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Compiled by: Er. Dipendra Gautam, strdyn@yahoo.

com, Kantipur City College, Nepal
DEBRIS AND FLOOD CONTROL SYSTEM
• Flood: High amount of water flowing in streams often leading to flooding
• Debris flow: Sudden flow of soil and water mixture containing rocks/boulders as floating
materials in viscous form
• NEPAL: Average annual precipitation 1700 mm (variable)
• 80% of rainfall between J une to September
• High discharge during wet season
• Flash flood during winter season
• Fragile geology, annual torrential precipitation
#CAUSES OF FLOODING
• Deforestation
• Poor farming/haphazard farming
• Urbanization (high runoff, flash floods)
• Accelerated runoff at the base of mountain
• Sediment from erosion
• Overgrazing
#FLOOD MITIGATION
• Sustained action which eliminates long term risks of people and property from flood and
their effects
• Measures for flood mitigation:
• 1. Structural measure
• 2. Non-structural measure
• 1. Structural Measures:
• Building dams, diversion, flood walls
• a. Drainage improvements
• b. Reservoir and detention
Compiled by: Er. Dipendra Gautam, strdyn@yahoo.com, Kantipur City College, Nepal
• c. Embankment, flood walls
• d. Diversion works
• 2. Non-Structural Measures
• To modify the susceptibility to flood damages, non-structural measures are taken. The
structures are moved from floodways and flood plains. The main objective of this is to
resettle people from river by:
• Flood plain management
• Flood forecasting and early warning
• Zoning
• Flood fighting
• Statistical analysis for high flood level
#ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF FLOOD PREPAREDNESS
• 1. PREPAREDNESS
• a. By concerned departments
• Pre-monsoon inspection of all tracks, canals, and drains for silt and debris clearance from
seasonal rivulets
• Regular clearance of drains
• Regular maintenance of embankment of rivers, canal distribution
• Stored water clearance before monsoon
• Opening-closing of regulatory wares as per flood level
• Construction of communities, comprising of people from sectors like emergency service,
vehicle, public transportation and district administration ensure proper coordination
during crisis
• b. By central and district administration
• Review of contingency plans
• Update/modify it
• Coordinate with NGOs and local clubs
Compiled by: Er. Dipendra Gautam, strdyn@yahoo.com, Kantipur City College, Nepal
• Follow Dos and DON’Ts
• 2. RESPONSE MECHANISM
• Warning people
• Evacuating to safe place
• Relief action of the trapped people
• Search and rescue of missing ones
• Providing food, medical care, clothing, utensils, etc
• Post calamities measures
• Compensation to loss of life and their property
• 3. POST FLOOD ACTION
• Speeding restoration of roads, electricity and communication facilities
• Normalize water supply in the affected area by arranging water tankers or alternate
means
• Repair communication lines, sewerage lines or priority so that life can be normalized
• Proper management of food supply, shelter, clothing
• Ensuring adequate supply of petroleum oil, kerosene and keeping the supply line moving
• Construction of survey team to access loss and compensation to the victims
• Assistance for repair and rebuilding
• Desilting and dewatering of the affected area