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ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL

COMMANDANT
Brigadier General Carl I. Hutton, USA
ASSISTANT COMMANDANT
Colonel John D. Edmunds
DIRECTOR OF INSTRUCTION
Lieutenant Colonel William C. Bowen, Jr.
VOLUME 3
ARMY AVIATION
DIGEST
JANUARY, 1957
CONTENTS
NUMBER 1
THE COMMANDANT'S COLUMN______________________ ______ ___ ___________ 3
Brigadier General Carl I. Hutton, USA
U.S. ARMY PARTICIPATION IN AIRCRAFT
INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT______________________ 5
Colonel John D. Edmunds, In!
HELICOPTER OPERATION IN CONGESTED AREAS __________ 18
First Lieutenant John E. Morel, Arty
A SOLUTION TO THE PROVISIONAL AVIATION
COMPANY TRAINING PROGRAM ____________ , __________ ______ 22
Major George B. Brockway, CE, and
Captain James L. Jennings, In!
THE GRAY HAIR DEPARTMENT __________________________________________ 36
S TRAI GHT AND LEVEL _______________________________________________________ _ __ 40
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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Captain Theodore E. Wasko
ASSISTANT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Captain Richard W. Kohlbrand
EDITOR
William E. Vance
The printing of this publication has been approved by the
Director of the Bureau of the Budget, 15 March 1956.
The ARMY AVIATION DIGEST is an' official publica-
tion of the Department of the Army published monthly under
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The mission of the ARMY AVIATION DIGEST is to provide
information of an operational or functional nature concerning
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AVIATION DIGEST may be reprinted provided credit is
given to the ARMY AVIATION DIGEST and to the author.
THE COMMANDANT'S COLUMN
Brigadier General Carl I. Hutton, USA
Commanding General, The Army Aviation Center
The views expressed in this article are the author' s and are not necessarily
• those of the Department of the Army.- The Editor
Parasite Weight
THE DIVIDING LINE between modem fixed-wing aircraft and the
early models proved to be streamlining, i.e., the elimination
of the maximum amount of parasite drag, which may be defined
as friction created without contributing to the work being per-
formed. It can be seen now that the tremendous growth in power
plants would have been far less meaningful had it not been
preceded by streamlining.
In attempting to translate fixed-wing experience to helicopters,
designers have been adding fuselages, cabins, fairing, skirts, etc.
None of these contribute to the basic characteristic of the helicopter
which is weight-lifting and not speed. Any added weight which
does not increase the weight-lifting performance of the machine
should be called what it is - parasite weight.
The apparently magic dividends which accrue from reduction
in parasite weight can be illustrated by a simple arithmetical prob-
lem. Suppose a helicopter weighs 2000 pounds and can lift a
payload of 500 pounds. If 50 pounds of parasite weight are con-
verted to payload, the 21/2 per cent reduction in weight results in
a 10 per cent increase in payload. That is, reductions in parasite
weight result in increasing payload capacity in the ratio of aircraft
weight to payload.
Conversely, added parasite weight eats up horsepower in the
same proportion. A mere one per cent increase in parasite weight
may decrease payload by four or five per cent.
If the premise is accepted that the helicopter is a weight-lifter
and not a speedster, then this rule of the ratio of weight to payload
-
4 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
will lead inevitably to the helicopter crane. This machine will have
nothing on it which does not contribute directly to takeoffs, land-
ings, control, and handli,ng of cargo. Nothing will be added to the
basic machine for streamlining, beauty, comfort, or convenience.
It will be a working machine, a flying forklift.
This configuration will not diminish the flexibility of the ma-
chine. Quite the contrary, because the machine will not have to
carry weight which is necessary for one type of mission while
it is performing another type of mission. It will carry personnel
in a pod which will be left on the ground when other things are
to be carried. ,
The appeal of this approach is enhanced because it means sim-
plification of the machine. This will have additional advantages in
ease of maintenance. It appears that elimination of parasite weight
is the key to future success for the helicopter.
U. S. ARMY PARTICIPATION
IN AIRCRAFT
INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT
Colonel John D. Edmunds, Inf
Assistant Commandant, The Army Aviation School
I. Introduction
M AN DETERMINED many years ago that he must have a mobility
differential over his enemy in order to wage war successfully.
On foot, he was limited to a speed of about one and one-half miles
per hour. If he moved any faster on foot, he was too exhausted to
fight. The horse was one of his first aids in mobility - followed by
the motor vehicle and, finally, the present-day aircraft. Until the
advent of the airplane and helicopter, any increase in mobility
was limited to the trafficable terrain. However, the airplane and
helicopter have divorced him from these terrain obstacles and give
promise of true freedom of movement about the battlefield beyond
the wildest dreams of past military planners.
The airplane and helicopter, however, have their limitations.
Paramount among these limitations is the inability of present-day
aircraft to operate within the "nap of the earth," by day or night
Address presented be/ore the Office 0/ Naval Research Progress Report Conference
of the combined Douglas Aircraft Company Integrated Instrument Development
Program and Bell Aircraft Corporation Ideal Man-Helicopter Engineering Project,
at Fort Worth, Texas, 19-20 September 1956. The views expressed in this article are
the author's and are not necessarily those of the Department of the Anny or 0/ the Anny
Aviation School.- The Editor
6
"'\
I
ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
under all-weather conditions. (I thank Dr. Doug Courtney for this
phrase "nap of the earth." It completely describes the area in
which we in the Army feel we must operate.)
Atomic warfare, with its forced dispersion of combat units and
the attendant need for rapid massing to gain superiority of force
followed by re-dispersion to avoid enemy atomic counter measures,
places a tremendous requirement upon Army aviation. It is obvious
that these mobility missions must be accomplished around the clock,
and we in Army Aviation look to industry for the solution of the
many attendant problems. I wish to stress at this time that the
Army visualizes the need to operate fixed-wing, as well as rotary-
wing, aircraft within the "nap of the earth" and, therefore, offers
this low-level problem as a distinct Army requirement - inasmuch
as the other services undoubtedly have decidedly different prob-
lem areas. To be a little more specific, the aircraft support that
the Army needs must have the following capabilities: it should
be able to navigate from A to B, land, fight if necessary with
the landed unit, and then move to Point C under all weather condi-
tions, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. What do we mean by "all
weather conditions?" Our version is - conditions which permit
other means of military transportation to operate and/or men to
fight. The aircraft for this support must have self-contained equip-
ment for instrument flight, navigation, ground and air obstacle
location, anti-detection, and means of identifying itself and of
challenging other aircraft; it must have a suppression weapons
system and protection for personnel and critical parts of the air-
craft; it must be simple to operate and simple to maintain; and it
must require extremely short periods of training for pilot personnel.
The foregoing may sound a little familiar to some of you
inasmuch as a poem going the rounds listed most of these capabili-
ties:
One Of Our Simple Problems
Design a craft says the Army today
It must be built in such a way
That any new pilot can fly hands-off
Make the hardest landings still feel soft
Make up for the brains the mechanic lacks
So the boys can repair it with carpet tacks.
It must be safe in snow or rain
And able to stand a hurricane.
It must be fast; yet land on a spot;
Have a bunk for the pilot; for coffee, a pot.
Ii
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT
Fast and light and comfortable too,
With a cruising range to Timbuktu.
Yet this can be no common hack,
But must carry the load of a IO-ton Mack.
It must take off straight up from the Pentagon Court,
And land straight down inside any fort
And one last word the Colonels say,
"It's gotta be finished by yesterday."
On second thought, there's one thing more,
"They'll have to sell at the ten-cent store."
7
We may laugh at some of the requirements placed on industry
for aircraft and instrumentation. However, it should be realized
that the American aircraft industry must furnish the technological
superiority so necessary to overcome the tremendous manpower
differential which presently exists between the free and slave worlds.
In order to achieve these great strides, we must set our sights high.
II. Objectives
During this talk with you today, I am going to present Army
Aviation instrument flight requirements as we see them today.
I realize that the instrumentation programs being conducted
by Douglas and Bell have as their purpose the determination of the
fundamental requirements of the optimum man-machine combina-
tion necessary to give man true and complete freedom in the air.
Certainly my presentation cannot solve your problems for you, but
rather, I hope to tell you of our needs within the Army. Our present
program breaks down into three main phases: immediate, interim
and ultimate.
IMMEDIATE PHASE: Night and marginal weather, instrument
flying capability. Helicopters should have a capability comparable
with our present light fixed-wing aircraft. (Need this capability
immediately. )
I will go into the immediate program in greater detail later -
suffice to say that we have been conducting successful fixed-wing
instrument courses for some years now. Also we have completed
the test and evaluation phase of our immediate helicopter instrument
program and are presently graduating instrument qualified heli-
copter pilots.
INTERIM PHASE: Zero-zero, remote area to remote area instru-
ment flying capability in all but the most severe weather. (This
severe weather would be the type that would stop all present-day
8 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
aircraft. Should have this capability within 5 years.)
I must emphasize that this phase is oriented on this particular
time frame only because of our present knowledge of the indicated
limitations of the state of the art. We offer as a challenge to you
in industry the obvious need to greatly reduce this time frame.
However, I must add the necessity of making the entire problem of
Hying aircraft, either visual or by reference to instruments, as simple
as possible. Our goal must be such that we can take the boy "off
the plow" and have him Hying in combat after a training period so
short that today we look on it as fantastic. What is that time? For
this group let us say-a month. Let us now look at each of the para-
meters stated above.
First the zero-zero capability requires a very stable aircraft
capable of extremely slow landing speeds with good environment
sensing and presentation facilities. (Attitude, altitude, ground
speed and landing area information.)
Remote area to remote area instrument flight calls for all of the
facilities just mentioned-plus navigation facilities capable of pin-
point accuracy at ranges in excess of 300 miles and free from line
of sight limitations. Inasmuch as these flights will be made at ex-
tremely low altitudes, highly sensitive and discriminatory obstacle
warning devices are required. Added to all this is the need for IFF,
and small, lightweight voice communication equipment free of line
of sight limitations and affording a greatly increased channel usage.
Flying in inclement weather requires anti-icing or de-icing fa-
cilities and greater stability in turbulent air. The obstacle warning
devices mentioned as a requirement for remote area work must also
be capable of detecting thunderstorms and other severe weather
formations. Of course, all of the old cliches about light weight,
stability, simplicity, ease of maintenance and low cost are added to
these requirements. However, gentlemen, I would like to point out
to you the sometimes forgotten fact that stability and ease of opera-
tion can be obtained by other methods as well as by hanging on
another complicated and expensive black box with its attendant
heavy complicated hydraulic and/or electrical systems.
ULTIMATE PHASE: Complete freedom of action permitting nor-
mal operations during all periods when other means of military
transportation can operate and/or men can fight, utilizing what
today are considered relatively inexperienced pilots. (Should have
this capability within 10 years)
While this requirement can be simply stated, there are a great
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 9
many technological breakthroughs required before this wish can
become a reality. Generally speaking, the first requirement is ease
of operation and maintenance. With the ever-increasing require-
ments of the Services, it is obvious that we will have to "scrape the
bottom of the barrel" for pilots and mechanics during any future
war. This means that the aircraft and equipment we use must be
capable of being operated and maintained by relatively inexpe-
rienced personnel.
Let's now cover the systems we feel are necessary in order that
we may have complete freedom of action in the air utilizing rela-
tively inexperienced pilots.
First: The cockpit: Controls must be few in number and sim-
ple to operate. The3e controls should make maximum use of the
operator's senses and environmental background. Maybe this calls
for automobile-type controls or individual lift device type controls
as first advocated by Zimmerman of NACA.
Instrumentation must present a normal everyday picture to the
operator. The instruments should be few in number and extremely
simple-maybe the flatplate television tube and go-no-go engine
instruments-maybe something entirely different. I don't know,
but I must again caution you to look to the "plow boy" as your
operator rather than the experienced pilot.
Second: The sensory devices : We must have a complete environ-
ment sensing capability. This must provide a high resolution pic-
torial display of the terrain and other air traffic under non-visual
conditions and provide operator orientation cues.
Third: The navigation devices: ~   e must have accurate, light,
small, and secure self-contained navigation devices.
Fourth: The security devices: We must have an IFF capability.
Fifth: The communication capability: We must have light and
small long-range, non-line-of-sight, multiple-channel radios.
One little point bears re-emphasis before we go into the details
of our immediate instrument program. You may give us the capa-
bility of using J. Fred Muggs as a pilot, but if we must have three
bright young men with Ph.D. degrees to maintain the equipment,
then all of this simplification will be for naught.
III. Army Accomplishments to Date
The Army has realized for quite some time the necessity of
10 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
operating its aircraft 24 hours a day under all conditions of visi-
bility. We presently have a complete fixed-wing instrument program
second to none and have initiated a helicopter instrument flight
testing and evaluation program.
FIXED-WING PROGRAM: Our current fixed-wing instrument pro-
gram is based on proven methods of instruction compatible with
existing instrumentation equipment. The next step may be to begin
instrument training when the student first steps into an aircraft. In
other words, the present system of teaching a student to fly contact
and then teaching him to fly on instruments may be wasteful and
slow. The Army Aviation School is presently conducting experimen-
tal courses with a group of new students in an effort to establish
whether it is feasible to initiate contact and instrument training
simultaneously. It appears that this program as well as further ad-
vancements in our fixed-wing instrument flying will probably depend
to a great extent on new sensory devices and cockpit presentations
which we hope current programs will provide.
HELICOPTER PROGRAM: The helicopter instrument program,
being new, has taken a slightly different road. In the beginning, the
Army had no background of experience upon which to base heli-
copter instrument training. An immediate need for such training
became apparent because worldwide helicopter operations were pro-
ducing accidents resulting from loss of visual reference. In order
to' have some insight into the reasons for the immediate need, let's
look at the file copy of an accident that happened not too long ago.
A helicopter company was participating in a field exercise
designed to simulate night combat conditions. To complete the
mission, the pilots were to fly 20 minutes and then land in an un-
familiar and unlighted area. At the time of take-off, the weather
reported was high overcast, visibility three miles plus. The time was
about 2200 and the mission was progressing uneventfully. A thin
ground fog or haze layer had developed between 50 and 150 feet
above the ground. (I know that you have seen this type of fog that
forms along a river or when the moisture content is high and there
is little or no air movement.) This haze layer developed unnoticed
by participating personnel, since the stars could be seen overhead
by the ground crew and, conversely, the pilots could see the lights
on the ground. The two H -19s had arrived over the landing area,
one on final approach to the unfamiliar and unlighted area, while
,the other circled. The first helicopter turned on its landing light
and descended to about 150 feet above the ground where the land-
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 11
ing light was turned off. It appeared from the ground that the pilot
had elected to go around, but the helicopter hit the ground in a
descending right tum from about 100 feet. The impact killed the
pilot and co-pilot, and the helicopter burned. Meanwhile, the pilot
of the second H-19 saw the accident and made radio contact re-
questing aid for the first H-19. The second pilot then went to the
scene and elected to land, following the first helicopter's landing
flight path. The sequence of events were the same: turning on final
with landing light on, descending to 150 feet, turning out the land-
ing light, and then the mild right descending tum followed by a
crash 100 yards from the first helicopter with the same fatal result.
It was later determined that the pilots probably were victims of
vertigo when visual reference to the horizon was lost.
One of the pilots was instrument qualified in fixed-wing aircraft
and had a full panel of instruments in good operating condition in
front of him. This fact alone clearly illustrates the requirement for
better helicopter instrumentation and an adequate helicopter in-
strument training program.
With the knowledge we now possess on helicopter instrument
flight, it can safely be said that with the proper type of training,
several lives may have been saved-along with two expensive heli-
copters.
In order to put a stop to accidents similar to the one I have
just outlined, a helicopter instrument flight testing and evaluation
program was initiated at The Army Aviation School in December of
1954. Authority was granted to start a program evaluating present
off-the-shelf fixed-wing instruments in helicopters, under simulated
instrument conditions. In January of 1955, project officers from
Department of Rotary-Wing and Department of Combat Develop-
ment were assigned the task of determining the feasibility of instru-
ment flight with present-day instruments installed in utility type
helicopters. Liaison was established with New York and Los Angeles
Airways to determine the procedure utilized by these companies
when operating under marginal instrument flight conditions. Result-
ing information indicated that both of these companies were
operating under VFR conditions only.
The Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, NACA Labora-
tories, all the helicopter manufacturers, and a few civilian helicopter
operating agencies were then contacted to obtain information on how
they were operating in marginal weather. All data readily available
12 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
was collected and it was found that in some isolated cases pilots had
flown rotary-wing aircraft under limited instrument conditions.
Two of the outstanding problems encountered while on instruments
were pilot fatigue and control difficulty when flying at air speeds
below 40 miles per hour. All persons contacted felt that the present-
day instruments were marginally adequate for civil airway type
flying, and that a need existed for better instrumentation to aid the
pilot even in this type of flying. At this time, the Army contracted
with Bell Aircraft for an immediate short-range program calling
for the instrumentation of two H-13s. The first ship was to be
delivered as soon as possible with an instrument panel consisting
of present-day production instruments. This ship was delivered in
March of 1956. The second ship was to be delivered about one
year after receipt by the contractor of GFE. This second ship will
be delivered with an instrument capability representing the very
latest in instrumentation "state of the art."
To date, The Army Aviation School has flown a total of 1700
hours of simulated helicopter instrument time. The instrumentation
and the procedures that have been developed during this program
vary little from the standard procedures used in fixed-wing instru-
ment flying. The pilots chosen for the evaluation were qualified in
the type helicopters that were used and some members of the Army
Aviation School Fixed-Wing Instrument Examiner's Board were
included.
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SPEED
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PRESS
FIGURE I
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 13
8
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SPEED
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PR£SS
FIGURE 2
During the early stages of instrument flight testing, it became
apparent that instrument grouping and placement were items of ever-
increasing importance. In some helicopters, part of the instrument
panel was obscured from the pilot's vision by the cyclic stick during
its normal travel in flight. A meeting was held to determine instru-
ment types, sizes, and placement on the panel for increased flight
capabilities. Figure 1 shows the arrangement that was standardized
at the time and installed in the first H-13 delivered by Bell.
The use of this panel simplified instrument flight considerably
and was preferred by the majority of the pilots over the other
existing installed helicopter instrument panels. However, the pilots
agreed that an improvement could be made on the arrangement of
instruments. Based on studies made as part of the instrumentation
program, Bell Aircraft came up with the arrangement shown in
Figure 2.
With the panel shown in Figure 1, heading and attitude proved
difficult to control. However, the use of the over and under presen-
tation of heading and attitude with 5-inch instruments directly in
front of the pilot's eyes produces excellent results. Pilots obtain
proficiency on the panel in shorter periods of time than with the
original panel.
Some of the characteristics and factors evolved during this pro-
14 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
January
gram were as follows:
Stability characteristics differed between single rotor and tan-
dem rotor aircraft. At cruising speeds in straight and level flight,
the single rotor configuration proved relatively stable around its
longitudinal and lateral axes with little or no tendency to pitch and
roll. However, this was not true of the tandem rotor craft which
proved less stable around these same axes. Both configurations
proved stable around their vertical axes at cruising speed. However,
the tendency to yaw was quite pronounced at air speeds below 30
knots.
Altitude changes of less than 100 feet can be satisfactorily
made by the use of the cyclic control only. Changes greater than
100 feet require a change in collective pitch setting and manifold
pressure.
Turns may be entered and terminated by the coordination of
both anti-torque and cyclic control. This is necessary to prevent slip;.
ping and skidding on initial entry. In the H-19, an eight-degree bank
is required to establish a standard rate tum of three degrees per
second. It was found desirable not to exceed 25 degrees of bank
due to increased vibration and the possibility of exceeding the lat·
erallimits of the cyclic control. The normal lead that is required in
fixed-wing instrument flight for rolling out of a tum on a pre-
determined heading is not necessary in the helicopter because of the
rapid control response of the rotor. A constant swinging of the
needle from side to side with as much as a two-needle width de-
flection is not uncommon in rough air. Consequently, in coordinating
turns, the tum and bank indicator is of limited help only. In the
single rotor configuration, small deviations in heading can be
corrected by the use of anti-torque pedals only. However, coordi-
nation of the cyclic and anti-torque controls is necessary to make
these same corrections in tandem rotor ships.
Climbing and descending turns can be made with the same
degree of proficiency as normal turns. No great difficulty was en-
countered in either of these maneuvers as long as the air speed was
maintained between 50 to 60 knots. However, with air speeds below
40 knots, instrument interpretation was extremely difficult due to
the vibration encountered.
Instrument takeoffs from a hover were tested but are not recom-
mended with the present instrumentation. At air speeds from zero
until translational lift is obtained, it is almost impossible to main-
tain heading due to the excessive yawing of the helicopter. A 45-
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 15
degree deviation from the desired heading was not uncommon
during the period of transition from a hover to forward flight.
Running takeo If s were tested but are not recommended with the
present installation. The helicopter usually leaves the ground in
a nose low attitude and, due to the lag of the present rate of climb
instrument, a definite rate of climb cannot be established in time
to prevent the helicopter from settling.
Autorations were made down to predetermined altitudes under
simulated instrument conditions without any difficulty. The
needles were rejoined and collective pitch was applied at approxi-
mately 100 feet   b o v ~ that altitude for which the recovery was
intended. Cruising flight at the desired altitude could be resumed
with a minimum of effort from this position.
Landing aids. The use of radio equipment for orientations,
let-downs, holding procedures and approaches presented no problem
at air speeds above 40 knots per hour with rates of descent of 200
to 300 feet per minute. A single exception was the use of omnirange
for orientation, tracking and let-down in that the excessive fluctua-
tions of the needle due to rotor interference caused errors in in-
terpretation on the part of the pilot. ILS approaches were made
successfully, utilizing an air speed over 50 miles per hour and rates
of descent up to 300 feet per minute to the minimum published alti-
tudes. Although these approaches were time consuming, the same
degree of proficiency was obtained as with fixed-wing aircraft. GCA
approaches were made with the same airspeed and rate of descent
as ILS approaches. Attempts were made to make touchdowns from
GCA approaches, but were unsuccessful due to the lack of absolute
altitude information.
Actual Instrument Flights. In January of this- year, permission
was obtained to fly helicopters in actual weather. These flights were
accomplished off airways at altitudes up to 4,000 feet. The position-
ing of the helicopters in relation to airways and other unknown
aircraft was constantly checked and GCA steers were given to con-
tain flights within a IS-mile by 18-mile rectangular pattern north-
west of Ozark Field.
Navigational Flights. Numerous cross-country flights were made
under simulated and actual instrument conditions utilizing the cur-
rent installed navigation aids. The navigation, flight planning, radio
tuning and reporting were accomplished by the pilot. However, due
to the instability of the helicopter, the pilot could not release the
16 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
controls to operate the E-6B computer for figuring estimated times
of arrival.
Operating Factors. It was discovered that the following control
limits are feasible at speed ranges between 35 and 70 knots:
( 1) Air speed can be maintained within five knots.
(2) Heading can be maintained within plus or minus five
degrees.
(3) Altitude can be maintained within 50 feet.
Conclusions.
(1) Helicopter instrument flying is both feasible and practi-
cal with the present utility type helicopter.
(2) The techniques used in fixed-wing instrument flying are
adequate for helicopters with the present instrumentation.
(3) Adequate control on a partial panel is fatiguing but sat-
isfactory for emergency procedures.
(4) Emergency procedures can be performed in a normal
manner while on instruments.
(5) Recovery from unusual positions can be performed with
a high degree of accuracy while under instrument conditions.
(6) Zero-zero flight conditions are not feasible with present-
day instrumentation. However, instrument flight with a ceiling of
200 feet and one-half mile visibility is within the helicopter's
limitations.
(7) Helicopter instrument flying is more fatiguing to the
pilot than that of the fixed-wing aircraft. This is caused by the
lack of Hight control "feel" and by the inherent instability of the
rotor system. The pilot must diligently scan the flight instruments
and continuously move the flight controls to maintain the proper
flight attitude. All instrument flights should be conscientiously plan-
ned with the following in mind: wind conditions, turbulence, and
icing conditions. It is mandatory to have a co-pilot available to do
the navigation, make position reports, and to relieve the pilot for
short periods of time to lessen pilot fatigue.
Upon completion of the helicopter instrument test and eval-
uating program, a helicopter instrument training program was
initiated. This program called for the qualification of 96 Rotary-
Wing instructors to teach in the basic helicopter instrument course.
To date, 14 helicopter instrument certificates have been issued to
graduates in this program. We are finding that it is possible for the
average instructor who holds a current instrument certificate in
fixed-wing aircraft to qualify for a basic instrument certificate in
1957 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 17
helicopters in 50 hours of training.
In summarizing the evaluation project, it was found that the
present helicopter while on instrument flights leaves much to be
desired in the way of equipment for ease of operation. However,
the combination of a stable rotor system, the best available con-
ventional flight instruments, current communication equipment, and
electrical navigation aids will make the helicopter the equivalent
of our light fixed-wing aircraft with respect to instrument flight
capabilities. This will give the Army the capability of flying heli-
copters at night and under marginal weather conditions which has
been set as the immediate goal.
IV. The Army's Goal
In conclusion, to get back to the philosophical plane again, it
appears that the combined Douglas and Bell programs are oriented
toward our ultimate goal:
Complete freedom of action permitting normal operation
during all periods and conditions when other means of mili-
tary transportation can operate and/or men can fight. This
capability is required using relatively inexperienced pilots
and extremely short training periods.
One little point with respect to future developments bears re-
emphasis. You may give us the capability of using orangutans for
pilots, but if we must have several bright young men with Ph.D.
degrees to maintain the equipment, then all of this simplification
will be for naught.
I personally feel that the Army must make sure that we con-
sistently take full advantage of all of the "state of the art" advances.
Our interim program must continually "rake off" appropriate por-
tions of all long-range programs. Certainly the programs which are
the basis of this conference will serve to keep the Army instrumen-
tation program moving in a straight line and avoid the "house that
Jack built" type approach to our final objective.
. ".
Helicopter Operation
In Congested Areas
First Lieutenant John E. Morel, Arty
A pair of H-13s of the 52nd AAA Brigade fly past the Statue of Liberty.
HELICOPTER OPERATION IN CONGESTED AREAS 19
WHILE GREAT EMPHASIS is usually placed on avoiding congested
areas when flying, it might be interesting to note the problems
of a unit continuously practicing exactly the opposite in the largest
metropolitan area in the world.
The 52nd AAA Brigade, which includes NIKE, is charged with
the antiaircraft defense of New York City. The brigade is, as might
be imagined, a flexible organization in structure. It is composed of
two separate groups which are further broken down into battalions.
There are four firing batteries to a battalion and each of these is
located in its own position, in effect, a small post of its own. Their
locations form comparatively concentric rings in and immediately
around the metropolitan area of New York City and its boroughs.
The NIKE sites are larger than the gun sites and comprise the outer
ring. The gun sites just about accommodate their equipment and are
located in the city proper, thus presenting more of a problem to
the helicopter pilot.
The new pilot to the section is always apprehensive of the pos-
sibility of engine trouble or any other failure that might cause
rotary-wing forced landings. Furthermore, good visibility is a rarity
in this area. Soon after arriving, the newcomer yearns for flight duty
in a sector that is blessed with a rural countryside and the accom-
panying thought that autorotation would be a pleasant experience
there. To the uninitiated, it is difficult to imagine an area that does
not have open spaces that would be suitable to a rotary-wing pilot
in distress. Here, even back-yards are practically non-existent. Before
long, the new pilot dispenses with making normal approaches and
landings at the home field. Rather, by his own volition, he becomes
an expert at flare autorotations to a pre-determined spot. This spot
is located on the home field, although in the mind's eye of the
individual concerned, the spot could be a rooftop in Brooklyn, the
Bronx or Manhattan.
The glide ratios of helicopters are not impressive when re-
viewed, to say the least. As a consequence, altitude does not mean
much. It would be almost impossible, and certainly not feasible, to
gain enough altitude to safely glide to a suitable area in the event
of a forced landing. Most flights are flown at an altitude of between
300 and 1000 feet. Flights above the latter height are not recom-
First Lieutenant John E. Morel, Aviation Officer, is with the 52nd AAA Brigade,
Fort Wadsworth, Staten Island, New York. The views expressed in this article are
the author's and are not necessarily those 0/ the Department 0/ the Army or 0/ The
Army Aviation School.-The Editor
Daily operations include landing at NIKE sites.
mended due to the extremely high density of civil aircraft at this
and higher levels. Approaches to some of the busiest airports in the
world must be watched constantly ... large aircraft land and take
off around the clock at intervals of only a few minutes, the majority
of these on instruments.
An active, almost fanatical, interest in maintenance is dis-
p.layed by the new pilots. Whatever he might have missed in ground
school at The Army Aviation School, he soon makes it his business
to learn here.
Night flying here is a necessity. Many have said that helicop-
ters were not made to fly at night. Yet, with a little night experience,
the opposite appears to hold true. Helicopters, like fixed-wing air-
craft, are smoother flying after dark because of more favorable
atmospheric conditions. We've found that an experienced pilot
needs no more horizon in rotary-wing than in fixed-wing. In our
operation, night flying becomes hazardous to a degree when the
approach to the landing spot is made at the NIKE or gun site.
Since these are located in congested areas, prior coordination with
the site concerned must be made. This usually consists of some type
of distinctive light on the ground at the exact point of intended
landing. Also the route to the site must be studied carefully before-
hand to determine the height of obstacles along the way. In this
area, buildings, towers, bridges, and other obstructions over 500
feet tall are the rule rather than the exception.
Navigation is an immediate problem to the newly-arrived pilot,
but, with each succeeding flight, it lessens in magnitude. The only
method is for the pilot to learn the area to such a degree that he is
like the driver of a surface vehicle operating in a thoroughly
familiar city. This is especially true when we consider the omni-
present poor visibility.
HELICOPTER OPERATION IN CONGESTED AREAS . 21
Our three H-13s save the comrrander, his staff, and subordinate
commanders literally thousands of hours of sedan travel a year.
Because of the type of helicopter authorized, passenger space is
always a problem. Our helicopters usually carry three, the pilot
and two passengers. It is a rare occasion when a training flight as
such is undertaken.
Not altogether unfamiliar to the sight of the New Yorkers is
a helicopter flying under a bridge. Low hanging fog makes this a
rule more than an exception. But flying under the bridges along the
Hudson and East Rivers is not 'as daring as it may sound since the
clearances are large enough to accommodate ships of the Saratoga
class.
Recently much was written about the winds and air currents in
the Grand Canyon. The canyons created by the concrete monsters of
Manhattan cause some interesting currents of their own and cer-
tainly some unpredictable ones. These are some of the occupational
hazards we encounter daily.
Our work is not completely without reward or personal satis-
faction however. Daily we enjoy the pleasure of passing the grand
old lady of N ew York Harbor, and, though she be inanimate, it
seems as though she waves back. The sight of the tip of lower Man-
hattan has to be seen close-up from an altitude of 300 feet to be
appreciated. One gets a certain inner warmth at waving to the
stevedores, the people strolling in Battery Park, and the seamen of
all nations as their ships come through the Narrows and into the
harbor. All this, not to mention the exhilaration one feels when he
looks down and sees the endless lines of traffic bumper to bumper
along the parkways and streets of the city.
H-13 approaches gun site in Yonkers.
A SOLUTION TO THE
PROVISIONAL AVIATION COMPANY
TRAINING PROGRAM
Major George B. Brockway, CE, and Captain James L. Jennings, Inf
In THE COMMANDANT'S COLUMN of the December 1956 issue
of the ARMY AVIATION DIGEST, General Hutton challenged
aviation officers worldwide to solve a problem. The problem re-
quirement was to prepare an annual training progratn for the
"20th Division Aviation Company (Provisional)", for the next
fiscal year to accomplish estimated scheduled flight requirements,
proficiency flight training, and annual minimum re((1lirements.
The purpose of the problem is twofold: to stimulate thought
and action on the part of aviation personnel to strengthen one of
Army Aviation's weakest points, unit training programs; and to
provide a school solution training program for use and! or guid-
ance by provisional aviation companies in the field.
The following is the result of a special project assigned to
Major Brockway and Captain Jennings of the Department of
Tactics, The Army Aviation School, Ft Rucker, Ala.-The Editor.
ANNUAL TRAINING PROGRAM
FOR
THE 20TH DIV A VN CO (PROV)
SECTION I - GENERAL
1. This program provides for flight traInIng of aviators
and observers of the 20th Division Aviation Company (Provision-
al); for the accomplishment of estimated scheduled flight require-
ments of the 20th Infantry Division; for maintenance of individual
proficiency training, including annual minimums; and for further
qualifications in aircraft through the mediums of local check-outs
The views expressed in this article are the authors' and are not necessarily those 0/
the Department 0/ the Army or 0/ The Army Aviation School.- The Editor
AVIATION COMPANY TRAINING PROGRAM 23
and attendance at scheduled courses of instruction; but not includ-
ing the maintaining of proficiency in aircraft which are not organic
to the unit.
2. Training Cycle - The training cycle for the 20th In-
fantry Division is listed below. The phases listed indicate periods
of definite duration; however, they are designed to blend into one
another to facilitate scheduling and smoothness of transition.
Training in some subjects is continuous and though presented In
early phases, will recur in subsequent phases.
a. Completion of ATPs - 1 July to 31 October
b. Completion of ATIs -1 November to 31 December
c. Pre-maneuver Period - 1 January to 14 March
d. Maneuver Period - 15 March to 14 April
e. Post Cycle Training Period - 15 April to 30 June
3. Training Objective - The objective of individual flight
training in the aviation unit is to assure that all aviators maintain
their tactical proficiency and accomplish the training prescribed
by AR 95-32.
4. Method of Accomplishment-
a. Organization-
(1) The 20th Division Aviation Company (Pro-
visional) will be organized into two groups for training purposes.
Training Group "A" will be composed of personnel qualified in
both rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft, and Training Group "B"
will be composed of personnel qualified to pilot only fixed-wing
aircraft. The latter group will be sub-divided into two sections
designated as Section 1 and Section 2, respectively.
( a) Training Group "A" will be responsible
for the conduct of all flights involving the use of rotary-wing air-
craft in support of the 20th Infantry Division training program.
This group will also provide for the maintenance of individual
proficiency in H-13 type aircraft by all unit aviators qualified to
pilot rotary-wing aircraft. (See Annex B)
Major George B. Brockway, CE, is the Chief, Doctrine Division, and Captain
James L. Jennings, In!, is a Project Officer in the Plans and Development Section,
0/ the Department 0/ Tactics, The Army Aviation School, Ft Rucker, Ala.
24 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
(b) Training Group "B" will be responsible
for the conduct of all Bights involving the use of fixed-wing aircraft
in support of the 20th Infantry Division training program, and
will provide for the maintenance of individual proficiency in L-19
and L-20 type aircraft by all unit aviators qualified to pilot these
aircraft. This group will also provide for the maintenance of
annual minimum individual instrument flight requirements by all
unit aviators. (See Annex B)
1. Section 1 will accomplish the adminis-
trative cross-country ( weather) portion of the unit's estimated
Bight requirements and will conduct all other Bights in support
of the 20th Infantry Division training program that involves the
use of L-20 type aircraft. (See Annex B) This section will also
provide for the maintenance of individual proficiency in L-20 type
aircraft by all unit aviators qualified to pilot this aircraft. This
section will coordinate with Section 2 for qualification of pilots
in L-20 type aircraft and will insure that check-outs are conducted
in conformance with provisions of pertinent regulations.
2. Section 2 will be responsible for the
conduct of ~   l flights in support of the 20th Infantry Division
training program involving the use of L-19 type aircraft (See
Annex B). This section will also provide for maintenance of
individual tactical proficiency of all unit aviators in L-19 type
aircraft and, in coordination with Section 1, will provide for
qualification of as many aviators in L-20 type aircraft as time and
support of the division training program will permit.
(2) Assignment of personnel to Section 1 and to
Section 2, Training Group "B", will be according to individual
qualifications but will initially follow the organization shown in
Annex A. Personnel may be reassigned to Training Group "A"
or to Section 1, Training Group "B", upon qualification to pilot
either rotary-wing or L-20 type aircraft but reassignments will be
made only to better enable these groups to meet their flight
requirements.
b. Aircraft Qualifications-
(1) All aviators will remain proficient in all types
of aircraft they are qualified to pilot which are organic to the
division, regardless of training group assignments.
(2) Qualification in L-20 type aircraft will be ac-
complished by local check -outs conducted by designated instructor
1957 AVIATION COMPANY TRAINING PROGRAM 25
pilots (see Annex A) and in conformance with provisions of perti-
nent regulations. As much as possible, these check-outs will be
conducted in conjunction with flights performed to meet the
administrative cross-country and administrative command liaison
portions of the unit's estimated flight requirements. The time
logged by the instructor pilots during these check-outs will be
applied toward individual minimum requirements, thus allowing
additional time for the less experienced pilots.
(3) Qualification in rotary-wing aircraft will be
accomplished by attendance at scheduled classes of Anny Heli-
copter Aviation Tactics Course (1-0-8), conducted at The Army
Aviation School, Fort Rucker, Alabama.
c. School Training-
(1) Every effort will be made to secure quotas for
qualified aviators of the unit to attend helicopter and instrument
flight school.
(2) Personnel will be scheduled to attend schools
before and after the maneuver period in order to have all personnel
present during that phase of training.
(3) It is anticipated that the following personnel
will attend the courses indicated:
(1-0-8) :
( a) Army Helicopter Aviation Tactics Course
Major B
Lt G
Lt J
Lt L
Lt M
(b) Instrument Flying Course (1-0-12):
Capt E Lt 0
Lt K Lt P
Lt N
d. By logging training flight time while accomplishing
the "Estimated Flight Requirements" and by adding 250 hours for
night flying and 250 hours for instrument flight training, the unit
can accomplish its training objective. This increases the unit's total
number of hours to 2500 for the fiscal year with an individual
annual minimum of 100 hours.
5. Maintenance Instruction - The unit maintenance officer
26 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
will periodically conduct classes of instruction designed to re-
acquaint officers with their responsibilities for proper supervision
of periodic aircraft inspections (particularly the preflight and
postflight inspections) and to insure their familiarization with
regulations concerning the maintenance of aircraft records.
6. This training program envisions the accomplishment of
the tactical proficiency and annual minimum requirements (AR
95-22) of the unit aviators at a minimum optimum expense.
J Jul to 31 Oct
SECTION n
MASTER SCHEDULE
FOR
20TH DIV AVN CO (PROV)
ATP TRAINING
INSTRUCTION PRESENTED TOTAL HOURS
1. Scheduled Flight Requirements:
a. Tactical Flying
b. Administrative Cross-Country, Day
c. Administrative Cross-Country, Night
d. Administrative Cross-Country, Weather
e. Administrative Command Liaison
f. Miscellaneous - IRAN, etc.
2. Proficiency Flight Training:
To be accomplished while performing the above
requirements.
3. Annual Minimum Requirements:
(350)
(133)
(20)
(13)
(60)
(50)
Flight time accrued in connection with ATP Training
will be applied against annual minimum requirements.
1 Nov to 31 Dec ATT TRAINING
1. Scheduled Flight Requirements:
a. Tactical Flying (150)
1957 AVIATION COMPANY TRAINING PROGRAM 27
INSTRUCTION PRESENTED TOTAL HOURS
b. Administrative Cross-Country, Day
c. Administrative Cross-Country, Night
d. Administrative Cross-Country, Weather
e. Administrative Command Liaison
f. Miscellaneous - IRAN, etc.
2. Proficiency Flight Training:
(66)
(10)
(6)
(33)
(25)
To be accomplished while performing the above
requirements.
3. Annual Minimum Requirements:
a. Flight time accrued in connection with ATT
training will be applied against individual
annual minimum requirements.
b. Night and Instrument Flight Training
1 Jan to 14 Mar PRE-MANEUVER PERIOD
1. Scheduled Flight Requirements:
a. Observer Training Course
b. Administrative Cross-Country, Day
c. Administrative Cross-Country, Night
d. Administrative Cross-Country, Weather
e. Administrative Command Liaison
f. Miscellaneous - IRAN, Etc.
2. Proficiency Flight Training:
(167)
(250)
(83)
(13)
(8)
(42)
(31)
To be accomplished while performing the above
requirements.
3. Annual Minimum Requirements:
a. Flight time accrued in connection with pre-maneuver
period will be applied against individual annual
minimum requirements.
b. Night and Instrument Flight Training (104)
28 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
INSTRUCTION PRESENTED TOTAL HOURS
15 Mar to 14 Apr MANEUYER PERIOD
1. Scheduled Flight Requirements:
a. Maneuver Period
b. Administrative Cross-Country, Day
c. Administrative Cross-Country, Night
d. Administrative Cross-Country, Weather
(400)
(34)
(5)
(3)
e. Administrative Command Liaison
f. Miscellaneous - IRAN, etc.
2. Proficiency Flight Training:
To be accomplished while performing the above
requirements.
3. Annual Minimum Requirements:
(36)
(13)
Flight time accrued in connection with the maneuver
period will be applied against individual annual
minimum requirements.
15 Apr to 30 Jun POST CYCLE TRAINING
1. Scheduled Flight Requirements:
a. Administrative Cross-Country, Day
b. Administrative Cross-Country, Night
c. Administrative Cross-Country, Weather
d. Administrative Command Liaison
e. Miscellaneous - IRAN, etc.
2. Proficiency Flight Training:
To be accomplished while performing the above
requirements.
3. Annual Minimum Requirements:
a. Flight time accrued in connection with the post
cycle training will be applied against individual
annual minimum requirements.
(83)
(13)
(9)
(30)
(31)
b. Night and Instrument Flight Training __ (230)
GRAND TOTAL HOURS (2500)
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THE ARMY AVIATOR must rely upon other persons for various types
of assistance and service. He depends upon the personnel in the
control tower who give him instructions for takeoff and landing.
Some of his information and some control over his flight plans come
from the weather officer and the operations officer. Finally, he is
dependent upon maintenance and servicing personnel who put his
plane in condition for flight. Conditions to produce an accident may
arise out of the failure of any of these supporting personnel to do
his job correctly. While it is possible to treat as pilot error "all
accidents, the responsibility for which rests upon the pilot," this
Lieutenant Colonel David E. Condon, above, former Deputy Chief
of Staff for Maintenance, The Army Aviation Center, recently assigned to
the Armed Forces Staff College, entered the Army in 1941 as a private in the
29th Division. He worked his way up to operations sergeant with the 111 th
Field Artillery before entering OCS in 1942 in which year he received his
commission. He instructed in gunnery at Fort Sill until selected to attend
Class #1, AAF Liaison Training School at Denton, Texas , where he gradu-
ated and returned to Fort Sill fOT further training and, finally, to be awarded
the wings of an Army aviator. A member of the 4th Division, he went with
the unit to England and afterward participated in the hl:storic Normandy
invasion. He finally became Division Air Officer of that organization, a
position he held until the 4th returned ,to the United States in 1945.
In 1946 Colonel Condon returned to Germany to become Third Army
Air Officer and shortly thereafter, Commandant , Air Mechanics School, and
then to the 1 st Division.
/'
THE GRAY HAIR DEPARTMENT 37
doesn't recognize the fact that the pilot might have been placed in a
difficult situation by other factors, and that the accident might not
have happened if these factors had been   b s e n t ~
The remedy for an accident, and the insurance against recur-
rence, does not always grow out of the physical facts at the accident
scene, but sometimes out of what may be a very remote cause. The
immediate cause of an accident may be a failure of some mechanical
part, but that accident might have become inevitable from the
moment when an inspector was careless in his supervision. A guid-
ing principle in accident investigation is not merely to find out what
happened but to discover why it happened, how it happened and all
contributory causes, in order that preventive measures may be
indicated that will prevent further accidents.
The following accidents, taken from the files of the Army Avia-
tion Safety Board, are typical of instances where the pilot suffered
through inefficiency of his assisting personne].
Ground Crew Failure
During the hours of darkness, a student was taxiing an L-19
aircraft from the tie-down line to the hard surface taxiway. After
clearing parked aircraft he turned to the left to proceed to the taxi-
way, using standard and acceptable procedure, clearing himself by
making S turns and turning on the landing lights. Headlights from a
gas truck on the student's right blinded him on that side and he
taxied into an unmarked fire extinguisher that had been carelessly
placed in the center of the taxi area. The engine was turning over
about 800 rpm when the prop struck the extinguisher, ruining the
He returned to the ZI and attended the Artillery Officer Advanced
Course and was then assigned to the Air Training Department as Engineer-
ing Officer. In ,the fall of 1950, he became helicopter qualified while still act-
ing in this capacity. He attended the Command and General Staff School in
1952 before his assignment to Korea where he became Army Aviation
Advisor to ROK. Later he commanded the 79th Ordnance Battalion which
was redesignated the 40th T AAM Battalion. He left the 40th in January,
1955, and completed a short tour at CONARC before assignment to The
Army Aviation Center.
Qualified in all types of Army aircraft, Colonel Condon is instrument
rated_and has more than 4,800 hours in military aircraft plus 1,500 civilian
hours.
He graduated from the Land, Sea and Air Warfare School in England
in 1948.
38 ARMY AVIATION DIGEST January
prop beyond repair, puncturing the inspection plate by the strut,
and damaging the bottom of the fuselage.
The accident report stated that the .primary unsafe act was
"failure of ground crew personnel in leaving the fire extinguisher
in the vicinity of aircraft without marking it or without some indi-
cation that it was there."
Improper Installation
One valid reason for the return to a "crew chief" concept of
maintenance might be found in the following accident involving an
H-25A, during a normal approach to runway 030. On final ap-
proach, speed 40 knots, the pilot attempted to flare the ship to a
hover. The cyclic stick seemed to be jammed. The nose dipped and
the co-pilot reduced collective pitch. The nose seemed to come up a
bit at which time the aircraft struck the ground about 45 degrees
nosedown. The aircraft rolled on its right side, skidded and turned
180 degrees. The engine was shut down with the magneto switch.
The Accident Investigation Board made a routine search and in
looking at the aircraft record found the screwjack had been rein-
stalled 87 hours prior to the accident. Further investigation revealed
that the screwjack was replaced in an excessively lengthened condi-
tion which caused tilt back of the forward swashplate. This resulted
in interference between the top of the screwjack and the swashplate
assembly limiting rearward stick movement. Action taken to prevent
further similar accidents was immediate one-time inspection of all
H-25A helicopters in the battalion and recommended closer super-
vision of mechanics and technical inspectors. Further training to
insure strict compliance with rigging technical orders was ordered.
Controls Not Checked
The Army Aviation Safety Board concurred with the findings
of the Accident Investigation Board and further added: "The air-
craft involved in this accident had been flown for 83 hours after the
improper in£tallation of the forward longitudinal screwjack before
the accident occurred. This flight time had been made by various
The Gray Hair Department is prepared by the ARMY AVIATION DIGEST 'staff with
information obtained from the files of the Army Aviation Safety Board. The views
expressed in this department are not necessarily those of the Department of the Army or
of The Army Aviation School.- The Editor
1957 THE GRAY HAIR DEPARTMENT 39
pilots of the organization. It is believed that proper and complete
cockpit procedure in all aircraft should include a thorough check of
all controls for proper rigging and absence of interference. Had such
check been performed by pilots flying this aircraft, the improper
installation should have been noted due to the absence of 40 per
cent of longitudinal cyclic control. It is felt that this e>pinion is con-
curred in by the reviewing official, in that strong and decisive steps
were initiated by him to insure proper check of controls by all pilots
before flights, subsequent to this accident."
Checkout in L·20
Routine training can sometimes turn into something consider-
ably more exciting and dangerous than actual combat. Witness this
incident that happened to the instructor pilot and student undergoing
checkout in an L-20. After shooting severql landings the pair pre-
pared to make another takeoff when the IP saw flames near the right
set of rudder pedals.
The pilot yelled, "It's on fire; get the extinguisher and get
out!" Then, in his signed statement, "I pulled the mixture control
full back and abandoned the aircraft. I ran around to the left. side
of the aircraft and got the fire extinguisher from the student. I ex-
hausted the fire extinguisher on the flames but the fire was still not
out. We exhausted another C02 extinguisher and still failed to put
it out. The fire department arrived in a few minutes and extinguished
the fire."
Fuel System Faulty
The aircraft received major damage and it was found to have
been caused by a worn and chafed fuel vent line and faulty fuel
pump. A contributing factor was failure of maintenance personnel
to note and replace the worn fuel line. A UR was submitted.
A pilot can pay with his life for the errors of others and that
is too high a fee for negligence in majntenance, inspection or service.
Added reasonable care and caution should be used to pay for safety
insurance. The fate of a pilot can be, and often is, in the hands of
others, but in the final analysis it is up to the aviator who flies the
aircraft. .
Straight and Level
To: Editor-in-Chief
Recent articles in the "Army
Aviation" magazine mention dis-
pensing smoke from Army aircraft
in connection with military cere-
monies. I would appreciate any
comment or written material avail-
able on this subject.
HUBERT A. THOMPSON, Maj, Inf
Headquarters, 82d Airborne Div
Fort Bragg, North Carolina
There is no SOP for smoke dispens-
ing from Army aircraft and officials
of the Army Aviation Safety Board
look askance at this mission. To an-
swer your question, however, our ex··
pert on smoke dispensing says that
an angle iron, (an iron channel from
a wall locker will do) is attached
to the bomb shackle of an L-19,
projecting rearward from the wing
and parallel to the fuselage. Smoke
bombs are taped and wired to this
angle iron and ·thin wire holding
the pin is lea into the rear cockpit.
On signal, the observer pulls the
wire, tripping the pin and the smoke
pours out.- The Editor
To: Editor-in-Chief
This headquarters has recently
been issued an L-23A, No. 52-1802,
which is believed to have quite a
colorful history. It was a YL-23
and was accepted 25 February
1952. Rumor has it having flown
many dignitaries to include General
Maxwell D. Taylor and South Ko-
rean President Syngman Rhee dur-
ing its assignment in the Far East.
Unfortunately, the records on
hand commence with its being
shipped from the 8178 TAAM Co
APO 971 to the 8066 AAF M&SD
APO 613 and hence to SMAMA,
McClellan Air Force Base, Cali-
fornia, at which time it had flown
1079 hours.
This headquarters, 4th Anti-
aircraft Regional Command, located
on the Grandview Air Force Base,
Missouri will shortly celebrate the
40th anniversary of the AA Artil-
lery. The PIO desires to publish,
as a part of that celebration, an
article on the history of our aircraft.
It is therefore requested that any-
one who has information concern-
ing aircraft number 52-1802 please
forward same to Headquarters, 4th
AA Regional Command, Grand-
view Air Force Base, Missouri,
Attn: PIO.
ELWOOD B. EAGER, Capt, Arty
4th AA Regional Command
Grandview Air Force Base
Missouri
To: Editor-in-Chief
We received your review (Secrets
of Space Flight, November, 1956
issue of the DIGEST) and want to -
thank you for the attention you
gave our book. Incidentally, the
price of the book is listed in your
review as $12.50. Actually the price
is $2.00.
DAVID TURNER, Editor
AReo PUBLISHING CO.
New York 17, New York
Our apologies for the error, and
thanks for giving us the opportunity
to tell out readers the correct price.
-The Editor
Letters of constructive cntzezsm
are welcomed by ,the ARMY AVIA-
TION DIGEST • To appear in this
column they must be signed.-The
Editor
DISTRIBUTION:
ACTIVE ARMY:
OSD (5)
SA (3)
JCS (IS)
COFSA (25)
DCSPER (7)
ACSI (3)
DCSOPS (5)
DCSWG (5)
CMH (1)
CINFOE (18)
Tee Sve, DA (5) except
TOMG (10)
Hq CONARC (25)
CONARC Bd (5)
Army AA Comd (10)
OS Ma,i Comd (50) except
SHAPE (15)
OS Base Comd (10)
MDW (5)
Armieo (IS) except
Sixth Army (90)
Corps (10)
Div (30)
Brig (5)
NG: State AG (10)
USAR: Nooe
Ft & Cp (CONUS) (4) except
Ft Riley (52)
Gen & 8r Sve Sch (CONUS) (25) ell.cept
Fin Sch (5), Armor Sch (SO),
Arty & GM Sch (SO), Inr Sch (300),
AG Sch (5), CH Sch (5). eml Sch (5).
E   I ~ Sch (50), JAG Sch (5),
AMSS (5), PMG Sch (10). QM Sch (10),
Trans Sch (150), WAC Sch (None),
Southwestern SiS_Sch (None)
Specialist Sch (CONUS) (5)
Walter Reed Arml' Institute or Research (l)
Army Med Sve Meat & Dairy
Hygiene Sch (None)
AIS (6)
Ord OM Sch (10)
USMA (25)
AFSC (25)
AFIS (10)
NWC (25)
TraDs Ceo (25)
Sig Army Avo Ceo (5)
Arty Ceo (50)
Mil Diat (10)
For expIanatioo of abbreviations used see SR 320-50-1.
'OTTERS' AIRlIFT
INFANTRY
COMPANY
Seating arrangement in the U-IA
81mm Mortar section aboard one of the
ht Army Aviation Company's "Otters"
Using twelve U-IA Otters, the 1st
Army Aviation Company completed a
maneuver last week which proved that
this type aircraft can be used in op-
erations under battlefield conditions.
The j oint maneuver combined the
efforts of the Infantry and the aviation
unit. Its purposes were five-fold: to
validate doctrines contained in the
Army Field Manual; to determine type
loads of combat ready rifle companies
that will fit into the new U-IA air-
craft; to provide training for the 1st
Aviation Co. in working with combat
units; to provide training for troops
of the 3d Inf. Div. in use of the Otter;
and to provide training for units of
the 3d Inf. Div. of air-land operations.
This 106mm recoilless rifle and crew
represent a payload of over 2200 pounds