LWT 40 (2007) 722–729

Fibre concentrate from mango fruit: Characterization, associated
antioxidant capacity and application as a bakery product ingredient
Nely Vergara-Valencia
a
, Eliana Granados-Pe´ rez
a
, Edith Agama-Acevedo
a
, Juscelino Tovar
b
,
Jenny Ruales
c
, Luis A. Bello-Pe´ rez
a,Ã
a
Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bio´ticos del IPN, Apartado postal 24 C.P., 62731, Yautepec, Morelos, Me´xico
b
Instituto de Biologı´a Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47069, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela
c
Escuela Polite´cnica Nacional, P.O. box 17 012759, Quito, Ecuador
Received 15 July 2005; received in revised form 20 January 2006; accepted 26 February 2006
Abstract
Mango is a still underutilized fruit from tropical regions. The aim of this work was to characterize a mango dietary fibre concentrate
(MDF) with antioxidant capacity, using the unripe fruit. MDF was obtained and its chemical composition, soluble (SDF) and insoluble
dietary fibre (IDF), extractable polyphenols, water- and oil-holding capacities and anti-radical efficiency, were evaluated. MDF showed
low lipid and high starch contents and balanced SDF/IDF levels, which is important for the functionality of fibre in the human diet.
MDF exhibited adequate water-holding capacity, similar to other fruit fibres, but had a low oil-holding capacity. Bakery products
prepared with MDF conserved the balance of SDF and IDF and most of its anti-radical efficiency. In vitro starch digestibility tests of
MDF bakery products indicated a low predicted glycemic index. MDF might be an alternative for development of products with
balanced DF components and low glycemic response, aimed to people with special carbohydrate/energy requirements.
r 2006 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Mango; Dietary fibre; Glycemic index; Bakery products; Antioxidant capacity; Chemical composition
1. Introduction
Carbohydrates constitute the main fraction of unripe
fruits, of these, starch and non-starch polysaccharides
(dietary fibre) are the major constituents. From a chemical
point of view, dietary fibre (DF) consists of cellulose,
hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, b-glucans and gums (Figuer-
ola, Hurtado, Este´ vez, Chiffelle, & Asenjo, 2005; Gallaher
& Schneeman, 2001). In the case of fruits and vegetables,
the parenchymatous tissues and cell walls are the DF
supply. DF components are grouped in into two major
classes: polymers that are soluble in water (SDF), such as
pectins and gums, and those water insoluble materials
(IDF), where cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are
included (Thebaudin & Lefebvre, 1997). This classification
was originally thought as a simple way to predict fibre
physiological function, but this has not always been the
case (Gallaher & Schneeman, 2001). However, the SDF/
IDF ratio seems to be of importance (Figuerola et al., 2005;
Jaime et al., 2002; Schneeman, 1987). DF derived
from fruits and vegetables have a relatively high proportion
of SDF; this kind of fibres show some functional
properties, such as water holding, oil holding, swelling
capacity, viscosity or gel formation, among others,
which have been more useful for understanding the
physiological effects of DF, than the chemical composition
alone (Femenia, Lefebvre, Thebaudin, Robertson, &
Bourgeois, 1997; Figuerola et al., 2005; Gallaher &
Schneeman, 2001).
The interest in foods rich in DF increased in the recent
decades, and the importance of this food constituent has
led to the development of a large market for fibre-rich
products and ingredients. A high DF intake has been
related to several physiological and metabolic effects
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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0023-6438/$30.00 r 2006 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2006.02.028
Ã
Corresponding author. Tel.: +54 739 42020; fax: +52 739 41896.
E-mail address: labellop@ipn.mx (L.A. Bello-Pe´ rez).
(Drzikova, Dongowsky, Gebhardt, & Habel, 2005). In the
digestive tract, DF exerts a buffering effect that links excess
of acid in the stomach, increases the fecal bulk and
stimulates the intestinal evacuation; besides, it provides a
favorable environment for the growth of the beneficial
intestinal flora. Fibre can also bind diverse substances
including cholesterol (Jenkins, Kendall, & Ransom, 1998;
Jime´ nez-Escrig & Sa´ nchez-Muniz, 2000). It has been
reported that these specific properties of DF play an
important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity,
atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, colorectal cancer
and diabetes (Bingham, 2003; Peters, 2003; Terry, 2001).
Consumption of certain fibres, particularly highly viscous
SDFs, is usually associated with moderate postprandial
glycemic responses, a property of importance in the dietetic
treatment of diabetes (Jenkins et al., 1998; Schneeman,
1987).
There is a trend to find new sources of DF as ingredients
for the food industry (Chau & Huang, 2003). The most
widespread consumed DF products are those derived from
cereals. However, over the past decade high DF materials
from fruits (citrus, apple, and others) have been steadily
introduced in the occidental world markets. Fruit DF
concentrates have, in general, better nutritional quality
than those found in cereals, because of their significant
contents of associated bioactive compounds (flavonoids,
carotenoids, etc.) and more balanced composition (higher
overall fibre content, greater SDF/IDF ratio, water- and
fat-holding capacities, lower metabolic energy value, and
phytic acid content) (Chau & Huang, 2003; Jime´ nez-Escrig,
Rinco´ n, Pulido, & Saura-Calixto, 2001).
According to recent reports (Saura-Calixto, 1998), the
presence of significant amounts of bioactive compounds,
such as flavonoids and carotenoids, in DF from fruits
imparts them considerable nutritional value. The antiox-
idant properties of flavonoids and carotenoids come from
their ability to link free radicals that easily attack saturated
fatty acids present in cell membranes, causing peroxida-
tion, decreasing permeation and damage of membrane
proteins, leading to cellular inactivation. DNA is also
subject to free radical-effects producing mutations which
may lead to cancer (Ubando, Navarro & Valdivia, 2005;
Yen & Hsieh, 1998).
Mango is a climacteric fruit that in Me´ xico and many
other countries is consumed in ripe state. For this
reason, large quantities of fruit are lost during commercia-
lization, as consequence of deficient postharvest handling.
Unripe mango fruit represents an alternative source
for DF production, due to a number of reasons such
as, starch content of the pulp, high cellulose, hemi-
cellulose, lignin and carotenoid levels, as well as the low
cost of the fruit that may allow the preparation of DF
concentrates with attractive chemical and functional
characteristics.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the chemical
and functional properties of DF from unripe mango fruit
and its application in a bakery product.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Sample preparation
Commercial hard green preclimacteric mango (Mangi-
fera indica L. var. Tommy Atkins) fruits were purchased
from the local market of Cuautla, Morelos, Me´ xico. They
were washed and cut into 1 cm slices in order to obtain the
fruit pulp with the skin. The slices was treated as described
by Larrauri, Rupe´ rez, Borroto, and Saura-Calixto (1996)
for the isolation of the fibrous fraction (‘‘mango dietary
fibre’’, MDF), which was dried at 50 1C and kept at room
temperature in sealed plastic containers for further
analyses.
2.2. Chemical composition
Moisture content was determined by gravimetric heating
(13072 1C for 2 h) using a 2–3 g sample. Ash, protein and
fat were analysed according to AACC methods 08–01,
46–13 and 30–25, respectively (AACC, 2000). DF was
tested using the 985.29 AOAC method (AOAC, 1999). DF
fractions were obtained as indigestible residues after
enzymatic digestion of non-DF components; the insoluble
residues were isolated by filtration, and soluble fibre was
precipitated with ethanol. Dried residues correspond to
insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre
(SDF), respectively. Total starch (TS) was determined by
the method of Gon˜ i, Garcı´ a-Alonso, and Saura-Calixto
(1997); in brief, 50 mg of sample were dispersed in 2 M
KOH (30 min) to hydrolyze all the starch, then samples
were incubated with amyloglucosidase (Boehringer, No.
102857, 60 1C, 45 min, pH 4.75), and glucose was deter-
mined using the glucose oxidase assay GOD-POD. TS was
calculated as glucose (mg) Â0.9; potato starch was used as
a control. Total soluble carbohydrates were assessed by the
phenol–sulphuric method (Dubois, Gilles, Hamilton, Re-
bers, & Smith, 1956).
2.3. Extractable polyphenols (EPPs)
EPPs were extracted from samples using aqueous–or-
ganic solvents. The extraction procedure is described
elsewhere (Jime´ nez-Escrig, Jime´ nez-Jime´ nez, Pulido, &
Saura-Calixto, 2001). The supernatants were combined
and total extractable phenols were estimated by the
Folin–Ciocalteau method (Jime´ nez-Escrig et al., 2001)
using gallic acid as a standard; results were expressed as
gallic acid equivalent (GAE).
2.4. Antioxidant activity (DPPH free-radical scavenging)
assay
Supernatants containing EPP obtained as described
above were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of
mango dietary fibre. It was measured in terms of radical
scavenging ability, according to the DPPH
d
method
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N. Vergara-Valencia et al. / LWT 40 (2007) 722–729 723
(Sanchez-Moreno, Larrauri, & Saura-Calixto, 1998). The
parameter EC
50,
which reflects 50% depletion of DPPH
d
free-radical, was expressed in terms of grams of mango
dietary fibre equivalent per gram of DPPH
d
in the reaction
medium. The time necessary to reach the steady state at
EC
50
(T
EC50
) was calculated. The antiradical efficiency
(AE), an index defined by Sanchez-Moreno et al. (1998)
which combines both factors, was also calculated in order
to recognize the combined effect of both parameters:
AE ¼ 1/EC
50
T
EC50
.
2.5. Water (WHC) and oil (OHC) holding capacities
Twenty-five milliliters of distilled water or commercial
olive oil were added to 250 mg of dry sample, stirred and
left at 40, 60 or 80 1C for 1 h. After centrifugation, the
residue was weighed and WHC and OHC calculated as g
water or oil per g of dry sample, respectively (Larrauri
et al., 1996).
2.6. Preparation of bakery products
Raw materials were acquired in local supermarkets
(Yautepec, Mexico) and stored in glass or plastic contain-
ers at room temperature (25 1C) or under refrigeration,
depending on the recommended storage conditions of each
material. Formulations for the bakery products are shown
in Table 1. Basically, the experimental preparations
contained MDF in exchange for commercial wheat germ
(Tres Estrellas, Estado de Me´ xico, Me´ xico). The dough for
the products was prepared by mixing of the ingredients; in
the case of cookies, the dough was extended immediately
until obtaining a surface of 2 cm height, and cookies were
cut with a circular mould (6 cm diameter), and placed on
greased aluminium cookie sheets. Bread dough was
fermented during 30 min at room temperature and then
transferred into greased aluminium moulds. Both types of
items were baked in a household oven (Hotpoint,
6B4411LO, Leisser S.A. de C.V., San Luis Potosı´ , Me´ xico),
at an approximate temperature of 200 1C for 20 min. Once
baked, the products were allowed to cool down during
30 min and then stored in plastic containers with hermetic
cover. Control products, based on wheat germ, were
chosen as a pragmatic approach.
2.7. Experimental studies in bakery products
Chemical composition, EPPs, Antioxidant activity and
DPPH free-radical scavenging assays were carried out as
above.
2.8. Available starch
Available starch content in bakery products was
measured with the multienzymatic method described by
Holm, Bjorck, Drew, and Asp (1986).
2.9. Starch hydrolysis index of products ‘as eaten’
(chewing/dialysis test)
The in vitro rate of starch hydrolysis in bakery products
was assessed with the protocol developed by Granfeldt,
Bjorck, Drews, and Tovar (1992). Samples of baked
products, containing 1 g of available starch, were tested.
Six healthy subjects participated in the chewing phase of
the experiments, which was followed by pepsin digestion
and further incubation with porcine pancreatic amylase in
a dialysis bag. The reducing amylolysis products appearing
in the dialysate were measured colorimetrically, and
expressed as maltose equivalents. Data were plotted as
hydrolysis degree versus time curves and the hydrolysis
index (HI) was calculated as the area under the curve
(0–180 min) for the test product expressed as a percentage
of the corresponding area for commercial decorticated
white bread (used as a reference), chewed by the same
person. The average HI was calculated from the six
digestion replicates run for each sample and means were
compared by the Mann–Whitney test, using a statistical
program (version 2.03, SPSS, Chicago, IL). The predicted
glycemic index (pGI) was calculated from HI values, using
the empirical formula proposed by Granfeldt (1992)
pGI ¼ 0.862 HI+8.198, for which the correlation coeffi-
cient (r) is 0.96 (Po0:001).
2.10. Statistical analysis
Results were expressed as mean values7standard error
of at least two separate determinations. Comparison of
means was performed by one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s test. Statistical analyses
were run using the computer SPSS V. 6.0 software (SPSS
Institute Inc., Cary NC).
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Table 1
Formulation of bakery products using mango dietary fibre (MDF)
Product type
Ingredient (g) Cookie
with MDF
Control
cookie
Bread with
MDF
Control
bread
Wheat flour 25 25 60 60
MDF 75 — 40 —
Regular margarine 25 25 25 25
Onion 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Garlic 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Pepper 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Yeast 5 5 5 5
Salt 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Sugar 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Milk 80 80 80 80
Wheat Germ — 75 — 40
N. Vergara-Valencia et al. / LWT 40 (2007) 722–729 724
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Chemical composition
MDF exhibited low moisture content (Table 2), similar
to those determined in commercial dry products such as
wheat germ, oat cookies and bran flakes (Sangronis &
Rebolledo, 1993). An important parameter in a fibre
concentrate is its lipid content; MDF had a lipid content of
2.3 g/100 g dry sample, lower than those reported in grape
skins (6.87–7.78 g/100 g dry sample) (Bravo & Saura-
Calixto, 1998), commercial grape fibre (6.9 g/100 g dry
sample) (Saura-Calixto, 1998) and the peel of Citrus
sinensis (22.2 g/100 g dry sample) (Chau & Huang, 2003).
MDF might be therefore considered a potential ingredient
for the formulation of light food products. Protein content
in MDF was also low (4.2 g/100 g dry sample) as compared
to other fibres such as grape skins (11.6–14.4 g/100 g dry
sample) (Bravo & Saura-Calixto, 1998) and a commercial
fibre (14.4 g/100 g dry sample) obtained from red grape
peels (Saura-Calixto, 1998). However, a lower protein
value (2.2 g/100 g dry sample) was determined in the fibre
concentrate from Citrus sinensis peel (Chau & Huang,
2003). Fruits are characterized by their content of certain
minerals components; in MDF a 2.8 g/100 g dry sample ash
content was recorded, which is similar to that determined
(3.3 g/100 g dry sample) in fibre from Citrus sinensis peel
(Chau & Huang 2003), but lower than the in grape skins
(between 5.7 and 9.2 g/100 g dry sample) (Bravo & Saura-
Calixto, 1998; Saura-Calixto, 1998).
It is important to mention that the MDF preparation
was obtained from the whole fruit (pulp and peel). Pulp of
unripe mango is characterized by containing starch (Bello-
Pe´ rez, Ottenhof, Agama-Acevedo, & Farhat, 2005; Kaur,
Singh, Singh-Sandhu, & Singh-Guraya, 2004). TS content
in the fibre concentrate was of 29.8 g/100 g dry sample
(Table 2); such a high starch level that could contribute to
the formation of resistant starch (RS) during processing of
MDF-based products, as it has been shown in mango
starch extrudates (Agustiniano-Osornio et al., 2005). Total
dietary fibre (TDF) content in MDF was 28.1 g/100 g dry
sample (Table 2), which is close to levels measured in
antioxidant DF preparations from guava (48–49 g/100 g
dry sample) (Jime´ nez-Escrig, Jime´ nez-Jime´ nez et al., 2001;
Jime´ nez-Escrig, Rinco´ n, Pulido, & Saura-Calixto, 2001),
although notably lower than TDF contents reported in
grape skins (54.1–64.6 g/100 g dry sample) (Bravo & Saura-
Calixto, 1998; Saura-Calixto, 1998), citrus peel (57 g/100 g
dry sample) (Chau & Huang, 2003), in fibre from two
Mexican lime peels (66.7 and 70.4 g/100 g dry sample)
(Ubando et al., 2005) and in mango peel fibre (65–71 g/
100 g dry sample) (Larrauri et al., 1996). The relatively low
TDF content in MDF concentrate relates to the high starch
content. However, for certain kind of food products such a
starch level might be of importance, given the additional
functional properties imparted by starch. For certain food
applications, DF concentrates should have a balanced
content of soluble (SDF) and insoluble (IDF) fractions; in
the case of MDF the two fibre types are present at almost
equal levels. Thus, it exhibits a good balance that might be
also important from the nutritional point of view. DF of
Mexican lime peel contains a higher proportion of IDF
(Ubando et al., 2005); a similar pattern has been reported
for other fibre preparations, such as citrus peel fibre, where
47.6 g/100 g dry sample IDF and 9.4 g/100 g dry sample
SDF were determined (Chau & Huang, 2003), guava fibre
(39.2–50.1 g/100 g dry sample IDF and 1.5 and 1.8 g/100 g
dry sample SDF) (Jime´ nez-Escrig, Jime´ nez-Jime´ nez et al.,
2001; Jime´ nez-Escrig, Rinco´ n et al., 2001) and mango peel
(43.4 g/100 g dry sample IDF and 24.7 g/100 g dry sample
SDF) (Larrauri et al., 1996). Total soluble carbohydrates in
MDF accounted for 32.6 g/100 g dry sample; most of this
value must correspond to simple sugars. This level is much
higher than those reported in grape skins (3.0 g/100 g dry
sample) (Bravo & Saura-Calixto, 1998; Saura-Calixto,
1998), but not so different from those reported in guava
fibre (28 g/100 g dry sample), citrus peel fibre (27.3 g/100 g
dry sample) (Chau & Huang, 2003) and fibre from mango
peel (26.7 g/100 g dry sample) (Larrauri et al., 1996).
Extractable polyphenols or total soluble polyphenols
(EPP) content in MDF was 16.1 mg/g, which is higher than
in apple fibre (3 mg/g) (Larrauri et al., 1996), but similar to
those reported in fibre from Mexican lime peels (10.55 and
19.9 mg/g) (Ubando et al., 2005) and in a commercial grape
skin fibre (20 mg/g) (Saura-Calixto, 1998). However, EPP
in MDF was lower than those determined in two different
antioxidant guava fibres (26.3 and 58.7 mg/g) (Jime´ nez-
Escrig, Jime´ nez-Jime´ nez et al., 2001; Jime´ nez-Escrig,
Rinco´ n et al., 2001), grape skins (between 37.6 and
52.2 mg/g) (Bravo & Saura-Calixto, 1998) and in fibre
from mango peel (between 44 and 70 mg/g) (Larrauri et al.,
1996). EPP are low or intermediate molecular mass
phenolics that are extracted using different solvents and
appear to be absorbed in the digestive tract, exerting
systemic effects (Saura-Calixto, 1998). The anti-radical
efficiency (AE) was tested in EPP obtained from MDF,
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Table 2
Chemical composition (g/100 g dry sample, except for moisture),
extractable polyphenols (mg/g dry sample) and anti-radical efficiency
(10
À3
) of mango dietary fibre
Component Amount
Moisture 8.1070.02
Lipid 2.3570.02
Protein 4.2870.11
Ash 2.8370.01
Total starch 29.8870.06
Insoluble dietary fibre 13.8070.71
Soluble dietary fibre 14.2570.71
Total dietary fibre 28.0570.24
Total soluble carbohydrates 32.6270.25
Extractable polyphenols 16.1470.24
Anti-radical efficiency (AE) 15.0370.07
Mean of three replicates 7 standard error.
N. Vergara-Valencia et al. / LWT 40 (2007) 722–729 725
obtaining a 15 Â10
À3
value; this was higher than those
determined in fibres extracted from guava fruit
(7 Â10
À3
–9 Â10
À3
), which were considered suitable for
antioxidant DF production (Jime´ nez-Escrig, Jime´ nez-
Jime´ nez et al., 2001; Jime´ nez-Escrig, Rinco´ n et al., 2001);
hence, present results point out MDF as an important
antioxidant DF source.
3.2. Functional properties of MDF
The results of WHC and OHC are presented in Fig. 1.
MDF showed increased WHC values with temperature,
although no statistical differences were found at the highest
temperature assessed. This behaviour might be due to the
high SDF (Agustiniano-Osornio et al., 2005) and starch
contents present in this fibre preparation. The value
determined at low temperature agrees with that reported
in mango peel DF (11 g of water/g of dry sample) (Larrauri
et al., 1996). Other WHC reported are in the range of
15.5–16.7 g of water/g of dry citrus peel fibre (Chau &
Huang, 2003) and between 6.96 and 12.84 g of water/g of
dry Mexican lime peel fibre. OHC is another important
parameter, which in MDF ranged between 1.0 and 1.5 g of
oil/g of dry sample. These values were lower than those
reported in other fibre concentrates, e.g. mango peel DF
(4 g of oil/g of dry sample) (Larrauri et al., 1996) and in
citrus peel fibre (2.35–5.09 g of oil/g of dry sample) (Chau
& Huang, 2003). Accordingly, MDF the use of fibre may
be appropriate in products where emulsifying properties
are not required.
3.3. Chemical composition of bakery products
Moisture content was similar in control and MDF-
containing cookies (Table 3), showing that moisture was
not affected by the indigestible fraction added in the
formulation. However, MDF-containing bread was drier
than the control sample (a ¼ 0:05), indicating that in this
kind of product formulation may affect this important
parameter, critical for its stability and shelf-life (Bushuk,
1998).
Only minor differences between control and MDF-
containing samples were found regarding fat and protein
contents (Table 3). The higher level of both components in
control products must be due to the inclusion of wheat
germ, an ingredient providing significant amounts of lipids
and proteins (Atwell, 2001). Ash content did not vary
between control and experimental products nor did TS,
indicating that wheat germ and MDF made a similar
contribution of these components to the final products.
Since less MDF was used in the bread than in the
experimental cookie, the later had lower TS content.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
40° 60° 80°
Temperature (°C)
O
H
C

(
g

o
i
l
/
g

d
r
y
s
a
m
p
l
e
)
0
(a)
(b)
5
10
15
20
40° 60° 80°
Temperature (°C)
W
H
C

(
g

w
a
t
e
r
/
g

d
r
y

s
a
m
p
l
e
)
Fig. 1. Water-holding capacity (WHC) (a) and oil-holding capacity
(OHC) (b) of mango dietary fibre.
Table 3
Chemical composition (g/100 g dry sample, except for moisture), total extractable phenol content (mg/g dry sample) and anti-radical efficiency ( Â10
À3
) of
bakery products added with mango dietary fibre (MDF)
Bakery product
Component Cookie with MDF Control cookie Bread with MDF Control bread
Moisture 11.970.0
a
12.070.1
a
26.070.1
b
31.570.9
c
Fat 13.070.3
a
13.870.1
b
11.270.1
c
16.270.2
d
Prot 8.370.0
a
9.170.1
b
10.270.2
c
11.470.1
d
Ash 4.370.0
a
4.370.0
a
3.970.0
b
3.270.0
c
Total starch 45.570.8
a
48.970.9
b
48.470.7
b
67.270.4
c
Insoluble dietary fibre 11.470.4
a
12.070.3
a
9.470.5
b
4.370.5
c
Soluble dietary fibre 6.070.4
a
1.370.3
b
7.170.5
c
6.070.4
a
Total dietary fibre 17.470.1
a
13.370.1
b
16.670.1
c
14.270.1
d
Total extractable polyphenols 11.871.2
a
nd 10.170.5
a
nd
Anti-radical efficiency (AE) 9.170.6
a
nd 8.670.3
a
nd
Available starch 41.170.2
a
44.170.1
b
41.170.5
a
60.971.0
c
Means in row not sharing the same superscript letter are significantly different (Po0:05) (means of three replicates), nd ¼ no detected.
N. Vergara-Valencia et al. / LWT 40 (2007) 722–729 726
Both products formulated with MDF exhibited in-
creased TDF levels (Table 3), with a better balance of
SDF and IDF. In MDF-bread the IDF increase was more
than 100 g/100 g dry sample. Addition of MDF improves
the SDF content of cookies significantly, as the control
sample presented only 1.3 g/100 g dry sample SDF whereas
the MDF-containing product exhibited a 6.0 g/100 g dry
sample level. TDF contents in commercial fibre-rich
cookies have been reported between 3.73 and 5.95 g/100 g
dry sample with marked predominance of IDF (Sangronis
& Rebolledo, 1993), thus resembling the pattern presented
here. Commercial integral bread samples, on the other
hand, had TDF contents of 4.99–6.11 g/100 g dry sample,
with predominance of IDF (Sangronis & Rebolledo, 1993).
Bakery products prepared here with MDF concentrate had
interesting TDF contents and may be an alternative for
people with special caloric requirements. Process-induced
changes in the SDF/IDF ratio in baked goods containing
MDF deserve further investigation.
Both types of bakery products containing MDF
exhibited similar levels of EPPs, although they were slightly
lower than in the original MDF concentrate (Tables 2 and
3). These results suggest that baking does not have
significant impact on these compounds. In the same sense,
despite the fact that the baked-products showed apparently
decreased AE of values, they were higher than those
determined in fibre from guava fruit (Jime´ nez-Escrig,
Jime´ nez-Jime´ nez et al., 2001; Jime´ nez-Escrig, Rinco´ n,
Pulido et al., 2001), stressing that products baked with
MDF have significant antioxidant properties.
3.4. Starch bioavailability
Bakery products added with MDF presented similar
mango dietary fibre concentrate (AS) content (Table 3).
Absolute AS values in the MDF goods appear lower than
in control samples. However, when AS is calculated as a
percentage of TS in the cookies, such a difference is ruled
out indicating that the variation is mainly due to starch
dilution created by the use of wheat germ, a material of low
starch content. A larger difference in AS was evident
between the two breads, since AS content in control is
approximately 50 g/100 g dry sample more than that of the
MDF-containing product. Thus, differential formation of
resistant starch (RS) fractions upon baking (Bello-Pe´ rez,
Sa´ yago-Ayerdi, Me´ ndez-Montealvo, & Tovar, 2004; Gran-
feldt, 1994; Liljeberg, A
˚
kerberg, & Bjo¨ rck, 1996; Sa´ yago-
Ayerdi, Tovar, Osorio-Dı´ az, Paredes-Lo´ pez, & Bello-
Pe´ rez, 2005) might be anticipated as an explanation for
this finding. Detailed RS evaluation and characterization in
these products are therefore granted. Regular wheat bread
contains high amounts of digestible starch fractions
(Granfeldt, 1994); present data for bread baked with
MDF suggest it as an alternative for products with reduced
digestible starch contents.
Curves for combined digestion/dialysis process for the
different products are depicted in Fig. 2. Commercial white
bread, used as reference, showed a digestion value of about
50% after 180 min, which agrees with data reported in the
original protocol (Granfeldt et al., 1992). Control bread
baked in the laboratory exhibited a 34.7% hydrolysis at
180 min, which was higher than in both cookies. Control
cookie was digested more rapidly that it’s MDF-containing
counterpart (32.4 vs. 23.0% after 180 min). In similar
experiments testing another cereal product (corn tortilla) a
38.86% hydrolysis was recorded after 180 min (Sa´ yago-
Ayerdi et al., 2005), which is markedly higher than those
determined in the cereal products studied here.
Hydrolysis indices (HI) calculated from the hydrolysis
curves, and corresponding pGI are presented in Table 4.
HI for bakery products with MDF was similar. Control
cookie showed a slightly lower HI than control bread, a
result that may be consequence of the different physical
structure of both items (Bello-Pe´ rez et al., 2004; Granfeldt
et al., 1992). Interestingly, HI for control products did not
differ much from those reported for corn tortillas (77.6%),
tested with the same experimental procedure (Sa´ yago-
Ayerdi et al., 2005). HIs and derived pGIs for products
containing MDF were lower than those determined for
their respective control samples, indicating that this fibre
exerts a significant effect on the rates of digestion and
absorption (simulated by the dialysis phase) of the starch
ARTICLE IN PRESS
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time (min)
H
y
d
r
o
l
y
s
i
s

(
%
)
Fig. 2. Rate of starch hydrolysis following chewing, incubation with
pepsin, and subsequent incubation with pancreatic a-amylase, in baking
products, cookie with MDF(Ã), control cookie (K), bread with MDF
(’), control bread (m), commercial white bread reference (~). Values are
means of six chewing and digestion experiments. Areas under curves were
used for calculation of HI.
Table 4
Hydrolysis index (HI) and predicted glycemic index (pGI) of bakery
products added with mango dietary fibre (MDF)
a
Product HI (%)
b
pGI (%)
c
Cookie with MDF 54.9870.81
a
55.59
Cookie Control 71.2271.08
b
69.59
Bread with MDF 54.9870.81
c,a
55.59
Bread Control 80.5672.29
c
77.64
a
Data are means of six chewing and dialysis replicates7SD; n) 6. Means
followed by different letters are significantly different (Po0:05).
b
Hydrolysis index (HI) was compared with white bread (1).
c
Predicted glycemic index (pGI)) ¼ 0.862 (HI)+8.198 (2).
N. Vergara-Valencia et al. / LWT 40 (2007) 722–729 727
component of the meals. It is well known that indigestible
polymers (DF) and some associated non-fibrous com-
pounds may reduce the rate of starch digestion in vitro and
in vivo, resulting in low metabolic responses (Granfeldt
et al., 1992). MDF may exert this type of effect by means of
the potentially high viscosity of its SDF fraction or through
polyphenol-mediated amylase inhibition (Moro´ n, Melito,
& Tovar, 1989; Schneeman, 1987). A recently reported
75% pGI value for freshly baked tortilla (Sa´ yago-Ayerdi et
al., 2005) is similar to those determined here for control
samples, which suggests a moderate glycemic response for
this series of products. The decreased indices exhibited by
MDF products may permit further reduction of metabolic
responses following ingestion of these experimental food
items.
4. Conclusions
The chemical composition of MDF concentrate indicates
low lipid and high starch levels, valuable features for the
elaboration of certain food product types. MDF presented
balanced SDF/IDF proportions, which is important for the
nutritional effects of fibre. The level of EPPs and the anti-
radical efficiency of MDF might be considered adequate
for overall antioxidant capacity. Hence, unripe mango fruit
appears suitable source for obtaining antioxidant DF
concentrates. Bakery products added with MDF showed
higher TDF than respective controls, and the products
maintained significant antioxidant capacity associated to
their EPPs content. Additionally, bakery products with
MDF had low predicted glycemic indices, thus they might
be used as dietary aid by people with special low caloric
requirements.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the economic support from
CGPI-IPN, COFAA-IPN, EDI-IPN, LANFOOD and
CYTED (XI.18). One of the authors (NVV) also acknowl-
edges the scholarship from CONACYT-Me´ xico and the
travel grant from LANFOOD.
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