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# Coordinate Systems and Map

Projections
J osef Fürst
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Learning objectives
In this section you will learn:
• howto clearly define the position of a point on the earth
surface,
• when it is important to take care of an appropriate map
projection,
• howto achieve a common projection for data from
different sources
• which type of projection meets the requirements of an
application.
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Outline
Introduction
Georeferencing
• Latitude and longitude
• The shape of the earth
• Indication of height
• Geodetic reference systems
Map projections
• Properties of map projections
• Classes of projections
• Aspect
• Naming of projections
• Selecting a suitable map projection
• Examples of important projections and coordinate systems
• Conversion of geographic coordinates
Summary
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Introduction
Coordinate system: reference systemfor geographic
location Georeferencing
Map projection: Mapping of 3D earth surface to plane
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Georeferencing
Longitude λ and latitude φ
• Angle fromequator: latitude φ
• Angle east of Greenwich: longitude λ
Coordinate systems are based on agreements
Coordinates relative to a „model“of the earth
Heights must refer to the irregular
field of gravitation
N
S
λ
A
Äquator
N
u
l
l
-
M
e
r
i
d
i
a
n

G
r
e
e
n
w
i
c
h
φ
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The shape of the earth
Model plane: survey by theodolites, whose vertical
axes are defined by a bubble level trigonometry in
a plane
Fromthe sphere to an ellipsoid of rotation (spheroid)
• Polar flattening. Meridians are ellipses ellipsoid of
rotation (spheroid).
• Ellipticity f :
Problems due to gravitation field
• Ellipsoid of rotation is not an exact iso-surface of
gravitation; therefore deviation between coordinates
fromtriangulation and astronomically (GPS) determined
coordinates
( )
298 / 1 ≈

=
a
b a
f
Georeferencing
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The shape of the earth
the geoid: the „true“shape of the earth
• Due to irregular distribution of masses within earth the
geoid is irregular
• Geoid is only approximated ellipsoid of rotation
• Local fit of ellipsoids
N
N
Geoid
Ellipsoid
Ellipsoid
A
m
e
r
ik
a
E
u
ro
p
a
Georeferencing
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The shape of the earth
plain, sphere, ellipsoid, geoid?
• Local surveys plane trigonometry
• National surveys ellipsoid of rotation
• Geodetic high precision reference surveys or
investigation of changes of the earth‘s body consider
undulation of geoid
Georeferencing
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Heights
Very important for hydrological applications
Height above ellipsoid h, height above geoid H, geoid
undulation N
Heights required relativ to level (level instrument!)
Ellipsoid
E
r
c
do
h
berflä e
P
h
H
N
Geoid
Georeferencing
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Geodetic reference systems
geodetic reference system: set of all theoretical
conventions to define a coordinate systemfor
geodetic purposes. Reference surface (ellipsoid +
rules for handling gedodetic measurements).
Datum: set of parameters defining a coordinate
system, and a set of control points whose geometric
relationships are known, either through measurement
or calculation: origin, direction of axis, reference point
for elevations
Bearing of ellipsoid in the earth usually defined by
datumpoint.
Georeferencing
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Geodetic reference systems
Geodätische Referenzsysteme in Europa (nach Bauer, 2003)
Land Lagevermessung Höhenvermessung
Ellipsoid Lagerungspunkt Datumspunkt Höhensystem
Frankreich Clarke 1880 Pantheon Marseille Normalhöhe
Belgien Hayford 1924 Ukkel Ostende orthometrisch
Niederlande Bessel 1841 Amersfoort Amsterdam orthometrisch
Polen Krassowski 1942 Pulkowo Kronstadt Normalhöhe
Österreich Bessel 1841 Hermannskogel Triest orthometrisch
Schweiz Bessel 1841 Bern Marseille orthometrisch
Italien Hayford 1924 Rom Genua; Catania orthometrisch
Spanien Hayford 1924 Potsdam (ED 50) Alicante orthometrisch
Portugal Bessel 1841 Lissabon Cacais orthometrisch
Deutschland Bessel 1841 Rauenberg Amsterdam Normalhöhe
Krassowski 1942 Pulkowo
GRS 80 (ETRS 89)

Georeferencing
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Geodetic reference systems
Reference network: geodetic implementation of
reference system. Computation of coordinates and
heights of given points by means of geodetic surveys
Usually „grown“over long time not free of
system, e.g. GPS, to e.g., Gauss-Krüger not possible.
Fit by reference points into reference network.
Austrian 3D geodetic reference field: 57.000
triangulation points and 263.000 additional points,
average distance 400 to 1.500 m
Georeferencing
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Map projections
Properties of map projections
Projection types (class)
aspect
Naming of projections
Choice of appropriate projection
Examples of important projections
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Properties of map projections
Conformal projections
• Preserve local shape graticule lines on globe are
perpendicular
Equal-area projections
• Preserve area of features angle and/or scale may be
distorted
Equidistant projections
• Preserve distances between certain points; scale is not
maintained correctly on an entire map
True-direction projections
• True-direction or azimutal projections map great-circles
through the center point as straight lines
Map projections
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Type of projection
Projection onto geometric surfaces (plane, cone,
cylinder), which can be flattened by unrolling
Not just pure „optical“projection, but rather
mathematical expressions which preserve the desired
properties.
Map projections
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Type of projection:
conic projections
Tangent at standard parallel
Secant conic projections (2 standard parallels)
1. Schnittkreis
2. Schnittkreis
Map projections
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Type of projection:
cylindrical projections
Tangent or secant
Mercator projection, touches at equator
Transverse Mercator projection touches at meridian
Schnittkreis
Schnittkreis
Map projections
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Type of projection:
planar (azimuthal) projections
Tangent or secant
polar, equatorial or oblique
Schnittkreis
Map projections
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Aspect
Map projections
normal
transverse
oblique
cone cylinder plane
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Naming of projections
Identified by giving:
• class,
• aspect,
• property.
Specific properties:
• name of originator,
• nature of any modifications.
E.g. topographic overviewmap 1:500.000: normal
secant conformal conic projection (LAMBERT) with
standard parallels 46° and 49° N latitude
Map projections
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Selecting a suitable map projection
Considerations
• Howcan results be best presented on a map?
• For analysis in GIS, all maps must have a common
reference
• To be able to quantify areas, lengths, etc. the
respective accuracy must be determined
Rules of thumb
• Errors and distortions increase fromthe origin of the
projection towards its edges
• In tropical areas cylindrical projections
• In temperate latitudes conic projections
• Polar regions planar (azimuthal) projections
Topographic maps: conformal projections
Map projections
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Examples of important map
projections
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) System
• Gauß-Krüger version of transverse Mercator projection.
• For cartography between 84° N and 80° S.
• Austria in UTM zone 33:
47°
47°
48°
48°
49°
49°
10°
10°
11°
11°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
100000
100000
200000
200000
300000
300000
400000
400000
500000
500000
600000
600000
5200000
5200000
5300000 5300000
5400000 5400000
Map projections
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Examples of important map
projections
WGS84
• Measurements by GPS (Global Positioning System)
• Approximate conversion of GPS coordinates into
national systemusing local parameters; fit into national
systemby reference points
x
MGI
y
MGI
z
MGI
R
x
R
z
R
y
z
WGS
y
WGS
x
WGS
v,v,v
x y z
Bessel Ellipsoid
WGS84 Ellipsoid
Map projections
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Examples of important map
projections
Lambert conformal conic projection
• Used frequently for overviewmaps
• Austria 1:500.000: standard parallels 46° and 49° N,
central meridian 13° 20’. origin 47° 30’ N und 13° 20’ E,
„false“coordinates (400.000, 400.000)
47° 47°
48° 48°
49° 49°
10°
10°
11°
11°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
200000
200000
300000
300000
400000
400000
500000
500000
600000
600000
700000
700000
300000 300000
400000 400000
500000 500000
600000 600000
Map projections
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Projections of the world
Geogr. coordinates
Mollweide (equal area)
90° 90°
60° 60°
30° 30°
0° 0°
30° 30°
60° 60°
90° 90°
3
0
°
3
0
°
0
°
0
°
3
0
°
3
0
°
-15000000
-15000000
-10000000
-10000000
-5000000
-5000000
0
0
5000000
5000000
10000000
10000000
15000000
15000000
-
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
-5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
47° 47°
48° 48°
49° 49°
-200000
-200000
-100000
-100000
0
0
100000
100000
200000
200000
300000
300000
5500000 5500000
5600000 5600000
5700000 5700000
46° 46°
47° 47°
48° 48°
49° 49°
10°
10°
11°
11°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Map projections
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Summary
Coordinates for georeference, map projections for
presentation
According to requirements and size of study area,
earth‘s shape is modelled as a plane, sphere,
ellipsoid of rotation or geoid
National coordinate systems are based on reference
networks
Position related to ellipsoid
Gravitation field to be considered for heights
Distortions due to projection: a projection cannot
maintain conformity, equal area, equidistance AND
true direction at the same time
important: UTM, Gauß-Krüger, Lambert conformal
conic projection