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Flow Over Weirs

By John Fuller

Fluid Mechanics Lab

Wednesday(1-345pm)

Group member:
Abdur Rahaman























Abstract

The objective of this lab is to determine the characteristics of open-channel flow over,
firstly, a rectangular notch and then a triangular (vee) notch, also to determine the
discharge coefficients for both notches.


Method

This is done by direction observation of general features of flow. Discharge coefficient
values can be determined from the corresponding volume flow rate and the measurements
of the height of water above the notch base.



Physical Setting

All procedures for the flow over weirs lab were performed at UAA in the ANSEP
building in room 102. The room is equipped with the testing apparatus for this lab. The
building is at room temperature and is at standard atmospheric pressure.



Experimental Procedures


Equipment

The equipment required for the testing of this lab is:
The F1-10 Hydraulics Bench
The F1-13 Stilling baffle
The F1-13 Rectangular and Vee Notches
Vernier Height Gauge
Stop Watch
Spirit Level













Procedure - Equipment set-up

Position the Hydraulic bench so that it is level. Position the stilling baffle as shown in the
diagram and mount the rectangular notch plate into the flow channel. Position the
instrument carrier just over the notch in the plate and lower the gauge until the point is
just above the notch base and lock the coarse adjustment screw. Then lower the gauge
until the point touches the notch base using the fine adjustment and taking a reading.
Mount the instrument carrier approximately half way between the stilling baffle and the
notch plate. Open the bench control valve and add water to the channel, adjusting the
valve to give approximately 10mm depth above the notch base.



























Procedure - Taking a Set of Results


Use the fine adjustment to lower the gauge until the point just touches its reflection in the
surface to take an accurate height reading. Make sure that the flow rate is large enough to
prevent the outflow from the notch "clinging" to the notch plate. Determine the volume
flow rate by measuring the time required to collect a known volume in the volumetric
tank. This should be repeated twice to check for consistency and accuracy. Repeat this
procedure opening the bench valve further to produce an increase in depth of
approximately 10 mm. Continue to take readings with increasing flow rate until the level
reaches the top of the notch, but make sure not to allow spillage to occur over the plate
top adjacent to the notch. Replace the rectangular notch plate with the Vee notch plate
and repeat the above procedure with taking height increments of 5-6 mm.
















Theory

By an application of the Bernoulli equation the results for flow over weirs can be
obtained. The depth of flow above the base of a notch is related to the volume flow rate
through it, the notch forms a useful flow measurement device.

Sample Calculations

Flow Rate =V/t = (0.005)/(98.60)=5.0709E-05 m^3/s

Rectangular Notch

Experimental Cd

Cd=(3Qt)/(2b*Sqrt(2g)*H^(3/2)) = (3*5.0709E-05)/(2*.03*Sqrt(2*9.81)*0.01^93/2))=
0.572534565

Slope =Slope of Graph Q vs. H^3/2 = 0.0539 m^3/s/m^3/2

Theoretical Cd

Cd=(3*slope)/(2b*Sqrt(2g)) = (3*.0539)/(2*0.03*Sqrt(2*9.81)) = 0.608428106

Cd percent Difference =Theoretical-Experimental/Theoretical*100 =
((0.608428106-0.572534565)/0.608428106)*100 =5.89938904 %


Vee Notch

Experimental Cd

Cd=(15Qt)/(8tan(a/2)*Sqrt(2g)*H^(5/2) =
(15*0.000137817)/(8tan(45)*Sqrt(2*9.81)*0.0255^(5/2)=
0.565277588

Slope =Slope of Graph Q vs. H^5/2 = 1.4999 m^3/s/m^5/2

Theoretical Cd

Cd=(15*slope)/(8tan(a/2)*Sqrt(2g) = (15*1.4999)/(8tan(45)*Sqrt(2*9.81)= 0.63491279


Cd percent Difference =Theoretical-Experimental/Theoretical*100 =
((0.63491279- 0.565277588)/ 0.63491279)*100 =10.96767983 %




Results

From the data collected we were able to take Bernoulli's equation and manipulate the
equation so we could find the experimental discharge coefficient for both notches. Next
we graphed our data and used the slope to produce an equation to find the theoretical
discharge coefficient for both notches. The average theoretical discharge coefficient for
the rectangular notch was 0.608428106. The average experimental discharge coefficient
for the rectangular notch was 0.590118957. The average percent difference was
3.009254309. The average theoretical discharge coefficient for the Vee notch was
0.63491279. The average experimental discharge coefficient for the Vee notch was
0.576122036. The average percent difference was 9.259658165.






Notch
Height Above
Notch (m)
Average Flowrate
(m^3/s)
Cd
Experimental
Cd
Theoretical
Percent
Error Cd
R 0.0100 5.07E-05 0.572534565 0.608428106 5.89938904
R 0.0192 0.000135906 0.57661586 0.608428106 5.228595735
R 0.0300 0.000271214 0.589184765 0.608428106 3.162796197
R 0.0392 0.00040224 0.585028286 0.608428106 3.845946591
R 0.0505 0.000603319 0.600109158 0.608428106 1.367285291
R 0.0585 0.000756292 0.603359305 0.608428106 0.833097773
R 0.0642 0.000870364 0.603975033 0.608428106 0.731897977




Average Cd 0.590118957 0.608428106 3.009254309
Notch
Height Above
Notch (m)
Average Flowrate
(m^3/s)
Cd
Experimental
Cd
Theoretical
Percent
Error Cd
V 0.0200 7.13E-05 0.533276756 0.63491279 16.00787314
V 0.0255 0.000138663 0.565277588 0.63491279 10.96767983
V 0.0310 0.000232886 0.582628233 0.63491279 8.234919476
V 0.0345 0.00030175 0.577765451 0.63491279 9.000817104
V 0.0395 0.000455402 0.621662153 0.63491279 2.087001114




Average Cd 0.576122036 0.63491279 9.259658165






















y = 0.0539x - 8E-06
0
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.001
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02
F
l
o
w

R
a
t
e

Q
t

(
m
^
3
/
s
)
H^(3/2) (m^3/2)
Flow Rate, m^3/s vs. H^(3/2), m^(3/2)
Rectangle
y = 1.4999x - 2E-05
0
0.00005
0.0001
0.00015
0.0002
0.00025
0.0003
0.00035
0.0004
0.00045
0.0005
0 0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035
F
l
o
w

R
a
t
e

Q
t

(
m
^
3
/
s
)
H^(5/2) (m^5/2)
Flow rate, m^3/s vs. H^(5/2), m^(5/2)
V-Notch


Discussion

The Discharge coefficient for both the rectangular notch and the Vee notch become more
accurate to the theoretical value when the flow rate increases. This is due to the fact that
when the flow rate is larger the stream projects from the notch and it doesn't cling to the
notch. When the water clings to the notch the accuracy of the flow rate decreases. Also
the lower flow rates produce lower heights above the notch creating larger changes from
the theoretical equations. The overall accuracy of the rectangular notch was pretty good
with the greatest percent error of 5.89% and an average of 3.01 % error. The Vee notch
started with a lot of error of 16% error and came down to 2.08% error with an average of
9.26% error.


Conclusion
As the flow rate increases the discharge coefficient becomes more accurate to the
theoretical value. When the flow rate is to low it clings to the notch and flows down it.
This changes the coefficient of discharge because now the water isn't only being affected
by gravity it is having to resist the friction of the surface of the notch. The limitations of
the theory is it has to be level so the only force on the water is gravity, there has to be a
constant flow, and constant pressure. The theory behind this experiment makes an
assumption that there is a minimum height of water above the notch and any heights
below this start to deviate from theory at an increasing rate. The lower flow rates produce
lower heights above the notch creating larger changes from the theoretical equations.


References

Armfield Limited, 2001, Instruction Manual F1-13,; Ringwood, Hampshire. BH24
1DY England
















Appendices