reports.
Read the advertisement, then choose the correct words
below.
9. The secretary ___ know how to type.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
10. A secretary ___ be a woman. The
have to
secretary can be a man.
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
11. ___ the secretary ___ work
Saturdays?
Do / have to
Does / have to
Do / has to
Does / has to
12. No, he/she ___ go to work on
saturdays.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
13. The secretary also ___ answer the
company's phones....
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
14. ...and he/she ___ file reports every
week.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
15. ___ the secretary ___ use a
computer?
Do / have to
Does / have to
Do / has to
Does / has to
16. Yes, He or she ___ use a computer.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to


Section C: On Health...
17. People ___ eat food to stay alive.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
18. People ___ eat pizza and candy to
stay alive. They can choose healthy
food.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
19. A person ___ drink water to stay
alive.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to
20. A person ___ smoke cigarettes to
stay alive.
have to
has to
don't have to
doesn't have to







MUST : A NECESSITY DECIDED BY THE
SPEAKER
I MUST GO THE DENTIST I HAVE A
TOOTHACHE FOR TWO WEEKS


HAVE TO : AN EXTERNAL OBLIGATION

JOHN IS JOINING THE ARMY THIS WEEKEND
SO HE HAS TO GET HIS HAIR CUT.






























Must/have to



Both of these modal verbs are used to talk
about obligation (things that you are
required to do), but their meaning and use
are slightly different.

Must is often used to express obligations that
the speaker feels are necessary. For
example, when Paul says: 'you must try
some' and 'we must do this again', he is
expressing his own personal view about what
is necessary.

Have to is often used to express obligations
which come from an external source: another
person or organisation has made a rule that
we are required to follow. So when Alice says:
'I have to work a night shift next weekend'
she is talking about an obligation that has
been given to her by her employer.

must

In the present tense, must takes the
same form in all persons:


I must
you must
he/she/it must
we must
you must
they must
Must is followed by a base verb
(infinitive without 'to').

I must eat more fruit. It's good for me.
You must go and see the new Will
Smith movie. You'll love it!
We must remember to thank them for
the lovely gift.
have to

In the present tense, have to takes the
same form in all persons, but it becomes
has to in the 3rd person:

I have to
you have to
he/she/it has to
we have to
you have to
they have to
Have to is followed by a base verb
(infinitive without 'to').

I have to submit this assignment by
3pm tomorrow.
She has had three heart attacks, so now
she has to have an operation.
You have to use the back door in the
evenings; the front door is locked at
5pm.

We use mustn't to say that something is not allowed
 You mustn't drink if you're going to drive afterwards.
 You mustn't drink that water. It's contaminated.
 You mustn't lie under oath. If you do, that's perjury.
 I mustn't forget my keys. I'll put them here so that I remember them.





have to and mustn't
We have to use have to for the negative of must when there is no obligation or
necessity to do something:
 You don't have to drink champagne at the reception. You can have a soft
drink.
 I didn't have to play after all. Jane turned up and could partner Alice.
 You won't have to drive Tom to the airport next Saturday. Julie's taking him.
We use mustn't to say that something is not allowed
 You mustn't drink if you're going to drive afterwards.
 You mustn't drink that water. It's contaminated.
 You mustn't lie under oath. If you do, that's perjury.
 I mustn't forget my keys. I'll put them here so that I remember them.
 Usamos must cuando la obligación es interna ( nos la imponemos nosotros
mismos) y vamos a usar have to cuando la obligación es externa ( nos la
impone algo o alguien que no somos nosotros---por ejemplo una ley , un
superior, una empresa, etc..)

Bien, teniendo en mente este último párrafo me gustaría saber porqué en estas
frases se escriben de la siguiente forma:

-You mustn’t speak to the driver when the bus is moving. It's dangerous.
-I'll tell you a secret. You mustn’t tell anybody else. Promise?
-Whatever you do, you mustn’t click with the right mouse button or the
program will crash
-In bridge, you mustn’t look at other people's cards

¿Por qué en dichas frases se usa mustn’t en lugar de don’t have to si están
impuestas por otras personas?

1. Hola, porque en negativa no es lo mismo que en afirmativa.

Mustn't es una prohibición total, una prohibición moral. You mustn't talk to
the driver...No puedes hablar con el conductor cuando el autobús se
mueve

Don't have to es una "no necesidad de" . You don't have to turn on the
light in the morning. No tienes que encender la luz por la mañana (aunque
nadie te lo impide, el hecho de encenderla es tu problema).
Last edited by chamyto; 11th April 2013 at 3:41 PM.
We must never walk alone .

1. Hola, porque en negativa no es lo mismo que en afirmativa.

Mustn't es una prohibición total, una prohibición moral. You mustn't
talk to the driver...No puedes hablar con el conductor cuando el
autobús se mueve

Don't have to es una "no necesidad de" . You don't have to turn on
the light in the morning. No tienes que encender la luz por la mañana
(aunque nadie te lo impide, el hecho de encenderla es tu problema).
Ah!! Comprendo. Entonces si he entendido bien, en esta ocasión se utiliza en base de
si es una prohibición o una falta de obligación y no por quien sea impuesto ¿no?







Empezemos con el "Must", este verbo modal indica algo que se DEBE de hacer o NO SE DEBE de
hacer a la fuerza, ejemplo:

You must do your homework
Debes hacer tu tarea. (es algo que se debe de hacer, es algo más estricto)

Podemos utilizar el auxiliar Must de forma negativa para INDICAR UNA PROHIBICION.
Musn´t.

Ejemplo:
You musn´t put your hands on a stove!
Tu no debes poner tus manos en una estufa. (Prohibicion)

You musn´t take pictures here.
No debes tomar fotografias aqui. (es una regla de un lugar que se debe que cumplir, está
prohibido)

____________________-

Don´t have to.

La forma negativa del auxiliar "have to" se utiliza para expresar algo que es opcional o que no es
taaannn obligatorio.

They don´t have to clean the windows today, they can do it tomorrow.
Ellos no tienen que limpiar las ventanas hoy, pueden hacerlo mañana.

She doesn´t have to lend money to anyone
Ella no le tiene que prestar dinero a nadie.

Nota: Solo recuerda que se usa el "musnt" para decir una prohibicion o algo que no se debe de
hacer ni por chiste.







Drama
Barry: Hi, Michael. This is Barry. Look, I think I got a part for you.Franklin Theater is doing "Cat on a Hot Tin
Roof." I know you'd like to do this one. Am I right?
Michael: Yes! Hello. This is Michael Dempsey. May I speak with Barry Weiss? Yes, he works there. He's my
agent. Barry! It's me ... Michael! When are they doing the auditions? Uh-huh. Um, no. No, no, no, not
today, Barry. Today is bad.Um, how about tomorrow? Tomorrow I'm free. An appointment in the
afternoon is OK. No, it's not important if I'm the last one. I was the last one before, and it was fine.No
problem. Uh-hum, right after lunch is fine. Right afterdinner is fine. Morning, noon or night, Barry. It's
OK. Just make the phone call and make the appointment for me, please! OK. Four o'clock, tomorrow,
June 18th. That sounds good. Call and tell me when you know for sure.Thanks. Bye.
Watch the TV show, and select the sentences that are true.


Michael starts rehearsing tomorrow.


Michael is happy to hear from Barry.


The audition is at the Baker's Theater.


Michael's audition is on June 18th.


Michael's agent called him about an audition.


Michael doesn't want to be the last person to audition.


Michael wants the part very much.


Barry Weiss is Michael's agent.
Gramática
"Must" y "Have to" expresan una obligación. A veces se
pueden utilizar indistintamente (especialmente con la
primera persona donde prácticamente tienen el mismo
sentido), no obstante existen ciertas diferencias.
"Must" se utiliza con el tiempo presentey futuro
"Have to" con pasado, presentey futuro

Autoridad
externa
Autoridad del
emisor

Pasado Had to Had to
Presente Have to Must
Futuro
Will have
to
Must
"Must": el emisor impone una obligación.
"Have to": el emisor no impone ninguna obligación, se
limita a comunicar una obligación que existe.
(Teacher) You must do your homework (El profesor
impone el deber de hacer los deberes)
(Student) I have to do my homework (el estudiante se
limita a comunicar una obligación que le ha sido
impuesta)
You must stop making noises (El profesor ordena a sus
alumnos)
You have to stop smoking (La mujer le recuerda a su
marido una obligación que le ha impuesto el medico)
I cannot stay longer, I have to go home (mis obligaciones
familiares me obligan a volver a casa)
"Must" también se puede utilizar para expresar un
consejo de forma enfática.
Ver la diferencia entre:
You should stop smoking
You must stop smoking
En ambos casos no se trata de una obligación sino de un
consejo. Con "must" el consejo es más enfático.
Forma interrogativa
Must + sujeto + verbo principal ?
Do + sujeto + have to + verbo principal ?
Must you leave now?
Do you have to leave now?
Forma Negativa
Cuando la oración es negativa el significado de estos dos
verbos es diferente:
"Mustn't": no se debe
"Don't have to": no es necesario hacer algo
You mustn't go to that meeting (no debes ir ya que no has
sido invitado)
You don't have to go to that meeting (no es necesario que
vaya; no se va a tratar nada interesante)





Tip of the Day:
Mustn't vs. Don't have to
Usage Tip
Remember that 'mustn't expresses prohibition. 'Don't have to' expresses something that is not
required. However, if the person may choose to do so if he or she pleases.
Example Sentences
Children mustn't play with fire.
I don't have to work next Saturday.
2 4 5 6 7

Barry thinks he has a for Michael.
They are doing the today and tomorrow.
Michael is tomorrow.
Barry will make an for Michael.
theater
actor
auditions
part
appointment
free