ASSIGNMENT

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Topic: BMW 318i
Submitt! b"#
S$%I$A%I&P
13MAE1'
Emb!!! S"(tm( i)*o+*! i) BMW:
E),i) S"(tm:
Pt-o+ ),i)( BMW 318i:
The improvements are evolutionary as
each one of the three technologies has
been developed further. What is
revolutionary however is how they
compliment one another. In the BMW
TwinPower Turbo in the BMW 335i
they are combined in one complete
pacage. The result! ""5 W #3$% hp&'
($$ )m across a wide speed range and
sily smoothness. *nd all this at a fuel
consumption level of +ust ,., l-.$$
m.
The straight si/0cylinder petrol engines in the 3"5i and 33$i boast a ma/imum power output of .%$ or
"$$ W #".,-"1" hp&. The 3"5i completes the 2ero0to0.$$ m-h sprint in +ust 1.% seconds' and the 33$i
taes a mere %.5 seconds. Both models are characterised by refined power development plus e/cellent
fuelefficiency.
With their lightweight aluminium construction' the four0cylinder petrol engines of the BMW 3.,i and
3"$i go about their wor with astonishing efficiency. Impressive engine performances of .$5 W #.(3
hp& and ."5 W #.1$ hp&' respectively' ensure ample forward thrust' while direct petrol in+ection and
valve control with twin 3anos eep average fuel consumption low. The BMW 3"$i manages on %., litres
per .$$ ilometres and the BMW 3.,i only needs %.% litres.
4nlie other convertibles' the sporty attitude and impressive numbers of the 3 5eries 6onvertible mae it
a true performance standout. * 3$$0hp twin0turbo 3.$0liter engine with pie2o direct in+ection and 3$$ lb0ft
of tor7ue rocets the 335i 6onvertible from $0%$ in an astonishing 5.5 seconds.
The 3",i uses a 3alvetronic aluminum-magnesium 3.$0liter powerplant' which produces an e/hilarating
"3$ horsepower and "$$ lb0ft of tor7ue. Both engines are also as fuel0efficient as they are potent.
Power is now harnessed by a choice of %0speed transmissions! standard manual' or the optional
5T8PT9:)I6 automatic.
When e7uipped with the optional 5port Pacage and automatic transmission' the 335i;s optional paddle
shifters" mae every drive a <ormula .0inspired event.
.u+ co)(umptio) / CO0 mi((io)(
<uel consumption
6ombined! 5.. to ,.,l-.$$ m
4rban! %.3 to .".(l-.$$ m
8/tra0urban! (.( to %.1l-.$$ m
6ombined 6:" emissions! .35 to "$5 g-
G1-i), S"(tm:
D-i*i), C1p1cit":
BMW wasn;t about to throw away its hard0advertised =ultimate driving machine; reputation by maing
the 305eries 6onvertible softer than an Italian penalty appeal. It is' however' carrying more weight than an
e7uivalent coupe > around two adults; worth > the result of chassis strengthening and all the widgets
needed to mae the three0piece roof fold. Thus' BMW;s traditionally unyielding suspension has been
slacened. The result! a silier BMW with very little dynamic compromise. It;s very nearly as shae free
and sharp steering as the other 305eries models > which means it;s the most engaging e/ecutive
convertible to drive.
BMW has evidently wored hard on wind flutter' too > eeping it away' that is. :f the myriad engines'
only the 3"$i and 3"5i petrols are lacing pace' and even though the thought of a four0cylinder diesel
convertible is depressing' get over yourself! the 3"$d has more than enough 7uiet strength for the +ob.
:bviously the si/0cylinder cars are preferable > especially the 33$d' which is brutally 7uic even with the
si/0speed auto option ticed.
D")1mic St1bi+it" Co)t-o+&
<or greater safety and for greater driving pleasure! ?ynamic 5tability 6ontrol #?56&' an electronic
chassis control system' is a standard feature on the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible.
?ynamic 5tability 6ontrol constantly monitors the behaviour of the chassis and wheels. When it detects
the threat of traction loss' it reduces drive power and applies precisely0measured braing pressure to
individual wheels. 5idding is prevented before it can start' as within milliseconds' the BMW 3 5eries
6onvertible is stabilised. *t the touch of a button' ?ynamic Traction 6ontrol can also be activated for
e/tra traction and more surefooted progress on difficult surfaces.
The si/0cylinder models of the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible offer four additional ?56 functions!
..Brae stand0by for reduced stopping distances in an emergency.
".Brae drying for improved brae response in wet conditions.
3.@ill0start assistant for worry0free hill starts without rolling bacwards.
(. <ading compensation for consistent braing even when the braes have heated up.
D")1mic T-1ctio) Co)t-o+&
When driving on loose gravel or snow' activating ?ynamic Traction 6ontrol #?T6& increases traction by
improving tolerance for wheel slip' thus enabling the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible to gain better traction.
If the front wheels are stuc in snow and cannot spin properly' this leads to slip on the rear wheels and
?56 acts to change engine output! the power needed for forward movement is reduced. 5witching to
?T6 has a positive effect on this situation' as traction is improved without a loss of power. ?T6 allows
you to drive at the limits without fear of e/ceeding them. It increases wheel slip on the drive wheels in
order to ensure optimum traction on any surface. This allows the behaviour of the BMW 3 5eries
6onvertible to be controlled entirely by the driver' with the ?56 system taing a bac seat. ?rivers who
appreciate a more sporting driving style can activate ?T6 to allow for controlled wheel sid' or AdriftA.
L1t2- Spo-t (t-i), 32+&
The leather 5port steering wheel fits snugly in your hands to provide a firmer' sportier grip. The gearshift
paddles fitted directly on the steering wheel heighten the sports driving e/perience while the integrated
multifunction buttons can be used to operate the radio' music or telephone. The shift lever nob and
handbrae lever handle are also leather providing precise control and a comfortable grip.
S*)4(p! (po-t 1utom1tic t-1)(mi((io) 3it2 !oub+ c+utc2&
This innovative transmission #optionally available for the BMW 6onvertible& has two separate clutches
for the odd and even gears. When one gear is disengaged' the e/t one is already engaged > minimising
shift times' and ma/imising precision.5o you can accelerate without any interruption of power' +ust lie in
a sports car.
Si54(p! m1)u1+ t-1)(mi((io)
for a very sporty drive. 5mooth' with perfect ratios and precise' short0throw gearshifts. The reduced
spacing of gear ratios means that you can mae even more individual use of the engine;s
power.

S*)4(p! (po-t 1utom1tic t-1)(mi((io) 3it2 !oub+ c+utc2 and gearshift paddles on the steering
wheel for e/ceptionally fast gear changes without interruption of power' ensuring
top dynamic performance and optimi2ed fuel efficiency.
Acc+-1tio) i)!i*i!u1+ ("(tm(:
*n electronic control unit saves the speed at which you are travelling at the moment you activate the
system' and holds it constant by continually comparing this saved speed with the actual vehicle velocity.
3ariations are corrected by ad+usting engine power output. This allows you to maintain speeds between
appro/. 3$ m-h and ".$ m-h without the need for corrective measures. The advantages are the driver is
less distracted and can concentrate fully on the traffic. It also gives him the possibility of rela/ing on
long stretches and taing his foot off the accelerator.

Sp! co)t-o+:
?epending on the model of your BMW' the system is operated by an easy0to0use lever mounted on the
steering column' or by buttons on the multifunction steering wheel. To deactivate cruise control' simply
touch the braes or press the I-: button. Pressing the =9esume; button #resume speed& will automatically
reinstate the previously saved speed.
?ynamic cruise control is an electronic cruise control system with an e/tra braing function. This also
includes the 6urve 5peed Bimiter that reduces the speed in curves for comfortable lateral acceleration. *t
the end of the curve the car accelerates and resumes the original speed. The driver can change this in
increments of . or .$ m-h. *cceleration and deceleration in two dynamic settings can be controlled by
manipulating the lever on the steering column or the paddle on the steering wheel #6omfort ?ynamic
system&.
*ctive cruise control provides an even more comfortable driving e/perience. )ot only does it maintain
the desired speed' it also eeps the selected following distance. * radar sensor with a range of up to "$$ m
continually measures the distance between your vehicle and the cars in front of it. The sensor also detects
if these vehicles are in the same lane as your vehicle or in another.
Com6o-t Acc((# i)c+u!i), 5t-io- !oo- 21)!+ i++umi)1tio)&
This system allows you to unloc' loc and start your BMW without inserting the ey. *ll you need is the
remote control' which transmits an identification signal to the car' in your pocet. 5imply touch the door
handle or boot lid and the BMW unlocs or locs as re7uired. 5imilarly' a touch of the 5tart-5top button
is all it taes to start the engine.
Acti* C-ui( Co)t-o+&
This option enables comfortable driving at a pre0selected speed. When driving in columns of
traffi c' your BMW automatically adapts to the speed of the preceding vehicle and uses its radar sensor to
maintain a pre0set distance. The braing function ensures that the desired speed is maintained even when
travelling downhill #not for four0cylinder models&.
Com6o-t Acc(( ("(tm:
Vicinity lighting integrated into the e/terior door handles. 8nables opening' starting and locing
your BMW without a ey. Cou only need to have the remote control on you' e.g. in your +acet pocet.
Touching the e/terior door handles or the tailgate establishes a radio connection between the vehicle and
the remote control unit' and the central locing opens the car upon successful verification of identity. In
addition' the engine can be started without the need for a ey' using the 5tart-5top button. The comfort
access system also allows you to close the hardtop from outside' via remote control.
Si54(p! 1utom1tic t-1)(mi((io):
*daptive Transmission Management #*TM& to ad+ust to the driver;s re7uirements. The best
possible gear is selected according to the driving situation and the driver;s acceleration and braing
behaviour. The D5E sport mode allows for a sporty driving style. Fears can be selected manually via
5teptronic by moving the selector lever bacwards or forwards > without having to press a clutch pedal .

S*)4(p! (po-t 1utom1tic t-1)(mi((io) 3it2 !oub+ c+utc2:
(((Fearshift paddles on the steering wheel for e/ceptionally fast gear changes without
interruption of power' ensuring top dynamic performance and optimi2ed fuel efficiency .
C)t-1+ (3itc2:
*utomatic opening and closing of the retractable hardtop' including the windows. It taes about
seconds for the roof to open.
Spci6ic App+ic1tio)(:
BMW App( 3it2 BMW Co))ct!:
Well connected! now you no longer have to do without apps on your iPhone while on the road. 5imply
connect your iPhone to your BMW using the snap0in adapter or the original *pple connector cable and
you can comfortably operate individual apps with the i?rive 6ontroller.
DBMW 6onnectedE is a free app developed by BMW that brings <aceboo' Twitter or your favourite
web radio station in a clear overview to the main vehicle display in the cocpit. In addition' with the
Bast )avigation function and the 3ehicle <inder you can reach the destinations set in the navigation
system of your BMW even when you are outside of your vehicle as well as find your way bac to your
vehicle at any time. <unctions available through the BMW 6onnected app are updated on a regular
basis' and' of course' you can use apps certified by BMW in the future via BMW 6onnected?rive in the
vehicle. Fet ready for the ne/t generation of mobile communication and mobile entertainment! with
your iPhone and BMW 6onnected?rive.
BMW *pps is compatible with iPhone F53-( and iPod Touch #with an active Wi0<i connection& devices
and re7uires the optional e7uipment D*ppsE.
%o++4o*- b1-(&
The BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible offers a highly elegant solution to roll0over protection. The roll0over bars
concealed in the rear seats ensure sufficient clearance for passengersG heads in the event of an accident.
They are triggered within milliseconds if the highly responsive sensors detect a critical situation.
%t-1ct1b+ 21-!top&
@ere comes the sun! the retractable hardtop disappears in +ust "3 seconds. The optimally designed
windbloc leaves the driver and passenger plenty of freedom to en+oy a pure and e/hilarating open0air
e/perience. *nd the hardtop closes +ust as 7uicly as the weather can change.
D(i,):
The basis for every day! a long wheelbase' elongated bonnet and wide double idney. With the roof
closed' the curved' coupH0style roof lines never fail to impress. With the roof open it is the flat rear and
short windbloc that impart the uni7ue feeling of sitting directly under an open sy.
I)*i(ib+ 1)t))1&
<ollow the contours of the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible from the elongated bonnet across the coupH0lie
roof line down to the powerful rear' and what you see is a striing e/pression of powerful athleticism
and elegance. *nd thans to the invisible antenna for the radio' navigation and phone networ the
smooth contours can be en+oyed without a single interruption.
G+ob1+ Po(itio)i), S"(tm:
BMW may continuously broadcasts a navigation message on B. 6-* and B" P-C fre7uencies at a
rate of 5$ bits per second #see bitrate&. 8ach complete message taes 15$ seconds #." .-" minutes& to
complete. The message structure has a basic format of a .5$$0bit0long frame made up of five subframes'
each subframe being 3$$ bits #% seconds& long. 5ubframes ( and 5 are subcommutated "5 times each' so
that a complete data message re7uires the transmission of "5 full frames. 8ach subframe consists of ten
words' each 3$ bits long. Thus' with 3$$ bits in a subframe times 5 subframes in a frame times "5 frames
in a message' each message is 31'5$$ bits long. *t a transmission rate of 5$ bit-s' this gives 15$ seconds
to transmit an entire almanac message #FP5&. 8ach 3$0second frame begins precisely on the minute or
half0minute as indicated by the atomic cloc on each satellite.
I,5J
The first subframe of each frame encodes the wee number and the time within the wee'
I,%J
as well as the
data about the health of the satellite. The second and the third subframes contain the ephemeris > the
precise orbit for the satellite. The fourth and fifth subframes contain the almanac' which contains coarse
orbit and status information for up to 3" satellites in the constellation as well as data related to error
correction. Thus' in order to obtain an accurate satellite location from this transmitted message the
receiver must demodulate the message from each satellite it includes in its solution for ., to 3$ seconds.
In order to collect all the transmitted almanacs the receiver must demodulate the message for 13" to 15$
seconds or ." .-" minutes.
I,1J
*ll satellites broadcast at the same fre7uencies. 5ignals are encoded using code division multiple
access #6?M*& allowing messages from individual satellites to be distinguished from each other based
on uni7ue encodings for each satellite.
BMW I)!i*i!u1+&
*llow your BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible to develop its own individual character by adapting it to meet
your personal needs. *s you create a style that is uni7ue as you are you;ll appreciate even more all of
the 7ualities that are hard to perceive at first sight! the e/ceptional' the rare' the truly individual.
8/clusivity that is reflected in every detail.
*s well as in the uni7ue BMW Individual paint finishes. Their captivating changing effects create a
fascinating and e/clusive interplay of colours that mae the BMW Individual paint finishes
unmistaable including the BMW Individual paint finish 9uby Blac metallic. The composition of the
countless ruby pigments allows the anthracite0coloured surface to lend the vehicle an unmistaable red0
gold luminance that fails to go unnoticed on any road.
.u+ co)(umptio)
4rban in l-.$$ m 1.1 I,."J
8/tra0urban in l-.$$
m
5." I5.(J
6ombined in l-.$$ m %.. I%.(J
6:" emissions in g-m .%" I.1$J
Tan capacity' appro/.
in l
%.
P-6o-m1)c
Top speed in m-h "5$ I"5$J
*cceleration $>.$$
m-h in s
%.( I%.5J
*cceleration ,$>."$
m-h in (th-5th gear in
s
5."-%.%
Wi,2t
4nladen weight 84
in g
.',"5 I.',($J
4nladen weight 84
in g
"'.,$ I"'.K5J
Permitted load in g (3$
Permitted a/le load
front-rear in g
.'$$5-.'"$$
E),i)
6ylinders-valves %-(
6apacity in ccm "'KK3
5troe-bore in mm K$.$-,(.$
Ma/. output in W #hp& at
.-min
.,$ #"(5&-('$$$
Ma/. tor7ue in )m at
.-min
5"$-.'15$03'$$$
6ompression ratio ! . .%.5
W2+(
Tyre dimensions front ""5-(5 9.1 C
Tyre dimensions rear "55-($ 9.1 3
Wheel dimensions and
material front
, L / .1 inches' light0
alloy
Wheel dimensions and
material rear
, .-" L / .1 inches'
light0alloy
LED +i,2t !(i,)&
Freat perspectives and even better views! the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible captivates at night with its
standard bi0/enon headlights with low as high beam and well as during the day with its daytime running
lights. 8nergy is saved too thans to the use of B8? technology.
With dynamic headlight range control and *daptive @eadlights' which now include city and motorway
lights' the /enon *daptive @eadlights always provide optimum illumination. The sun definitely doesnGt
have to be out for the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible to show off its uni7ue character.
The B8? corona ring daytime running lights' the accent lights above the headlights as well as the side
lights combine elegant style with outstanding function to mae the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible uni7uely
distinguishable at first sight. The tail and brae lights in B8? technology also ensure it cuts an
impressive figure from the rear.
8very aspect of the BMW 3 5eries 6onvertible design is an e/pression of first0class functionality.
C21((i( S"(tm:
6hassis means the frame plus the Arunning gearA lie engine' transmission'driveshaft'differential'
and suspension.
* body #sometimes referred to as AcoachworA&' which is usually not necessary for integrity of the
structure' is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle.
<or commercial vehicles a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truc
#without the body& to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a pleasure car chassis will be
different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant wor use.
6ommercial vehicle manufacturers sell Dchassis onlyE' Dcowl and chassisE' as well as Achassis cabA
versions that can be outfitted with speciali2ed bodies. These include motor homes' fire
engines' ambulances' bo/ trucs' etc.
*n armoured fighting vehicleGs hull serves as the chassis and comprises the bottom part of the *<3 that
includes the tracs' engine' driverGs seat' and crew compartment. This describes the lower hull' although
common usage might include the upper hull to mean the *<3 without the turret. The hull serves as a
basis for platforms on tans'armoured personnel carriers' combat engineering vehicles' etc.
Co)c+u(io):
The *sia Pacific region is becoming increasingly crucial to global automotive sales. *lthough it
has been overshadowed by 6hinaGs rapid growth in recent years' emerging marets is set for steady
growth where BMW is already there but needs to concentrate more and needs to adaptive mareting
strategies to get success out there.
These marets are going to be huge as there is more population in these countries as in
comparison to 45 and 4M maret. In addition' BMW needs to come with few more BMW <ilms
interactive mareting campaigns' the 7uotN 4ltimate ?riving Machine 7uotN. *s it is had very successful
and showed good promise in it for the selling point.
These inds of advertising are creating very good brand value for the company and company
portrayed itself how they want to be in front of customers. To conclude this BMW wants to double its
sales in ne/t 305 years then company need to continue its investment in 9O? and innovate as that;s the
strength of the company it en+oys competitive edge over the competitors.