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Introduction

This section introduces the relationship between continuous signals/systems and their representation as

discrete-time signals/systems that allows the direct use of digital computing technology. Sampling forms

the bridge between these two representations of the world.

A Discrete-Time system has as its input and output sequences of values. Here it is assumed that these

sequences represent samples of analog signals that are equally spaced in time Ts seconds apart!. "#tensions

to applications involving functions of other variables e.g. distance$ force$ pressure. velocity$ pi#els$ %! will

be apparent.

&n order to develop the analysis tools for such a system$ we must form an equivalent analog system.

'here(

( )

s

T n t

s n

t x T n x x

)

! )

·

· ·

and

( )

s

T n t

s n

t y T n y y

)

! )

·

· ·

Analy*ing this equivalent system using standard analog tools will establish a set of discrete-time tools

including the Discrete +ourier Transform D+T! and the *-Transform.

Another reason for e#amining the sampling/reconstruction process is that they form the actual hardware

interface between analog and discrete-time systems. 'e will then be prepared to perform Digital +iltering

of analog signals.

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

Analog

System

Discrete-Time

System

Sampling

3econstruction

Discrete-Time

System

#n)Ts! yn)Ts!

Sample

(T

s

sec

Analog

System

Re-Sample

(T

s

sec.)

Reconstruct

#n yn

#t!

yt!

#t$ Ts!

Sampling Tutorial 4age / of 5

Sampling

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

4A6 is where the analog signal after sampling ta7es on the form of a sequence of pulses Ts seconds apart.

"ach pulse carries information about the analog signal8s amplitude at the time the pulse was generated.

There are two variants of 4A6. The first$ currently the dominant approach$ called -atural Sampling is

where the shape of each pulse is affected by the changing input during the pulse. The second is called

9niform Sampling mainly used in the older laboratory grade samplers! where all of the pulses have the

same shape$ but different amplitudes. 'e will analy*e both.

Natural Sampling in the Time Domain

Assume that we have a generali*ed$ time-limited pulse centered at t : 1 as shown below.

p(t)

T

s

s

0 T

s

-T

s

A

-T

s

The +ourier Transform of this pulse is to denoted 4;ω!. A periodic version of this pulse where the original

pulse now repeats every Ts seconds is then(

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

Sampling Tutorial 4age < of 5

p

T

s

(t)

0

0.

0.!

0."

0.#

$

$.

-%0 -& -0 -$& -$0 -& 0 & $0 $& 0 & %0

T

s

0 T

s

-T

s

A

-T

s

-ote(

( ) [ ] ( ) t p t p

s

s

T

T

·

∞ →

lim

( ) t p

s

T

$ the pulse train$ is periodic with period Ts and we can e#press it as a sum of individual pulses.

( ) ( )

∑

∞

−∞ ·

− ·

n

s T

T n t p t p

s

)

=-atural Sampling> is then done by multiplying #t!$ the input signal$ by

( ) t p

s

T

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

#t!

( ) ( ) ( )

∑

∞

−∞ ·

− ·

n

s s

T n t p t x T t x ) ) $

( ) t p

s

T

Sampling Tutorial 4age ? of 5

'ni(orm Sampling in the Time Domain

The second type of sampling$ 9niform Sampling$ results in a train of pulses in which each pulse has the

same shape. "ach pulse has a =strength> which is set by the value of the input at the sampling =instant>.

This method also goes by the name =+lat Top Sampling> when the transmitted pulses are rectangular. @ne

way to implement uniform sampling is to precede a natural sampler with a =Sample and Hold> circuit.

The Sample and Hold circuit has the following effect on an analog signal.

This is a non-linear distortion of the signal$ but now the signal is constant during each pulse of the pulse

train and multiplying leaves all of the resulting pulses having the same shape. A delay of A Ts must be

introduced in the pulse train to center each pulse in a constant region of the modified signal. This has the

effect of delaying the signal itself by Ts//.

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

#sht!

( ) ( ) ( )

∑

∞

−∞ ·

− ·

n

s s s

T n t p T n x T t x ) ) ) $

( ) t p

s

T

S B H

#t!

0

0.&

$

$.&

.&

$%!&")#*

$

0

$

$

$

$

%

$

!

$

&

$

"

$

)

$

#

$

*

0

$

%

!

&

"

)

#

*

%

0

%

$

%

%

%

%

!

%

&

%

"

%

)

+sh(t)

+(t)

Sampling Tutorial 4age C of 5

Frequency Domain Analysis of Sampled Signals

,ntroduction

Doth types of sampling are practical. @ne$ -atural Sampling$ is simpler in the frequency domain while the

other$ 9niform Sampling$ is simpler in the time domain. &n the limiting case$ as the pulse width approaches

*ero while holding the pulse area constant$ both systems yield the same result. This limiting case is called

&deal or &mpulse! Sampling where each pulse is now the =&mpulse> or =Dirac Delta> function$

( )

s

T n t ) − δ

$

and is the form of sampling described in many te#tboo7s.

Natural Sampling in the -re.uency Domain

Eet 4;ω! be the +ourier transform of pt!$ the single sampling pulse of width ∆t F Ts. The +ourier series for

the periodic

( ) t p

s

T

is(

( )

∑

∞

−∞ ·

· ·

n s

s

t jn

n T

T

P t p

s

s

π

ω ε

ω

/

)

$ the sampling rate in radians per second.

'here(

( ) ( )

,

_

¸

¸

· · ·

−

−

∫

s s

s

s

t jn

T

T

s

n

T

jn P

T

jn P

T

dt t p

T

P

s

s

s

π

ω ε

ω

/ 2 2

)

2

/

/

'hich results in(

( ) { } ( ) ω

π

ω δ

π

s s

T

s n s s

T

P

T T

jn P

T

t p ·

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

· ℑ

∑

∞

−∞ ·

/

)

/ 2

-0.!

-0.

0

0.

0.!

0."

0.#

$

$.

$ % ! & " ) # * $0 $$ $ $%

|P(jω)| -------

'here the height of each =bar> denotes the strength of the delta function at that frequency.

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

Sampling Tutorial 4age 5 of 5

Since the +ourier Transform of a product of two time functions is the convolution of their individual +ourier

Transforms. The +ourier Transform of the sampled version of the input$ #t!$ is(

( ) ( ) ω

π

ω

π

ω j P

T

j X

T

jn P

T

j X

s s

T

s n s s

T

·

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

∞

−∞ ·

/

)

/ 2

-0.!

-0.

0

0.

0.!

0."

0.#

$

$.

$"

$

$

$

"

$

"

%

$

%

"

!

$

!

"

&

$

&

"

"

$

|P(jω)| -------

|X(jω)|

|X(jω-ω

ο

)|

|X(jω-2*ω

ο

)|

-otes(

2. "ach repetition of G;ω!$ the +ourier Transform of #t!$ is identical. &t only varies in magnitude

according to the magnitude of 4;ω! at the center frequency of that repetition.

/. &f ωs or fs! increases i.e. Ts decreases!$ the repetitions remain equally spaced in the frequency

domain$ but move further apart.

Aliasing

TDD

'ni(orm Sampling in the -re.uency Domain

TDD

,. -. Denenberg .opyright DTS September /0$ /112

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