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Maths Methods (CAS

)
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This publication is independently produced for students of VCE. Although material may have been reproduced with the permission of the VCAA, the publication
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to other persons without the prior written consent of Neap.
Copyright © Neap 2012 VEMM12.FM
MATHEMATICAL METHODS (CAS)
COURSEWORK & EXAM PREPARATION
VCE & CAREERS EXPO 2012
Preparation for VCE Units 3&4
Mathematical Methods (CAS)
• Venue: Caulfield Racecourse
• Date: Sunday 6 May
• Time: 1:30 pm – 2:15 pm
• Lecturer: Ms Natalie Caruso

Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 1
Contents
Section 1: A brief look at school-assessed coursework . . . . . 2
1.1 Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 How you will be assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 2: Neap programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Section 2:The value of Neap programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Section 3: Functions and graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1 What you should know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2 What you will need to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3 Basic graph work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4 Introduction to quartics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5 Basic trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.6 Trigonometric graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.7 Logarithmic and exponential functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.8 Applications of exponential and logarithmic functions . . . . . . . . . 25
3.9 CAS calculators - an essential tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.10So what will happen this year?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.11School-assessed coursework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.12Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section 4: Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.1 What you should know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.2 What you will need to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Section 5: Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.1 What you should know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.2 What you will need to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Section 6: Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1 What you should know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.2 What you will need to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
2 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Section 1: A brief look at school-assessed
coursework
1.1 Unit 3
1. A functions and calculus application task. This will contain several components of increasing complexity.
Time period: Approximately 400 minutes.
Marks allocated: 40
2. Test No. 1. (10 marks)
3. Test No. 2. (10 marks)
4. Total = 60 marks
1.2 Unit 4
1. ANALYSIS TASK 1
This will be completed mainly in class. It is to be of two to four hours duration, over one to two days.
Marks allocated: 20
2. ANALYSIS TASK 2
This is the same time as for Task 1, except that it will be on the area of study ‘Statistics and Probability’.
Marks allocated: 20
Note: Task 1 and Task 2 will be different styles of tasks.
Total = 40 marks
1.3 Outcomes
Each assessment task is based on three outcomes:
1. Explaining and defining concepts that are specified in the content listed for each area of study as well
as applying routine mathematical procedures.
2. Applying mathematical procedures to non-routine problems and discussing these mathematical
procedures.
3. Selecting and using appropriate technology to develop ideas, produce results and analyse situations
requiring problem solving or mathematical modelling.
Section 1: A brief look at school-assessed coursework
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 3
The assessment program will be developed according to the following weightings.
Unit 3
Unit 4
1.4 How you will be assessed
1. Satisfactory completion i.e. S or N.
You need to display a satisfactory ability to apply the outcomes to the content specified in each unit.
If you complete the set exercises and all assessment tasks you are most likely to gain an S.
2. Level of achievement
Your ultimate study score for Maths Methods will be determined by your grades in each of:
• School assessed course work
> Unit 3: 20%
> Unit 4: 14%
• Exam 1 (technology free): 22%
• Exam 2 (multiple choice and extended answer): 44%
Unit Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Outcome 3 Total
3 30 20 10 60
4 15 15 10 40
Total 45 35 20 100
Applications Task (40 marks) Tests (20 marks)
Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Outcome 3 Outcome 1 Outcome 3
15 20 5 15 5
Analysis Task 1 (20 marks) Analysis Task 2 (20 marks)
Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Outcome 3 Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Outcome 3
7 8 5 8 7 5
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Section 2: Neap programs
11-Session Intensive Programs
Semester 1 – March 14 – June 3 2012
11 × 2-hour small group sessions covering Unit 3 topics and preparation for the mid-year exam for Biology,
Chemistry or Physics.
Semester 2 – August 1 – October 10 2012
11 × 2-hour small group sessions covering Unit 4 topics and preparation for the end-of-year exam for
Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Maths Methods (CAS) and Specialist Maths.
6-Session Intensive Programs
Semester 1 – Commencing 18 April 2012
Small group sessions for students who need help in, or want to consolidate, specific topics in Maths Methods
(CAS) and Specialist Maths.
Final Revision for Mid-Year Exams
May 29 and June 5 2012
4 or 5-hour lectures covering Unit 3 topics and final preparation for the mid-year exam for Accounting,
Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Psychology.
Winter School
July 2–6 2012
6 hour lectures giving students a head start on Unit 4 topics and concepts. Subjects include Biology,
Chemistry, English, Maths Methods, Psychology and Physics.
September Holiday Programs for End-of-Year Exams
September 24–30 2012
Lectures covering entire Unit 4 or Units 3&4 courses in preparation for the end of year exams. Subjects
offered include: English, Accounting, Legal Studies, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Psychology, Maths
Methods (CAS) and Specialist Maths.
Final Revision for End-of-Year Exams
October 13, 14, 20 and 21 2012
A 4-hour lecture covering Unit 4 topics and final preparation for the end-of-year exam for English,
Accounting, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Maths Methods (CAS).
Summer School
Mid January 2013
Lectures giving students a head start on Year 12 topics and concepts.
The value of Neap programs
Neap lectures provide opportunities for students to revise all examinable work, incorporating exam-style
questions with fully-worked solutions. Logically sequenced, comprehensive lecture/study notes and summaries
are provided to accompany each program or lecture. Exam techniques and hints are included in the notes.
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 5
Section 3: Functions and graphs
3.1 What you should know
Unit 1
• use and interpretation of graphs to express relationships;
• sketch graphs of straight lines, quadratics and cubics (including the use of simple transformations);
• domain and range of functions of a real variable;
• using a sliding vertical line as a test for a function; and
• recognition that circles of the form are not functions.
Unit 2
Circular functions
• application of trigonometric ratios to right-angled triangles;
• exact values of sin and cos of 30°, 45° and 60°;
• definition of a radian and conversion between radians and degrees;
• unit circle;
• defining sine, cosine and tangent;
• showing that and that , ;
• special values; for example, ;
• symmetry properties: ;
• exact values of sin and cos of integer multiples of and ;
• graphs of trigonometric functions of the form , , for cases of a and b, and
the graph of ;
• applications of trigonometric functions such as tidal heights and temperature changes;
• recognition and interpretation of period and amplitude;
• solution of simple equations of the form , where f is sin, cos, or tan, on a domain, by graphical
methods or by using a CAS calculator;
• sketching graphs of and , and solving indicial equations related to graphs by CAS
calculator or by graphical methods;
• sketching the graph of using CAS calculator generated values and relating graph to that
of ; informal discussion of their inverse relationship; and
• mathematical modelling using exponential functions.
x h – ( )
2
y k – ( )
2
+ r
2
=
x ( ) sin
2
x ( ) cos
2
+ 1 = 1 – x ( ) 1 ≤ cos ≤ 1 – x ( ) 1 ≤ sin ≤
0 ( ) sin 0, = π ( ) cos 1 – =
π x ± ( ) sin π x ± ( ) cos 2π x ± ( ) sin 2π x ± ( ) cos , , ,
π
6
---
π
4
---
y a bx ( ) sin = y a bx ( ) cos =
y a x ( ) tan =
f x ( ) B =
y 10
x
= y 2
x
=
y x ( )
10
log =
y 10
x
=
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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3.2 What you will need to learn
Units 3 & 4
• graphs of polynomials to degree 4 in factorised form;
• graphs of the form where a, b is an element of z. This includes graphs of the form ,
and , for example, including key features such as asymptotes and axes intercepts;
• graphs of the form and (where ) including key features such as
asymptotes and axes intercepts;
• transformations of functions (reflections, dilations and translations), addition of ordinates, products of
functions and modulus functions (graphs with oblique asymptotes are excluded);
• graphs of inverse functions and relations; and
• mathematical modelling of all these functions.
Trigonometric functions
• reflections, dilations and translations of graphs of trigonometric functions;
• solution of trigonometric equations excluding those involving horizontal translations; and
• recognition that equations of the form can be solved as .
Note: For more detail on assessable dot points refer to the VCAA’s “Mathematics Victorian Certificate of
Education Study Design” 2010 page 153 (Area of Study 1. Functions and graphs). www.vcaa.vic.edu.au
y x
a
b
---
= y x
1 –
=
y x
2 –
= y x
1
2
---
= y x
3
2
---
=
y a
x
= y log
a
x ( ) = a 2 10 e , , =
kx ( ) sin a kx ( ) cos = kx ( ) tan a =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 7
3.3 Basic graph work
What you should know:
• use and interpretation of graphs to express relationships;
• sketch graphs of straight lines, quadratics and cubics (including the use of simple transformations);
• domain and range of functions of a real variable;
• using a sliding vertical line as a test for a function; and
• recognition that circles of the form are not functions.
We use graphs to represent many physical relationships:
This graph represents the cost of different amounts of petrol bought from a service station. It is a straight line
and the relationship is said to be linear. Such relationships have the general equation . You should
be able to both draw the graph of a given equation and, given the graph, find the equation.
This graph represents the way in which the surface area of a sphere increases as the radius increases. This is
known as a quadratic relationship and the graph is a parabola. In the present case, the formula is:
The general form of quadratic relationships is:
x h – ( )
2
y k – ( )
2
+ r
2
=
Amount of petrol bought
C
o
s
t
y mx c + =
Radius
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
r
e
a
A 4πr
2
=
y ax
2
bx c + + =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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The next example is of a cubic relationship:
The graph shows the relationship between the volume and radius of a sphere.
In this case the formula is .
Not all useful graphs have neat mathematical equations. You should be able to interpret how the dependent
variable is changing given any graph.
Out of convenience, we categorise relationships that pass the ‘vertical ruler test’ (a vertical ruler cuts the
graph in at most one point) as functions.
Functions:
Relations that fail the test are classified as relations but not functions.
Radius
V
o
l
u
m
e
V
4
3
---πr
3
=
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 9
Domain and range
The horizontal extent of a graph is known as its domain and the vertical extent as the range:
You should recognise that the graph and the domain may be given to you in algebraic form:
has domain [0, 1] and range [–1, 1] (look at the graph!).
It is most important that you be able to find the implied domain when the rule for a function is given.
Example 1
Find the implied domain for .
Solution to Example 1
We require the function under the square root to be positive or zero.
Consider the graph of .
Inspecting the graph shows that whenever or . This is the required domain for y.
It can be written as ( , ∪ .
Domain
R
a
n
g
e
y 2x 1……0 x 1 ≤ ≤ – =
y x
2
4 – =
f x ( ) x
2
4 – =
2 – 2 x
y
f x ( ) 0 ≥ x 2 – ≤ x 2 ≥
∞ – 2] – [2,∞)
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Exercises
Question 1
Find the implied domain in each of the following. See if you can state the range of each.
a.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
c.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
d.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

y x
2
2x 3 – + =
y
3
2x 5 + ( )
2
---------------------- 6 – =
y
2 –
x 4 +
---------------- =
y
1
4x
2
1 +
----------------- =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 11
Finally in this section, we will discuss the effects of transformations on the shapes of graphs. We will work
with the basic parabola, though the same effects apply to much more complex shapes.
The first example is a set of horizontal transformations:
While the distance of the horizontal transformation may be obvious, the direction is not and needs to be
handled with care.
Vertical transformations are rather more obvious:
Another common transformation is the dilation. The next set of examples illustrate the effect of changing the
parameter A in
As A gets larger, the graph gets taller. These transformations can be confirmed with your CAS calculator.
-2 -4 -4
5
10
15 15
2 44
5
10
15 15
2 44
5
10
15 15
y x
2
=
y x 1 – ( )
2
=
y x 2 + ( )
2
=
y
x
y
x
y
x
22 -2 -2
5
10
15 15
22 -2 -2
5
10 10
-5 -5
y x
2
5 – =
y x
2
5 + =
y
x
y
x
22 -2 -2
5
10
15 15
y x
2
=
y
x
y Ax
2
=
22 -2 -2
5
10
15 15
22 -2 -2
5
10
15 15
y 4x
2
=
y
x
2
2
----- =
22 -2 -2
5
10
15 15
y x
2
=
y
x
y
x
y
x
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Example 2
Let , where D is the largest subset of R for which f is defined.
a. Express in the form .
b. State D.
c. The graph of f is translated 2 units to the left and 1 unit up. Write down the new equation for .
d. The graph of f is reflected in the y-axis and then dilated by a factor of 2 away from the x-axis.
Write down the new equation for .
Solution to Example 2
f : D R → f x ( )
2x
x 1 +
------------ =
f x ( ) f x ( )
A
x B +
------------ C + =
f x ( )
f x ( )
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 13
Example 3
The diagram below shows a sketch of the part of the graph of for .
The line x = 2a is a line of symmetry of the graph.
On each of the axes below, sketch the graphs of
a. ,
b. ,
c. ,
d. ,
Solution to Example 3
We will complete this during the lecture.
a. b.
c. d.
y f x ( ) = 0 x 2a ≤ ≤
y
a
2a
x
b
y f x ( ) = 0 x 4a ≤ ≤
y f x a – ( ) – = a x 5a ≤ ≤
y 2f x ( ) b – = 0 x 4a ≤ ≤
y f 2x ( ) = 0 x 2a ≤ ≤
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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3.4 Introduction to quartics
A polynomial of degree 4 is a quartic, i.e. f(x) = ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e.
The simplest type arises when b, c, d, e are all zero. Consider .
It is concave in shape, like a parabola.
The previous transformations shown for a parabola apply similarly here. Thus, functions of the type
f(x) = a(x–h)
4
+ k will have the shape for a > 0 and for a < 0 with a turning point
at (h, k).
Example 4
Sketch the graph of f(x) = 16 – (x + 1)
4
showing all relevant points.
Solution to Example 4
Turning point at (–1, 16). a < 0 so the turning point is a maximum.
So x = –3 or 1.
f x ( ) x
4
=
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
(–1, 0)
x
y
y intercept: f 0 ( ) 16 1
4
– 15 = =
x intercept: x 1 + ( )
4
16 =
x 1 + 16
4
± =
x 1 + 2 ± =
x 1 – 2 ± =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 15
The graph can now be sketched.
Notice the method is almost the same as for sketching y = 16 – (x + 1)
2
.
Quartics with 4 linear factors have the shape
Example 5
Sketch the graph of f(x) = (x
2
– 5x – 6)(x
2
– 2x + 1)
Solution to Example 5
Notice that f(x) can be factorised to f(x) = (x – 6)(x + 1)(x – 1)
2
.
f(0) = –6 × 1 × 1 = –6, giving the y intercept.
f(x) = 0 ¬ x = 6, –1, 1
Provided the coordinates of stationary points are not required, we can readily sketch the graph.
y
x
(1, 0)
(–1, 16)
(0, 15)
(–3, 0)
or
for a > 0 for a < 0
x
y
(6, 0)
(1, 0) (–1, 0)
(0, –6)
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Your CAS calculator could be used to determine the coordinates of each local minimum. Clearly, the local
maximum at x = 1 has y = 0 as we have a repeated factor of (x – 1) in our expression.
Minima occur at (–0.378, –7.533) and (4.6, –1E+2). Then confirm with CAS.
3.5 Basic trigonometry
What you should know:
• application of trigonometric ratios to right-angled triangles;
• exact values of sin and cos of 30°, 45° and 60°;
• definition of a radian and conversion between radians and degrees;
• unit circle;
• defining sine, cosine and tangent;
• showing that and that , ;
• special values; for example, , ; and
• exact values of sin and cos of integer multiples of and .
Mostly, this is a revision of middle school work (using trigonometry in right-angled triangles). New work that
is fundamental to Year 12 mainly centres around the extension of the trigonometric ratios to angles larger than
a right angle and the use of radians:
This circular diagram contains the basic definition of sine and cosine for any angle (positive or negative).
The function tan(θ) is defined as
x ( ) sin
2
x ( ) cos
2
+ 1 = 1 x ( ) 1 ≤ cos ≤ – 1 x ( ) 1 ≤ sin ≤ –
0 ( ) sin 0 = π ( ) cos 1 – =
π
6
---
π
4
---
θ
cos
s
i
n
θ ( ) sin
θ ( ) cos
----------------
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 17
You should note that on almost all occasions when the trigonometric functions are used in Year 12 the angles
will be measured in radians. The definition of radian measure is:
The radian measure of the angle is:
This makes it easy to convert between the two systems of measuring angles because one full turn is 360° and
2π radians.
Example 6
a. Convert to radians: 30°, 45°, 60°, 120°, 180°.
b. Convert to degrees: π, 3π, .
Solution to Example 6
a. This is a straight ratio problem:
, so .
The other answers are: .
b. In conversion to degrees, the process is reversed. The answers are: 180°, 540° and 105°.
There are some ‘special’ angles with exact trigonometric ratios:
So for 45° or the sine and cosine are both and the tangent is 1.
For 30° the sine is the cosine is and the tangent is .
For 60° the sine is the cosine is and the tangent is .
Students who learn these ratios “off by heart” have a distinct advantage in exams.
θ
r
L (arc length)
θ
L
r
--- =

12
------

π
180
--------- radians = 30°
30π
180
---------
π
6
--- radians = =
π
4
---
π
3
---

3
------ π , , ,
45°
1
1
60°
1
2
2
3
30°
π
4
---
1
2
-------
1
2
---
3
2
-------
1
3
-------
3
2
-------
1
2
--- 3
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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You also need to know that .
This is known as the Pythagorean identity and follows from the unit circle definitions of sine and cosine.
Notice, this can be re-arranged.
or
From the definition, note that and .
Example 7
State the minimum and maximum values of y if
a.
b.
c.
Solution to Example 7
a.
b.
c.
3.6 Trigonometric graphs
What you should know:
• graphs of trigonometric functions of the form , , for cases of a and b, and
the graph of ;
• applications of trigonometric functions such as tidal heights and temperature changes;
• recognition and interpretation of period and amplitude; and
• solution of simple equations of the form , where f is sin, cos, or tan, on a domain, by graphical
methods or by using a calculator.
θ ( ) sin
2
θ ( ) cos
2
+ 1 =
θ ( ) sin
2
1 θ ( ) cos
2
– = θ ( ) cos
2
1 θ ( ) sin
2
– =
1 θ ( ) 1 ≤ cos ≤ – 1 θ ( ) 1 ≤ sin ≤ –
y 3 θ ( ) 1 – cos =
y 5 – 8 2 θ
π
4
--- –
\ .
| |
sin – =
y 2 2 θ ( ) cos
2
1 + =
y
min
3 – 1 – 4 – = =
y
max
3 1 – 2 = =
y
min
5 – 8 – 13 – = =
y
max
5 – 8 + 3 = =
y
min
0 1 + 1 = =
y
max
2 1 + 3 = =
y a bx ( ) sin = y a bx ( ) cos =
y a ax ( ) tan =
f x ( ) B =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 19
The Year 12 course concentrates on the sine and cosine graphs and transformations of these. The following sets of
graphs illustrate the basic trigonometric graphs and some simple transformations of these. They are all .
In this case, larger a’s compress the graph horizontally.
Exactly the same principles of horizontal and vertical transformations that we used with simple polynomials
also apply to trigonometric graphs. This set of graphs is of for various values of a.
Vertical translations and dilations are shown on this set of examples that are based on the equation .
The Year 12 course includes graphs of . Again, larger values of a compress the graph
horizontally as seen below.
y ax ( ) sin =
5 10 10 -5 -10 -10
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
5 10 10 -5 -10 -10
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
5 10 10 -5 -10 -10
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
a 0.5 = a 1 = a 2 =
x x x
y y y
y x a + ( ) cos =
5 10 10 -5 -5
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
5 10 10 -5 -5
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
5 10 10 -5 -5
0.5
1.0 1.0
-0.5
-1.0 -1.0
a 0 =
x
y
a 2 – =
x
y
a 1 =
x
y
y A x ( ) sin b + =
10 20 20 -10 -10
-2
-4
-6 -6
5 10 10 -5 -5
1
2
33
5 10 15 15 -5 -5
11
-1
-2 -2
A 2 b , 1 – = = A 0.5 b , 3 = =
x
y
x
y
A 3 b , 4 – = =
x
y
y ax ( ) tan =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
20 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap

a = 0.5 a = 1 a = 2
The sine and cosine functions are particularly useful in modelling periodic phenomena such as tides, water
waves, alternating current electricity etc. It is quite common to encounter functions of the type ,
where n is a multiple of π. The period of such a function is . So, for example, the function
has the graph (with period 1):
and the function has the graph (with period 4):
Note that the period can be made to have integer values in this way. This is particularly useful in modelling
since most periodic phenomena do not have periods that are multiples of π.
You should also be able to solve some simple trigonometric equations.
y nx ( ) cos =

n
------ y 2πx ( ) sin =
–2 2
0.5
– 0.5
y
x
y
πx
2
------
\ .
| |
cos =
–2 2
0.5
– 0.5
y
x
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 21
Example 8
a. Solve for exactly.
b. Solve , correct to two decimal places.
c. Solve , .
Solution to Example 8
a. Get the basic solution (firstly in degrees, if necessary and then radians) using the inverse sine function
on your CAS calculator (if necessary): . The other solution can either be found from
the graph of the sine function or the unit circle:
b. Using your CAS calculator, (there are numerous approaches) let and .
These two graphs can be plotted together. The x values of the points of intersection of the curve and the
line will give the solutions.
Choose a window of XMin: 0 and XMax: π with appropriate
Y values.
The solutions are .
c. This is an example of solving equations of the type:
We approach such equations by dividing each side by .
Thus

i.e.
Now, given , we get .
So
i.e.
Hence
2x ( ) sin
1
2
--- = 0 x π ≤ ≤
3 2x ( ) sin 1 – = 0 x π ≤ ≤
3 2x ( ) cos 3 2x ( ) sin = 0 x 2π ≤ ≤
2x
π
6
--- = x
π
12
------ = ¬
2x

6
------ = x

12
------ = ¬
f1 x ( ) 3 2x ( ) sin = f2 x ( ) 1 – =
x 1.7 and 3 =
asin θ ( ) b θ ( ) cos =
θ ( ) cos
asin θ ( )
θ ( ) cos
------------------
b θ ( ) cos
θ ( ) cos
-------------------- =
θ ( ) tan ∴
b
a
--- =
atan θ ( ) b =
3 2x ( ) cos 3 2x ( ) sin =
3
3
------- 2x ( ) tan =
2x
π
6
--- π
π
6
--- + 2π
π
6
--- + 3π
π
6
--- + , , , =
2x
π
6
---

6
------
13π
6
---------
19π
6
--------- , , , =
x
π
12
------

12
------
13π
12
---------
19π
12
--------- , , , =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
22 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Exercises
Question 2
Write down the minimum value of and find the smallest positive value of for which
it occurs.
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Question 3
Given that , find the exact values of and for
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3.7 Logarithmic and exponential functions
What you should know:
• sketching graphs of and , and solving indicial equations related to graphs by calculator
or by graphical methods;
• sketching the graph of using calculator generated values and relating graph to that of
informal discussion of their inverse relationship; and
• mathematical modelling using exponential functions.
Relations of the form are known as exponential functions. Their general graphs are of the form:
Altering the value of a alters the slope of the curve: making the value of a larger makes the graph steeper. The
y intercept is 1 for all values of a.
2 3θ
π
4
--- +
\ .
| |
cos θ
θ ( ) sin
1
3
--- = θ ( ) cos θ ( ) tan
π
2
--- θ π. < <
y 10
x
= y 2
x
=
y x ( )
10
log =
y 10
x
; =
y a
x
=
y
x
1.0
– 0.5 –1.0
0.5
2.0
0
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 23
You should also note the graph of which is a reflection in the y axis:
Such functions are very useful in modelling growth and decay; population growth, chemical reactions,
radioactive decay etc.
Commonly in Year 12, the chosen base is e, where
is known as the exponential function.
Use your calculator to write down an approximation to e, by using the definition above.
You should also note that the same principles of transformations as we have used for polynomials and
trigonometric functions can be applied to these examples.
The logarithm function is the inverse of the exponential function. The general shape of the graph is:
This graph is of the function: and is the inverse (reflection in ) of the function .
Changing the base of the logarithm alters the slope of the graph. Larger bases have flatter (or lower) graphs.
Make sure that you see why this is so!
y a
x –
=
– 0.5
0.5
1.0
y
x
0
e 1
1
n
--- +
\ .
| |
n
n ∞ →
lim =
y e
x
=
y
x 1.0
–1.0
1.5
– 0.5
0
y x ( )
10
log = y x = y 10
x
=
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Example 9
Sketch the graph of showing exact axis intercepts.
Solution to Example 9
Your CAS calculator using Window/Zoom: Zoom - Standard
gives the result shown at right.
Copying this graph is unlikely to gain you too many marks, but it
does indicate the general shape required.
Identify vertical asymptote:
Find y intercept: (exact)
Find x intercept:
(exact)
The graph can now be completed showing all relevant information:
y 4 3x – ( )
e
log 1 – =
4 3x – 0 =
x
4
3
--- =
y 4 ( )
e
log 1 – =
4 3x – ( )
e
log 1 =
4 3x – ( ) ∴ e =
x ∴
4 e –
3
----------- =
x
4
3
--- = y
x
0 4 ( )
e
log 1 – , ( )
4 e –
3
----------- 0 ,
\ .
| |
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 25
3.8 Applications of exponential and logarithmic functions
Example 10
Sunlight loses intensity as it is transmitted through different materials. When it is passed through water, the
intensity, I, at a depth of x metres below the surface, is given by
I = a(10)
–bx
a. Show that the intensity at the surface of the water equals a.
b. If the intensity is reduced by 70% at a depth of 200 metres, find b, correct to four decimal places.
c. Find the depth at which the intensity is half the intensity at the surface, to the nearest metre.
Solution to Example 10
a. At the surface, x = 0.
Thus
Thus at the surface.
b. I = 30% of a when x = 200
i.e. I = 0.3a, x = 200 gives
c. I = a.10
–0.0026
We require x when .
Required depth equals 116 m.
I a 10 ( )
0
× =
a 1 × =
I a =
0.3a a 10
200b –
× =
0.3 10
200b –
=
log
10
0.3 ( ) 200b – =
b
log
10
0.3 ( )
200 –
------------------------- =
0.0026 =
I
1
2
---a =

1
2
---a ∴ a 10
0.0026x –
× =
0.5 10
0.0026x –
=
log
10
0.5 ( ) 0.0026x – =
x
log
10
0.5 ( )
0.0026 –
------------------------- =
115.78 =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Exercises
Question 4
A group of monkeys is introduced to a game park. After t years, the number of monkeys, N, is approximated
by the equation .
a. How many monkeys are there after four years?
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________________________________________________________________________________
b. How many years will it take for the number of monkeys to exceed 90?
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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
N 5e
0.42t
=
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 27
3.9 CAS calculators - an essential tool
CAS calculators are now used in all the teaching and assessment components of the course. Students are
advised not to rely too heavily on these. Lots of practice throughout the year will help you recognise when it
is appropriate or when it is not appropriate to solve a problem (particularly a multiple choice question) with
a CAS calculator. Have your CAS beside you at all times.
Consider the graph of on the CAS calculator.
It looks like (via a technology-free approach):
Via technology:
However, this function is a “sideways parabola” and has its vertex at . Its graph is shown below.
The first graph would not gain full marks. (Similar to the graph of as shown in the
example on page 24.)
y 2 x 2 + 1 – =
2 1 – , – ( )
y
2 –
1 –
x
2 1 – , – ( )
2 2 1 –
y 4 3x – ( )
e
log 1 – =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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If you are using a CAS calculator, you should be confident about the main stages in the production of graphs.
These are summarised in the following example.
Example 11
Sketch the graph of
Solution to Example 11
Step 1: Set the function in the f1(x)= menu:
In this case, note that the natural logarithm is labelled ‘ln’ on most
calculators.
Step 2: Set the viewing window. It is often a good idea to use the
standard viewing window (Window/Zoom: 5:Zoom - Standard) to
start with.
Other good first choices are:
8: for trigonometric graphs.
A: for the correct ‘aspect ratio’ for the graph.
Step 3: Display the graph.
As is often the case, this graph screen (which has an asymptote) is
slightly misleading as it appears to stop in the third quadrant. A
good sketch will show the correct asymptotic behaviour. Also, the
axis intercepts should be shown. This can be done as a mixture of
trace and function algebra.
Step 4: Use 4: Window/Zoom and 5: Trace to identify important
features of the graph.
In this case 5: Trace – 1: Graph Trace have identified the x intercept
at (–1, 0).
The y intercept is
y 2 x 2 + ( )
e
log =
2 2 ( ) 1.386 ≈
e
log
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 29
3.10 So what will happen this year?
The Units 3 & 4 course relies heavily on graph sketching skills. Take a look at the dot points at the start of
these notes and you will see that a lot of the material of Units 1 & 2 is either repeated or is slightly extended.
If you want to prepare well for Year 12, a bit of work in this area should reward you considerably. Remember
your CAS calculator is there to be used. Use it for checking results, confirming algebraic processes and
confirming/determining features of your sketch graphs.
Exercises (multiple-choice)
Be sure to use your CAS calculator where required.
Question 5
A possible equation for the graph shown is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Question 6
The range of the function represented by is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2 –
x
y
y 2x
2
4x + =
y x
2
– 2x + =
y
x
2
– 2x –
4
--------------------- =
y x
2
– 2 – =
y 4x 2 – x
2
=
x y , ( ):y x
2
1 x 2 1 , – [ ] ∈ , + = { }
3 2 , – [ ]
1 5 , [ ]
1 ∞ , [ ]
2 5 , [ ]
R
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
30 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Question 7
Which one of the following should be the rule for the graph shown above?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Question 8
The smallest positive value of θ such that is
A. 6π
B. 4π
C. π
D.
E.
Question 9
The values of x which satisfy the equation for are
A. ,
B. , , ,
C. ,
D. ,
E. , , ,
y
2 x 0
y 2log
10
x ( ) =
y log
10
x 2 + ( ) =
y log
10
x 1 – ( ) =
y log
10
2x ( ) =
y log
10

x
2
---
\ .
| |
=
4
θ
3
---
\ .
| |
cos 1 – 3 =
π
3
---
π
2
---
2 2x ( ) 1 + sin 0 = 0 x π ≤ ≤

12
------
11π
12
---------

6
------
11π
6
---------
19π
6
---------
23π
6
---------

3
------

3
------

6
------

6
------

12
------
11π
12
---------
19π
12
---------
23π
12
---------
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 31
Exercises (short-answer)
Be sure to use your CAS calculator where required.
Question 10
State whether the values in the table below represent a linear, quadratic, logarithmic or trigonometric
function.
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Question 11
Consider the graph of
a. Sketch a graph of .
x 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
f(x) 0.6 1.69 2.15 2.46 2.68
f x ( ) 4 2 e
0.01x –
– ( ) =
f x ( )
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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b. Find . Express to two decimal places.
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c. Find . Express to two decimal places.
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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
f 10 ( )
x : f x ( ) 5 = { }
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 33
Question 12
Consider the functions:
a. Plot and on the same set of axes for .
b. Hence plot
f x ( ) 2x x
2
– =
g x ( ) 4 2x – =
f x ( ) g x ( ) x 1 – 3 [ , ] ∈
h x ( ) 2x x
2
– 4 2x – + =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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Exercises (technology-free)
Do not be afraid to use your CAS to confirm results even though in a technology-free assessment you are not
allowed to use it. It is still a useful learning tool.
Question 13
Sketch the graph of labelling the turning point and the exact values of the axes intercepts.
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Question 14
If find and state its domain.
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
f x ( ) 2 x 4 + ( )
2
– =
f x ( ) 1 e
2x
– = f
1 –
x ( )
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 35
Question 15
Describe the transformations applied to to obtain the graph of .
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Question 16
Find the x intercepts for when .
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y x = y 4 3 4 2x – – =
f x ( ) 3 x ( ) sin 3 x ( ) cos – = x 0 2π [ , ] ∈
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
36 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Exercise (analysis task)
Be sure to use your CAS calculator where required.
Question 17
A food technologist is observing the growth of two yeast cultures during an experiment on making bread.
After a number of experiments, the food technologist observes that the growth of one culture and the decrease
in the other can be approximated by mathematical functions.
x(t) is the number of cells in the first culture after t hours. The number of cells started with in this culture is
900 and they have all died after five hours.
y(t) is the number of cells in the second culture after t hours and grows according to
a. If is a function of the form , find the values of a and b.
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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b. Complete the table for t and y(t).
c. What is the initial number of cells for the second culture?
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________________________________________________________________________________
d. What is the limiting value of the number of cells for y(t)?
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e. After what time is the number of cells in the second culture more than 500?
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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
t 1 2 3.5 5
y(t)
y t ( )
1000
49e
2t –
1 +
------------------------ =
x t ( ) at
2
b +
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 37
f. Draw the graphs of x(t) and y(t) on the same axes.
0
t
x y ,
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
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3.11 School-assessed coursework
Sample question – Outcome 2, Task 1
A small modelling task using technology.
Look at the family of functions
What are the general shapes of the curve for various values of n?
How does the function behave in the region of ?
Write a brief report using graphs to illustrate your findings.
Guideline to solution
We look at the positive integer values of n first:
y x
n
2
x
× =
x 0 =
y
x
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 1
0
y
x
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 2
0
y
x
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 3
0
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 39
Note that there are some features common to the even values of n and others common to the odd values. Your
report should explain why this is so. Just plotting lots of graphs will not do.
What about fractional values of n? You will need to be careful here as not all computers and graphic
calculators will plot these correctly.
y
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 4
0
y
x
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 5
0
y
x
20
15
10
5
–2 2
n = 1.5
0
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
40 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Sample question – Outcome 2/3 Task 2 (fitting curves to data points)
To fit, say, a quadratic function to a set of points, it is necessary to find three coefficients,
a, b and c. As a general principle, if you need three coefficients, you will need three pieces of information.
If you want four coefficients (to specify a cubic function) you will need four pieces of information. A piece
of information could be the coordinates of a point through which the function passes or the gradient of the
curve at a point etc. Exactly the same principle is involved in fitting other types of function such as
or .
Example 12
Find the equation of the quadratic function which passes through the points with coordinates ,
and .
Solution to Example 12
An algebraic approach would involve the formation of three simultaneous equations:
if
You can attempt to solve these yourself.
Outcome 3 concentrates on the technology approach. We can use the statistical regression facility in the Lists
and Spreadsheets page of a CAS calculator.
Step 1: Create a new Lists and Spreadsheets page. Set the
data as elements of two lists (A and B).
Step 2: Choose 4: Statistics – 1: Stat Calculations – 6:
Quadratic Regression from the menu to calculate the
quadratic that best fits the data.
y ax
2
bx c + + =
y Ae
kx
c + = y A bx c + ( ) sin d + =
1 9 – , – ( )
2 18 , ( ) 5 81 , ( )
f x ( ) ax
2
bx c + + =
9 – a b c + + =
18 4a 2b c + + =
81 25a 5b c + + =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 41
Step 3: Press enter to display the result:
Thus
If you want to fit a different model to the points, the
calculator offers a variety of options, which you should
explore.
The graph, which passes through the points exactly is
Example 13
Find the equation of the cubic which passes through the points with co-ordinates , ,
and .
Solution to Example 13
(Try this algebraically for a real challenge!)
Example 14
Discuss the family of curves given by
Solution to Example 14
Hint: Using your CAS calculator, enter
.
Press enter, and you will see in order:
and
Change k by editing .
y 2x
2
7x 4 – + =
4 – 1
2
-- -
y
x
7
4
--- – ,
81
8
------ –
\ .
| |
2 27 , – ( ) 1 0 , ( ) 2 5 – , ( )
3 12 , ( )
y 2x
3
x
2
– 16x – 15 + =
f x ( ) x
3
kx
2
3x 1 + + + =
f1 x ( ) x
3
1 0 1 , , – { }x
2
+3x 1 + + =
y x
3
x
2
– 3x 1 + + =
y x
3
3x 1 + + =
y x
3
x
2
3x 1 + + + =
f1 x ( )
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
42 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
3.12 Solutions
Question 1 (page 10)
a. Domain: i.e.
Range:
b. Domain
Range
c. Domain i.e.
Range
d. Domain R
Range
Question 2 (page 22)
Minimum = –2
Question 3 (page 22)
Question 4 (page 26)
e. 27
f. 6.9
Question 5 (page 29)
Since the quadratic is inverted, the coefficient of must be negative. Hence eliminate A. Factorise others to
find intercepts.
For B:
, (wrong)
For C:
,
C is correct.
x 3 or x 1 ≥ – ≤ ∞ – 3 – ] , ( 1 ∞) , [ ∪
0 ∞ , ) [
R\
5 –
2
------
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
6 – ∞ , ( )
x 4 – > 4 – ∞ , ( )
R

0 1 , ( )
2 2
3
---------- –
2
4
------- ,
x
2
y x
2
– 2x + =
x x 2 – ( ) – =
x 0 = x 2 =
y
x
2
– 2x –
4
--------------------- =
y
x
4
--- x 2 + ( ) – =
x 0 = x 2 – =

Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 43
Question 6 (page 29)
Consider the graph shown
Significant points for restricted domain are the endpoints (–2, 5) and (1, 2) as well as the local
minimum (0, 1).
Question 7 (page 30)
For the graph shown the asymptote is hence there has been no translation applied to .
Eliminate B and C. The x intercept of has changed from (1, 0) to (2, 0). This is a dilation in the
x direction by a factor of 2. ∴E is correct.
Question 8 (page 30)
∴A is correct.
y x
2
1 + =
(–2, 5)
(0, 1)
(1, 2)
y
x
2 – 5 [ , ]
Range 1 5 [ , ] = ∴
B ∴
y 0 = y log
10
x ( ) =
y log
10
x ( ) =
4
θ
3
---
\ .
| |
cos 1 – 3 =
4
θ
3
---
\ .
| |
cos 4 =
θ
3
---
\ .
| |
cos 1 =
θ
3
--- 2π =
θ 6π =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
44 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Question 9 (page 30)
Sine is negative in 3rd and 4th quadrants.
∴A is correct.
Question 10 (page 31)
Enter data into a Lists and Spreadsheet page to graph a scatterplot. On the CAS calculator:
From the scatterplot the function is obviously logarithmic.
Select a new Lists and Spreadsheet page.
Press enter. Rename lists A and B appropriately.
Enter the data as per the screen shot:
To create a scatterplot, create a new Graphs and
Geometry page, select Menu – 3: Graph Type – 4:
Scatter Plot
Press the ‘var’ button on the calculator and select the
appropriate lists.
Press enter and adjust the window to suit (Menu –
4:Window/Zoom).
2 2x ( ) 1 + sin 0 =
2 2x ( ) sin 1 – =
2x ( ) sin
1 –
2
------ =
Basic angle θ sin
1 – 1
2
---
\ .
| |
=
θ
π
6
--- =
2x ∴ π θ , 2π θ – + =
2x π
π
6
--- , 2π
π
6
--- – + =
2x

6
------,
11π
6
--------- =
x

12
------ ,
11π
12
--------- =
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 45
Question 11 (page 31)
a.
, y intercept is (0, 4)
b.
c.
f x ( ) 4 2 e
0.01x –
– ( ) =
f x ( ) 8 4e
0.01x –
– =
asymptote is y 8 = ∴
x
y
(0, 4)
y = 8
f 10 ( ) 4 2 e
0.01 10 ( ) –
– ( ) =
4 2 e
0.1 –
– ( ) =
4.38 =
5 4 2 e
0.01x –
– ( ) =
1.25 2 e
0.01x –
– =
e
0.01x –
2 1.25 – =
e
0.01x –
0.75 =
0.01x – log
e
0.75 ( ) =
x
log
e
0.75 ( )
0.01 –
------------------------- =
x 28.77 =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
46 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
Question 12 (page 33)
For the modulus function , we plot the hybrid function:
The linear function is also plotted. Use addition of ordinates to plot on the same set of
axes.
Question 13 (page 34)
f x ( ) 2x x
2
– = x 1 – 3 [ , ] ∈
f x ( )
x
2
2x – 1 – x 0 ≤ ≤
2x x
2
– 0 x 2 ≤ ≤
x
2
2x – 2 x 3 ≤ ≤
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
g x ( ) 4 2x – = h x ( )
–1
2 3
–2
–1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
x
y
1
f(x)
g(x)
h(x)
(–4, 2)
(0, –14)
y
x
4 – 2 + 0 ( , ) 4 – 2 – 0 ( , )
Section 3: Functions and graphs
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 47
Question 14 (page 34)
Question 15 (page 35)
Put in the form where
Reflected in the x axis. Dilated in the y direction by a factor of 3.
Reflected in the y axis. Dilated in the x direction by a factor of (not 2).
Translated right 2 units.
Translated up 4 units.
Note: In standard form dilations and reflections must be stated before translations. (DrT!)
Question 16 (page 35)
x intercepts are and .
Question 17 (page 36)
a. ,
b.
c. 20
d. As t → ∞,

so i.e. y(t)→1000
e.
i.e. exceeds 500 after 1 hour 57 mins.
t 1 2 3.5 5
y(t) 131 527 957 998
f
1 –
x ( )
1
2
---log
e
1 2x – ( ) =
Domain ∞ – 1 ( , ) =
y 4 3 4 2x – – = y a f n x b – ( ) ( ) × c + =
f x ( ) x =
y 3 4 2x – – 4 + =
y 3 2 x 2 – ( ) – – 4 + =
a 3 – = ¬
n 2 – = ¬
1
2
---
b 2 = ¬
c 4 = ¬
π
6
--- 0 ( , )

6
------ 0 ( , )
a 36 – = b 900 =
e
2t –
0 →
49e
2t –
0 → ¬
y t ( )
1000
1
------------ →
500
1000
1 49e
2t –
+
------------------------ =
500 24 500e
2t –
+ 1000 =
e
2t –
log
e
0.0204 ( ) =
t
1
2
-- - – log
e
0.0204 ( ) 1.946 = =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
48 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
f.
t
x y ,
1000
5 0 1 2 3 4
x t ( )
y t ( )
900
Section 4: Algebra
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Section 4: Algebra
4.1 What you should know
Units 1 & 2
• substitution in and rearrangement of formulas;
• identifying key features of polynomials: variables, coefficients, degree, and so on;
• use of notation ; substitution and evaluation of , where a is real;
• expansion of quadratics and cubics from factors;
• factorisation
> connections between factors, solutions and corresponding graphs
> quadratic trinomials
> factor theorem
> factorisation of a cubic with at least one factor of the form where a is an integer;
• solving quadratic equations: by systematic trial and error, by graphing, by completion of the square
(for cases where the coefficient of is 1 only), and by the quadratic formula to include cases with
irrational solutions;
• use and interpretation of the discriminant to identify the number of solutions;
• completing the square with quadratics and using this to specify the transformations applied to ;
• solving cubic equations by any of the following methods
> graphing (including cases which do not have three solutions)
> systematic trial and error
> algebraic methods; for example, factorisation of cubics that have at least one integer solution;
• solving simultaneous equations (including two linear and one linear with one quadratic) using
algebraic and graphical methods; and
• finding the correct polynomial model for a data set.
y f x ( ) = f a ( )
x a – ( )
x
2
y x
2
=
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
50 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
4.2 What you will need to learn
Units 3 & 4
• factorisation of polynomials to degree 4 and using this to sketch graphs;
• simplifying expressions using exponential and logarithm laws (including change of base);
• solving exponential and logarithmic equations;
• functions that map one-to-one and many-to-one (restricting many-to-one functions so that an inverse
function exists);
• finding inverse relations for quadratic functions, hyperbolic functions, exponential functions and
logarithmic functions; and
• expanding using the binomial theorem.
• how to use your CAS calculator to perform all of the above.
Note: For more detail on assessable dot points refer to the VCAA’s “Mathematics Victorian Certificate of
Education Study Design” 2009 pages 153-154 (Area of Study 2. Algebra). www.vcaa.vic.edu.au
ax b + ( )
n
Section 5: Calculus
Copyright © Neap VEMM12.FM 51
Section 5: Calculus
5.1 What you should know
Unit 1
• idea of a rate of change and practical applications of this;
• the gradient of a linear function as a rate of change;
• calculation of average rates of change using chords;
• the concept of instantaneous rates of change and the use of the gradient of the tangent to find these;
• the description of a graph in terms of its rate of change being positive, negative or zero;
• relating gradient functions to their original function;
• relating velocity-time graphs to displacement-time graphs as an application of rates of change; and
• using the average rate of change between two points very close to each other on a graph as a means of
approaching the instantaneous rate of change.
Unit 2
• the concept of the derivative function being a gradient function;
• the notation and for derivatives;
• using first principles to find gradient functions in simple cases;
• finding derivatives of polynomial functions;
• using derivatives to find rates of change;
• using derivatives to assist in curve sketching by finding stationary points and their nature;
• the concept of antidifferentiation being the reverse process to differentiation; and
• finding simple antiderivatives using rules for antidifferentiation.
f′ x ( )
dy
dx
------
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
52 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
5.2 What you will need to learn
Units 3 & 4
• identifying graphs of derivative functions given the original function;
• knowing and applying the rules for derivatives of (n is rational), , , and ;
• the product, quotient and chain rules for differentiation and manipulation of expressions to apply
these rules;
• using derivatives to assist in curve sketching by finding stationary points and their nature;
• finding equations of tangents and normals;
• solving maximum/minimum problems;
• applications of rates of change including related rates of change;
• small change approximations using and its geometric interpretation;
• identifying graphs of antiderivative functions given the original function;
• calculating the approximate areas under curves using the left rectangle and right rectangle methods;
• using geometric methods to approximate areas under curves;
• simple algebraic manipulations using the fundamental theorem of calculus;
• finding the general rule for the antiderivative and calculating the value of the definite integral for the
following functions and where n is rational, , , and ;
• deriving and using the knowledge that to find where
is not able to be transformed into one of the functions in the dot point above; and
• using integration to find areas under curves and areas between curves.
• how to use your CAS calculator to perform all of the above.
Note: For more detail on assessable dot points refer to the VCAA’s “Mathematics Victorian Certificate of
Education Study Design” 2009, page 154 (Area of Study 3. Calculus). www.vcaa.vic.edu.au
x
n
e
x
log
e
x ( ) x ( ) sin x ( ) cos
f x h + ( ) f x ( ) hf ' x ( ) + ≈
x
n
ax b + ( )
n
e
ax
ax ( ) sin ax ( ) cos ax b + ( )
1 –
g x ( ) f ' x ( ) = g x ( ) x d
}
f x ( ) c + = g x ( ) x d
}
g x ( )
Section 6: Probability
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Section 6: Probability
6.1 What you should know
Unit 1
• definition of chance and probability;
• long-term relative frequency as an estimate of probability;
• complementary events probability;
• multiple events probability;
• appropriate notation;
• multiple events and the use of tree diagrams, lattice diagrams to calculate probabilities;
• Venn diagrams;
• mutually exclusive events; and
• independent events.
Unit 2
• addition and multiplication principles;
• permutations: concept of ordered samples, ;
• combinations: concept of unordered samples, ;
• evaluation of and and establishing that ;
• relating combinations to Pascal’s triangle; and
• applications of permutations and combinations to probability.
P
n
r
C
n
r
P
n
r
C
n
r
P
n
r
C
n
r
r! × =
VCE Units 3 & 4 Mathematical Methods (CAS): Coursework & Exam Preparation
54 VEMM12.FM Copyright © Neap
6.2 What you will need to learn
Units 3 & 4
DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES
• definition of a discrete random variable;
• producing a discrete probability distribution;
• calculating and explaining the mean, variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable;
and
• calculation and interpretation of the property that approximately 95% of the distribution is within two
standard deviations of the mean.
BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
• application of the binomial distribution to the number of successes in a fixed number, n, of Bernoulli
trials with probability p of success;
• the effect of the parameters n and p on the graph of the probability function;
• calculation of probabilities; and
• use of formulas for the expectation and variance of a binomial random variable.
CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLES
• the concept of a probability distribution function; and
• how to calculate the central measures (mean, median and mode) of a probability density function using
integration.
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
• the normal curve as the limit of the histogram using examples such as weights and heights of people
(for large samples); and
• the effect of the mean and variance on the shape of the normal distribution.
You will need to learn how to use your statistical probability functions of your CAS calculator to support
all of the above.
Note: For more detail on assessable dot points refer to the VCAA’s “Mathematics Victorian Certificate of
Education Study Design” 2009 page 155 (Area of Study 4. Probability). www.vcaa.vic.edu.au