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# The following information is known about the simple two-pole generator in Figure above.

The peak flux density of the rotor mag netic field is 0.2 T, and the mechanical rate of rotation
of the shaft is 3600 r/min. The stator diameter of the machine is 0.5 m, its coil length is 0.3 m,
and there are 151lU1ls per coil. The machine is Y-connected.
(a) What are the three phase voltages of the generator as a function of time?
(b) What is the rms phase voltage of this generator?
(c) What is the rms tenninal voltage of this generator?
Solution
The flux in this machine is given by
Φ= 2rlB = dlB
where d is the diameter and I is the length of the coil. Therefore, the flux in the machine is
given by
Φ= (0.5 m × 0.3 m)(0.2 T) = 0.03 \Vb
The speed of the rotor is given by
w = (3600 r/min × 2π rad × 1 min / 60 s) = 377 radls
(a) The magnitudes of the peak. phase voltages are thus
Emu = NcΦPw
= (15 turns × 0.03 Wb × 377 rad/s = 169.7 V
and the three phase voltages are
e
aa’
(t) = 169.7 sin 377t V
e
bb’
(t) = 169.7 sin (377t -120
0
) V
e
cc’ (
t) = 169.7 sin (377t - 240°) V
(b) The nns phase voltage of this generator is
E
A
=

= 120V
(c) Since the generator is Y-connected,
VT =

3E = 208 V
Please explain the motor nameplate above
1.1 Manufacturer’s Type
NEMA requires a manufacturer's type, but there is no industry standard for what this is. It is
sometimes used to define 1 or 3-phase; single or multi-speed; construction, etc. The "type"
definition varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Below are some of the "types" of motors that may be encountered:
 1-Phase: Shaded Pole. Lowest starting torque, low cost, low efficiency, no capacitors. No
start switch. Used on small direct-drive fans and small gearmotors.
 1-Phase: PSC (Permanent Split Capacitor). Similar to shaded pole applications except
much higher efficiency, lower current and higher horsepower capability. Has run
capacitor in circuit at all times.
 1-Phase: Split Phase. Moderate to low starting torque, no capacitor and has starting
switch. Used on easy start, belt-drive fans and blowers, light start pump applications and
gearmotors.
 1-Phase: Capacitor-Start. Designed in both moderate and high starting torque types with
both having moderate starting current and high breakdown torque. Uses include
conveyors and air compressors.
 3-Phase. Generally 3-phase induction motors have a high starting torque, high power
factor, high efficiency, and low current. Does not use a switch, capacitor or relay for
starting. Suitable for use on larger commercial and industrial applications.
 AC/DC (Universal or Series Wound). Operates on AC (60 or 50 Hz) power. High speed.
Speed drops rapidly as load increases. Used for drills, saws, etc., where high output and
small size are desired and speed characteristic and limited life (primarily of brushes) is
acceptable.
 Shunt Wound and Permanent Magnet DC. High starting and breakdown torque. Provide
smooth operation at low speeds. Used on constant or diminishing torque applications with
Type K rectified DC power.
Motors can also be classified by their pupose:
 General Purpose Motors are designed for mechanical loads and hard to start loads,
including conveyors, belt-driven equipment, machine tools, reciprocating pumps and
compressors, etc. Their bearings can handle heavier radial and axial loads, and their
physical construction is more heavy-duty than some other motors
 Special Purpose Motors are specifically designed for certain applications. For example,
HVAC Motors are primarily designed for fans, centrifugal pumps, small tools, office
equipment, and other light to medium duty applications. Other types of definite duty
motors include washdown, hazardous location, farm duty, pump duty, universal AC/DC,
vacuum, etc.
1.2 Design ("Des," "NEMA Design" or "Design")
A letter designation which describes the torque and current characteristics of the motor. There
are standard definitions for designs A, B, C and D. Some manufacturers will use other letters
to describe motors with characteristics that differ from these standards.
 A: Torque characteristics similar to type B motors, but no limit on inrush current. This
can cause starter sizing issues if not careful.
 B: Most common design. The inrush current is limited to established standards, insuring
that the typical motor-starters are suitable.
 C: High starting torque motors.
 D: Oil well pumping motors.
The following graph illustrates the performance characteristics of each of these types.
Performance Characteristics fordifferent NEMA Design Motors
1.3 Enclosure (Encl)
Describes the motor housing, the degree to which a motor is protected from the environment,
and its method of cooling. Some of the more common enclosures are described below:
- ODP - Open Drip Proof: Allows air to circulate through the motor for cooling, but
protected from drips up to 15
o
off of vertical. Typically used for indoor applications in
relatively clean, dry locations.
- TEFC - Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled: No airflow through the motor. An external fan
blows air over the exterior of the motor for cooling. This motor is not water-tight. Outside
air and moisture can enter the motor, but not in enough quantities to impair performance.
Typically used for outdoor and dirty locations.
- TENV - Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated: Similar to a TEFC, but has no cooling fan. It is
dependent on convection and radiation for cooling.
- TEVF - Totally Enclosed with Vented Flange.
- TEAO - Totally Enclosed Air Over: A special motor used for fans. It has no integral fan,
but uses the airflow from the driven fan for cooling.
- TEBC - Totally Enclosed Blower Cooled.
- WD - Washdown: Designed to withstand high pressure washdowns or other high
humidity or wet environments. Available on TEAO, TEFC and TENV enclosures.
- WP - Weather-Protected.
- EXPL - Explosion-proof enclosures: The motor is designed to withstand an internal
explosion of specified gases or vapors, and not allow the internal flame or explosion to
escape. Available on TEFC or TENV enclosures.
- HAZ - Hazardous Location: For use in various hazardous locations, as defined by the
National Electric Code. The following hazardous locations are defined:
CLASS I
Group A: Acetylene
Group B: Butadiene, ethylene oxide, hydrogen, propylene oxide, manufactured gases
containing more than 30ydrogen by volume.
Group C: Acetaldehyde, cyclopropane, diethyl ether, ethylene.
Group D: Acetone, acrylonitrile, ammonia, benzene, butane, ethanol, ethylene
dichloride, gasoline, hexane, isoprene, methane (natural gas), methanol, naphtha,
propane, propylene, styrene, toluene, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, xylene.
CLASS II
Group E: Aluminum, magnesium, and other metal dusts with similar characteristics.
Group F: Carbon black, coke or coal dust.
Group G: Flour, starch or grain dust.
CLASS III
Easily ignitable fibers, such as rayon, cotton, sisal, hemp, cocoa fiber, oakum, excelsior
and other materials of similar nature.
The NEMA enclosure description is similar to the IEC Index of Protection (IP) code. The
NEMA designations are more descriptive and general, whereas the IEC IP codes are more
precise and narrowly defined by a 2-digit code, with the first digit defining how well
protected the motor is from solid objects and the second digit describing how well protected
the motor is from moister. For example, a NEMA "Open Drip Proof (ODP)" motor
corresponds to an IP22, and a NEMA "Totally Enclosed" motor corresponds to an IP54, a
NEMA "Weather-Proof" motor to an IP45, and a NEMA "Wash-Down" motor to an IP55.
1.4 Frame
Describes mounting dimensions, including foot hole mounting patter, shaft diameter, shaft
height, etc. It does not define overall length and height, conduit box extension length, etc.
Some common frames include:
- 445T: Modern standard T-Frame.
- 445U: defined prior to 1965. The predecessor to the T-frame
The first 2 digits of the frame size divided by 4 equal the height (in inches) of the shaft
centerline from the bottom of the mounting feet.
1.5 Horsepower
The rated shaft power output at the rated voltage, current and frequency. The motor's power
output is related to its torque by the following relationship:
HP = (torque [lb-ft]) * (speed [RPM]) / 5250
1.6 Full Load RPM
The motor's speed when delivering rated HP at rated full load torque.
Multi-speed shaded pole and PSC motors show maximum speed first, followed by total
number of speeds (i.e., 3000/3-Spd). Multi-speed split phase and capacitor-start motors have
maximum speed shown first, followed by second speed (i.e., 1725/1140). RPM rating for a
gearmotor represents output shaft speed.
Note: Many "high" efficiency motors have higher speed ratings than comparable sized
standard efficiency motors. This higher operating speed can actually increase power
consumption in centrifugal loads (e.g., pumps and fans). For centrifugal loads, torque is
proportional to the square of the speed; e.g., doubling the speed will increase torque by 2^2 =
4. Power is equal to torque x speed, or proportional to the cube of speed. Thus, a small
increase in speed can have a much larger increase in power consumption. For example, a 1%
increase in speed will result in a 3% increase in power (1.01^3= 1.03).
1.7 Rated Voltage (Volts)
This is the voltage at which the motor is designed to operate. Nameplate values for current,
power factor, efficiency, and torque, are based on operation at rated voltage and frequency.
Using a motor at a different voltage will change its performance.
Manufacturers often rate their motors for a variety of different voltages. For example, a motor
can be wound for both 230 and 460 V in which case the nameplate would read 230/460. In
some cases, it can be operated at other voltages but with degraded performance; for this
example 208 V in which case the nameplate would read 208-230/460.
One may wonder why the above voltage ratings are not for the network voltages (240 or 480
V). Most manufacturers assume there will be a voltage drop through the buildings network to
the motor terminals, so they rate their motors for the actual voltage expected at the motor
terminals. Therefore, a 460 V motor is usually suitable for a facility with a 480 V network
supply voltage.
1.8 Rated Current (Amps, FLA)
The current the motor draws at the rated load when operated at the rated voltage and
frequency. Unbalanced phases, under-voltage conditions, etc. can cause deviation from rated
current.
1.9 Current When Operated at the Service Factor Load - Optional (S.F.A.)
The current drawn by the motor when operated at service factor load.
1.10 Frequency.
Input electricity frequency at which the motor is designed to operate, typically 50 or 60 Hz.
Sometimes the frequency range is given for variable frequency drive applications.
1.11 Number of phases
Number of AC phases the motor is designed to operate, typically single and three phase.
1.12 Locked-rotor kVA code (L.R. KVA Code, Code)
A letter code (from A-V) which defines the locked-rotor kVA on a per-HP basis. This is used
by the installer to determine the proper branch circuit protection rating. Generally, inrush
current per HP increases per letter. Replacing a motor with a higher locked rotor code may
require additional upstream electrical equipment to handle the higher inrush currents.
1.13 Power Factor (PF)
The power factor of the motor at full load. The power factor is the ratio of active power (W)
to apparent power (VA), and can vary from 0 to 1. High power factors (i.e., close to 1) are
desirable. The power factor is also equal to the cosine of the angle formed by the lag
between the current with respect to the voltage.
For induction motors, the power factor varies with load. The following graph shows the
typical variation of power factor with load:
Source: "Fact Sheet: Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency," US Department of
Energy Motor Challenge Program
1.14 Power Factor Correction (Max Corr KVAR) (Optional)
If given, this is the maximum power factor correcting capacitor size to be used. Value is
typically given in kVARs. Using higher values than specified could result in higher voltages
which could damage the motor or other components.
1.15 NEMA nominal efficiency (Nom Eff, Nom NEMA Eff.)
This is the average efficiency for a large number of the same motors. The actual motor
efficiency is guaranteed to be within a band of this nominal efficiency by the manufacturer.
The efficiency band varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. The maximum allowable
"band" is 20% set by NEMA. This is a large range; therefore pay close attention to the
manufacturer's actual minimum guarantee!
1.16 Service factor (SF)
This is the percent of overloading the motor can handle for short periods due to periodic
overloading, or high/low voltage conditions. Most motors have a duty factor of 1.15 for open
motors and 1.0 for totally closed motors.
The service factor is required to appear on the nameplate only if it is different from SF = 1
Operating a motor at overloads allowed by the service factor for extended periods can result
in overheating, decreased efficiency, decreased power factor, etc.
1.17 Duty
The length of time which a motor can operate at its rated load safely. Continuous (or "Cont.")
is the typical rating. However, some motors are rated for intermittent duty, such as crane,
hose, valve actuator and others. The intermittent duty rating is typically expressed in minutes.
1.18 Insulation class (Ins Cl, Insul Class)
A letter designation specifying the thermal tolerance, or ability to survive a specified
temperature for a specified period of time, of the motor windings. Three insulation classes are
generally used:
 Class A: 105 C maximum
 Class B: 130 C maximum
 Class F: 155 Celsius maximum.
1.19 Maximum Ambient Temperature (Max Amb)
The maximum ambient operating temperature and still be within tolerance of the insulation
class at the maximum temperature rise. Typically given in degrees Celsius.
1.20 Altitude
The altitude at which a motor can operate and still be within its design temperature rise and
meet other nameplate data. Operating at lower altitudes will make the motor run cooler,
while operating at higher altitudes will make it run hotter.
1.21 Thermal Protection (Over Temp Prot)
Describes the motor's thermal or over-temperature protection, if so equipped. Thermal
protection can include the following:
 Auto (Automatic Reset). Contains temperature-sensing device that disconnects one leg of
its power source if temperature becomes excessive due to failure-to-start or overload.
After motor cools, thermal protector automatically restores power. Should not be used
where unexpected re-starting would be hazardous.
 Imp. (Impedance). Motor is designed so that it will not burn out in less than 15 days
under locked rotor (stalled) conditions, in accordance with UL standard No. 519.
 Man. (Manual Reset). Contains a temperature-sensing device that disconnects one leg of
its power source if temperature becomes excessive due to failure-to-start or overload.
After motor cools, an external button must be pushed to restore power to the motor. Turn
off power prior to attempting to reset motor protector. Preferred where unexpected re-
starting would be hazardous, as on saws, conveyors, compressors, etc.
 None. Motor contains no temperature-sensing device to protect motor from excessive
temperature due to failure-to-start or overload. Motor should be protected by other means
in accordance with the NEC and local code requirements.
 T-St(Thermostat).A temperature-sensing device installed inside the motor with separate
leads brought out for connection into motor starter pilot circuit. Under failure-to-start or
overload conditions, thermostat contacts will open. Thermostat contacts will reclose
automatically when motor cools.
Please mentioned the losses in AC machines and also draw the power flow diagram!
The losses in AC machines fall into theses categories:
1. Rotor and stator copper losses
2. Core losses
3. Mechanical losses
4. Stray losses