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7

A REPORT ON “VOCATIONAL
TRAINING”
U N D E R T A K E N AT
PSTCL,
132 KV SUB-STATION NAKODHAR,
JALANDHAR.
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Sri. Soh! L" #S.S.C, 132 $V %&'%((io! N$o)r*
S&'+i((,) B-.
Jatinder Singh
B-Tech, Roll no. 1241084
3
rd
year, Electrical Engineering,
CTIET, Shah!"r.
Preface to the Project Report-
I ha#e e$!erienced %ocational Training in &a'odar
S"()tation 1* J+&E 2014 to 1, J+-. 2014.
I a/ #ery than'0"l to all the o00icer) 1ho ga#e /e 1ar/
rece!tion 2 their !recio") ti/e 0or /e. 3e ha#e an electric
la( o"r collage 1here 1e ha#e (een trained in ed"cational
en#iron/ent. 4o1e#er, (y dirt o0 thi) training, I ha#e learnt
/any /ore thing) in ind")trial en#iron/ent, 1hich 1ill (e
hel!0"l 0or /y 0"t"re. By that !ractical 'no1ledge 2 their
a!!lication, I a/ getting hel!0"l to reali5e the theoretical
'no1ledge. There0ore, I a/ #ery than'0"l to
all o00icer) o0 grid
0or allo1ing /e to !er0or/ thi) )ort o0
%ocational Training
in their )"()tation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I a/ #ery /"ch than'0"l to the de!art/ent o0
6STC- athority 0or !ro#iding /e the o!!ort"nity o0
%ocational Training at their )"()tation. I a/ e)!ecially
than'0"l to
Sri. Ra7 8"/ar, 9))t. Engineer
)"()tation 0or hi) 'ind attention. I a/ al)o than'0"l to the
other o00icer) 0or )haring their #al"a(le e$!erience) at the
yard (y /a'ing /e ac:"ainted 1ith the !ractical
!heno/enon. I al)o got the o!!ort"nity to "nder)tand the
load 0lo1 gra!h, the )tat") o0 i/!ort e$!ort o0 in 6STC- 2
the o#erall #ie1 o0 ;rid Sy)te/ a!art 0ro/ the )tr"ct"re) o0
)"()tation and the detailed o0 it) #ario") )"()tation). So, I
0eel than'0"l to all o0 the/ to 1ho /ade thi) !o))i(le.
I a/ e)!ecially than'0"l to r. Ra#i 8"/ar, r. <ateh 9nd
r. S"'h1ant Singh. I lot o0 !ractical and technical learn
0ro/ tho)e.
ROUGH DESCRIPTION OF NAKODAR
SU-STATION
T.6E= >"tdoor grid )"()tation.
Inco/ing -ine %oltage= 132 '%
>"tgoing 0eeder %oltage= ** '% 211 '%

&a'odar )"()tation recei#e) !o1er 0ro/ 132 ' # 0ro/ Jalandhar
?length 3, 8@ 2132 ' # 0ro/ &"r/ahal ?length 10.88@ )"(-
)tation.
A! S"#$tat%o& ha$ '(
th
'' )* O"t+o%&+ fee,er$-
Th,- r, o! Tr!%/or+,r-0.-
1. Aa'nni ;ate
2. eer!"r
3. Coart
4. 9laht1al
,. 8.Bhandar
*. ;ohir
B. Sidh1an
Thi% F,,),r o! (h, Tr!%/or+,r-1.-
8. alri
C. S!are
10.Rangra
11. 6andori
12. 4o)!ital
13. Aana/andi
14. Sanghe 8al)ha
1,. ;andra
B.11 $.2 o&(3oi!3 S&44"- To S&'-%((io!. -
T-3 9nd T-2 S"!!ly go toD-
1. e)ha/ !"r
2. ehat!"r?C.,8@
Def%&%t%o& of $"#-$tat%o&--
EThe a))e/(ly o0 a!!arat") ")ed to change )o/e characteri)tic) ?e.g.
%oltage a.c to dc 0re:. !.0. etc@ o0 electric )"!!ly i) called )"(-)tation.F
I&tro,"ct%o&--
The !re)ent day electrical !o1er )y)te/ i) a.c. i.e. electric !o1er i)
generated, tran)/itted, and di)tri("ted in the 0or/ o0 9lternating c"rrent.
The electric !o1er i) !rod"ce at the !o1er )tation, 1hich are located at
0a#ora(le !lace), generally :"ite a1ay 0ro/ the con)"/er). It i) deli#ered to
the con)"/er thro"gh a large net1or' o0 tran)/i))ion and di)tri("tion. 9t
/any !lace in the line o0 !o1er )y)te/, it /ay (e de)ira(le and nece))ary to
change )o/e characteri)tic ?e.g. %oltage, ac to dc, 0re:"ency !.0. etc.@
o0 electric )"!!ly. Thi) i) acco/!li)hed (y )"ita(le a!!arat") called )"(-
)tation 0or e$a/!le, generation #oltage ?118% or *.*8%@ at the !o1er
)tation i) )te!!ed "! to high #oltage ?Say 2208% to 1328%@ 0or
tran)/i))ion o0 electric 6o1er. Si/ilarly, near the con)"/erG) localitie), the
#oltage /ay ha#e to (e )te!!ed do1n to "tili5ation le#el. S"ita(le a!!arat")
called )"(-)tation again acco/!li)he) thi) 7o(
A#o"t the $"#$tat%o&-
The )"()tation in 132 '.# S"()tation &a'odar, Jalandhar, 6"n7a( i) one o0
the i/!ortant !o1er grid) in the Jalandhar area . Ca")e it )"!!lie) the
Ind")trial area 2 locality. The /o)t i/!ortant o0 any )"()tation i) the
gro"nding ?Earthing Sy)te/@ o0 the in)tr"/ent), tran)0or/er) etc. ")ed in
the )"()tation 0or the )a0ety o0 the o!eration !er)onnel a) 1ell a) 0or !ro!er
)y)te/ o!eration and !er0or/ance o0 the !rotecti#e de#ice).
9n earthen )y)te/ co/!ri)ing o0 an earthing /at ("ried at a )"ita(le de!th
(elo1 gro"nd and )"!!le/ented 1ith gro"nd rod) at )"ita(le !oint) i)
!ro#ided in the )"()tation). The)e gro"nd the e$tra high #oltage to the
gro"nd. 9) it i) dangero") to ") to go near the in)tr"/ent 1itho"t !ro!er
earth. I0 the in)tr"/ent) are not gro"nd !ro!erly, they /ay gi#e a h"ge )hoc'
to anyone 1ho 1o"ld )tay near it and al)o it i) dangero") 0or the co)tly
In)tr"/ent a) they /ay (e da/aged (y thi) high #oltage
Si(, S,",5(io! 6 L-o&( 132 KV S&'%((io!.-
1328%S"(-Station 0or/) an i/!ortant lin' (et1een Tran)/i))ion net1or'
and Ai)tri("tion net1or'. It ha) a #ital In0l"ence o0 relia(ility o0 )er#ice.
9!art 0ro/ en)"ring e00icient tran)/i))ion and Ai)tri("tion o0 !o1er, the
)"(-)tation con0ig"ration )ho"ld (e )"ch that it ena(le) ea)y /aintenance o0
e:"i!/ent and /ini/"/
interr"!tion) in !o1er S"!!ly. S"(-Station i) con)tr"cted a) near a) !o))i(le
to the load center. The #oltage le#el o0 !o1er tran)/i))ion i) decided on the
:"ant"/ o0 !o1er to (e tran)/itted to the load center. Tran)/i))ion i)
decided on the :"ant"/ o0 !o1er to (e tran)/itted to the load center.
S,",5(io! o/ %i(,.-
ain !oint) to (e con)idered 1hile )electing the )ite 0or ;rid S"(-
Station area) 0ollo1)=
i@ The )ite cho)en )ho"ld (e a) near to the load center a) !o))i(le.
ii@ It )ho"ld (e ea)ily a!!roacha(le (y road or rail 0or tran)!ortation
o0 e:"i!/ent).
iii@ -and )ho"ld (e 0airly le#eled to /ini/i5e de#elo!/ent co)t.
i#@ So"rce o0 1ater )ho"ld (e a) near to the )ite a) !o))i(le. Thi) i) (eca")e
1ater i) re:"ired 0or #ario") con)tr"ction acti#itie) ?e)!ecially ci#il 1or')@,
earthing and 0or drin'ing !"r!o)e) etc.
#@ The )"(-)tation )ite )ho"ld (e a) near to the to1n H city ("t )ho"ld (e
clear o0 !"(lic !lace), aerodro/e), and ilitary H !olice in)tallation).
#i@ The land )ho"ld ha#e )"00icient gro"nd area to acco//odate )"()tation
e:"i!/ent), ("ilding), )ta00 :"arter), )!ace 0or )torage o0 /aterial, )"ch a)
)tore yard) and )tore )hed) etc. 1ith road) and )!ace 0or 0"t"re e$!an)ion.
#ii@ Set (ac' di)tance) 0ro/ #ario") road) )"ch a) &ational 4igh1ay), State
4igh1ay) )ho"ld (e o()er#ed a) !er the reg"lation) in 0orce.
#iii@ 3hile )electing the land 0or the S"()tation !re0erence to (e gi#en to the
;o#t. land o#er !ri#ate land.
i$@ The land )ho"ld not ha#e 1ater logging !ro(le/.

E."%p/e&t$ %& a '01K* S"#-Stat%o& --

The e:"i!/ent re:"ired 0or a tran)0or/er S"(-Station de!end) "!on the ty!e
o0 S"(-Station, Ser#ice re:"ire/ent and the degree o0 !rotection de)ired.
1328% E4% S"(-Station ha) the 0ollo1ing /a7or e:"i!/ent)=-
1* B&%-'r .-3hen a no. o0 line) o!erating at the )a/e #oltage ha#e to (e
directly connected electrically, (")-(ar are ")ed, it i) /ade "! o0 co!!er or
al"/in"/ (ar) ?generally o0 rectang"lar I-Section@ and o!erate at con)tant
#oltage. The (") i) a line in 1hich the inco/ing 0eeder) co/e into and get
into the in)tr"/ent) 0or 0"rther )te! "! or )te! do1n. The 0ir)t (") i) ")ed 0or
!"tting the inco/ing 0eeder) in -9 )ingle line. There /ay (e do"(le line in
the (") )o that i0 any 0a"lt occ"r) in the one, the other can )till ha#e the
c"rrent and the )"!!ly 1ill not )to!. The t1o line) in the (") are )e!arated
(y a little di)tance (y a Cond"ctor ha#ing a connector (et1een the/. Thi) i)
)o that one can 1or' at a ti/e and the other 1or') only i0 the 0ir)t i) ha#ing
any 0a"lt.
2* I!%&"(or%=- the in)"lator )er#e) t1o !"r!o)e. They )"!!ort the cond"ctor
?or (") (ar@ and con0ine the c"rrent to the cond"ctor. The /o)t co//only
")ed /aterial 0or the /an"0act"re) o0 in)"lator) i) !orcelain.
Fi3&r, 1
There are )e#eral ty!e o0 in)"lator ?i.e. !ine ty!e, )")!en)ion ty!e etc.@ and
their ")e in S"(-Station 1ill de!end "!on the )er#ice re:"ire/ent. 6o)t
in)"lator) are ")ed 0or the (") (ar). 9 !o)t in)"lator con)i)t) o0 a !orcelain
(ody, ca)t iron ca!, 20langed ca)t iron (a)e. The 1hole ca! i) threaded )o
that (") (ar) can (e directly (olted to the ca!. 3hen the line i) )"(7ected to a
greater ten)ion, )train in)"lator) are ")ed. 3hen ten)ion in line i)
e$ceedingly high, t1o or /ore )tring) are ")ed in !arallel.
3*I%o"(i!3 S7i(5h,%.-In S"(-Station, it i) o0ten de)ired to di)connect a !art
o0 the )y)te/ 0or general /aintenance and re!air). Thi) i) acco/!li)hed (y
an i)olating )1itch or i)olator. 9n i)olator i) e))entially a 'ni0e S1itch and i)
de)ign to o0ten o!en a circ"it "nder no load, in other 1ord), i)olator
S1itche) are o!erate only 1hen the line i) 1hich they are connected carry no
load. <or e$a/!le, con)ider that the i)olator are connected on (oth )ide o0 a
c"t (rea'er, i0 the i)olator) are to (e o!ened, the C.B. /")t (e o!ened 0ir)t. I0
an i)olator i) o!ened carele))ly, 1hen carrying high c"rrent the re)"lting arc
ea)ily ca")e) 0la)ho#er to earth. Thi) /ay (atter the )"!!orting in)"lator) 2
/ay e#en ca")e a 0atal accident to the o!erator, !artic"larly in the high
#oltage circ"it. The o!erating !rinci!le i) /an"al !l") one o0 the 0ollo1ing=-
1. Electrical otor echani)/
2. 6ne"/atic echani)/ I)olator) cannot (e o!ened "nle)) the Circ"it
Brea'er) are o!ened. Circ"it Brea'er) cannot (e clo)ed "ntil i)olator) are
clo)ed.
0* Cir5&i( 'r,$,r .-9 circ"it (rea'er i) an e:"i!/ent, 1hich can o!en or
clo)e a circ"it "nder nor/al a) 1ell a) 0a"lt condition. The)e circ"it (rea'er
(rea') 0or a 0a"lt 1hich can da/age other in)tr"/ent in the )tation. It i) )o
de)igned that it can (e o!erated /an"ally ?or (y re/ote control@ "nder
nor/al condition) and a"to/atically "nder 0a"lt condition. 9 circ"it (rea'er
con)i)t) o0 0i$ed 2 /o#ing contact), 1hich are to"ching each other "nder
nor/al condition i.e. 1hen (rea'er i) clo)ed. 3hene#er a 0a"lt occ"r) tri!
coil get) energi5ed, the /o#ing contact) are !"lled (y )o/e /echani)/ 2
there0ore the circ"it i) o!ened or circ"it (rea'). 3hen circ"it (rea') an arc i)
)tac' (et1een contact), the !rod"ction o0 arc not only interr"!t) the c"rrent
("t generate) enor/o") a/o"nt o0 heat 1hich /ay ca")e da/age to the
)y)te/ or the (rea'er it)el0. There0ore the /ain !ro(le/ in a circ"it (rea'er
i) to e$ting"i)h the arc 1ithin the )horte)t !o))i(le ti/e )o that the heat
generated (y it /ay not reach a dangero") #al"e. The /edi"/ ")ed 0or arc
e$tinction i) ")"ally >il, 9ir, S"l0"r 4e$a0l"oride ?S<*@ or #ac""/.

Cir5&i( 'r,$,r% 5! ', 5"%%i/i,) o! (h, '%i% o/ +,)i&+ &%,) /or r5
,8(i!5(io!.-
A. Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r%.-The)e are the olde)t ty!e o0 circ"it (rea'er) 2
ha#e the #irt"e) o0 relia(ility, )i/!licity o0 con)tr"ction 2 relati#e
chea!ne)). The)e are /ainly o0 t1o ty!e)=-
a. B&"$ Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r% ")ing large :"antity o0 oil are al)o called the
dead tan' ty!e (eca")e the tan' i) held at earth !otential. S"ch circ"it
(rea'er) /ay 0"rther (e cla))i0ied a)=-

i. P"i! Br,$ Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r% are #ery )i/!le in con)tr"ction 2
1idely ")ed in lo1 #oltage d.c 2 a.c circ"it). <or ")e on higher #oltage),

they (eco/e "nd"ly large in )i5e 2 need h"ge o0 tran)0or/er oil. In
addition, )"ch (rea'er) are not )"ita(le 0or high-)!eed interr"!tionD
there0ore, the)e cannot (e ")ed in a"to-clo)ing.

ii. S,"/ G,!,r(,) Pr,%%&r, Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r%.-are o0 three ty!e) #i5.
6lain e$!lo)ion !ot ha#ing li/ited (rea'ing ca!acity, cro)) 7et e$!lo)ion
!ot )"ita(le 0or interr"!ting hea#y c"rrent t high #oltage ?**'%@ 2
)el0 co/!en)ated e$!lo)ion !ot )"ita(le 0or o!eration (oth at hea#y c"rrent)
a) 1ell a) lo1 c"rrent). 6lain e$!lo)ion !ot cannot (e ")ed either 0or #ery
lo1 c"rrent) (eca")e o0 increa)ed arcing ti/e or 0or #ery hea#y c"rrent)
(eca")e o0 ri)' o0 ("r)ting o0 !ot d"e to high !re))"re.
iii. I+4&"%, T-4, Oi" 5ir5&i( Br,$,r%.-ha#e the /ain ad#antage, o#er
other con#entional de)ign, o0 red"ced re:"ire/ent o0 oil ?ro"ghly one-
0o"rth@.The !o))i(ility o0 c"rrent cho!!ing can al)o (e a#oided (y ")ing
re)i)tance) 1itching.

'. Lo7 oi" or 9i!i+&+ Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r% are al)o called the li#e tan'
circ"it (rea'er) (eca")e the oil tan' i) in)"lated 0ro/ the gro"nd. S"ch
circ"it (rea'er) are no1 a#aila(le 0or all ty!e o0 #oltage)
?3.*,B.2,12,3*,B2.,,14,,24, 2 420 '%@ 2 0or the highe)t (rea'ing
ca!acitie). The >CB 1ith rated #oltage o0 12 '% ha) a )ingle interr"!ter
!er !ha)e 1itho"t e$tra )"!!ort in)"lator.
B. Lo7 Vo"(3, Air Cir5&i( Br,$,r%.-The)e (rea'er) are de)igned 0or ")e
on d.c circ"it) 2 lo1 #oltage a.c circ"it) 0or the !rotection o0 general
lighting 2 /otor circ"it). The)e (rea'er) are ")"ally !ro#ided 1ith an o#er
c"rrent tri!!ing /echani)/ 1hich /ay (e o0 in)tantaneo") or ti/e delay
ty!e or co/(ination o0 (oth. Tri! de#ice) /ay (e )et o#er a range 0ro/
a(o"t 80 to 1*0 !ercent o0 rating. The (rea'er) /ay al)o (e !ro#ided 1ith
o#er tri!!ing range) 2 arrange/ent) )"ch a) lo1 #oltage tri!, )h"nt tri!
connected to e#er #oltage, re#er)e c"rrent or o#er c"rrent relay). S"ch
(rea'er) are o0 rating o0 to 2 incl"ding *,000 9 a.c 2 12,000 9 d.c, #oltage
rating) are 2,0 to *00 % a.c 2 2,0 to B,0 % d.c. S!ecial (rea'er) a#aila(le
"! to 3,000 % 0or d.c )er#ice).
C. Air B"%( Cir5&i( Br,$,r%=-The air (la)t circ"it (rea'er) e/!loy)
co/!re))ed air ?at a !re))"re o0 20 '.gHc./J2 @ 0or arc e$tinction 2 are
0inding their (e)t a!!lication in )y)te/) o!erating 132 '% 2 a(o#e ?"! to
400'%@1ith (rea'ing ca!acity "! to B,,00 %9 ?d"ring )hort circ"it 0a"lt@2
a(o#e, altho"gh )"ch (rea'er) ha#e al)o (een de)igned to co#er the #oltage
range o0 *,*00 %olt) to 132,000 %olt). The)e (rea'er) ha#e the ad#antage) o0
le)) ("rning o0 contact) (eca")e o0 le)) arc energy, little /aintenance ,
0acility o0 high )!eed reclo)"re, no ri)' o0 e$!lo)ion 2 0ire ha5ard 2
)"ita(ility 0or d"tie) re:"iring 0re:"ent o!eration). The dra1(ac') o0 )"ch
(rea'er) are additional need o0 co/!re))or !lant 0or )"!!lying co/!re))ed
air, c"rrent cho!!ing, )en)iti#ity re)tri'ing #oltage 2 air lea'age at the !i!e
line 0itting).
D. V5&&+ Cir5&i( Br,$,r%.-The idea (ehind the #ac""/ circ"it (rea'er)
i) to eli/inate the /edi"/ (et1een the contact)-#ac""/. The dielectric
)trength o0 #ac""/ i) 1000 ti/e) /ore than that o0 any /edi"/. In
con)tr"ction it i) #ery )i/!le circ"it (rea'er in co/!ari)on to an air or oil
circ"it (rea'er). The)e (rea'er) are ")ed 0or reactor )1itching, tran)0or/er
)1itching, ca!acitor (an' )1itching 1here the #oltage) are high 2 the
c"rrent to (e interr"!ted i) lo1.
E. S&"4h&r H,8-/"&ori), Cir5&i( Br,$,r%.S<*ga) ha) "ni:"e !ro!ertie),
)"ch a) #ery high dielectric )trength, non-reacti#e to the other co/!onent)
o0 circ"it (rea'er), high ti/e con)tant 2 0a)t reco/(ination !ro!erty a0ter
re/o#al o0 the )o"rce energi5ing the )!ar', 1hich !ro#e) it )"!erior to the
other /edi"/) ?)"ch a) oil or air@ 0or ")e in circ"it (rea'er). S<* circ"it
(rea'er) ha#e the ad#antage) o0 #ery /"ch red"ced electrical clearance),
!er0or/ance inde!endent o0 a/(ient condition), noi)e le)) o!eration, red"ce
/oi)t"re !ro(le/, /ini/"/ c"rrent cho!!ing, )/all arcing ti/e, no
red"ction in dielectric )trength o0 S<*,lo1 /aintenance, red"ced in)tallation
ti/e 2 increa)ed )a0ety. S"ch a) circ"it (rea'er) are ")ed 0or rated #oltage)
in the range) o0 3.* to B*0 '%.
<or the later o!eration a relay 1t. i) ")ed 1ith a C.B. generally ("l' oil C.B.
are ")ed 0or #oltage "! to ** 8% 1hile 0or high #oltage lo1 oil 2 S<* C.B.
are ")ed. <or )till higher #oltage, air (la)t #ac""/ or S<* c"t (rea'er are
")ed.
The ")e o0 S<* circ"it (rea'er i) /ainly in the )"()tation) 1hich are ha#ing
high in!"t '# in!"t, )ay a(o#e132'# and /ore. The ga) i) !"t in)ide the
circ"it (rea'er (y 0orce i.e "nder high !re))"re. 3hen i0 the ga) get)
decrea)e) there i) a /otor connected to the circ"it (rea'er. The /otor )tart)
o!erating i0 the ga) 1ent lo1er than 20.8 (ar. There i) a /eter connected to
the (rea'er )o that it can (e /an"ally )een i0 the ga) goe) lo1. The circ"it
(rea'er ")e) theS<* ga) to red"ce the tor:"e !rod"ce in it d"e to any 0a"lt in
the line. The circ"it (rea'er ha) a direct lin' 1ith the in)tr"/ent) in the
)tation, 1hen any 0a"lt occ"r alar/ (ell ring).
S4,5i/i5(io! O/ 132$V SF1,B-1 Cir5&i( Br,$,r.-
Serial &o=-3*81Cc .E9R 2012
Ty!eK120-S<-32B ?3 6ole@ STA
.Rated %oltageK14, '%
Rated <re:"encyK,0 45
Rated &or/al C"rrentK1*00 9/!)
Rated a'ing C"rrentK80 ' 9/!)
Rated Short Circ"it Brea'ing C"rrentK31., ' 9/!)
Rated Short Ti/e C"rrentK31., ' 9/!) 0or 3 Sec)
Rated -ightning I/!"l)e 3ith)tand %oltageK*,0 '# !
<ir)t 6ole To Clear <actorK1.3
Rated ;a) 6re))"reKB 'gHc/J2-g/ at 20 degree c te/!
;a) 3eightKB., 'g
Total 3eightK14,0 'g
Rated Coil %oltage Clo)ingK220 # ?d.c@
Tri!!ingK230 # ?d.c@
otor %oltageK230 # ?a.c@
9"$iliary %oltageK1 !ha)e 230 # ?a.c@
Rated Clo)ing Ti/eL130 / Sec
Rated >!erating Ti/eL130 / Sec
Thi) (rea'er i) ")ed in 132 '%, S<-*, B-1,controlling o0 &a'odar-Jalandhar
-ine.
:S4,5i/i5(io! O/ 132 $V,SF-1,B-0 V5&&+ Cir5&i( Br,$,r;.-
Ty!eK;-312
Brea'er Serial &oK 102483
Rated %oltageK14, '%
Rated <re:"encyK,0 45
Rated &or/al c"rrentK31,0 9/!) at 40 degree c
Rated -ightning I/!"l)e 3ith)tand %oltageK*,0 8% !
Rated Short Circ"it Brea'ing C"rrentK31., ' 9/!)
Rated Short Ti/e 3ith)tand C"rrent 2 A"rationK40'9 0or 3)ec)
-ine Charging Brea'ing C"rrentK,0 ' 9/!)
<ir)t 6ole To Clear <actorK1.,
Rated ;a) 6re))"re S<*H20degree c ?a()@ KB.0 (ar
Clo)ing 2 >!ening Ae#ice) S"!!ly %oltageK220 # ?d.c@
9"$iliary S"!!ly %oltageK>ne 6ha)e, 240# a.c 2Three 6ha)e, 41,# a.c
9ir 6re))"reK22 (ar
Total /a)) o0 S<-* ga)K12'g
Total a))K1,34 'g ?a!!ro$@
Clo)ing Ti/e M 130 / )ec
Re0erence Standard-IEC *22B1-100
.ear o0 /an"0act"re-6SEB
a'erK9RE%9
It i) ")ed 0or tran)0or/er-4.
S4,5i/i5(io! O/ 132$V SF1,B-1 Cir5&i( Br,$,r.-
Serial &o=-3*821c .E9R 2012
Ty!eK120-S<-32B ?3 6ole@ STA
.Rated %oltageK14, '%
Rated <re:"encyK,0 45
Rated &or/al C"rrentK1*00 9/!)
Rated a'ing C"rrentK80 ' 9/!)
Rated Short Circ"it Brea'ing C"rrentK40 ' 9/!)
Rated Short Ti/e C"rrentK40 ' 9/!) 0or 3 Sec)
Rated -ightning I/!"l)e 3ith)tand %oltageK*,0 '# !
<ir)t 6ole To Clear <actorK1.3
Rated ;a) 6re))"reKB 'gHc/J2-g/ at 20 degree c te/!
;a) 3eightKB., 'g
Total 3eightK14,0 'g
Rated Coil %oltage Clo)ingK220 # ?d.c@
Tri!!ingK230 # ?d.c@
otor %oltageK230 # ?a.c@
9"$iliary %oltageK1 !ha)e 230 # ?a.c@
Rated Clo)ing Ti/eL130 / Sec
Rated >!erating Ti/eL130 / Sec
C")to/er=-6SEB
a'erK9RE%9
Thi) (rea'er i) ")ed in 132 '%, S<-*, B-*, controlling o0 &a'odar-&"r/ahal
-ine.
B-2 Controlling o0 T-2, B-3 Controlled to T-3,9nd B-, controlling o0 T-1.
The)e are )a/e rating and #oltage or co/!any.
S4,5i/i5(io! O/ 11 $V Oi" Cir5&i( Br,$,r.-
Rated %oltageK12 '%
I.-K11H28 '%
Rated C"rrentK400 9
<re:"encyK,0 45
Brea'ing Ca!acityK2,0 %9
Sy//etricalK13.1 '9
9)y//etricalK1*.4 '9
a'erG) Rated Ca!acityK33.4 ' 9/!)
Short Ti/e c"rrentK13.1 '9 0or 3 )ec)
S4,5i(io! o/ 11 $2 V5&&+ Cir5&i( Br,$,r.-
Rated %oltageK12 '%
I.-K28HB, '9
Rated C"rrentK8009<re:"encyK,0 45
Sy//etricalK2, '9
a'erG) Rated Ca!acityK*2., '9
Short Ti/e C"rrentK2, '9 0or 3 )ec)


<* Pro(,5(i2, r,"- .-9 !rotecti#e relay i) a de#ice that detect) the 0a"lt and
initiate) the o!eration o0 the C.B. i) to i)olate the de0ecti#e ele/ent 0ro/ the
re)t o0 the )y)te/F. The relay detect) the a(nor/al condition in the electrical
circ"it (y con)tantly /ea)"ring the electrical :"antitie), 1hich are di00erent
"nder nor/al and 0a"lt condition. The electrical :"antitie) 1hich /ay
change "nder 0a"lt condition are #oltage, c"rrent, 0re:"ency and !ha)e angle.
4a#ing detect the 0a"lt, the relay o!erate to clo)e the tri! circ"it o0 C.B.
There are t1o !rinci!le rea)on 0or thi)D <ir)tly, i0 the 0a"lt i) not cleared
:"ic'ly, it /ay ca")e "nnece))ary interr"!tion o0 )er#ice to the c")to/er.
Secondly, ra!id di)connection o0 0a"lty a!!arat") li/it) the a/o"nt o0
da/age to it 2 a !re#ent) the e00ect) 0ro/ )!eeding into the )y)te/. 9
!rotecti#e relay i) a de#ice that detect) the 0a"lt 2 initiate) the o!eration o0
circ"it (rea'er to i)olate the de0ecti#e ele/ent 0ro/ the re)t o0 the )y)te/.
o)t o0 the relay) o!erate on the !rinci!le o0 electro/agnetic attraction or
electro/agnetic ind"ction. The 0ollo1ing i/!ortant ty!e) o0 relay) are
generally ")ed in electrical di)tri("tion 2 tran)/i))ion line=-
1.I!)&5(io! T-4, O2,r C&rr,!( R,"-
2.I!)&5(io! T-4, O2,r Vo"(3, R,"-
3.Di%(!5, R,"-
0.Di//,r,!(i" R,"-
<.Er(h F&"( R,"-

1.I!)&5(io! T-4, O2,r C&rr,!( R,"-.-
Thi) ty!e o0 relay o!erate) on the !rinci!le o0 electro/agnetic ind"ction
initiate) correcti#e /ea)"re) 1hen c"rrent in the circ"it e$ceed) a
!redeter/ined #al"e . The act"ating )o"rce i) a c"rrent in the circ"it
)"!!lied to the relay (y a c"rrent tran)0or/er .The)e relay) are ")ed on ac
circ"it) only and can o!erate 0or 0a"lt 0lo1 in either direction. +nder nor/al
condition the re)"lting tor:"e i) greater than the dri#ing tor:"e !rod"ced (y
the relay coil c"rrent.
4ence the 9l"/in"/ di)c re/ain) )tationary, (y d"ring 0a"lt c"rrent in the
!rotecti#e circ"it e$ceed) the !re)et #al"e. The dri#ing tor:"e (eco/e)
greater than the )tarting tor:"e 2 the di)c )tart) to rotate, hence /o#ing
contact (ridge) are 0i$ed contact 1hen the di)c rotate) to a !re)et #al"e. Tri!
circ"it o!erate) the circ"it (rea'er, 1hich i)olate) the 0a"lty )ection.

2.I!)&5(io! T-4, O2,r Vo"(3, R,"-.-
Thi) ty!e o0 relay o!erate) on the !rinci!le o0 electro/agnetic ind"ction 2
initiate) correcti#e /ea)"re) 1hen c"rrent in the circ"it e$ceed) a
!redeter/ined #al"e. +nder nor/al condition the al"/in"/ di)c re/ain)
)tationary. 4o1e#er i0 the #oltage increa)e) at any co)t the di)c )tart) to
rotate, hence /o#ing contact (ridge) to the 0i$ed contact 1hen the di)c
rotate) thro"gh a !re)et angle. Tri! circ"it o!erate) the circ"it (rea'er, 1hich
i)olate) the 0a"lty )ection.
3. Di%(!5, R,"-.- +nder nor/al o!erating condition, the !"ll i) d"e to
the #oltage ele/ent. There0ore the relay contact) re/ain) o!en. 4o1e#er
1hen a 0a"lt occ"r) in the !rotected 5one the a!!lied #oltage to the relay
decrea)e) 1here the c"rrent increa)e). The ratio o0 #oltage to c"rrent 0a"lt)
i) (elo1 the !redeter/ined #al"e. There0ore, the !"ll o0 the c"rrent ele/ent
1ill e$ceed that d"e to #oltage ele/ent 2 thi) ca")e) the (ea/ to tilt in
direction to clo)e the tri! circ"it.
0.Di//,r,!(i" R,"-.- It co/!en)ate) the !ha)e di00erence (et1een the
!o1er tran)0or/erG) !ri/ary 2 )econdary. The C.T.) on the t1o )ide) are
connected (y !ilot 1ire) at (oth end) are )a/e 2 no c"rrent 0lo1) thro"gh
the relay). I0 a gro"nd or !ha)e-to-!ha)e 0a"lt occ"r), the c"rrent) in the
C.T.) no longer 1ill (e the )a/e 2 the di00erential c"rrent 0lo1ing thro"gh
the relay circ"it 1ill clear the (rea'er on (oth )ide) o0 tran)0or/er). The
!rotected 5one i) li/ited to the C.T.) on the lo1 #oltage )ide 2 C.T.) on the
high #oltage )ide o0 the tran)0or/er.

Thi) )che/e al)o !ro#ide) !rotection 0or )hort circ"it) (et1een t"rn) o0 the
)a/e !ha)e 1inding. A"ring a )hort circ"it, the t"rn ratio o0 !o1er
tran)0or/er i) altered 2 ca")e "n(alance in the )y)te/ 1hich ca")e the relay
to o!erate. 4o1e#er, )"ch )ort) are (etter ta'en care (y B"chhol5 relay.
<.Er(h F&"( R,"-.- Thi) )che/e !ro#ide) no !rotection again)t !ha)e to
!ha)e 0a"lt) "nle)) 2 "ntil they de#elo! into earth 0a"lt). 9 relay i)
connected acro)) tran)0or/er )econdary. The !rotection) again)t earth 0a"lt)
are li/ited to the region (et1een the ne"tral 2 line c"rrent tran)0or/er.
+nder nor/al o!erating condition, no di00erential c"rrent 0lo1) thro"gh the
relay. 3hen earth 0a"lt occ"r) in the !rotected 5one, the di00erential c"rrent
0lo1) thro"gh the o!erating coil o0 the relay. The relay then clo)e )it)
contact) to di)connect the e:"i!/ent 0ro/ the )y)te/.
1* I!%(r&+,!( Tr!%/or+,r% .-The line in S"(-Station o!erate at high
#oltage and carry c"rrent o0 tho")and) o0 a/!ere). The /ea)"ring
in)tr"/ent and !rotecti#e de#ice) are de)igned 0or lo1 #oltage ?generally
110%@ and c"rrent ?a(o"t ,9@. There0ore, they 1ill not 1or' )ati)0actory i0
/o"nted directly on the !o1er line). Thi) di00ic"lty i) o#erco/e (y
in)talling In)tr"/ent tran)0or/er, on the !o1er line). There are t1o ty!e) o0
in)tr"/ent tran)0or/er.
i* C&rr,!( Tr!%/or+,r .- 9 c"rrent tran)0or/er i) e))entially a )te!-do1n
tran)0or/er. It )te!)-do1n the c"rrent in a 'no1n ratio, the !ri/ary o0 thi)
tran)0or/er con)i)t o0 one or /ore t"rn o0 thic' 1ire connected in )erie)
1ith the line. The )econdary con)i)t o0 thic' 1ire connected in )erie) 1ith
line ha#ing large n"/(er o0 t"rn o0 0ine 1ire and !ro#ide) 0or /ea)"ring
in)tr"/ent, and relay a c"rrent, 1hich i) a con)tant 0action o0 the c"rrent in
the line. C"rrent tran)0or/er) are (a)ically ")ed to ta'e the reading) o0 the
c"rrent) entering the )"()tation. Thi) tran)0or/er )te!) do1n the c"rrent
0ro/ 800 a/!)to1a/!. Thi) i) done (eca")e 1e ha#e no in)tr"/ent 0or
/ea)"ring o0 )"ch a large c"rrent. The /ain ")e o0 hi) tran)0or/er i)
?a@ di)tance !rotectionD (@ (ac'"! !rotection Dc@/ea)"re/ent. In &a'odar
S"()tation ?a@C.T ratio )et at *00H1 9 or 200H1 9 0or 132 '% (ay), (@C.T
ratio )et at a 800H1 9, 40H1 9, 200H, 9 or 10H, 9 0or 33 '% (ay), ?c@C.T ratio
)et at200H, 9 0or 11 '% 0eeder !rotection.
S4,5i/i5(io! o/ 132 $V C.T..-
Ty!eK >HA %oltageK132 '%
<re:"encyK,0 45 In)tallation -e#elK2B,H*,0 '%!
a'erK ehr" Electrical 2 echanical Engineer) 6#t. -td. ;hatal
Bhi1adi, Ra7a)than.
&o. >0
Core
Ratio %9 Cla)) IS<H9-< %' RCT
1. *00-300H19 30 1.0 -- -- --
2. *00-300H19 30 ,6 10 -- --
3. *00H300H19 30 ,6 10 -- --

Ratio 6ri/ary ter/inal Secondary Ter/inal
300H1-1-1 9 61-62 Core I Core II Core III
1)1-1)2 2)1-2)2 3)1-3)
2*00H1-1-1 9 61-62 1)1-1)3 2)1-2)3 3)1-3)3
ii* Vo"(3, Tr!%/or+,r or Po(,!(i" Tr!%/or+,r .-It i) e))entially a
)te! Ndo1n tran)0or/er and )te! do1n the #oltage in 'no1n ratio. The
!ri/ary o0 the)e tran)0or/er con)i)t o0 a large n"/(er o0 t"rn o0 0ine 1ire
connected acro)) the line. The )econdary 1inding con)i)t o0 a 0e1 t"rn),
!ro#ide) 0or /ea)"ring in)tr"/ent), and relay a #oltage that i) 'no1n
0raction o0 the line #oltage. In &a'odar S"()tation
?a@ Three 1-6ha)e "nit o0 132H110 '% 6.T. i) ")ed 0or 33'% (ay),
?(@ Three 1-6ha)e "nit o0 **H110 '% 6.T. i) ")ed 0or 33 '% (ay),
?c@ Three )ingle !ha)e "nit o0 11H110 '% 6.T. i) ")ed 0or 11 '% 0eeder).


S4,5i/i5(io! o/ 132 $V P.T..-
-ine #oltageK132 '%
%9H6ha)eKB,0
6ha)eK1
Cla))KB
<re:"encyK,0 45
O&e"trally Earthed %oltageK6ri/ary-B3200%
Secondary-*3.,%
a'erK Tel'

1C
S!eci0ication o0 132 '% 6.T.=
-ine #oltageK132 '%%9H6ha)eKB,06ha)eK1Cla))KB<re:"encyK,0
45O&e"trally Earthed%oltageK6ri/ary-B3200%Secondary-
*3.,%a'erK4ea#y Electrical) -td. Bho!al
S!eci0ication o0 33 '% 6.T.=
Ty!eK%.&;+)eK>"tdoorIn)tallation -e#elKB0 '% ?r./.)@ or 1B0 '%
?!ea'@O&e"trally Earthed<re:"encyK,0 45
RatioK30 '%HP3H110%HP3H110%HP3
6ha)eK14ighe)t Sy)te/ #oltageK3* '%In)tallation cla))K9Te/!. Ri)e >#er
9/(ient 3indingK,,
o
c, >ilK4,
o
cTotal 3eightKC8 'g>il Q"antityK2C -iter)a'erK-ight E:"i!/ent) 0g
Co. 8ol'ata
B@ etering and Indicating In)tr"/ent =-
There are )e#eral /etering andindicating In)tr"/ent ?e.g. 9//eter),
%olt/eter), energy /eter etc.@ in)talledin a S"()tation to /aintain 1hich
o#er the circ"it :"antitie). The in)tr"/enttran)0or/er are in#aria(ly ")ed
1ith the/ 0or )ati)0actory o!eration.
8@ i)cellaneo") e:"i!/ent =-
In addition to a(o#e, there /ay (e 0ollo1inge:"i!/ent in a S"()tation =i@
<")e)ii@ Carrier-c"rrent e:"i!/entiii@S"(-Station a"$iliary )"!!lie)
C@ Tran)0or/er =-
There are t1o tran)0or/er) in the inco/ing 0eeder) )othat the three line) are
)te! do1n at the )a/e ti/e. In ca)e o0 a 2208% or/ore 9"to tran)0or/er)
are ")ed. 3hile in ca)e o0 lo1er 8% line )"ch a) le))

20
than 1328% line do"(le 1inding tran)0or/er) are ")ed o0 lo1er 8% line
)"ch a)le)) than 1328% line do"(le 1inding tran)0or/er) are
")edTran)0or/er i) )tatic e:"i!/ent, 1hich con#ert) electrical energy 0ro/
one#oltage to another. 9) the )y)te/ #oltage goe) "!, the techni:"e) to (e
")ed0or the Ae)ign, Con)tr"ction, In)tallation, >!eration and aintenance
al)o(eco/e /ore and /ore critical. I0 !ro!er care i) e$erci)ed in the
in)tallation,/aintenance and condition /onitoring o0 the tran)0or/er, it can
gi#e the ")ertro"(le 0ree )er#ice thro"gho"t the e$!ected li0e o0 e:"i!/ent
1hich o0 theorder o0 2,-3, year). 4ence, it i) #ery e))ential that the
!er)onnel a))ociated1ith the in)tallation, o!eration or /aintenance o0 the
tran)0or/er i) thro"gh1ith the In)tr"ction) !ro#ided (y the /an"0act"re.
Ba)ic 6rinci!le=
The tran)0or/er i) (a)ed on t1o !rinci!le)D 0ir)tly, that an electricc"rrent can
!rod"ce a /agnetic 0ield ?electro/agneti)/@ and )econdly that achanging
/agnetic 0ield 1ithin acoil o0 1ire ind"ce) a #oltageacro)) the end) o0 the
coil?electro/agnetic ind"ction@.Charging the c"rrent in the!ri/ary coil
change)the /agnetic 0l"$ that i)de#elo!ed. The changing/agnetic 0l"$
ind"ce) a #oltagein the )econdary coil. The t1ocirc"it) are electrically
i)olated("t /agnetically lin'ed thro"gh alo1 rel"ctance !ath. I0 one coil
i)connected to a.c )"!!ly, an a.c i))et"! in (oth o0 the)e circ"it). Thi)hel!)
to tran)0er the #oltage 0ro/ one )ide to another. 3e ha#e o()er#ed 0i#eat
8-SA along 1ith t1o )tation tran)0or/er). >"t o0 the)e 0i#e, t1o are
132H33'% in y-d /ode 2 other) are 33H11 '% in d-. /ode.
9cce))orie) o0 tran)0or/er)=Core 2 3inding=
It /ay (e o0 #ario") )ha!e i.e. core, )hell. It i) /ade o0 cold-rolled-grain-
oriented Silicon-)teel o0 #arni)h in)"lation on the la/ination. Thecore i)
la/inated to red"ce the core lo)). The la/ination) are /ade in )te!) 2try to
gi#e circ"lar cro)) )ection. Bolt) B n"t) )ec"re the la/ination. The corei)
!laced at the (otto/ o0 the tan'. The tan') are con)tr"cted 0ro/ )heet )teel

<ig"re * 31., %9 Tran)0or/er

21
0or )/all tan' 2 (oiler )heet 0or large tan'. There are ther/o/eter
!oc'et),radiator t"(e) 0or increa)ing cooling )"r0ace). 9 3-!ha)e tran)0or/er
ha) )i$)e!arate 1inding), three !ri/ary 2 three )econdary 1o"nd iron
core).Ena/eled co!!er 1ith in)"lation i) ")ed 0or 1inding. In)"lated !a!er)
are")ed 0or interlayer in)"lation. 6a!er in the 0or/ o0 ta!e /ay (e "tili5ed
0orta!!ing 1inding lead) and other !art). 6re))(oard) are ")ed 0or
in)"lation(et1een 1inding) 2 core. 6re))(oard) are al)o ")ed to )e!arate
4% 1inding)0ro/ -% 1inding) in!"t) nearer the core.
Tran)0or/er >il=
The tan' i) 0illed 1ith tran)0or/er oilD 2 )ealed. It i) a/ineral oil o(tained
(y re0ining cr"de !etrole"/. It )er#e) the 0ollo1ing!"r!o)e)=-
I.

6ro#ide) additional in)"lation
II.

Carrie) a1ay the heat generated in the core 2 oil);ood tran)0or/er oil
)ho"ld ha#e=-


4igh dielectric )trength.


-o1 #i)co)ity to !ro#ide good heat tran)0or/ation.


4igh 0la)hH0ire !oint


<ree 0ro/ inorganic acid, al'ali 2 corro)i#e S"l0"r


<ree 0ro/ )l"dging "nder nor/al o!erating conditionIt i) I/!ortant to chec'
the oil in reg"lar inter#al).