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By John Fuller

Fluid Mechanics Lab

Wednesday(1-345pm)

Group member:

Abdur Rahaman

Abstract

The objective of this lab is to determine the characteristics of open-channel flow over,

firstly, a rectangular notch and then a triangular (vee) notch, also to determine the

discharge coefficients for both notches.

Method

This is done by direction observation of general features of flow. Discharge coefficient

values can be determined from the corresponding volume flow rate and the measurements

of the height of water above the notch base.

Physical Setting

All procedures for the flow over weirs lab were performed at UAA in the ANSEP

building in room 102. The room is equipped with the testing apparatus for this lab. The

building is at room temperature and is at standard atmospheric pressure.

Experimental Procedures

Equipment

The equipment required for the testing of this lab is:

The F1-10 Hydraulics Bench

The F1-13 Stilling baffle

The F1-13 Rectangular and Vee Notches

Vernier Height Gauge

Stop Watch

Spirit Level

Procedure - Equipment set-up

Position the Hydraulic bench so that it is level. Position the stilling baffle as shown in the

diagram and mount the rectangular notch plate into the flow channel. Position the

instrument carrier just over the notch in the plate and lower the gauge until the point is

just above the notch base and lock the coarse adjustment screw. Then lower the gauge

until the point touches the notch base using the fine adjustment and taking a reading.

Mount the instrument carrier approximately half way between the stilling baffle and the

notch plate. Open the bench control valve and add water to the channel, adjusting the

valve to give approximately 10mm depth above the notch base.

Procedure - Taking a Set of Results

Use the fine adjustment to lower the gauge until the point just touches its reflection in the

surface to take an accurate height reading. Make sure that the flow rate is large enough to

prevent the outflow from the notch "clinging" to the notch plate. Determine the volume

flow rate by measuring the time required to collect a known volume in the volumetric

tank. This should be repeated twice to check for consistency and accuracy. Repeat this

procedure opening the bench valve further to produce an increase in depth of

approximately 10 mm. Continue to take readings with increasing flow rate until the level

reaches the top of the notch, but make sure not to allow spillage to occur over the plate

top adjacent to the notch. Replace the rectangular notch plate with the Vee notch plate

and repeat the above procedure with taking height increments of 5-6 mm.

Theory

By an application of the Bernoulli equation the results for flow over weirs can be

obtained. The depth of flow above the base of a notch is related to the volume flow rate

through it, the notch forms a useful flow measurement device.

Sample Calculations

Flow Rate =V/t = (0.005)/(98.60)=5.0709E-05 m^3/s

Rectangular Notch

Experimental Cd

Cd=(3Qt)/(2b*Sqrt(2g)*H^(3/2)) = (3*5.0709E-05)/(2*.03*Sqrt(2*9.81)*0.01^93/2))=

0.572534565

Slope =Slope of Graph Q vs. H^3/2 = 0.0539 m^3/s/m^3/2

Theoretical Cd

Cd=(3*slope)/(2b*Sqrt(2g)) = (3*.0539)/(2*0.03*Sqrt(2*9.81)) = 0.608428106

Cd percent Difference =Theoretical-Experimental/Theoretical*100 =

((0.608428106-0.572534565)/0.608428106)*100 =5.89938904 %

Vee Notch

Experimental Cd

Cd=(15Qt)/(8tan(a/2)*Sqrt(2g)*H^(5/2) =

(15*0.000137817)/(8tan(45)*Sqrt(2*9.81)*0.0255^(5/2)=

0.565277588

Slope =Slope of Graph Q vs. H^5/2 = 1.4999 m^3/s/m^5/2

Theoretical Cd

Cd=(15*slope)/(8tan(a/2)*Sqrt(2g) = (15*1.4999)/(8tan(45)*Sqrt(2*9.81)= 0.63491279

Cd percent Difference =Theoretical-Experimental/Theoretical*100 =

((0.63491279- 0.565277588)/ 0.63491279)*100 =10.96767983 %

Results

From the data collected we were able to take Bernoulli's equation and manipulate the

equation so we could find the experimental discharge coefficient for both notches. Next

we graphed our data and used the slope to produce an equation to find the theoretical

discharge coefficient for both notches. The average theoretical discharge coefficient for

the rectangular notch was 0.608428106. The average experimental discharge coefficient

for the rectangular notch was 0.590118957. The average percent difference was

3.009254309. The average theoretical discharge coefficient for the Vee notch was

0.63491279. The average experimental discharge coefficient for the Vee notch was

0.576122036. The average percent difference was 9.259658165.

Notch

Height Above

Notch (m)

Average Flowrate

(m^3/s)

Cd

Experimental

Cd

Theoretical

Percent

Error Cd

R 0.0100 5.07E-05 0.572534565 0.608428106 5.89938904

R 0.0192 0.000135906 0.57661586 0.608428106 5.228595735

R 0.0300 0.000271214 0.589184765 0.608428106 3.162796197

R 0.0392 0.00040224 0.585028286 0.608428106 3.845946591

R 0.0505 0.000603319 0.600109158 0.608428106 1.367285291

R 0.0585 0.000756292 0.603359305 0.608428106 0.833097773

R 0.0642 0.000870364 0.603975033 0.608428106 0.731897977

Average Cd 0.590118957 0.608428106 3.009254309

Notch

Height Above

Notch (m)

Average Flowrate

(m^3/s)

Cd

Experimental

Cd

Theoretical

Percent

Error Cd

V 0.0200 7.13E-05 0.533276756 0.63491279 16.00787314

V 0.0255 0.000138663 0.565277588 0.63491279 10.96767983

V 0.0310 0.000232886 0.582628233 0.63491279 8.234919476

V 0.0345 0.00030175 0.577765451 0.63491279 9.000817104

V 0.0395 0.000455402 0.621662153 0.63491279 2.087001114

Average Cd 0.576122036 0.63491279 9.259658165

y = 0.0539x - 8E-06

0

0.0002

0.0004

0.0006

0.0008

0.001

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

F

l

o

w

R

a

t

e

Q

t

(

m

^

3

/

s

)

H^(3/2) (m^3/2)

Flow Rate, m^3/s vs. H^(3/2), m^(3/2)

Rectangle

y = 1.4999x - 2E-05

0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

0.00025

0.0003

0.00035

0.0004

0.00045

0.0005

0 0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035

F

l

o

w

R

a

t

e

Q

t

(

m

^

3

/

s

)

H^(5/2) (m^5/2)

Flow rate, m^3/s vs. H^(5/2), m^(5/2)

V-Notch

Discussion

The Discharge coefficient for both the rectangular notch and the Vee notch become more

accurate to the theoretical value when the flow rate increases. This is due to the fact that

when the flow rate is larger the stream projects from the notch and it doesn't cling to the

notch. When the water clings to the notch the accuracy of the flow rate decreases. Also

the lower flow rates produce lower heights above the notch creating larger changes from

the theoretical equations. The overall accuracy of the rectangular notch was pretty good

with the greatest percent error of 5.89% and an average of 3.01 % error. The Vee notch

started with a lot of error of 16% error and came down to 2.08% error with an average of

9.26% error.

Conclusion

As the flow rate increases the discharge coefficient becomes more accurate to the

theoretical value. When the flow rate is to low it clings to the notch and flows down it.

This changes the coefficient of discharge because now the water isn't only being affected

by gravity it is having to resist the friction of the surface of the notch. The limitations of

the theory is it has to be level so the only force on the water is gravity, there has to be a

constant flow, and constant pressure. The theory behind this experiment makes an

assumption that there is a minimum height of water above the notch and any heights

below this start to deviate from theory at an increasing rate. The lower flow rates produce

lower heights above the notch creating larger changes from the theoretical equations.

References

Armfield Limited, 2001, Instruction Manual F1-13,; Ringwood, Hampshire. BH24

1DY England

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