Cuando las personas se expresan de manera oral o escrita están produciendo

cualquier manifestación o emisión hablada o escrita de cualquier longitud, desde un enunciado a un libro entero que teng
texto es producido para alcanzar una meta comunicativa,
determinada. (Casany, 1!" #or otro lado, un texto es el resultado de un acto de comunicación cuya extensión y carácter depe
la intención del hablante$ intención que puede ser doble. %na inte
intención ilocutiva& el deseo de lograr un determinado efecto.
'a estructura básica de un texto escrito consta de tres partes&
INTRODUCCIÓN: Comi enzo que sit(a al lector en el tema qu
la ubicación contextual del tópico. ('ugar, tiempo, población, etc. que sirven de referencia al tema a desarrollar". 'a intro
tambi)n para sugerir como estará organizado el escrito. *u función prin
comprender el tema que se desarrollará.
DESARROLLO O CUERPO:
pensamiento central presentado de manera general
control ados por una i dea princi pal . *u f unci ón es dar a conocer en detal le el tema que dio origen al texto.
CONCLUSIÓN: +s el resumen de los aspectos tratados en el desarrol lo. #or
podr,a deci r que l a concl usi ón es un con- unto de frases que dan fin al traba-o escri to, donde se expone las posturas
y.o las i deas fi nal es del escritor.
+n l os textos escritos l a i nformaci ón es presentada en párraf os o secci ones, e
del propósito comuni cati vo que el escritor qui era expresar, es decir que el discurso puede estar organizado en
diferentes secuencias textuales tal es como& narración, descripci ón, i nstrucción y proceso (Casamigli a y /usón, 0110
+stos autores af irman que aunque un texto pueda ser homog)neo (estar escrito usando una sol a secuencia" muchos
otros muestran una vari edad de secuenci as y heterogeneidad. #or e- empl o, algunos textos pueden tener una secuencia
domi nante primari a, donde un ti po predomina sobre otro en un texto (narración sobre descripci ón" y tener tambi)n
una secuencia secundaria. 2demás de el l o, dentro de estas secuencias puede haber diferentes subti pos que son
ll amados g)neros, l os cuales dependen de l a f unci ón social exp
muchos ti pos de textos narrativos (novel as, historias cortas, bibli ograf,as, etc." instrucci ones (recetas de cocina,
manuales, r)cipes m)di cos" etc. (3cCarthy, 11"


Cuando las personas se expresan de manera oral o escrita están produciendo textos, es por ellos que se dice que un texto es
cualquier manifestación o emisión hablada o escrita de cualquier longitud, desde un enunciado a un libro entero que teng
una meta comunicativa, en un contexto situacional establecido y con una estructura organizacional
determinada. (Casany, 1!" #or otro lado, un texto es el resultado de un acto de comunicación cuya extensión y carácter depe
la intención del hablante$ intención que puede ser doble. %na intención comunicativa& la voluntad de transmitir una información y una
intención ilocutiva& el deseo de lograr un determinado efecto.
'a estructura básica de un texto escrito consta de tres partes&
omienzo que si t(a al lector en el tema que expresa l a
la ubicación contextual del tópico. ('ugar, tiempo, población, etc. que sirven de referencia al tema a desarrollar". 'a intro
tambi)n para sugerir como estará organizado el escrito. *u función principal es proveer al lector de la información necesaria para
DESARROLLO O CUERPO: es la parte fundamental del escrito, donde se ampl,a o explica la tesis o
de manera general en la introducción. +n el cuerpo pueden existir vari os párraf os
control ados por una i dea principal . *u f unci ón es dar a conocer en detal le el tema que dio origen al texto.
+s el resumen de los aspectos tratados en el desarrol lo. #or
podr,a deci r que la concl usi ón es un con- unto de f rases que dan fin al traba-o escrito, donde se expone las posturas
+n l os textos escri tos l a i nformaci ón es presentada en párraf os o secci ones, e
del propósito comuni cativo que el escritor quiera expresar, es decir que el discurso puede estar organizado en
diferentes secuencias textuales tal es como& narración, descripci ón, i nstrucción y proceso (Casamigli a y /usón, 0110
+stos autores afi rman que aunque un texto pueda ser homog)neo (estar escrito usando una sol a secuencia" muchos
otros muestran una vari edad de secuenci as y heterogeneidad. #or e- empl o, algunos textos pueden tener una secuencia
tipo predomina sobre otro en un texto (narración sobre descripci ón" y tener tambi)n
2demás de el l o, dentro de estas secuencias puede haber diferentes subti pos que son
dependen de l a función social expresada en l a secuencia textual . #or e-empl o, hay
muchos ti pos de textos narrati vos (novel as, histori as cortas, bibli ograf ,as, etc." instrucci ones (recetas de coci na,
manuales, r)ci pes m)di cos" etc. (3cCarthy, 11"
textos, es por ellos que se dice que un texto es
cualquier manifestación o emisión hablada o escrita de cualquier longitud, desde un enunciado a un libro entero que tenga unidad. +l
uacional establecido y con una estructura organizacional
determinada. (Casany, 1!" #or otro lado, un texto es el resultado de un acto de comunicación cuya extensión y carácter dependen de
nción comunicativa& la voluntad de transmitir una información y una
e expresa l a tesis o idea principal, es decir
la ubicación contextual del tópico. ('ugar, tiempo, población, etc. que sirven de referencia al tema a desarrollar". 'a introducción sirve
cipal es proveer al lector de la información necesaria para
escrito, donde se ampl,a o explica la tesis o
+n el cuerpo pueden existir varios párraf os, todos
control ados por una i dea principal . *u f unci ón es dar a conocer en detall e el tema que dio ori gen al texto.
+s el resumen de los aspectos tratados en el desarrol l o. #or otra parte, tambi )n se
podr,a decir que l a concl usi ón es un con- unto de f rases que dan f in al traba- o escrito, donde se expone l as posturas
+n l os textos escritos l a i nformaci ón es presentada en párraf os o secci ones, esa presentaci ón va a depender
del propósi to comuni cati vo que el escritor quiera expresar, es deci r que el discurso puede estar organi zado en
dif erentes secuencias textuales tal es como& narración, descripción, instrucci ón y proceso (Casami gl ia y /usón, 0110".
+stos autores af irman que aunque un texto pueda ser homog)neo (estar escrito usando una sola secuenci a" muchos
otros muestran una vari edad de secuenci as y heterogenei dad. #or e-empl o, algunos textos pueden tener una secuencia
tipo predomina sobre otro en un texto (narraci ón sobre descripción" y tener tambi)n
2demás de el l o, dentro de estas secuenci as puede haber di ferentes subti pos que son
resada en l a secuenci a textual. #or e-empl o, hay
muchos tipos de textos narrati vos (novel as, histori as cortas, bibliograf, as, etc." i nstrucciones (recetas de cocina,
SECUENCIA NARRATIVA: su ob-etivo es contar, relatar uno o varios sucesos o eventos aconteci dos en
un marco temporal y espaci al . Conti enen una rese4a de un l ugar, momento, persona- e, etc. de la historia a ser
contada. +l desarroll o consiste en contar un evento, probl ema aconteci do o aspectos i mportantes de l a vi da del alg(n
h)roe, cient, fico, m)di co, etc. +l fi nal , com(nmente incluye el desenlace de l a hi storia y.o una morale- a acerca de la
mi sma. *e observa l a presencia de muchos verbos en pasado, para i ndi car progresi ón en l a acci ón el escri tor puede
usar adverbi os de ti empo y l ugar, tambi)n puede empl ear conectores de tiempo y orden. +sta secuencia puede estar
narrada por una primera o tercera persona y estar acompa4adas de l a descri pci ón como secuencia textual secundaria.
EJEMPLO:
Louis Pasteur 5as 5as 5as 5as a 6rench chemist and microbiologist 5ho 5as 5as 5as 5as
one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. 7e is remembered is remembered is remembered is remembered for
his remar8able brea8throughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. 7is
discoveries reduced reduced reduced reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created created created created the first vaccines
for rabies and anthrax. 7is experiments supported supported supported supported the germ theory of disease. 7e
5as 5as 5as 5as best 8no5n 8no5n 8no5n 8no5n to the general public for inventing a method to treat mil8 and
5ine in order to prevent it from causing sic8ness, a process that came came came came to be called
pasteurization. 7e is regarded is regarded is regarded is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology,
together 5ith 6erdinand Cohn and 9obert :och. 7e 5as born 5as born 5as born 5as born on ;ecember 0<,
1=00, in ;ole ;ole ;ole ;ole in the >ura region of 6rance 6rance 6rance 6rance, into the family of a poor tanner. 'ouis
gre5 up gre5 up gre5 up gre5 up in the to5n of 2rbois 2rbois 2rbois 2rbois. /his fact probably instilled instilled instilled instilled in the younger #asteur
the strong patriotism that later 5as 5as 5as 5as a defining element of his character. 'ouis
#asteur 5as 5as 5as 5as an average student in his early years early years early years early years, but he 5as gifted 5as gifted 5as gifted 5as gifted in dra5ing
and painting. 7is pastels and portraits of his parents and friends, made made made made 5hen 5hen 5hen 5hen he
5as 5as 5as 5as 1?, 5ere 5ere 5ere 5ere later 8ept 8ept 8ept 8ept in the museum of the #asteur @nstitute in #aris. 7e
earned earned earned earned his Aachelor of 2rts degree (1=!1" and Aachelor of *cience degree (1=!0" at the Bcole Cormale *up)rieure. 2fter 2fter 2fter 2fter serving briefly as
professor of physics at ;i-on 'yc)e in 1=!=, he became became became became professor of chemistry at the %niversity of *trasbourg, 5here 5here 5here 5here he met met met met and courted courted courted courted
3arie 'aurent, daughter of the universityDs rector, in 1=!. /hey 5ere married 5ere married 5ere married 5ere married on 3ay 0, 1=!, and together had had had had five children, only t5o
of 5hom survived survived survived survived to adulthood$ the other three died died died died of typhoid. /hese personal tragedies inspired inspired inspired inspired #asteur to try to find cures for
diseases such as typhoid.

SECUENCIA DESCRIPTIVA: su fi n primordi al es of recer i nf ormaci ón detal lada relaci onada con un
evento, ob-eto o persona. +n el l a se puede apreciar gran canti dad de ad- etivos, sustanti vos, frases preposici onal es y
adverbios de l ugar. +stán general mente escritos en ti empo presente, donde puede predominar el uso del verbo estativo
/E A+ (is o are". 'as caracter,sti cas que se descri ben en este tipo de secuenci a están rel acionadas con l a dimensi ón,
la forma, tama4o, peso, volumen col or y textura. #osibl emente, dentro de esta secuencia discursiva se pueden apreciar
comparación o contrastes.




EJEMPLO:
/he liver is is is is the second largest second largest second largest second largest organ in the human body (after the s8in" and the largest largest largest largest
gland (5eighing an average of 1?11g". @t lies lies lies lies in the right upper abdomen and midabdomen
and extends extends extends extends to the left upper abdomen. /he liver has has has has the general shape of a prism or
5edge, 5ith its base to the right and its apex to the left. @t is is is is pin8ish bro5n in color,
5ith a soft consistency, and is is is is highly vascular and easily friable.

+mbryologically, the liver gro5s gro5s gro5s gro5s as a diverticulum from the -unction of foregut and the
midgut into the ventral mesogastrium (the caudal part of the septum transversum$ the
cranial part forms the diaphragm". /he same diverticulum forms forms forms forms the gallbladder and bile
ducts as 5ell. /he ligamentum teres hepatis is is is is the obliterated umbilical vein$ the
ligamentum venosum is is is is the obliterated ductus venosus.

SECUENCIA DE INSTRUCCIÓN: *u meta es ofrecer una seri e de pasos presentados en orden para
ll evar a cabo una acti vidad. +stos pasos pueden i ndi car que hacer o no hacer, de manera directa o i ndi recta. Cuando
lo hacen de manera di recta, las i nstrucciones son presentadas en f orma de oraci ones separadas usando l a f orma
imperativa del verbo, vi 4etas o numeraciones. ;e f orma indirecta l os pasos son pl asmados en párrafos con un orden
natural, donde se usan verbos modales (can, may, shal l, must, etc.", la voz pasiva o una combinación de ambos. +n
este ti po de secuenci a hay presencia de marcadores discursi vos de orden y tiempo como& f irst, second, thi rd, bef ore,
after, then, l ater, finall y, etc., verbos en forma infini tiva y adverbi os de modo.
EJEMPLO:

HOW TO TAKE THE BLOOD PRESSURE

1. *it up or lie do5n 5ith the arm stretched out. /he arm should be level 5ith the heart.
0. #ut the cuff about 1 inch (0.? cm" above the elbo5. Frap the cuff snugly around the
arm. /he blood pressure reading may not be correct if the cuff is too loose.
G. #ut the earpieces in your ears.
!. %se your middle (long" and index (pointer" fingers, gently to feel the pulse in the bend
of the elbo5. /his is the brachial artery. Hou 5ill feel the pulse beating 5hen you find it. ;o
not use your thumb to feel for the pulse because your thumb has a pulse of its o5n.
?. #ut the diaphragm of the stethoscope over the brachial artery pulse. 'isten for the
heartbeat.

I. /ighten the scre5 on the bulb and quic8ly squeeze and pump the bulb. /his 5ill cause the cuff to tighten.
<. :eep squeezing the bulb until the scale on the gauge reads about 1I1. Er, until the gauge reads at least 11 points higher than
5hen you last hear the heartbeat.
=. *lo5ly loose the scre5 to let air escape from the cuff. 'et the gauge fall about ? points a second. Carefully loo8 at the gauge
and listen to the sounds. 9emember the number on the gauge 5here you first heard the thumping sound.
. Continue to listen and read the gauge at the point 5here the sound stops.
11. /he number of the first sound is the systolic (top number" pressure.
11. /he second number is the diastolic (bottom number" pressure.
10. Frite do5n your A#, the date, the time, and 5hich arm 5as used to ta8e the A#. 'et the air out of the cuff.

SECUENCIA DE PROCESO: se descri ben l os pasos de alg(n proceso, no en forma de instrucci ones, si no
describi endo l as f ases o etapa del mismo. +sta secuencia es una combinación de l as tres anteri ores (narración,
descripci ón e i nstrucci ón". +n el l a se util i za l a voz pasiva, l os modales, l a forma i mpersonal y el ti empo perf ecto.
/ambi)n, se puede observar l a presencia de marcadores discursivos de orden cronológico& fi rst, second, after, l ater,
etc. 'a organización del texto es totalmente secuenci al . #or (l timo, la acción no recae en l a persona o en l a acci ón
que esta reali za, si no en l as etapas del proceso en s,.

EJEMPLO:

2ngiography is usually performed at a hospital by a trained radiologist and assisting
technician or nurse. @t ta8es place in an xJray or fluoroscopy suite, and for most types of
angiograms, the patientKs vital signs 5ill be monitored throughout the procedure.
2ngiography requires the in-ection of a contrast dye that ma8es the blood vessels visible to
x ray. /he dye is in-ected through a procedure 8no5n as arterial puncture. /he puncture is
usually made in the groin area, armpit, inside elbo5, or nec8. /he site is cleaned 5ith an
antiseptic agent and in-ected 5ith a local anesthetic. 6irst, a small incision is made in the
s8in to help the needle pass.
2 needle containing an inner 5ire called a stylet is inserted through the s8in into the artery. Fhen the radiologist has punctured the
artery 5ith the needle, the stylet is removed and replaced 5ith another long 5ire called a guide 5ire. @t is normal for blood to spout
out of the needle before the guide 5ire is inserted.
/he guide 5ire is fed through the outer needle into the artery and to the area that requires angiographic study. 2 fluoroscopic screen
that displays a vie5 of the patientKs vascular system is used to pilot the 5ire to the correct location. Ence it is in position, the needle is
removed and a catheter is slid over the length of the guide 5ire until it to reaches the area of study. /he guide 5ire is removed and
the catheter is left in place in preparation.




Fragmento de Texto Fragmento de Texto Fragmento de Texto Fragmento de Texto Tipo Secuencia Tipo Secuencia Tipo Secuencia Tipo Secuencia
Water is poured into the displacement vessel until it overflows
through the pipe into the measuring jar. The level of water surface in the
measuring jar is read, and then the solid is lowered into the vessel until it is
completely covered by the water. Water is displaced and flows down the
pipe into the measuring jar, and the level of the water surface in the
measuring jar is read again. The volume of water displaced is equal to the
volume of the body.
( ) Secuencia Descriti!a
• Gently extend your neck while looking upward.
• ocate the !dam"s apple, which is the protruding piece of cartilage on the
mid#line of the neck. $f you cannot find your !dam"s apple, then locate
halfway between the jaw line and shoulder blade.
• %lace the fingers of both hands down two cartilage rings below the !dam"s
apple &about an inch downward' and along the sides of the windpipe. The
cartilage feels like a raised and hard ring under the skin.
• (wallow. Take a sip of water if need be. The thyroid should rise
underneath your fingers as you swallow. )ou should feel the over the entire
thyroid, noting any changes in consistency, si*e, nodules or tenderness. !
normal thyroid should be symmetrica. !n enlarged thyroid can often be
seen as well as felt. $f there are any inconsistencies that you are worried
about, consult your physician for a more detailed exam.
( ) Secuencia Narrati!a
The thyroid gland is a butterfly#shaped organ and is composed of two
cone#like lobes or wings, lobus dexter &right lobe' and lobus sinister&left lobe',
connected via the isthmus The organ is situated on the anterior side of the neck,
lying against and around the larynx and trachea, reaching posteriorly
the oesophagus and carotid sheath. $t starts cranially at the oblique line on
the thyroid cartilage &just below the laryngeal prominence, or "!dam"s !pple"',
and extends inferiorly to approximately the fifth or sixth tracheal ring. $t is
difficult to demarcate the gland"s upper and lower border with vertebral
levels because it moves position in relation to these during swallowing.
( ) Secuencia "e Proceso
Gregor Johann Mendel &+uly ,-, ./,, 0 +anuary 1, .//2' was a German#
speaking (ilesian

scientist and !ugustinian friar who gained posthumous fame
as the founder of the new science of genetics. 3endel demonstrated that the
inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now
referred to as the laws of 3endelian inheritance. The profound significance of
3endel"s work was not recogni*ed until the turn of the ,-th century, when the
independent rediscovery of these laws initiated the modern science of
genetics.
( ) Secuencia "e Instrucci#n

Lee "eteni"a$ente e% si&uiente te'to ( reson"e
1. LMu) secuencia textual es la predominante
0. ;e las caracter,sticas antes descritas de un e-emplo de cada una de ellas,
G. L+xiste una secuencia secundariaN L#or qu)N LMu) caracter,sticas de esta se presentanN ;e e-emplos
!. L#osee la estructura básica de un texto



2 gallstone is a solid crystal deposit that forms in the gallbladder, 5hich is a pear
are needed to help digest fatty foods. Oallstones can migrate to other parts of the digestive tract and cause severe
threatening complications.

Oallstones vary in size and chemical structure. 2 gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. +ig
percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. /hey are formed 5hen the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive -u
liquefy. /he remaining 01P of gallstones are composed of calcium and an orange
urine its characteristic color and sometimes causes

Oallstones are the most common of all gallbladder pr
and are the fifth most common reason for hospitalization of adults in the %nited *tates. Oallstones usually develop in adults
ages of 01 and ?1$ about 01P of patients 5i
01P of people over I1 have a single large stone or as many as several thousand smaller ones. /he gender ratio of gallstone pa
changes 5ith age. Houng 5omen are bet5een t5o and six times more li8ely to develop gallstones than men in the same age group. @n
patients over ?1, the condition affects men and 5omen 5ith equal frequency.

Cative 2mericans develop gallstones more often than any other segment of the populati
highest incidence of this disease.

Oallstones can cause several different disorders. Cholelithiasis is defined as the presence of gallstones 5ithin the gallblad
Choledocholithiasis is the presence of gallstones 5ithin the common bile duct that leads into the first portion of the small intestine (the
duodenum". /he stones in the duct may have been formed inside it or carried there from the gallbladder. /hese gallstones prev
from flo5ing into the duodenum. /en percent of patients 5ith gallstones have choledocholithiasis, 5hich is sometimes called common
stones. #atients 5ho donKt develop infection usually recover completely from this disorder


si&uiente te'to ( reson"e %as si&uientes re&untas:
es la predominante y por qu), qu) caracter,sticas poseeN
las caracter,sticas antes descritas de un e-emplo de cada una de ellas, extráigalos del texto.
L+xiste una secuencia secundariaN L#or qu)N LMu) caracter,sticas de esta se presentanN ;e e-emplos
la estructura básica de un texto, cuál o cuáles de las partes están presentesN
)ALLSTONES
2 gallstone is a solid crystal deposit that forms in the gallbladder, 5hich is a pearJshaped organ that stores bile salts until th
are needed to help digest fatty foods. Oallstones can migrate to other parts of the digestive tract and cause severe
Oallstones vary in size and chemical structure. 2 gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. +ig
percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. /hey are formed 5hen the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive -u
liquefy. /he remaining 01P of gallstones are composed of calcium and an orangeJyello5 5aste product called bilirubin. Ailirubin gives
urine its characteristic color and sometimes causes -aundice.
Oallstones are the most common of all gallbladder problems. /hey are responsible for 1P of gallbladder and bile duct disease,
and are the fifth most common reason for hospitalization of adults in the %nited *tates. Oallstones usually develop in adults
ages of 01 and ?1$ about 01P of patients 5ith gallstones are over !1. /he ris8 of developing gallstones increases 5ith age
01P of people over I1 have a single large stone or as many as several thousand smaller ones. /he gender ratio of gallstone pa
et5een t5o and six times more li8ely to develop gallstones than men in the same age group. @n
patients over ?1, the condition affects men and 5omen 5ith equal frequency.
Cative 2mericans develop gallstones more often than any other segment of the population$ 3exican
Oallstones can cause several different disorders. Cholelithiasis is defined as the presence of gallstones 5ithin the gallblad
ones 5ithin the common bile duct that leads into the first portion of the small intestine (the
duodenum". /he stones in the duct may have been formed inside it or carried there from the gallbladder. /hese gallstones prev
num. /en percent of patients 5ith gallstones have choledocholithiasis, 5hich is sometimes called common
stones. #atients 5ho donKt develop infection usually recover completely from this disorder.
%as si&uientes re&untas:
del texto.
L+xiste una secuencia secundariaN L#or qu)N LMu) caracter,sticas de esta se presentanN ;e e-emplos extra,dos del texto.
shaped organ that stores bile salts until they
are needed to help digest fatty foods. Oallstones can migrate to other parts of the digestive tract and cause severe pain 5ith lifeJ
Oallstones vary in size and chemical structure. 2 gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. +ighty
percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. /hey are formed 5hen the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive -uices can
yello5 5aste product called bilirubin. Ailirubin gives
oblems. /hey are responsible for 1P of gallbladder and bile duct disease,
and are the fifth most common reason for hospitalization of adults in the %nited *tates. Oallstones usually develop in adults bet5een the
th gallstones are over !1. /he ris8 of developing gallstones increases 5ith ageQat least
01P of people over I1 have a single large stone or as many as several thousand smaller ones. /he gender ratio of gallstone patients
et5een t5o and six times more li8ely to develop gallstones than men in the same age group. @n
on$ 3exicanJ2mericans have the secondJ
Oallstones can cause several different disorders. Cholelithiasis is defined as the presence of gallstones 5ithin the gallbladder itself.
ones 5ithin the common bile duct that leads into the first portion of the small intestine (the
duodenum". /he stones in the duct may have been formed inside it or carried there from the gallbladder. /hese gallstones prevent bile
num. /en percent of patients 5ith gallstones have choledocholithiasis, 5hich is sometimes called commonJduct